Kamil Ahmad – Lessons from the Seerah 32 The Covenant of Madinah

Kamil Ahmad
AI: Summary © The Prophet sallali alayhi wa sallam's legal framework provides protection for all individuals, including their religion and personal lives, and is a means of peace between believers and their neighbors. The legal framework also includes a treaty advising individuals to support one another and not the enemy, and is essential for peace in the face of conflict. The importance of preserving one's identity and culture is emphasized, as it is essential for peace in the face of conflict. The Prophet sallua alayhi wa sallam changed the name of the city from yesterday to El morning, and the city is now associated with a new name. The discussion concludes with the next week's project.
AI: Transcript ©
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Bismillah al Rahman al Rahim

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Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam ala Ataman Camilla Ania Allah hidey hole killer he Urdu Marine.

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While early he was Sotheby woman beheaded within the Sunette yo Medina Allahu eliminare million phenomena. When thrown out the window handle him tena was Edna Alma what arena and health club con waters Oakland Tierra where arena Annabelle Pilla belt Whelan, what is your crush Tina? Would you allow me man yesterday ruminal cola yet Debbie ruiner Cena without Salam alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh.

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We mentioned previously that when Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam arrived in El Medina,

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he'd be began working on a few projects right away.

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And so we have so far covered two of those projects.

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And so we mentioned the first project that he initiated was the masjid.

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And then after that, we spoke about the second project and that was establishing

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brotherhood between the mahadji rune and the unsought

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and so

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just like these first two projects were important

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due to

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the demographic situation of El Medina,

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due to the different groups that we had. Likewise, this third project that we're going to talk about today

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was extremely important. Again, due to the fact that we had different groups of people that lived in El Medina when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam arrived.

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So this third project that we're going to talk about is

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writing a covenant

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that would basically govern the relationship between the various groups that existed in El Medina.

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The fourth project that we will talk about next week in sha Allah, Allah is the establishment of the military.

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And so

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a new community

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was being built in in Medina.

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It was for the Muslims,

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where they are now ruling.

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They have authority.

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there were others who were living there as well.

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And so, as we mentioned previously, there were still so much recoil, who had not accepted Islam.

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And they were also tribes of 100 Kitab, specifically, the Jews

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and so

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there had to be something, a document or covenant,

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something that had to be written, that would govern the relationship between the various groups that lived in the city, in order for there to be harmony and peace.

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It was also needed

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it was also needed

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to protect the interests of the Muslims

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and not allow any kind of betrayal

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from within the city. Because now that the Muslims have left Mecca, and they have a base in in Medina

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they're on the lookout and they're wary about their enemy crush.

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But what can eat Quraysh

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is an internal enemy that exists in in Medina.

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And so the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam needed to have something,

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a pledge a covenant that would act as a protection for the Muslims

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and not allow such a thing to happen.

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It's all this covenant.

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In Arabic, it was known as the metok.

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It would later on be known as

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the Constitution.

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You know, the medina

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or the charter of Allah Medina.

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And imagine this was written 1400 years ago,

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before any kind of constitution for any nation or any state ever existed.

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And so the kinds of constitutions that we have today never existed in the past.

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And so we can say that this was the first one to ever exist

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in history.

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And so

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we're not going to go through the entire document, the document

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is preserved. It has been mentioned various books.

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And this color is,

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has mentioned that it is

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an authentic document, even though it's not mentioned in any of the famous books of Hadith. However, they say that we have many supporting evidences to prove that this wasn't a document that was written by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And that it existed, it is a historical piece of document.

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So we're not going to go through the entire document, it's about 42 or 43 different points or lines.

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But we're gonna go through the main points.

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And then we'll

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go through the lessons that we learned from this document

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that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam wrote

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it so it begins with the name of Allah subhana wa Tada in the name of Allah Bismillah al Rahman al Rahim.

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And then it says this is a document from Muhammad, the unlettered prophet,

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between the believers and the Muslims of Quraysh.

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And also,

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the people of yesterday, their followers, their allies, their supporters,

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establishing that day meaning the Muslims are one OMA, are part apart from all others.

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Establishing that day the Muslims are one owner,

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apart from all others.

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It goes on to say the hands of the pious believers shall be raised against every such person who rises in rebellion, or attempts to acquire anything by force, or is guilty of any sin, or excess or attempts to spread mischief among the believers, their hands, meaning the believers shall be raised altogether against such a person, even if he may be his own son.

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No believer shall kill any believer in retaliation

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for any disbeliever.

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Meaning that if a Muslim happens to kill a cashier,

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we don't kill that Muslim

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as a head.

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And so,

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in the elude in the punishments,

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we have, that the murderer is to be killed. But this does not apply to a Muslim killing animals.

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No believer shall kill any believer for any disbeliever. Nor shall he helped a disbeliever against a believer.

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The protection or the Vemma.

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The protection or the demeanor of Allah is One,

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the least of them, meaning the believers is entitled to grant protection that is binding for all of them. What this means is

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the believers are all equal in terms of their protection for one another.

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Even if they may be the least in rank,

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the least and status.

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Their protection is binding upon those who have a higher status.

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The believers are each other's allies to the exclusion of all other people. Again, what do we notice

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that there is this emphasis on?

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On the believers being brothers of one another and be

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allies of one another,

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those who will obey us among the Jews. So now, it talks about the Jews. Those who will obey us among the Jews will have help and equality, neither shall they be oppressed, nor will any help be given against them. So this here

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gives protection to the Jews.

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The peace

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of the believers shall be one.

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If there be any war in the path of Allah, no believer shall be under any peace with the enemy, apart from other believers, unless this peace be the same and equally binding on all.

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And so, there has to be peace between the believers.

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If there happens to be a war feasable Allah a jihad feasability law, no believer shall be under

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the protection of an enemy.

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It will not be permissible for any believer who has accepted what is in this document, and who believes in Allah to give help or shelter to any wrongdoer.

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Any believer who does this shall be the object of Allah's curse, and anger on the Day of Judgment, neither compensation or excuse will be acceptable.

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Any matter in which you disagree must be referred back to Allah. And to him, it's on the Long Island he was in.

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The Jews have Benny elf.

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And the Muslims will live together as two separate nations, as two owners.

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The Jews will have their religion and the Muslims will have their own religion. This applies to their freemen, and to themselves, except for those who commit sins and are unjust. Such people only harm themselves and their families.

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So here we can see

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that the Jews are given freedom to practice their religion.

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But what does it go on to say, both nations meaning the Muslims and the Jews must help one another against anyone who will fight those who adopt this document.

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They must give one another advice and consult one another.

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So in the case of war,

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there is this

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that they have to support one another, they are allies to one another.

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The center of yesterday shall be a haram, a sanctuary for those who agree to this document. So just like Metka was a haram, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam made Medina the haram.

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If any murder or any dispute takes place, among the people of this document, from which any trouble may be feared, it shall be referred to Allah and Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.

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Again, we notice reference has to be made back to Allah and his messenger

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Qureshi and their allies are not to be helped or given protection.

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Those accepting this document must help one another against anyone attacking Yathrib if they are called upon to make peace, to do so, and to keep him

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then they will be making peace.

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If the the Jews make a similar demand, then it is up to the Muslims to agree if the warfare is over the deal.

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Meaning if Medina is attacked,

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then this is where everyone who signs this document has to come together and support one another. It doesn't matter who is being attacked.

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This document will not provide protection to people who are wrongdoers, or breakers of covenant.

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And so we can see here

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if anyone signs this document and then breaks it

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It breaks.

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The Covenant does not adhere to what is mentioned in this document. This document will not be of any benefit to him in terms of giving him protection.

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One shall have security whether one goes out to a campaign or remains in Medina

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or else it will be an oppression and breach of covenant meaning

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when the Muslims go out

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for jihad, when they leave Medina, this document still applies. It's not just while they're in Medina, but even if they happen to leave and Medina,

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this document and this treaty applies.

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Finally, the last line that is mentioned in the covenant,

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Allah is a Protector of he who performs the obligations with faith, faithfulness and care.

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As also his messenger Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is also his protector.

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And so, these are only a few glimpses of what this covenant contained. They were a lot of other points and details I did not mention, specific mentioned was made to certain tribes, certain families of the Jews,

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also of the Muslims of the Arabs, and other details, but these are the main points that were covered in this covenant. So as we can see, this was a sort of constitution that would govern

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the relationship between the various groups that existed in Medina. So we have to understand that although

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Muslims had the authority, you know, they have the power now, they are the ruling authority of this new state.

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But there are still others.

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And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not come and just kick out everyone else. Even though he could have, he didn't kill everyone else, even though he could have. He didn't force everyone else to convert to Islam, even though he could have. But instead, he chose this route,

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for several reasons, among the reasons, as we said,

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to give an opportunity for there to be peaceful coexistence.

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Also, to keep the harm of the Jews away, to keep their danger to the side.

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They are people who are known for treachery.

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And so there had to be something to make sure that

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you know, they sign to something that would prevent them from any treacherous behavior.

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Also, it gave an opportunity for these non Muslims.

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It gave them an opportunity to come and

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engage with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam,

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one on one,

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for there to be an open opportunity and open opportunity for dialogue.

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You know, if you have problems with Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, then come and address them, address your problems.

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And so right away from the very beginning, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not allow there to be animosity or hostility, but rather,

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he allowed for there to be

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a chance for these people to see him as Rasul Allah as the messenger of Allah.

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And if they doubted that, then here was an opportunity to come and ask them questions.

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And so this was the document, let us go through some of the lessons that we can learn

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from this covenant, and from this treaty. And so there are many lessons.

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But we'll go through

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some of the main lessons the first lesson that we learn

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here you have

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a faith based community that has been established in Medina

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and Amma based on Ina

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and this was an unusual concept

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among the therapists

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who used to base their unity on the relationship of blood

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along tribal lines,

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but here you had some

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a community that was being established not based on tribal or ethnic lines, but rather along the lines of Eman

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and one's Akita.

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So Rasul Allah, He sallallahu alayhi wa sallam came up with this new concept which says that we are brothers and allies meaning the Muslims. Why?

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Not because of our blood, but because of our

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because of our Eman

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because of our deen.

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And so,

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we have in this covenant, as we saw a statement that says

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that the believers are allies to one another, excluding others.

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This was mentioned in the document, that the believers are allies to one another, excluding all others.

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And we spoke about this last week

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when we covered

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the topic of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam establishing brotherhood between the mahadji rune and dancehall

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and how one of the lessons that we learned from that was

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the importance of

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Allah, Allah, Bharat in Islam, and how

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our loyalties

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are based on Iman and Islam.

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Not based on

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blood relations.

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So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was, again emphasizing this point in this document, and in this covenant

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and this might be one of the reasons why

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the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam gave many orders to

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distinguish the Muslims from all others

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and especially the Jews.

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We find that when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was in Mecca,

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he would make it a point

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be different than the Missouri cone.

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And he would try to resemble an Akita.

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And Kitab never really existed in Makkah.

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But whatever the promises, some would, would learn about them, he would,

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he would want to be closer to them, then the idol worshippers

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because these are people of the book,

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you know, their traditions, their customs,

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can be traced back to

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the prophets and the messengers of Allah.

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Whereas the machete Kuhn, their practices, their traditions are based on

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things that they invent.

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But now when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam moved to an Medina, and he is now interacting with a hello Kitab he made it a point to oppose them,

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to oppose the Jews.

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And so

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he would give orders to the companions

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to be different than the Jews on many different occasions. The purpose of that was

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that the Muslims are different. No, we are an owner, we have our way. And the Jews have their own way, we have to be different. And the Prophet Olson was making that clear in this document.

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And so

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even though there may be similarities between us and Al Kitab, but the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam would make it a point

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to be different than the Jews. And so for example,

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you'll find many Hadith.

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For example, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he noticed that

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the Jews would not pray in leather socks.

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So he

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told his companions that it is permissible for us to pray in other talks.

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The Jews in Medina would not

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dye their hair.

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If it went white, they would leave it wait. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would instruct the Muslims to dye their hair.

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And then there was a story of fasting I showed up

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the tent of Mahara and so even at that rhodiola, who narrates that when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam arrived in Medina,

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he found that the Jews were fasting on the tent of Mahara.

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And so he asked why they were fasting on this day.

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So he was told that this was the day in which Allah subhanahu Attallah saved Musa and Benny SR II from Farah

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and Ferraro and died and was drowned on this day.

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So when the Prophet salallahu alayhi wa sallam heard that

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he said, that we have more of a right to Musa

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than they do.

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The Jews,

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we have more of a right to him.

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If they are celebrating that victory, then we should also celebrate it. And so, he told the comparing so fast on that day.

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But then,

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but then, what did he say after that?

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He said,

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and this was towards the end

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of his life.

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Towards the end of his life, the year before he passed away,

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so they would fast Ashura. Every year, they tend to Mahara. But then the year before he passed away the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, again wanting to make it a point to be different than the Jews. He sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, that if I lived to see you next year, I will also fast

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a day before meaning the night on Hara. So I will fast the night as well as the 10th.

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What was the reason for that? Only to be different than the Jews

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only to be different than the Jews, but the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not live to see the next year.

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So all of these are examples of how Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam made it a point for the Muslims to be distinct

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from everyone else, that we Muslims have our own identity, and we have to uphold it.

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Others have their own identity.

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We have to be different.

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And then we have the general statements of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, for example, mentor Chabad Coleman

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for womanhood, Whoever imitates the people, he is one of them.

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And the other Hadith

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do not imitate the Jews, specifically the Jews, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said,

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do not imitate elude the Jews.

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And so all of these are examples

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of emphasizing

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the Muslim identity, and showing how we Muslims are one nation one owner.

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And we are not

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like others. We have our own distinct identity,

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and customs and traditions and way of life. And we are not supposed to imitate others we have to be different than others.

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The second lesson that we learn from this covenant is the equality of the believers, how the believers are all one in the same.

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So this document made it clear.

00:29:13 --> 00:29:22

The older believers were of equal status, tearing down the barriers of tribalism,

00:29:24 --> 00:29:31

or a class based society where you have different classes, you have the elite, and then you have the poor.

00:29:33 --> 00:29:35

No, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was

00:29:37 --> 00:29:39

basically tearing that concept apart.

00:29:41 --> 00:29:45

And so in this document, we find how the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said

00:29:47 --> 00:29:49

that the believers are all one

00:29:51 --> 00:29:53

and the lowest among them

00:29:54 --> 00:29:57

gets the same protection as the highest among them.

00:29:59 --> 00:29:59

It's not that

00:30:00 --> 00:30:15

Do we have these people, they are the elite in our society, they're the only ones who deserve protection. As for the others, forget about them No, as long as he is a believer, he deserves the same protection as the elite.

00:30:19 --> 00:30:19

And so,

00:30:22 --> 00:30:24

the believers are allies, one to the other,

00:30:27 --> 00:30:32

to the exclusion of all others, meaning to the exclusion of the non Muslims.

00:30:36 --> 00:30:47

So, this is irrespective of their class, their status, irrespective of your ethnic background, which tribe they come from, which family they come from.

00:30:49 --> 00:30:52

And so, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam says in one Hadith

00:30:54 --> 00:30:59

in Muslim led management, he says, Yeah, are you a nurse, or people

00:31:01 --> 00:31:04

your Lord is one in Europe back home. Why,

00:31:06 --> 00:31:07

and your father is one.

00:31:09 --> 00:31:30

There is no superiority of an Arab over a non Arab, nor of a non Arab over an Arab, nor have a white person over a black person nor have a black person over a white person except through takla except through Dakhla.

00:31:33 --> 00:31:37

echoing what Allah subhanho wa Taala mentions in the Quran

00:31:39 --> 00:31:42

when Allah subhanahu Attallah mentions in solitude to rot,

00:31:43 --> 00:31:45

that He created us

00:31:47 --> 00:31:54

to be from groups and tribes for the sake of getting to know one another. But the best among us are the people of Taqwa.

00:31:56 --> 00:32:04

And so, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam outlined this concept of equality between the believers for a reason.

00:32:06 --> 00:32:09

And that was to keep the Muslims

00:32:11 --> 00:32:14

together united as one on

00:32:16 --> 00:32:23

coming to the support of one another, only because of their Eman and their Islam that Bond's them together.

00:32:26 --> 00:32:40

And so it's unfortunate that today we Muslims are not implementing this concept. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam implemented it in his life. And it continued among the companions.

00:32:41 --> 00:32:53

You know, when they would conquer new lands, they wouldn't divide the people and say, you know, we are superior over you. If they became Muslim,

00:32:54 --> 00:32:55

and they advance in their Islam.

00:32:57 --> 00:33:03

Then the hula Rashid duel would recognize the people of Evana Taqwa.

00:33:07 --> 00:33:10

It wasn't that we are superior, we are the first Muslims.

00:33:12 --> 00:33:24

No, it's all this continued. But then over, over time, it became lost this concept until we come to the state that the Muslims are in today

00:33:25 --> 00:33:27

where we can see how

00:33:29 --> 00:33:33

you know the bonds of ethnicity and race.

00:33:35 --> 00:33:36

And nation

00:33:37 --> 00:33:40

has torn us apart. And so our enemy

00:33:42 --> 00:33:44

divided us along

00:33:45 --> 00:33:52

these lines of nation states and along ethnic lines, and

00:33:55 --> 00:33:57

they made us legitimate targets.

00:34:00 --> 00:34:07

And so we don't find that when one group of the Muslims or one Muslim country is attacked, we don't find

00:34:08 --> 00:34:11

that the rest of the Muslims come together in support

00:34:12 --> 00:34:14

of those Muslims who were attacked.

00:34:17 --> 00:34:29

Even though that was exactly what the Prophet salAllahu alayhi wasallam tried to emphasize through this covenant, and this treaty and this document that he put together.

00:34:30 --> 00:34:32

The third lesson that we learned

00:34:35 --> 00:34:42

was that this document established the authority of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam

00:34:44 --> 00:34:47

who entered el Medina as an outsider.

00:34:48 --> 00:34:50

He wasn't one of the people of El Medina.

00:34:52 --> 00:34:55

But here he was invited by the people of Medina.

00:34:58 --> 00:34:59

And as we mentioned previously, you

00:35:00 --> 00:35:04

They recognized that he was entering not as a guest,

00:35:05 --> 00:35:06

but rather

00:35:07 --> 00:35:08

as a ruler.

00:35:10 --> 00:35:17

They did not invite him come and be our guest. But we are going to remain in authority No.

00:35:19 --> 00:35:23

They recognize that he was going to be given authority. And so

00:35:25 --> 00:35:27

he was there to be obeyed,

00:35:28 --> 00:35:32

to be followed to be giving instructions.

00:35:33 --> 00:35:41

And if we notice all the various projects at the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam initiated when he came to Medina, we mentioned the masjid,

00:35:43 --> 00:35:45

the establishing the bonds of brotherhood,

00:35:46 --> 00:35:47

this covenant,

00:35:49 --> 00:36:02

and then the fourth project establishing the military, we notice that all of these projects contributed to establishing the authority of Rasulullah sallallahu, Ali was

00:36:05 --> 00:36:09

the one who has been sent to bring people out of darkness into light.

00:36:11 --> 00:36:13

And so, it is mentioned in this document,

00:36:15 --> 00:36:18

that whenever there is something that you disagree over,

00:36:19 --> 00:36:23

it must be referred to a why and to the messenger.

00:36:25 --> 00:36:26

We read that

00:36:27 --> 00:36:31

whenever there is a dispute,

00:36:32 --> 00:36:40

and you cannot resolve your dispute. Where do you go, you go to Allah and His messenger.

00:36:42 --> 00:36:51

In fact, if we notice the only name of an individual mentioned in his entire document, we notice it is only the name of Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

00:36:53 --> 00:36:58

And so any matter of dispute that occurs, whether it be between the Jews and the Muslims,

00:36:59 --> 00:37:12

or between a citizen of Medina, and an outsider, or between the machete Kuhn and the Muslims, all of these matters, they needed to be referred back to Allah and to the Messenger of Allah.

00:37:14 --> 00:37:16

So this meant, now that

00:37:18 --> 00:37:24

the rule of Allah in the rule of Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam would not prevail in an Medina

00:37:26 --> 00:37:29

and we have to understand that this was agreed upon.

00:37:30 --> 00:37:36

You know, this document was signed by all the various people of Medina.

00:37:38 --> 00:37:45

And so hematol Allahu alayhi wa sallam now became the judge, the jury and the executioner altogether.

00:37:48 --> 00:37:50

He had full power, full control,

00:37:51 --> 00:37:52


00:37:54 --> 00:37:56

as an oppressive tyrant.

00:37:58 --> 00:38:04

Your tyrants are usually described as being, you know, judge, jury and executioner.

00:38:07 --> 00:38:09

But the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam

00:38:10 --> 00:38:18

was not seeking power. He wasn't greedy for power. That's not why he, you know, wrote this document and mentioned that

00:38:20 --> 00:38:22

whenever there is a dispute, you have to come to me

00:38:25 --> 00:38:26

because I am the ruler.

00:38:28 --> 00:38:30

No, but rather,

00:38:31 --> 00:38:33

he did this because

00:38:35 --> 00:38:41

he was the messenger of Allah. And he wanted to carry out the orders of Allah

00:38:42 --> 00:38:48

who has the sole right to rule as he sees fit.

00:38:50 --> 00:39:08

Allah subhanho wa Taala can rule and judge and legislate however he however he pleases, and here, Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was nothing but executing, executing what Allah subhanho wa Taala had decided.

00:39:09 --> 00:39:11

The fourth lesson that we learn

00:39:13 --> 00:39:16

is what we find in this document

00:39:17 --> 00:39:17


00:39:19 --> 00:39:43

aspects of freedom, human rights, and justice. We can see how this document outlined the right of non Muslims to keep their faith and their religion and how we granted them the freedom to practice their religion however they want it.

00:39:44 --> 00:39:44


00:39:45 --> 00:39:47

it's important to note here

00:39:49 --> 00:39:55

and that's because a lot of people will try to use this document nowadays to say

00:39:57 --> 00:39:57


00:39:59 --> 00:39:59


00:40:00 --> 00:40:01

Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam promoted

00:40:03 --> 00:40:11

freedom of religion, human rights, justice, and so on and so forth. Like what we here in the West are doing.

00:40:13 --> 00:40:20

And this model that we have in place, this is what the Prophet sallallahu, alayhi wasallam would have envisioned.

00:40:21 --> 00:40:26

And so, it's important to note here that when we mentioned terms like this,

00:40:27 --> 00:40:29

when we mentioned terms like

00:40:31 --> 00:40:54

freedom, human rights, justice, equality, etc. These terms, we need to ask ourselves, which narrative? Are we going to go by? Whose definitions are we going to go by? And so these terms are mentioned nowadays from a certain perspective. And that is, from the western perspective

00:40:58 --> 00:41:05

in that Western perspective is different than our perspective, which is based on our Sharia.

00:41:07 --> 00:41:10

And so, for example,

00:41:11 --> 00:41:12

Freedom what does that mean?

00:41:14 --> 00:41:17

It means that every human being

00:41:20 --> 00:41:22

has the right to live however they want.

00:41:25 --> 00:41:26

That's what they claim.

00:41:28 --> 00:41:29

But is this

00:41:30 --> 00:41:32

is this the definition?

00:41:34 --> 00:41:40

Which, you know, is within the bounds of our Sharia?

00:41:46 --> 00:41:51

Or we can say that freedom is preserving human rights are human interests, human interests?

00:41:53 --> 00:41:57

If we were to say that freedom means preserving human interests,

00:41:58 --> 00:42:05

the question is, who decides? Who decides? Or who, who decides to define what human interests are?

00:42:08 --> 00:42:10

So for example, nowadays,

00:42:11 --> 00:42:13

we have them saying that

00:42:16 --> 00:42:25

human interest is identifying however you want. This is your personal human interest.

00:42:26 --> 00:42:31

So, if you want to define yourself as being whatever you want, you have that right to do so.

00:42:33 --> 00:42:34

It's a we say no, why?

00:42:36 --> 00:42:42

Because Allah subhanahu Attallah is the one who decides how to define human interests.

00:42:45 --> 00:42:48

It's not based on your whims and your desires.

00:42:53 --> 00:42:55

Likewise, we can say the same with justice.

00:42:57 --> 00:43:02

Who decides what justice means and what laws are considered fair and just

00:43:04 --> 00:43:08

and so this is where we say that Islam promotes freedom,

00:43:09 --> 00:43:10

human rights

00:43:11 --> 00:43:14

and justice. But then

00:43:15 --> 00:43:19

what we need to do is we need to define these terms

00:43:20 --> 00:43:24

by going back to how Allah and His Messenger define them.

00:43:25 --> 00:43:45

But anyways, the point here is that we can see from this document, and from this covenant, how Rasul Allah He sallallahu alayhi wa sallam made it a point to give the Jews the freedom to practice their religion, if they saw pleased, if you want to continue practicing your religion, go ahead.

00:43:48 --> 00:43:51

But that doesn't mean that we are going to stop from giving you Dower.

00:43:55 --> 00:44:00

If someone is interested in converting to Islam, you cannot prevent them.

00:44:01 --> 00:44:03

This is something also important to understand here.

00:44:05 --> 00:44:10

That when the Prophet salallahu alayhi wa sallam allowed them to practice their religion,

00:44:11 --> 00:44:13

it did not mean that we stop Dawa.

00:44:15 --> 00:44:20

And if someone wants to convert to Islam, there shouldn't be a barrier there.

00:44:27 --> 00:44:29

The fifth lesson that we learned

00:44:30 --> 00:44:33

is the relationship with the Jews.

00:44:35 --> 00:44:38

And so it is clear from this covenant

00:44:39 --> 00:44:47

that Rasul Allah, He sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was extending a hand of tolerance towards the Jews.

00:44:49 --> 00:44:55

And so you find that this document considers the Jews to be citizens of Medina

00:44:58 --> 00:44:59

and US citizens

00:45:00 --> 00:45:03

of the Islamic State that was being established.

00:45:04 --> 00:45:12

They were granted religious freedom. They were allowed to worship according to their teachings, and it was the responsibility

00:45:13 --> 00:45:15

of the Islamic State

00:45:17 --> 00:45:17

to protect them.

00:45:23 --> 00:45:32

On the other hand, the Jews were required to support the Muslims against any enemy. If they attacked and Medina.

00:45:34 --> 00:45:36

They were also required to give

00:45:38 --> 00:45:40

sincere counselling to the Muslim state,

00:45:41 --> 00:45:43

to never conspire against it.

00:45:45 --> 00:45:51

And to never withhold any information that was necessary for the security of Medina.

00:45:52 --> 00:45:56

Also, the Jews were under the obligation to,

00:45:58 --> 00:46:21

to refer to Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in any dispute that might arise between them. And the Muslims. In fact, when we look at events that occurred, we find that the Jews also recognize that Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam should also be referred to for our own internal disputes.

00:46:25 --> 00:46:32

When they would dispute among themselves, even then they would go to the prophets of Allah values. And as we have examples, like

00:46:34 --> 00:46:35

the case of

00:46:37 --> 00:46:44

the adultery that took place, the Zina that took place, and they disputed as to what to do with

00:46:45 --> 00:46:48

the Zanni, the one who committed adultery

00:46:49 --> 00:46:51

into so Some said they should be stalled.

00:46:53 --> 00:46:54

And so they,

00:46:55 --> 00:47:04

they did they disagreed, and they differed, and they dispute it. And then they came to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said,

00:47:06 --> 00:47:11

bring your Torah, what does it tell Rossi? And so he wanted to judge with their own book.

00:47:13 --> 00:47:14

And so they brought the Torah.

00:47:15 --> 00:47:16


00:47:18 --> 00:47:25

one of them he covered the area that would mention stoning to death for the adultery.

00:47:28 --> 00:47:36

So the point here is that even in their own disputes, they recognize the authority of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam.

00:47:38 --> 00:47:49

And they would go to him to resolve their disputes. And so this is where the relationship between the Jews and the Muslims started. This is how we started.

00:47:50 --> 00:47:52

However, from then on,

00:47:53 --> 00:47:57

that relationship only went downhill, as we will see,

00:47:59 --> 00:48:09

as we will see, and the reason for that was the response of the Jews to the presence of the Muslims in El Medina. They didn't like it.

00:48:10 --> 00:48:13

They didn't like the fact that Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wasallam was here,

00:48:15 --> 00:48:16

and that the Muslims

00:48:17 --> 00:48:18


00:48:19 --> 00:48:20

come together here.

00:48:23 --> 00:48:25

But from the Muslim side,

00:48:26 --> 00:48:29

Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam tried his best,

00:48:30 --> 00:48:36

to live peacefully in El Medina, through this through this covenant,

00:48:37 --> 00:48:51

by giving them protection, as we saw, it was mentioned in this covenant by giving them equal rights by giving them freedom and so on and so forth. However, the Jews did not let this happen. As we will see.

00:48:56 --> 00:49:00

The sixth and final lesson that we learned from this covenant

00:49:03 --> 00:49:13

is how the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam sought to establish the sacredness, the sanctity of El Medina.

00:49:14 --> 00:49:18

And so this city was not like any other place.

00:49:19 --> 00:49:21

It was not like any other city

00:49:23 --> 00:49:24

besides Mecca,

00:49:25 --> 00:49:28

and Quds, Jerusalem.

00:49:30 --> 00:49:50

Now we have a new city and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wanted to give it a certain sacredness like Mecca, and Jerusalem. And so the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam mentioned in this document that yes, rip will be a harem.

00:49:52 --> 00:49:59

Which means a sanctuary, a place where, you know this place is sacred. So you can't do certain things you

00:50:04 --> 00:50:13

So Monica was a haram. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wanted to do the same thing with El Medina. And so

00:50:16 --> 00:50:18

this city being a haram,

00:50:19 --> 00:50:25

it meant that no one is allowed to fight. No one is allowed to raise their weapons.

00:50:27 --> 00:50:32

No one is allowed to cut down any trees. You're not allowed to hunt

00:50:34 --> 00:50:35

and so on and so forth.

00:50:36 --> 00:50:41

And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam sent companions to mark

00:50:42 --> 00:50:44

the boundaries of this haram

00:50:46 --> 00:50:50

so that everyone knows that this is now

00:50:52 --> 00:50:54

a haram, a Sanctuary,

00:50:55 --> 00:51:00

a sacred place where certain things are not allowed.

00:51:02 --> 00:51:04

Now, it's important to note here

00:51:07 --> 00:51:10

that Almudena throughout

00:51:11 --> 00:51:14

this document is referred to by what name

00:51:16 --> 00:51:17

was it referred to by?

00:51:21 --> 00:51:27

What what name was it referred to by? Was it referred to by the name of El Medina?

00:51:29 --> 00:51:30


00:51:31 --> 00:51:34

it was referred to by the name of yesterday

00:51:35 --> 00:51:40

and yesterday is the old name of El Medina.

00:51:42 --> 00:51:47

However, later on the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam changed the name from yesterday

00:51:48 --> 00:51:49

to El Medina

00:51:51 --> 00:51:52

and other names as well.

00:51:56 --> 00:52:01

So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam gave yesterday the names el Medina

00:52:03 --> 00:52:05

as well as bother

00:52:07 --> 00:52:10

as well as labor

00:52:16 --> 00:52:18

so these were some of the names of Medina

00:52:20 --> 00:52:31

and the prophets that along with some would actually dislike, referring to it as yesterday but later on, he would dislike referring to it as yesterday.

00:52:33 --> 00:52:38

It also Allah subhanho wa Taala in the Quran refers to as El Medina

00:52:40 --> 00:52:44

in one Hadith the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says, whoever

00:52:47 --> 00:52:55

whoever calls Medina yesterday, should seek Allah's forgiveness three times. It is Baba is Baba, it is Bob.

00:52:57 --> 00:52:58

In another Hadith

00:53:00 --> 00:53:09

the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says do not call it yesterday, for it is by you by whoever says yesterday should seek

00:53:10 --> 00:53:21

Allah's forgiveness three times it is playback it is fiber it is time. So this shows us that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam changed the name of the city.

00:53:22 --> 00:53:25

And that was to give it a new identity.

00:53:26 --> 00:53:27


00:53:28 --> 00:53:33

this name yesterday was associated with a very terrible past.

00:53:35 --> 00:53:47

You know, the people of yesterday were known for their bloodshed, their wars, and it is now associated with with that, so the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wanted to he wanted to

00:53:48 --> 00:53:54

have the city associated with a new name, that would be good for it.

00:53:55 --> 00:54:07

Would that we come to the end of we come to the end of the session, Inshallah, who to add next week we'll move on to the last project that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam initiated when he arrived in El Medina

00:54:11 --> 00:54:12

so with that we conclude

00:54:13 --> 00:54:27

Subhanak Allah who will be handed a shadow Elijah Hilda and stuff Itokawa to Lake wa salatu salam ala Nabina Muhammad wa early will soften the edge nine was Salam Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

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