Channel: Jamal Badawi
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AsSalamu Alaikum and welcome to Assam focus. Today's programs are fully formed in Sunni sources are spent in southwestern segment on the authenticity of decra. I'm your host Rashad Nish and with me from St. Mary's University is Dr. Jana semiconductive.
That the Jamal, could you give our viewers please, a summary of last week's program? Okay. Last week's program was the third program on the arrangement of the Quran. And we indicated that
some of the objections raised by some orientalist do not really have that firm support. We did discuss in the beginning, the issue that was raised with respect to Surah, Number eight, and nine, whether they should have been two sources or one surah, or whether they should have appeared in that order are not only indicated, that's why they report
different orders of difference in terms of its order is not a very strong one. But the consensus seem to be that they will, indeed, in that particular order, as witnessed and testified to by 1000s of people, many of whom were eyewitnesses that we said, ultimately, there's absolutely no theological significance to that whatsoever. It is the same content, it's the same sword as there is absolutely no question of deletion or addition or change in the Quran. And there is not evidence that it was altered as such. We also discuss some of these
objections, such as those ideas presented by one's bro, Rodwell Bell, and Arthur Jeffrey. And after examination of many of their claims, we have seen that really they are contradictory to all available evidence. In fact,
towards the end of last time, I was going to say that even one of them as a Jeffrey went as far as making a fantastic claim, you know, that the first surah in the Quran, as the opening attack was not originally part of the Quran, with again, with absolutely no evidence, but guess what? Maybe I'll pick up on that. That sounds like your drastic claim. Now, on what basis, it wasn't based on any historical evidence. It wasn't based on any report authentic or unauthentic. Even. I think what he basically said is that if you examine that particular opening surah in the Quran, you'll notice that it is mainly a source of prayer and supplication that is the human adjusting the creator and
Word as you say that the style generally in the Quran is that Allah speaks, that Allah addresses us as humans, but this one is human addressing Allah. And he says maybe it wasn't part of it. And that like I say, again, it's substituting guests, or substituting facts with his on guesses. What Geoffrey for that However, because of this reason, which is quite deficient, really is that it is true that the Quran is the word of Allah and that it is quite often the case that Allah addresses humanity, tell them or inform them.
But in the meantime, Allah also teaches us as humans how to pray to Him. So when parts of the Quran include this kind of prayers, it's not the reverse of that it shows us how we as human can pray and invoke His mercy. On the other hand,
another reason why again, that reasoning of Joffrey is very, very deficient is that the opening surah of the Quran is not the only place in the Quran, which in which the human close to Allah or Allah teaches us how to pray to Him.
Again, to save time, and not just to get some reference alluded to the intelligence and judgment of the universe which it respect to check it on their own to see the validity of his of his claim and sort of tool in passage 286 it is basically human praying to Allah. That's not only the first that's the second Surah in Surah number three
area 192 through 194. These are all basically human again praise Allah, particularly on the first opening surah of the Quran.
Jeffrey also seem to have forgotten that this unsubstantiated guest of his
God would have absolutely no weight
as compared with the unanimity that has existed for 1400 years, since the days of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him that the opening surah of the Quran short as it may be, is part and parcel of the Quran, that it is recited by millions, hundreds of millions of Muslims five times every day in their prayers and the prayer is invalid actually without verification of that particular surah or passage or I should say,
sort of a chapter in the Quran. This is the problem like I said with the with some of the orientalist
approaches from which we can safely conclude
the only valid orders both for the passages within the same sutras are with the author of the sutras within the Quran is the one that we have in the Quran, in our hands, which has always been there ever since it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad peace be
and definitely if, at one point or the other, we as humans, are not able to
discern or comprehend. Why did Allah order or command this particular author of the Quran, it doesn't mean that there is no wisdom there must be some possible reason.
Let us examine some issues relating to the arrangement of the chapters. The first thing that may be striking is that the classes will start off with a very short chapter and astrology but considerable, considerably longer ones. Is there any reason
what Okay, before getting into possibilities of reasons, maybe I should just clarify one point, so that at least we be on the right railing, before we plunge into, you know, trying to explain what possible wisdom is behind. You see, when we talk about issues pertaining to the matters of Revelation,
I am not sure that there is any scholar who can make a claim
and says Now, I understand fully the Divine Wisdom,
at least Mohammedan scholar
and as Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him indicated that the in describing the Quran that it is a book from which the scientists and scholars never feel sexual Satya Nadella is always eager to learn there's something to be learned from the Quran. He said also that the wonders of the Quran are never exhausted. And that's manifested in our age. In a previous series, part of the series I should say, we discussed in detail the scientific miracle of the Quran and many of the things that you are discovering now that many people for hundreds of years could not understand why does the Quran make this kind of references.
So nobody can claim that all of these wisdoms have been discovered or can be discovered in one point of time or the other. It's a it's a kind of continuous matter.
And under metal and also our arrangement of the Quran, the same rule applies. No one claims that he has reached a full comprehension of why it was the divine command or wisdom to have the Quran arranged in that particular way, or what connection is there between one Sora or the other in front.
But among the best, who wrote on the subject, trying somehow humbly to make some contribution to that is the great scholar of the Quran, Jalali Dean asuci,
who lived in the ninth century of hlsl, that would be equivalent roughly to the 15th century in the Common Era.
And he wrote a book actually called NASA for NASA, so it
can be translated more or less like the coordination of terms on the harmony of the sutras or chapters of the Quran.
relatively recently, his book was published in Egypt in Cairo by the sun under the title of Islam, and that is the secrets of the context or arrangement of the Quran. And it included a very nice introduction by the other colorata who introduced the book. And I assume that there is nothing wrong shedding some light on what
See what he mentioned about the order of the surah of the Quran. But you should not take his ideas or suggestions as the only explanation or possible explanation, but simply a source of reflection of an unknown scholar of the Quran. I hope that this at least introduction, perhaps we can touch on the question that you raised now we understand the limits or the boundaries of what we mean by why, or what is the wisdom?
Now, the question was that Quran starts first, with one short sort of opening, sort of, and then it gets followed by substantially longer sort of That's correct.
There have been a number of explanations by ch and others, I actually missed a few others. As soon as you For example, say that, even though this first opening surah in the Quran is very short, several verses.
It really summarizes everything in the Quran. And that is why it used to be called omega and omega of the Quran, with the mother of the book. That is why
as a machete for example, as a scholar
said that in depth charts, what are the is close to the Creator.
There is worship of the Creator. There are aspects of the good and forbidding the evil or indecency. There are aspects of blood tithing and warning, that is for believers and unbelievers, baseball. faculty do
try to look not from a contradictory point, maybe from another angle. And he noted that this short surah covered four essential aspects of Islam, establishing the divinity of the Creator, speaking about the Hereafter, speaking about Prophethood. And speaking about freedom of choice,
and Bulgari, divided the content of that passage, or I should say, into two basic areas.
theological things are conceptual aspects and practical aspects. And as Andy said that there are a summary in that surah, also of introducing, or making the most out of the Quran, understand something about the divine attributes,
identifying and specifying the straight path that leads to the Creator, and describe what the case will be when we return back to him. So you could go on and on doing various angles, all of which really makes sense. They're not contradictory, just like trying to reflect on it, I try to humbly summarize some of these
opinions, and just more or less, crystallize them, in a simple to follow is the follow
or die. And as we see here in that first column,
the ultimate chapter, the first one contains aspects pertaining to believe that his clothes are the creator's admission that he is the ruler of the universe.
One of his attributes, merciful, that is also the judge, unto whom all efforts are to be
The second basic aspect is practice.
That is to implement those beliefs and to translate them into actual practice. And that involves worship but worship. Of course, Islam is very broad, it doesn't mean just prayer or supplication or rituals, it involves every aspect of human living. Thirdly, to be steadfast. That is one basic point that the first ceramics, it is not enough to believe or practice but to avoid slipping to avoid backsliding. And whether this backsliding is a deliberate rejection of journalists or being misguided or misled by inaccurate and unauthentic type of information. So whichever way you look at it, just one of the ways of putting together some of those
basic points and to avoid this appears in the very first surah.
As to what really are the first and the second chapters connected or related? Well, there seem to be a great deal of interrelatedness not only between the various portions in the same sort of core unit, but also between successive units. And this purple here also is a humble attempt to just relate some of the points based on available literature.
But if you notice, there's for example, in if you compare
column one and two, that is Surah number one, lecture number two, one is very short one was the longest in the Quran
and fix some
The basic elements of items surah. Number one deals with the Lordship of Allah, exclusive lordship of the universe
surah number two seem to determine or give more detail about this lordship by describing
how He is the creator of heavens on Earth, how he created the primordial, primordial life, the creation of atoms. So these are all
sorts of elaboration on the meaning of Allah has been the Lord of the universe.
the first surah deals with one divine attributes, mercy,
and the second sort of refined manifestation of that mercy, that she is forgiving, talking about how he forgave Adam and Eve after the action before getting to that this is a manifestation of that mercy.
It talks about his mercy, by blessing, Prophet, Abraham,
by the donkeys, that you gave to Prophet Moses.
A third item in the first surah
is a divine attribute judgment that Allah is the judge. Now, in the second Surah, there is an aberration on what judge means, by describing our responsibility, individual responsibility as human beings before the Creator. It describes, for example, the Hellfire or punishment for those who reject
the way of life are governed by the Creator.
The first surah contains, in a very, in a very different, something about the worship of Allah.
Now, the second sort of specification, have to worship Allah, dealing with aspects like prayer, fasting, charity, worshiping Allah by following this path in economic, political or social life. Okay.
The first sort of deals with guidance in a very abbreviated way that seeking or praying to Allah to grant us guidance to his step path. Now in the second sort of, it specifies how can we seek that guidance, at the very beginning of the second Surah actually indicate that if one is to seek guidance, he has to say in the Word of Allah, and the word of Allah is, is that in the Quran, Sakharov is the source of that guidance, indicating that the Quran was his word.
And indicate also that it was one message that's the same message that Allah has revealed to all prophets that constitute a universal guidance of mankind.
Finally, in Surah, one, there is warning
against slipping or backsliding, that is, once you've been on practice, try to keep steadfast keep careful not to go back again to a state of unbelief.
But in the second Surah, it indicates to us in some details, what counter
diversions can lead the person to slip from the true path of pure immaculate monotheism
in the second sort of emphasis on the invitation of the Jewish spaceflights, because there is a lot about them in that particular surah, inviting them to believe in the last prophet, Prophet Muhammad, and to accept the final revelation. So the connection seems to be quite reasonable number understanding, the collection or observation
between second and third chapter, I think it does, and in fact, the chapter also if we compare the second and the third column, you find something similar. So let me just go through that rather briefly. Because I think the basic notion now is obvious.
Without, for example, in the second Surah, about the attribute of creation, that Allah is the Creator.
On one hand, it talks about the creation, the primordial creation,
three deeds also with another type of creation, that is the creation in the wombs of mothers, and that's actually the beginning of that surah.
In surah, number two, it talks about the creation of Adam from dust that has built awareness of the Creator. And the third surah it talks about the creation of Jesus from the Virgin Mother again by the will of Allah.
Okay, which appear in the second sort of about a na s were given the bounties that he gave to Abraham Moses, but part of the coverage in the second Surah is the
ruler of Prophet Abraham, that God may provide guidance to mankind to his presence in the field. So right in the case that it was Muhammad, the last prophet, Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him who came in this points are not simply in response
to the pillars of Abraham, since many people have been blessed already for the Israelite prophets in the final
through the other branch of the Abrahamic family tree, that is the topic
of the second sort of dealt with the for example, responsibility and description are the entire three days more information about paradise. The other side of the coin is punishment, there's a word
the second Sora specified some of the acts of worship mentioned in genuine in the first surah. The third one gives much more details, in many respects about some of the detailed aspects of life and how to worship Allah. In a practical sense.
The second belt will be on the essence of the guidance to men can be the word of Allah. The third one deals with how to understand the Quran. Actually, it begins with talking about allegorical verses in the Quran versus ones which are conclusive in meaning and so on.
It's removes any doubt about the Quran being the word of Allah.
It places Muslims as the heirs of that one message that all prophets received that since they have received the last message, it is their responsibility to carry to the world.
And the second Surah, we talked about invitations, for example, you talked about deviations, by way of explaining how could we avoid backsliding by examining the history of previous peoples. Now, in the third surah, it keeps dealing also with other forms, or deviations and backsliding, the second sort of goods, or emphasizes
on the invitation of jurists, or slideouts, to build in the last prophet, Muhammad, peace be upon him. The third one, since it was with Jesus peace be upon him, it ends also inviting Christians to believe in the last prophet. And as mentioned before, all prophets are like brothers, they are all fulfilling the same duty, they are all servants of the Creator. So it's an invitation for both to meet under the same creator, the same last authentic and authoritative revelation. So the connection is not restricted.
Just between one two, actually, if you go through the hardcore, and perhaps you might see it some pattern
of connection, which will give us a few examples of these connections, when just as much as time allows us.
The third sort of, for example, let's be
uncertain insert sort of run, it's owned by ordinary people, or addressing mankind
to be a more conscious takala, that we should be conscious.
The next one, number four begins with the same feeling of being a more conscious
human can be conscious or conscious.
For example, in the second Surah
Baqarah, it talks about the creation of Adam in creation of his wife,
and how Allah placed him in paradise. Okay, so you talk about Adam and his wife, you find that even if you go as far as the fourth surah, you will find those with another aspect of this relationship between Adam and Eve, in broad sense, and the very first verse of that, that sort of indicates that Allah created humankind, from the same origin from the same place of male and female. And as such, try to remind us of our common origin, and our basic nature.
And in the second Surah
describes certain laws pertaining to the rights of orphans, the will, that one makes before his death, the law of inheritance in marriage.
And even if you go or not just back to the cell service, you don't continue with to the first surah you find that there's still more details given about these issues of marriage or family laws and related issues.
In surah, numbers three, for example.
So in Surah, number two, it describes how am I created Adam, without a father, or mother, he didn't come from it.
site or woman's site. And that seemed to have been in preparation to what surah number three, tried to emphasize about the creation of Jesus peace be upon him from a woman side, but not not from an insight that is similar in one sense to the medical application of Adam.
It goes on to Surah. Number four, to respond to the Jews also, who
did not say things about Prophet Jesus peace be upon him. And as such, you see some connection, in one hand, the Quran try to avoid the extreme or exaggeration, such as the following Jesus, the servant, the creatures of Allah. On the other hand, he spoke to the Jews to the other extreme also, by, you know, accusing him of all kinds of things or being impossible and so on. So neither of them is correct. So that connection between the sensors seem to be like links, and they in the same in the same chain,
there are numerous examples, you know, that
you can really point out to, and
there's, I think it might be time to continue.
Just if you wish I can give you
the footage to give us maybe a few more of these are these connections. Okay. One interesting observation, for example, that was made
by some scholars of the Quran is that if you really examine the first five suitors in the Quran,
you'll notice that if you exclude the first one, because the first one, as indicated, is essentially a source of supplication or credit. It's like the opening chapter praying to Allah to provide us with guidance and support and so on. But if you continue to the first chapters,
you will find that all of them that's number 234, and five, all of them were revealed in Medina, Dharma tonight.
And it begins with
number two, Al Baqarah, which actually begin to be revealed. First, and that in other words, was among the very first that was revealed when the Prophet migrated from Mecca, Timothy, whereas surah number five, known as the method or the tablet spread, was the last surah that was revealed in Medina, according to eternity. In other words, even this whole Suez after the first chapter before long ones, are all mechanized sutras and the beginning an ensign somehow to correspond to the earlier
revelation and the nature and with the night revelation. Like I said before, this is only a glimpse of
various aspects that could be discussed about the author of the Quran, they have been written about that. I realize Of course, the difficulty of not having for the for the average or most viewers having a copy of the Quran in front of them to go in some detail and explain all of this. But to go into this because perhaps requires a much longer period of time, but I hope that at least the essence of it has been clarified that
there is definitely some reason
why the sutras in the Quran are put in that particular order. Some scholars might be able to point to some but even if they can point to all of them, at least that should give us enough confidence with just that there is a divine wisdom behind every single
thing he will have started demolishing through a stone that will adequately and thank you for joining us here in Islam and focus on
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