Ramadan 2023 Appeal
Islam from Scratch #23
Channel: Muhammad West
Series: Muhammad West - Islam From Scratch
File Size: 30.33MB
Episode Transcript ©
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lithium Smilla Rahim Al hamdu lillahi rabbil aalameen or salat wa salam ala Sayyidina Muhammad Ali. He also hates me and my beloved brothers and sisters Salaam Alaikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.
And hamdulillah see that I'm the only one here this evening. So everybody quite busy. Allah grant us success. Inshallah we continue our series, and we were talking about an introduction to Islamic law, Islamic sciences week 101. And this is the ritualistic side of Islam living as a Muslim. And we spoke a little bit
last week around the sources of Islamic law. Maybe that's why people are not here this evening. A little scared, about a little out in depth we went last week, but it's important to understand where we get our religion from. This is really important. You know, in Islam, if anyone tells you recite this,
to our this, you know, do this ritual, pray like that, do that don't do this, who grow your beard who don't eat that everything that is prescribed has to go back to the Quran, or the Sunnah or the teachings of the NABI Salam, no one follow. I mean, Islam is not built on the opinion of, of a specific individual or groups of individual. We don't have a concept like a clergy. And so in Islam,
the shadow, the one who gives the law is Allah subhanaw taala and, and His Prophet, peace be upon him. So
in a, you know, as we discussed last week, the Quran and the Sunnah, these are the sources of Islamic law, then
what we also mentioned is that different scholars over time, obviously studied the Islam the Quran, and they studied the Sunnah. And from the the extracted laws are the extracted the rules, they are the experts in it. And you know, as as you can imagine, the extraction of the rules from the source documentation is a human effort, and humans will always falter, they will make mistakes, they will or they will have disagreements, and that is why you have many, many different scholarly opinions around a topic, but that's okay. So Islam, you know, Islam say, so long as you're following the Quran, and the Sunnah, and you're going to those two wells to receive your information from and you
try to extract the laws faithfully, and understand the rules faithfully, then if you come to a different conclusion, that's fine. There's no problem in that. And what we the full fine and many of you might be familiar with, we have different meetups meetups are basically schools of thought different frameworks of how to live as a Muslim. And this is it speaks to the fact that we have different scholars that reviewed in read the Quran and Sunnah and came up with a different set of rules faithfully, I mean, this wasn't done with, you know, for any other reason, but sincerely reading it and coming to a different conclusion. And, you know, many people asked, So, which method
should I follow? And why should they be Matthijs? What method did the Prophet peace be upon him teach this was only one Quran and one sunnah. How can you have more than one answer? You know, when we get into the detail of the of the subject matter, and you're actually presented with the evidence, you will realize that you can read the same verse, and you can understand the same verse in different ways. And there's not usually there's not one better than the other, but they're all valid, legitimate
answers, they're valid, legitimate opinions. So, you know, essentially, as we said, what the scholars have old, what the scholars affic what they, the basic function is to try and lump and try and put every law in one of these five categories. So these are bit of terminology, again, a little bit heavy, but these will make more sense as we go along. The scholars have this effect of Sharia, Islamic
jurisprudence, they try to simplify and codify every aspect of your life into one of these five buckets. So you can ask any question, this is the answer.
The only five possible answers. The first thing is, you ask, Can I eat this? Can I do that? Can I wait this will say, well, it is one of these five buckets. The first bucket the first category, the first ruling is called float, which is compulsory that if you do you have to do it, it's not it's obligatory, something which is followed is compulsory, that it's a rule where you must fulfill that rule. And if you do it you'll be rewarded. And if you don't do it, you are sinful or liable for punishment. So this fourth, the opposite of followed is haram. Haram is haram is something which is prohibited followed compulsory haram prohibited haram obviously something you must not do you are
forbidden from doing it. If you do it you are sinful or liable for punishment. If you abstain from it, then you will be rewarded. So a person comes and asks you
you know should I should I
should I eat cat May I eat pork? We say it is haram it is prohibited you're not allowed to eat, you're not allowed to eat pork. Then another person asks, what is the ruling of Salah making performing Muslim Salah it's funny, you must perform it you don't have an option. You have no choice in the method. If you don't do it, you're sinful. Then between these two these two extremes the fourth and haram within the middle between them you have a spectrum of possibility and a spectrum of prohibition. So you have something which is recommended something which is encouraged. We call this knuffel In some parts that will it's called sunnah, but this sometimes gets confusing between the
Sunnah and Sunnah. And that's what people think when we talk about the Sunnah we mean optional recommended No, no. The Sunnah, is not optional, a sunnah, or knuffel. Let's use the word knuffel. To avoid confusion, a novel action novel statement, a novel deed is a deed which is recommended, you don't have to do it. But if you do it, it's good. And you'll be rewarded for it. But if you if you don't do it, no scenario, so for example, a good example of a novel deed is to is to force on a Monday or Thursday. If you do it, you'll get a reward. If you don't do it, there is no sun on you. The opposite of Nephal is something which is disliked or discouraged, which is called macro. Macro
is something which is you should not do you should avoid. And if you avoid it, you'll be you'll be rewarded. If you stay away from nothing, you'll be rewarded. But if you do it, there is no sin on you. One may are, for example, entering the bathroom with your right foot, you won't be punished for intervening with your right foot. But it is disliked for you to enter the bathroom with your right foot, you should integrate with your left foot. And then you have things which aren't permitted, you won't be rewarded for it, you won't be punished for it. There is no there is no judgment attached to it. And basically almost any, any action can fall within one of these five categories, compulsory.
And as we get move along, we'll find that there are four primary schools of thought there are many, many more. But over time, over the last 1444 years, the scholars of Islam have basically
the have been, you know, come together into four primary schools and this is what we call the four schools a squat format hubs, the Hanafi sheffey, Maliki humbly madhhab. And you'd see that the Shafi American humbling math hubs which came after the Hanafis, they almost a standardized these categorizations into a little more simplified version, the Hanafi method which is a little older had a more categories, but for our purposes, we'll stick to the five compulsory followed, recommended knuffel permissible MOBA disliked micro and prohibited is haram. So everything needs to go in here. Take a step back, why are we doing the subject? A person says I'm now a Muslim, you've convinced me
I've embraced Islam. I want to live as a Muslim Now, what should I do? What are the give me a list of do's and don'ts? So we said okay, fine. This you are now asked me about living as a Muslim. We need to teach you a little bit about Fick the rituals of living as a Muslim, some things are going to be compulsory, you must do something haram you mustn't do for example, you need to perform your five daily sonatas, you need to wait a certain type of clothing, you must avoid certain types of food. And this is
what we call is the introduction to Islamic fiqh. Okay, so, if we were to test ourselves, and if you were to categorize these actions into certain buckets, sleeping, while sleeping is mobile, you don't get rewarded for it. You don't get punished for it, but you might. Okay. In the general we talk in general sleeping is mobile, nobody would know son eating pork in general is haram. breaking your fast during Ramadan using a date. If you eat it. If you break it with a sister, you break it with water, no problem, but with a date, it's the best and so therefore it is. It is
is a novel it is something which is recommended novel, performing Salah and this meaning the compulsory Salah Of course, it's far of entering the most with your left foot, you should enter with your right but if you enter with your left foot, no problem, it is it is disliked, it is not nice but no no sin on you to get married is not called it is recommended. If you don't get married, you won't be sinful. If you aren't married, of course, you won't be punished, but you are rewarded for getting married. And so therefore it is recommended. What we also find though, and this is a little bit deeper, one may say it depends. In every situation, you might find a different
ruling. So if somebody is stranded on an island, and they dying of starvation, they about to die, and the only substance to eat is Polk. Then it is not haram to eat that book. In fact, it is felt, you have to eat the book, it is compulsory for you to save your life. And if you died without eating it, then you actually come with it. So
manage, for example, marriage is recommended in general terms. But if a person if two people are so intimate with one another, that they've crossed the boundaries of what is permissible, they and then committing sin, then for them with committing Zina, then for their marriage becomes compulsory, they need to get married. Similarly, two people are married. And in that marriage, they cause all kinds of sin and harm to one another, then it is better for them to get divorced. And so marriage might even be haram a man, he might have one wife, okay, and he's not treating her properly is not fulfilling her duties, his duties towards her. And then he wants to marry a second wife, we said
this is haram now for you to get married to a second wife, even though it is permissible to marry more than up to four wives for the men. And this I'll get into that the chapter of Nicca is much later.
Also to you know, to add a little bit more than this gets a little bit more detail when we talk because the first and if you think about Islamic law, where do we begin? What is the priority? We don't begin with what to wait, we don't begin with hijab. We don't begin with eating don't eat pork even have many my thing that is the first pillar of Islam is the Kadima. The second pillar is you know, called epoch. third pillar is you must wear your turkey. Now, that's not how the pillars of Islam work. The pillars of Islam, of course, the priority is to say the Kanima you've done that. The second pillar, which is the most important thing now is to perform Salah. So we begin if you can't
do anything else, you can't do anything else as a Muslim. You say, Look, I can't dress as a Muslim. I can't look like a Muslim. I can't eat as a Muslim. I can only do one thing, so well Okay, start with salah. And therefore we start with the ritual components of worship, which is Elijah, and sidenote, your Kadima, what is your column, I mean, you call him says, I declare that he is not worthy of worship, but Allah, Allah is the only one who deserves to be worshipped. So we said, well, then worship Him with your worship, you need to show the worship. And the most important act of worship is is your Salah, and within Salah, we will talk and I don't want to get very technical
about these these terminologies in every action or every ritual, maybe, let me give you an analogy of making a cake. Before you bake the cake, there are certain things which you need to have prepared, before you even start the oven needs to be a certain temperature, you must have the right ingredients. These these ingredients that before you start the ritual, we call the shoot the preconditions. And again, the word is very technical. But most of you understand this before you perform Salah you must have your will do must be in place, the time of Salah has to be already the the area that the placements were right. So before you even begin the act of worship, there needs to
be certain preconditions that must be in place. So these things are called shoot. So when we talk about salah, we talk what we do, there are going to be preconditions which we call shoot, if you miss any of these shoots, the entire if you miss any one of these ingredients, the entire cake is going to flop the act of worship completely is null and void.
Then, within the cake, there are certain fundamental things that must be there. If you don't have those things, it's all cake. So let's talk about the car. If you don't have you know four wheels and four doors and
an engine when the car isn't going to work, there's certain fundamental things that must be the for the car to function. We call these the uncanny the integral the essential parts that must be there. But having power steering having you know a radio that's not essential. Those the call was still functional, but it's something serious missing. So within every act of worship in Salah for example, there are certain fundamental pillars, the pillars of the action. If they're missing, that entire action is null and void. But if they are there, then it's fine. So we we have the preconditions called the shoe route. We have the integral parts called the Archon. We have YG bad compulsory
important parts if you're in any of those things are
Missing you need to fix it but it's still okay you can fix it if it's missing you can fix it. The unkindly what's missing you can't fix it you start the entire thing from the beginning if you must want to account then you have the nice to haves in our field the things that make it the extras on top of on top of it and again technical terminology but when we get into Salah for example you most of you already know this, the one of the piquant so we take salah, a precondition for Salah is we do without we do your Salah is invalid one of the pillars of Salah is that you need to recite Surah Fatiha Alhamdulillah Ramadan me in every raka if you miss your Fatiha, then your entire you
everything that you've done after that is invalid you need to go all the way back and start way where the mistake was made. Then you have things that are wildly bad things that if you miss them out in Salah, yours you need to do some kind of fix like a sujood of forgetfulness, but your Salah is still fine, but it's deficient. Then you have the extras the extra is for Salah is to recite a Sutra of the Surah Fatiha to recite certain to us. If you don't do them, your Salah is perfectly fine, but if you do them, it enhances your Salah. Okay, so
I think we spoke about it. So let's
let's usually the first the very, very first chapter in Islam, which in fact is about being McCullough is about what we call reaching the age of puberty. I think we spoke about the divine point system, when we spoke about on the death, the Day of Resurrection, you will have your deeds weighed, and how Allah judges How did Allah keep score? Remember, we are here to complete an exam. We are born within live our life we die, and then our records will be given to us to tell us how how well we did or how poorly we did. And based on that we either go to Jana, our current asset, or we go to jahannam or we go to Janome and then get released and go to Jana. Right? That's basically
the outcomes of your life. Now, we asked how did Allah keep scope? Well, for every good deed you do, Allah gives you unlimited amount of points. You know, if you do, you'll give one Rand, the minimum Allah gives you is 10 points. But he can give for that one Rand, he can give you 10 points, and you can give 120 points, and he gives him a million points for that same thing ran why because she was more sincere, her kinder and was given with a lot more love. And so there is no limit to the rewards, you get the positive points you get for a good deed, even if you have an intention in your heart, you know, one day I'm going to go on Hajj, but you don't, Allah gives you the points for that
just for the good intention. Whereas sin, Allah does not give a negative point except equal to the sun, so that the good deeds get 10 times the reward. Whereas the sun only gets an equal amount of a punishment if you were to call negative points, right. So you have positive good points and negative points, sins. And so the sum is only equal to the measure of what you've done. And if you intend to do evil, I'm going to steal but you don't do it, you even get a reward you don't get you don't get punished for negative sins or negative thoughts or desires. So the point system is really rigged in our favor.
Now this point system only comes into it only applies once we've reached a certain age, Allah does not start the exam does not begin from the moment we are born. Because when we are babies, we don't know what we're doing. We can't make Salah we can't we don't care what we eat when we're children. And so up until the age of puberty, you are not really in the game. You're not part of the exam. Anyone that is not yet reached the age of puberty, we call them caliph, they are deemed to be muslims and they are deemed to be sinless. And if they pass away during the puberty they go to Jannah now in certain religions you have this concept of limbo with someone who dies before they've
been baptized so before they've reached a certain level they've accepted Jesus for example, they can't go to heaven because they haven't done what requires to go to heaven in Islam is I know that even if you lived as a you know you're you're born into a Christian family or Jewish family. You left your your your your your young days as a Christian you went to church, you worship Jesus, all of that and you die before you reach the age of puberty, you go straight to Jannah because the exam hasn't started and you are deemed to have passed the exam right you get a free entry into Jana Alhamdulillah wonderful. Once you reach the age of puberty, now the clock starts ticking now you
become accountable. And so the very first chapter usually in fact is when does someone become Caliph? How do we know someone is McAuliffe? The Prophet peace upon him says the pin has been lifted for three people meaning there is no score keep kept. There is no accountability for three people for the child before he reaches the age of puberty for the person when he sleeps until he wakes up. So if while you're sleeping, you did something wrong. You see
said some bad words you whatever, there is no sin on you, if you did something in your sleep because and by sleeping it all night it also and continues and for the one who lost his mind until you recover so person who is not by the full sentence if you know you, you,
you, you know, something happened to you and your mind sort of you've lost you lost control of your mind you had some kind of mental breakdown and in that mental breakdown, you did some haram thing wrong thing, then there is no sin on you because you were not by your full senses. Similarly, just like a child is not accountable until they reach the age of puberty, a person may lose accountability as they get older. So as a person gets older and older and older, they get mother protect, they become senile or they have Alzheimer's where they don't understand what they're doing. There is no sin on them or a person who has a mental deficiency is someone who's born with Down
syndrome a person was born with any kind of deficiency of the mind and they cannot make
you know, adult kind of decision making then Allah subhanaw taala does not hold him to account they get a free access into into Jana or Hamdulillah. So how do we know if a person is mocha enough? How do we know if a person is is mocha love the for the girl when she starts to menstruate she is mcelduff mostly a government's rates around 910 11 And depending on the on the age of depending on different goals, some early target late but menstruation for the girl once you insert she is mocha left for a boy and also a girl but mostly for boys. They will start producing
you know semen they and they will have a wet dream. So they have a sexual dream and in the dream. You know when they wake up they ejaculate a caramel Kamala and obviously at that point, you are now an adult. He's old enough to basically be a father. And so they now reach the age of the Mocha love some some scholars have limited both mocha love you can't be McAuliffe before nine years old and Hello Anna. Usually it's really eerie that someone that is you know means steroids or ejaculates before nine years old. Alana, there are some people that up until the age of 15. She hasn't yet had a period up until the age of 15. The boy hasn't yet.
You know he's he hasn't yet had a weird dream. And so when you reach the age of 15, automatically you're deemed to be McAuliffe from the age of 15 onwards, you're deemed to be McAuliffe. And so, if these boxes are ticked one of if one of them or all of them, one of them are ticked. You are now McAuliffe you are accountable to Allah there are certain things which you must do certain things you mustn't do. If you do them, you will be rewarded if you don't do them, you might be liable for sin. And so as we mentioned the very first thing once you are makalah you become big boy now big girl, you become a Muslim we say your McAuliffe now where do I begin? You begin with Salah you need to
perform Salah so is it okay? Take me to the managerial professional. Wait, wait before you perform salah. You need to have guru, you need to clean yourself. And so really the first chapter in most slum schools was Islamic schools in Madras. This is the chapter of Tara, the chapter of purification. And this is going to be our focus for a number of weeks before we even get to Salah. We're going to talk about how does one clean oneself and a while how do you prepare yourself for Salah. Now, some little concepts of the Hara. And reality even though Tara is the first chapter, in fact, it is also one of the more technical ones.
It can be quite complicated, but hamdulillah when you get into a decent appreciation for
the academic rigor within Islam. So with the chapter of purification, the fundamental purpose of Islam, as we say is to worship Allah Allah. That's what Islam is all about, that you worship Allah and every relationship. However, before one can approach Allah in Salah Islam instructs us to purify ourselves, both physically and spiritually. So worship is you engaging Allah. But before you and I can approach Allah, we need to prepare ourselves, at least our bodies must be prepared in a presentable way before our hearts can be presented to Allah, it orders. So therefore Islam orders orders us to keep our bodies, our bodies and our clothing, our homes and our environments clean. And
this is important as is manifested in the command to perform ablution as a prerequisite versus Allah. So this is something which is very clear, in that Allah mentioned this numerous times. And before Salah you need to have wudu
in a hadith in a saying in a one of the statements of the Prophet of Islam, he said that purification is half of iman, that half of faith is all about purifying yourself off of your Eman is about purifying yourself and that in another
statement. Allah loves those who purify themselves of the people which falls or earn the love of Allah is that they habitually purify themselves. Now
when we talk about purification, we talking about clean and unclean, pure and dirty. Now
you cannot perform Salah you cannot begin your Salah if you have any quote unquote impurities or dirt on your body. So a person might say, can I perform Salah and I have an obeyed Can you perform Salah and you have sent on your clothes?
Yes, bases. Yes, you can. But is that not dirty? He will not say my pants is dirty because it would have sent
but it's not the
technical, but it's not one of the inverted commas impure substance, right? So but it says yes, we call it dirty. But from an Islamic perspective, it is not. There's a list of things which the Sharia which Islam says are impure, we call them nudges, impurities. So even though we might say your pants is dirty, you have a Brioni mark on your pens, you know, you have some tomato sauce on your on your shirt, you can still perform salah, because even though it's not clean, it's not dirty or not Jesus, we call it from an Islamic perspective. And so getting into this chapter, you need to understand what is Islam deem as clean.
And what is Islam deal as deemed as pure and impure. And if something is dirty, or impure or some
actual dirt and what we call nudges something which is a dirty from a Sharia perspective comes onto my shirt, like Union, for example, Eugene is impure. If you read what's on my shirt, how do I remove it? How do I get rid of it, we need to talk about removing it. And so essentially, every substance on Earth
can be categorized as
something which is a purifier, something which is pure, and can purify other things, it is clean, and it can also wash other things. And this is the only substance that is liquid water. So from a Sharia perspective, the only spiritual cleaning agent is liquid water. So not solid water like ice or not steam guests. But liquid water is the only substance which can remove a spiritual impurity liquid water. So liquid water is clean in itself. And it can purify other things. When you have something which is nice, which is impure. If that impure substance is on you it must be removed. And we're going to give you a list of what is not just urine is one of them. There's a there's another
list of 10 things only 10 things in the whole face of the world, there are only 10 things we don't notice if they're on your clothes they must be removed, if they are in your house must be removed okay, then you have everything in between you have liquid water Kota hood a purifier, you have najis which is impure and this will give you a list every single substance besides those things is a recall time. So, we have toward najis and barrhead. Thyroid is something which is pure in itself, it is a pure substance, it is a clean substance, it is a it is a an acceptable substance, but it cannot purify something else. So
if some urine was on your shirt, you cannot remove it by putting orange juice on it, you cannot remove it by putting tomato sauce on it. Even though the tomato sauce is fine, the milk is pure, but it doesn't have the ability to remove an impurity. Again, you have everything in the world. And mostly these are liquids most most of our discussion is going to be around liquids. Every substance in the world is characterized is categorized in the Sharia as the hood meaning a purifier,
or najis, which is impurity or PA which is pure. The whole nudges and thought here. For liquid water nudges. There's a list of 10 things which are nudges and everything else besides the nudges list. Everything else besides pure water is going to be under the third bucket. It is clean in itself. No problem. If you have that Briar substance on you, it is fine. It is not dirty from a Sharia perspective. You can still move on. And therefore the golden rule if we go to Mars, for example, and we find a new element, we find a new substance and you kind of liquid, what way would we put it in which category? We invent a new liquid, a new juice and you whatever Which category do we put it in?
The default is it's in the
thought I hit a bucket, the tire bucket, the big one is everything is inside the we took out the NASA and that list is final. And we took out liquid water, everything else is in that. So and sort of the implications of this is you're walking in the road and you stepped in a puddle. You don't know what's in that puddle. It can be urine, it can be water. The default is the default. I don't know it stays on its default, its default is until proven otherwise, it is tired until proven otherwise, that puddle of water is pure. Or that puddle of mud is pure. Okay, until proven otherwise. So you need to prove something being notice you need to prove something is told. It's
very important. When we talk about different opinions, you're going to find that there might be an opinion one a or an opinion B, you must always ask yourself whose job is it to prove the opinion? The default is the default. The default is that the substance is pure. If you want to say to NPO you need to bring the you need to bring the evidence okay. So inshallah we'll talk next week. Well what happens if I mix pure water with an impure substance? What is what happens? So I know you don't use impure I know water is pure. What if I urinate in the ocean? Does the ocean become impure? What if I urinate in a cup of water? Is that impure? Which one overpowers the other one? We'll talk about that
inshallah. Next week, nila, I'm not sure if anyone has joined the class. The students at hamdulillah Saba TV tonight. I think that's enough for this evening. I mean, any questions
Now then, just like a law here, I thank you so much for
your time and patience. We continue next week with the law. So ala Sayidina Muhammad wa Yusuf Islam Massino Hello, Robert. I mean, I said I'm Wiley Kumar Lawyer.