A Thematic Commentary On The Quran #24
Channel: Moutasem al-Hameedy
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hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Sayidina Muhammad, Allah Allah He was happy to remain although I do a Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato. Welcome to our Friday Halacha, which we have Hamdulillah, in which we have come back to our original series, which is about a thematic commentary on the Quran. And basically what we do, what we do in the series is that we treat the Quran at the thematic level. So we look at the subject matter of each Surah, we try to identify in every Surah, the central and the main theme, the overarching theme that sort of runs through the whole surah. We try to detect it, and we try to see the verse that represents it the
most or the most accurately. And then we go over the sore, I tried to connect all of the sub themes to this main theme. Hopefully this will
bring or make visible to us, the thematic unity and consistency in the Khurana will also help us as well look at the surah as one as one unit as one unified sort of structure. And this is very powerful in our is a very powerful element in our understanding of the Quran and the way we relate to it. So we
last time, I think we covered up until insert in the set we were dealing with sorting, so we covered
the verses up until a verse number 57. So we're going to start from verse number 58. And let me take an overview over about the next 55 pages that we are going to deal with today.
In these five pages, Allah subhanaw taala
establishes some principles. And
I find it I find it actually befitting here to
bring back to your attention.
The central theme that we believe runs through similar to Nisa, and we said, it is about the the family unit unity of humans that they are all the same, they come from the same father and mother, and that they are brothers to one another. So there's blood relationship among all humans. And this theme is connected to the the theme of worshipping Allah subhanaw taala. Since we were all the same, and we came from the same father and mother, we also share the same religion, the same nature, we know our Lord, we know Allah subhanaw taala at an intuitive level, at an innate level, we know our Creator, we recognize him. And so we are supposed to make our lives unfold in line with this. So
humans are supposed to be united upon the truth in that sense, just as they are united through blood. So, this is the this is the central theme, the overall thing the umbrella under which everything else is sorted in this is discussed. And then the concept of family and blood relations are, are treated at different levels. So the highest level is the level of the family of humanity itself, then it goes down to the level of nations. And it goes down to the levels of,
of the believers who follow the truth, who worship the one to God.
And then it goes down to the level of as well, the family in terms of blood relationship like a father and mother and the children, which we know as the nuclear family in these days. So you can see that these levels actually
expand across different levels of categorizing what a family actually means or conceptualizing what a family really means. So everything in the Surah somehow relates and feed into the central theme. So here we find the last panel in verse number 58 and 59 talking about very important principles that will help us humans first, maintain our relationships with each other and be respectful to one another. And then it connects that to the theme of we humans should also be dutiful to our Creator. So ALLAH SubhanA wa Bucha Allah so Allah Subhana Allah says in the La Jolla model calm and to Abdullah mana to either Alia either had come to him being a nasty and Docomo Bill idol in Allah and
MA Lacombe in Allah Kana Semyon, the Sierra. So I'm going to read the translation from the clear Quran it's a very good translation of the meanings of the Quran.
Indeed, Allah commands you to return trusts to the rightful owners. And when you judge
between people judge with furnace, what a noble commandment from Allah to you surely Allah is all hearing, or seeing. So this is a principle. It's a main principle, very fundamental principle and a representative of other fundamental principles and ideals that are meant to govern human interaction so that the ties of this human family can be maintained and observed and respected. And thus all life on this earth can be fruitful, meaningful and balanced. So Allah tells us to be trustworthy, to convey the trust backwards to give the trust back to the rightful owners, and that if we judge between people, we are supposed to judge with firmness, no favoritism, no bias. And that shows that
Islam in essence are what Allah subhanaw taala commands, this is all about good manners. It's all about principles. And there is no separation actually, between what is truly an intrinsically human, in the sense of ideals. And what Islam really is, it's actually one in the same and whatever. Sometimes we tend to claim to ourselves these ideals as if they are ours, as if we made them up as if we came up with them, right, as if we humans originated justice, fairness, respect, forgiveness, love, compassion, camaraderie, and so on and so forth, as if we originated that. But we don't realize these are built in us, and the one who put them in us is our Creator. So we can't claim them
to ourselves, we can't claim ownership over them. They are a gift in the first place from Allah subhanaw taala. And this, then Allah subhanaw taala sent those ideals to ask from an external source and that's revelation, in order just to reinforce this natural, this natural tendency within us
and then Allah subhanaw taala
in verse number following verse 59, Allah says, Yeah, you already in Amman or Allah I'll be honest with you will remain calm. For internet atrophy che info Dupo il Allahu Allah, surely in quantum Tomino nebula he will Yomi effort, then he kaha urine will sandwich that we saw last month and it says here, let me read the the translation of the meaning. All believers obey Allah and obey the messenger and those in authority among you, should you disagree on anything, then refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you truly believe in Allah, and the last day, this is the best and fairest solution. So
often mentioning, you know, how to regulate and how to keep intact, the relationship between humans. Allah spent Allah teaches us how to keep our relationship with our source of being with Allah Himself, intact, and in balance. So these two verses actually almost cover everything about what what could be, how things could go healthy in human life, in terms of principles and ideas. So Allah says, Oh, you who believe obey Allah, and His Messenger, obedience to Allah and His messenger. And sometimes people like to call this blind obedience, we're in a sense, maybe if you want to look at it this way. But the reality is, as long as you TRULY follow Allah, you're created the Originator of
the heavens and the earth, and his true messenger, this is not flying, this is not blind following. You could never you can never be more insightful than that you could never hope for a better source them that that's the source of truth itself. That's that's the truth itself revealing itself to you. So it's not blind following it's actually it's, it's the most I would say
it's the it's the best thing to do in terms of insight in terms of truth in terms of information in terms of
seeking the right things, because instead of seeking clues here and there, you are actually seeking the truth right from the source. And this is available to humans through Revelation. So this is what Allah subhanaw taala says, Obey Allah, and obey His messenger. And the reason you do this, because His Messenger basically, is a conveyor of the message, Allah subhanaw taala entrusted him with the message. And if there is an affair, that you don't find specific instructions about in the Revelation,
then what you can do is refer to those who are in a state of authority over you. And this authority, is rightful authority, not any kind of authority. So this refers in religious matters, and issues of jurisprudence, what is allowed and what's not allowed, what's good and what's bad. You refer to
scholars or people of knowledge about revelation about the religion of Islam because the revelation is
Not only specific text about instructions or about specific situations, it also contains guidelines. It also includes principles. It has a complete system, of how to figure things out even novel things, things that you come across for the first time.
And this is the power of revelation here that you have guiding principles, you have a beautiful dynamic that is consistent that no matter what novel issues you're dealing with, you're always going to have this consistency, you will always abide by the same principles, the same rules, and you are holding Hi, all these moral principles and ideals and you never violate them. So you refer to the people have no knowledge of knowledge. But now in terms of let's say, political issues, you refer to the rightful leaders of the Muslim population, people who understand you know, governance people who understand politics, people who understand military
warfare, etcetera, people who have the expertise, and these people are supposed to consult the scholars of the religion. So it's not a matter of usurping power or, or money, monopolizing power and, and decision, but it's actually a matter of risk, it's a place of responsibility here. And the person who's in a position of responsibility are obligated in the Islamic system, to seek the guidance of the people of knowledge, everyone in their specific field of expertise.
That allows one to rest says,
yeah, so Allah says, this is better for you in the final in our estimate of things of how things turn out to be. And this is a very beautiful system. And this sets the ground for, for, for a profound system of governance in Islam, and even a system for how we humans, individuals can carry themselves in this life. Then Allah subhanaw taala, he'll strikes an example from verse number 62, verse number 65, Allah talks about hypocrites in how,
or in relation to the instructions he just provided. So Allah Subhan, Allah says, I'm just going to summarize the meaning, don't you see, those who claim to believe in what was revealed to you and what was revealed before you, they seek the judgment of other than Allah.
They seek the judgment of other than Allah, so they seek judgment of something else, like maybe
a man made law, or maybe the guidance of another system, and so on and so forth. When the truth and the truth system from Allah the divine system is available to them, when they were commanded to abandon all the systems, because all of them are here are made by humans and thus, they display and they possess the faults, the deficiencies, the flaws of human beings, they are reflective of where they came from, whereas the divine revelation is reflective of where it came from.
And he says, and chip on wants to send them astray. And if it's said to them come to Allah and his messenger so that they judge among you, you will find the hypocrites turning away from you with a version. And Allah says, So how when a calamity befalls them, because of their own deeds, then they would regret and they would come back to you apologetically.
That, you know, in the past, we had intended only good, right, they will try to find an excuse for themselves. Allah says Allah knows what's in their hearts. So turn away from those people. Don't put so much attention on the negativity, don't let the negativity poison you, and poison your approach to life and your handling of your affairs. But still give them advice, remind them admonished them
in a way that is profound. And then Allah says, every messenger that we sent to humans, we sent them to be obeyed,
and had those people who turned away from divine guidance guidance, had they truly repented and figured out their mistakes and they wanted to fix them, we would have actually accepted their apology would have forgiven their sins and sort of give them a fresh start. Then Allah subhanaw taala gives us a beautiful principle in verse number 6065. And this is one of the foundational profound verses in the Quran Allah says, and actually let me read the translation here.
Allah says, Allah will not be killed. I mean, on a hot day or hotkey, mocha if you measure jelibean through malaria Judogi and we see him halogen Mima. Kobita why you selling him or Taslima Allah says, but no by your Lord, they will never be true believers until they accept you or profit as the judge in their disputes and find no reason
distance within themselves against your decision and submit wholeheartedly.
So, this is basically the criteria and some of the scholars, they said, This is the criterion between belief and hypocrisy between a true Eman and this uncovered disbelief.
Then Allah subhanaw taala indicates that had people done what they were commanded by the Lord, things would have turned always in their favor. But again, people are just short sighted people are very hasty people are impatient. And they always violate the divine principles, the divine principles are practical, in essence, but if if a person experiences impatience, they won't be able to see that because on the short term, they might, it might seem as though they're not working. But this is just again, the person is being impatient. This is the impatience sort of controlling people's perception. The reality is,
if all all all moral principles all divine principles are actually practiced practical, Allah tells us what the fabric of reality is, what the dynamics of this world are, so that we can align ourselves with them. But again, when we are hasty, impatient, we don't allow them to run their full course and thus we don't, we don't receive their, their fruits. And eventually Allah says, Whoever obeys on Allah and His Messenger, then these people will be among the ones Allah favored on the Day of Judgment. These are the prophets, the true believers, the martyrs and the real pious people. Then Allah subhanaw, Taala moves on to start talking here about from verse number 71, a lot talks about
And warfare in Islam has been
an issue that have that brought a lot of controversy,
obviously, because it's been very convenient, and it's been very profitable for a lot of media outlets to sort of paint Islam as a terrorist religion, or as a religion of violence. And that incites violence and doesn't accept other people. And it seeks to force people into Islam or kill them. And it seeks to take over the world, and so on and so forth. And all of the all of those are just our attempts of misreading, Islam. And most most, I'd say, most of the time, most often, they're actually deliberate acts of distortion against Islam, such a complex system as the Islamic system cannot be taken from one verse or two verses here, then trying to cite one or two incidents
in history and say, Okay, that's what Islam really is. It requires a very careful study, because there's a lot of new ones in history, there's a lot of new ones in any complex system. And if you want to do justice, you will need to do you will first need to approach it with as much neutrality as possible. And then you need to give the text and the system and history a fair chance, you have to give the benefit of the doubt until you exhaust all all possible all I'll say all possible
positive interpretations or offering temperature interpretations before you arrive at such a an unfair accusation against the Islamic system and so on and things are actually you will see are taken out of context. So, Allah Subhan, Allah here instructs the believers to be on guard to be to be ready to defend themselves and to fight against the oppressors. And then Allah talks about, so this is mentioned in the context of the hypocrites, so the there will be a lot of reference to the hypocrites, and Allah says, some among you are actually trying to pull you down.
so Allah exposes, you know, what are the signs of these, these these people, then Allah Samantha and versa so number 75 really explains what warfare in Islam is about in the first place. And this talks about aggressive war. It doesn't talk about defensive war it talks about offense in warfare. And here Allah says Ramallah can lead to artillery and if he said the law he will most of it and I mean originally when he said he will will then lead in Kowloon, Aurobindo, originality, creative binary, Aloha, Elena Milan, Kalyan, Alana, Mila Duncan of Sierra, verse number 75. Allah says,
and what is it with you? You do not fight in the Cause of Allah, for the oppressed for oppressed men, women and children, who cry out our Lord, deliver us from this land of oppressors Appoint us, a point for us a savior, a point for us a helper, all by your grace. Then Allah says in the following verse believers fight in the Cause of Allah, whereas disbelievers fight for the cause of the devil. So, so Allah Samantha here, explains how
Now in Islam,
what is called warfare is actually about bringing about justice to people to oppressed people. So when when there are systems who are either overtly or covertly oppressing people, confiscating their rights,
abusing them abusing their, their rights.
And these people seek help, Muslims are supposed to help, not as individuals, but as legitimate, proper, legitimate governments as proper, legitimate government, they are supposed to help if they have the power and the military power and the might, and there won't be worse consequences as a result of that kind of warfare. So the issue of warfare in Islam is actually actually the fifth of warfare in Islam is one of the most complex and intricate parts of Islamic jurisprudence. It has so many details, intricate details, and has and the point of balance shifts, with every shift in small details. So it's not for sort of any student of knowledge or even any person who just studied Islam
just to say, okay, to make decisions about warfare.
warfare in Islam is supposed to be a matter of collective decision of the people of knowledge in terms of Islam, the people of knowledge, who run the government, like the government itself, the governor, the president, the leader, etc. And their advisors, their ministers, their can,
their consultants, counselors, etc. So it's supposed to be studied thoroughly from all aspects. And when it becomes clear that
the benefits for everyone and benefits here is not a matter of pragmatism, the benefit here is in light of what is moral and what is good for all people, when this is actually figured out to be the case, then they move on with it, otherwise, they dismissed. So it's such a very careful and intricate kind of study and decision, it's not an ad hoc thing. And it's not, it's just just throwing oneself to death or acting obnoxiously and unfortunately, what we have today in our
modern history among the Muslims, all that claim to be almost of what claims to be Jihad was actually is all just again, against the Islamic understanding of this whole thing. So this, this requires a very deep understanding requires a lot of consultation requires teamwork, requires collective fatwah,
that is very well informed and very, I would say precisely decided, decided and produced. Okay, so
then Allah subhanaw taala, exposes the hypocrites as to how they handle the times of warfare, that they say, and I'm not, I'm just going to go over the general meanings. That basically Allah says, Don't you see about these people who, in the previous days, in the early days of Islam, they said, it was said to them, establish the prayer and give Zika
and basically, start working on yourself after Zika here could be gives the county could also be, purify yourself, make this clear, develop yourself in faith and in everything else. So when fighting was prescribed upon them, when the time for real warfare was prescribed upon those people in the past that were hasty it was not time for that yet, but they were trying to push the prophets I said them to get into warfare and the messenger sites and I'm used to say to them at that time, that we have not been given permission or we have not been commanded to do that.
So when time now for warfare, all the conditions became perfect, and the conditions for engaging in warfare were present. Then these people started coding, they started to back off, and they started fearing people.
So and they said, Oh Allah, why do you make warfare,
an obligation upon us or a duty upon us? We wish that you give us more time in this life.
Allah says, tell them that enjoyment of this life is short. And what is better is the hereafter next life and you will not be done any injustice even the slightest injustice and then Allah says wherever you may be, death will come to you when your time to die comes you just gonna live regardless where you are, even if you are and protected towers or
in fortified buildings.
All right. So the point here is that those people were impatient and
Beginning because their desire to engage in warfare was not based on faith. It was not based on reason, and wisdom. It was based on emotions.
And that's most of what we have today, those people who, you know, call themselves or sort of
raise the banner, supposedly so called jihad. Unfortunately, that's what this is the type of thing. It's all based on emotions. It's all not not grounded in proper Islamic jurisprudence, and all violates the Islamic principles. And it's all again based on untain untamed emotions, impatience, short sighted understanding of things, ignorance about the state of affairs and about the global state of affairs and so on and so forth. So and you see, the outcomes of their efforts have been destruction upon Muslims and non Muslims.
Okay, so this is generally speaking, how ALLAH addresses these people. And Allah emphasizes the concept of obeying the Prophet salallahu Alaihe Salam, he exposes some of the tricks of those hypocrites and how they escape or try to escape obedience to the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
And here, Allah subhanaw taala also talks about the hypocrisy in verse number 83, as that when any of the Public Affairs comes to them a matter or an important matter, they automatically start airing it and spreading it, or maybe they could sometimes even,
you know, make formal formulate an opinion or some sort of an answer or some sort of a solution and start airing it. And today, we have this this is maximized with social media, almost everyone has access to a YouTube account, or
you know, any of the social media platforms account. And then these people start becoming experts, commentators, or saviors, or people who think that they can offer people solution without them being really qualified without them being people of knowledge, who are able to give something of benefit. And unfortunately, that's the practice of the hypocrites that they, these people will start airing this stuff before verifying it before studying it well. And the last month, Allah says they should have referred it to the messenger SallAllahu sallam, or to
those of understanding and knowledge and wisdom, because those people would be able to handle it way better.
Yeah, so that's it. And then Allah spent Allah talks about the hypocrites again with regards to what happens when Muslims engage in warfare with other enemies and the hypocrites betray them. The hypocrites sort of stab the Muslims in the back how to handle you know how to handle this. So Allah says in verse number 88, for murder configural naphthalene Fei teeny Allahu Allah Kosambi Maka Sabu. Actually Dona Ana Adelman, Allah Allah, Allah wa may you live in LA who fell in Theurgy, the LA who? sebelah? So let me translation
Why are you believers divided into two groups regarding the hypocrites while Allah allowed them to regress to disbelief because of their misdeeds? Do you wish to guide those left by Allah to stray? And whoever Allah leaves to stray, you will never find for them a way you will never find for them away.
Okay, so again, these are the hypocrites and how the accidental warfare Allah subhanaw taala delineates afterwards in detail, that they actually want you to really they wish they hope that you could lose your faith. That's what the hypocrites really want from the from the believers. Allah says do not take them as close allies as as people are close to you as helpers and supporters.
Until these people join you in faith. So they basically, again this this, this ruling has to do with Medina when the Muslims were in Medina and the Muslims, it was an obligation upon Muslims from all around to come to Medina. Why? Because in all, almost every city where there were Muslims, they were oppressed, they were forced out of their religion. So it became an obligation upon Muslims to come and join the prophets of Salaam. So the Muslim nation grows stronger, independent and those people do not risk their faith while staying in their home country.
And this is this was so and this is why the Prophet SAW Selim
after opening Mecca, the Prophet SAW Selim says La Hirata battle fatigue
There is no obligation or there's no Hijra migration to Medina, after opening Mecca. That's it. It's over because it was mainly about the Muslims in Mecca and other cities as well. But it was mainly about the muscles in Mecca because they could not practice their religion, they could not they were actually tortured, they were forced out of their religion. And some of them actually became, you know, some some of the some of those who were Muslims at the beginning, they actually left Islam and some of them became hypocrites. So they were affected by that.
that Allah Samantha talks about. And the reason now there is a lot of mention of hypocrites, is that the Muslim family, the presence of hypocrites, among them, who pretend to be Muslims is extremely detrimental. So Allah sort of educates the Muslims as to how to handle these complex situations, without resorting, again, to extreme solutions, which are forbidden in Islam, that you kill who you think are hypocrites, or you exile them, or, you know, they were treated as long as they pretended to be Muslims, and they were acting outwardly as Muslims than they were treated as Muslims. And the reason is, you can't dig into people's lives. You can't open up people's chests and figure out
what's you know, what's in their hearts. So we're supposed to deal deal with people based on what we see from them. And the reality of the heart remains with Allah otherwise, anyone who has a doubt about someone is going to give them trouble or was going to report them to the to the government, and that will be investigations, it becomes more like an inquisition. And obviously, this is impractical, unfair, and it just doesn't even work and it doesn't help anyone.
Then Allah spent Allah mentioned some rulings as to Allah says that no true believer would kill a believing servant.
Except by mistake,
it might be by mistake. And then Allah subhanaw taala explains how if someone over if a Muslim kills
someone by mistake, how to how to actually handle the situation, and there are think explanations to be to be performed.
Then Allah subhanaw taala
indicates that the people who truly bring justice to the world and when they engage in war, and warfare is actually for the truth and for justice, and for goodness to the creation. And those people are favored by Allah, over those who sit at home and do nothing. They don't engage in eliminating injustice and removing oppression from the world.
Then the last one, that that indicates a lot of talks here about people who remained oppressed, Muslims remained oppressed and where they had to be sometimes forced out of their religion. Some of those people left we said, some of them left Islam. Allah says, These people when they die, the angels will ask them in our
as that is they take their souls, you know, why didn't you leave? Isn't the earth so expensive, that you can actually just travel and go where you could practice your religion?
So those people have no excuse with Allah if they ended up leaving their, their religion because of that oppression? Because you might say, you know, if someone left their religion by, by force, they're not obligated, right? Well, the reality is, yeah, you might be forced out of your religion, but you don't give up your religion in your heart, you still be to be you be a believer inside, you might not show it right out of fear for your life. But the problem is, humans are very, very susceptible to their environment. So if sometimes environments are so powerful that a person
a believer, when they are oppressed, or forced out of their religion, they might actually just, you know, give in and, and give up the religion, it's possible. And it might get them to a point of resentment where they say, if Allah if I believe in Allah, why does Allah you know, let me down, and then they, they out of resentment they disbelieve.
Others could be many scenarios. So a person should preserve the faith. So preserving the faith is a priority for the believer and where they live, where they don't live, what they do, what they don't do, all of these decisions should be made with this important priority and are at the center of that decision making process.
Except for those who were unable to leave and they were forced than Allah would forgive those people aligned the surah. Again, this is all about again, Muslims, Muslim family, how to preserve in how to preserve Eman and so on and so forth.
Then Allah talks about how to pray in moments of fear.
Allah explains that and the first time the Muslims prayed the prayer of fear was when they were going for a holiday be when they went for Umrah, the year six after hijra, and as they got close to Mecca,
Hara Dibner Willett who was non Muslim at the time, he was thinking of attacking them, he came with 200 soldiers, and there were seeking or we're trying to seize a moment to take the Muslims by surprise and attack them. So the Muslims were praying, and Allah at that time Allah taught taught them how to pray at times of war, so that they split into two groups and so on and so forth.
Yeah, so basically, I lost my dad is still talks about the hypocrites and how to handle them in the Surah. And I think it's enough for today Inshallah, we're going to stop at I didn't go into details because there's lots of details there and we still wanted to stay as close as possible to the central theme and not you know, go down into
you know, many levels into the sub themes. So we stop here by verse number 113. So we start next time in sha Allah with 114 Bismillah heeta Allah disciple knockin for joining us. And may Allah subhanaw taala accept from us all with Salam alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh