Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Islam infocus This is the 30th on the series stresses of Islam and specifically is the ait program on your fantasy of the Quran. Today's topic is undergraduate, as no country the piecemeal revelation of the Quran. I'm your host, Rashad nourish. Welcome once again back to genetic counselors University.
And, as usually we can start off with a segment of last week's program, okay, for the sake of relative completion and continuing the same approach of critically examining various issues pertaining to the Quran. We also examine the various claims that the Quran today is different from what it was revealed to the Prophet peace be upon him 1400 years ago,
with a specific reference to the claims made by the Shiites, who represent about one 10th of what is normally referred to as the Muslim world.
And with the specific references to the most important source of tradition in the Shiite theology, known as a seven minute kaffee, written by Al Clemmie.
And we refer to a number of claims that were made and shown that none of them really can be substantiated.
I will refer, for example, to the so called must have all beliefs of Fatima where a claim is being made that some revelation came to her after the death of the Prophet. The claim that the cousin of the Prophet was the only one who really gathered the Quran in complete form and said that this isn't possible because he himself was in power was the killer, the first killer, and there is not the slightest shred of evidence that he used any copy of the Quran other than the one that all Muslim accepted, there was no other version at all.
The other claims also made in healthcare fetus Shiite reference that certain words of the Quran were dropped, because these words establish that I have Ali and his descendants to be the exclusive rollers of Muslims. And because of the distance, none of which, while they are minor words, but even then, there is not the slightest evidence for that. And this were clearly political type of claims that tries to find some theological type of justification. One of the evidences we get is that some people who claim for example, that there was a surah, or chapter one chapter in the Quran, so called a neuron, and indicated that the term and rain are the two lights is a term that was used to refer
to Prophet Muhammad and Ani, and that this term did not emerge until the 13th century, at the time of accuracy. And that is about 600 years after the Quran was completed, how, how can we turn up to 600 years after the crime, and then that's what I was part of the Quran. We also indicated for furnace that there is also a reference that one can find or references to some of the Shiite scholars who reject this totally unsubstantiated notion that there is any different color there was any different color on or that any thing that was dropped from it, it is the same. But we said however, that it is difficult to judge as to whether these are individual opinions of some people
who do not represent the nature stream of shares, and especially in the fact that adresi, the author of the first left hip hop, who wrote his book in the late part of the 19th century, have quoted quite extensively from many sources acceptable to Shiites, which make this kind of claims of dropping the versus pretending to Holly and his descendants.
But you said however, that it is up to the Shiite leaders
to clarify exactly what their position is a view the Quran because this is a very essential matter that pertains to essential Creed's in Islam. I indicated quite frankly that this requires a great deal of honesty and courage. Because if they admit that the Quran today is the same as was revealed to the Prophet as has been substantiated quite extensively, so
This programs, it would actually imply that the book and Cafe is not as authentic as many, including Shai thought it was and lots of errors and things that are not authentic there. And if this is the case, it would also imply that the decline of the exclusive rulership
over the whole Muslim Ummah forever is something again, that is suspect, which is, in fact is that it doesn't have any that support. And that means also that they should be completely stuck to any question, blemishing, the holy companions of Prophet Muhammad peace be opening and respecting all of them. But in any case, we said that this kind of analysis to complete the picture
lead us to the same conclusion we had in previous questions that this could be absolutely no evidence whatsoever about any other
version of the Quran, or that anything was dropped in evidence seemed to be consistent in that direction.
you've stated that the Quran was revealed in a gradual way or in a piecemeal way that's now reference to this way of revelation within the crown itself. You want to start with the internal evidence? Yes.
Yes. Just to give you one very explicit thing, perhaps a very direct citation from the Quran and that appears in Surah number 17. Can I our verse number 106106 Quran and Sunnah Holika cavada mercy Allah moccasin with Angela in the translation of meaning it says it is a Quran which we have divided that is introverts in order that you that is your Mohamad
resulted to people at intervals, intervals. And notice this part of the citation, we have reserved that we here refers to God, we like to have reverted by status or in stages. It's very explicit, but the Quran actually was revealed in stages. There is a similar citation also that's found in Surah, number 25. In areas 32 and 33, which actually respond to people who inquired as to why the Quran was not only that, once and again, the federal response to that question is that it was not really reviewed at once. In addition to this, there is a fine
subtle aspect of the language also. And that is, whenever the Quran refers to the gradual process in which it was revealed, like the reverse I cited, for example, in Surah, 17, it uses an Arabic term mithuna. And that actually, is a word that signifies a gradual revelation or gradual coming down, rather than being revealed all at once. Even though elsewhere in the Quran, he was uttered that again in the English translation, you cannot detect it. And then medical and dental both come from the same root. But in different context, he was answered.
Which means could mean one time or graduate. Maybe you can elaborate, explain this last point and show the significance
of the use of these terms in the crowd that I can try my best to because as far as the linguistic part, it might be rather difficult for us who are not familiar with the subtleties of the Arabic language to comprehend, but I try my best to simplify. You see, there are two terms that are used to refer to the coming down of the Quran. This can come from the basic root, which means something good came down. However, a new expression, muscle seemed to imply the gradual elimination or gradual coming down.
Whereas a term that sounds very close and dull, is a more general term, which could mean something coming gradually or coming on at once. Now, how does that relate to the significance of the revelation of the Quran? Well, to start with the verse, for example, that I cited earlier in chapter 17, seem to be speaking about words, specifically, the gradual revelation of the Quran, and it uses the term nazzer which definitely means something that came in piecemeal, or in a gradual manner.
But elsewhere in the Quran in different contexts, we find the goddess term ends and the more general term is you. Perhaps if I give you a couple of examples might clarify to know the different meanings or different implications of it. Perhaps the most famous citation
In the Quran,
about the Quran being revealed, at once or could mean revealed that once is in Surah, number 97. In the first verse
which says we that's allowed, God has indeed revealed this, that is this Quran in the amount of power and excellence.
A similar verse in chapter 44, or pseudo 44, and higher three
demands are now related to mubaraka. We sit down, are we tempted down that is the Quran during a blizzard night. A third one in the second Surah in the Quran is number 185.
Describing again, that the month of Ramadan, in which the Quran was sent down,
again, the the term that is a more general term as guidance to mankind.
Bible you notice here that all these three citations in different places in the Quran refers to the very same thing. Because the amount of power and excellence is a blessing at night, which actually takes placement has led that takes place in the holy month of Ramadan, that's the month of Muslim fasting. So it talks about the same thing.
But the question here is this. Why is it that in this particular citations, as well as maybe others of similar nature, the Quran uses a more general term rather than the term that connotes gradual revelation? Why did it differ from the previous one is a very important reason behind that.
First of all, as summarized by Nell Aton, in his excellent book, studies in the sciences of Quran
that there are a number of narrations or reports narrated Slipknot is one of the companions of the Prophet and quoted in Bukhari
that the Quran was revealed all at once, or came down into quote, unquote, Santa dunya, or lower heavens
in the night of excellence or power, that is during the month of Ramadan, and then it began to come down to Prophet Muhammad in peace means over the period of nearly 23 years, it should be commented here that the term lower heavens could mean just simply as, as it sounds, lower heavens, Allah only notice what are these various levers or various hazards, it could also mean actually moving from one level to the other. Because the entire Quran being the Word of God was known to God in advance for eternity, it is His Word. So the knowledge of the Quran was there with god but He I don't have access to that. So the reference here is to come in of the Quran all at once. And that particular
blush at night could actually mean the come down from that level, which is accessible to God alone, to a level where it is accessible to the angel of Revelation, Angel Gabrielle, who bring it again, according to the instructions of Allah to Prophet Muhammad in a piecemeal form.
This is sort of underlining the importance of the Quran as having a divine origin or divine source.
The other observation here is that
or other opinion that was given which is not contradicted not exclusive with that idea, was presented by a shabby, who was a temporary that is a generation following degeneration of the companions of the Prophet. And he used to be one of the main teachers of the famous Muslim Eman Abu hanifa.
And he says that what is probably meant by that is that the beginning of the revolution of the Quran took place.
Not necessarily the hope at the beginning of revelation of Quran took place in that particular place at night. As indicated they're both opinions are supplementary to each other, especially if we notice two things. One is that the term Koran itself as linguist say, can be used to refer to the entire Quran or any part of Quran. So any small part of Quran could also be called Quran.
In other words, even he said the Quran was revealed in peace means each piece or each portion or passage in itself also is used is used to refer to as Quran also. The other thing is that the terms also that I have had been tried to explain amsel and mezlan. Both candidates, you know, something that's coming down are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The word medicine is more specific. It means graduate liberation engine does not mean the opposite means a general term which could be either gradual revolution or graduate coming down or coming down at once. It's a more general term. So there is no contradiction really between those terms in the Quran. In fact, there are other
For those who wish to explore it further, like in Surah, three,
three, and four in Surah, 466. These are all related to that second type of, of expression. In brief, the main point that's being made here is that
whenever the Quran specifically addressed the moment of Revelation, or the way it was revealed in terms of the time frame, it uses a very delicate and very accurate and concise term. That proves, as we have indicated earlier that the Quran was not revealed all at once. And this is not the only evidence or other implied evidence where we talked about internal evidence now that we switch it over to external evidence. And there are many examples of those. Okay, fair enough, I was open to
all kinds of investigation. And I agree with you that internal evidence alone may not be sufficient when it's very important, but one has to supplement that when there are a number of incidents which are contained in the Quran or commented on in the Quran. And those incidents mentioned in the Quran did not take place in one time, but over a whole long period of nearly 23 years. As a specific example,
in Surah, 111, there is an example of how the unbelievers responded, especially the pagans responded to the message of Prophet Muhammad when he invited them to the test of Islam. That was one of the very early revelations. In the meantime, we find also, for example, in Surah, number nine,
in the Quran, some comments made about action event, an actual event that took place and that was the mediation or hijra, a prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. So that was after 16 years of preaching in Mecca. And then you find, for example, in Surah, Number eight, and so number 33, and nine as well, mention of events that took place later in Medina, where the Prophet migrated. Now, the fact that the Quran comments, and mentioned some of those things that happened over a whole spectrum, a whole period
isn't itself a very strong evidence that the Quran was not revealed at once, or how else could it have gradually,
event by events committed on those things that took place? That
Okay, now, you have the graduate manner in which the Quran was revealed or piecemeal, others you just discussed? And how was it arranged? Is it chronologically? Or is it by topic? Or is there any set pattern to how it was revealed? What just described to us the, the thing that's very amusing about the Quran
the Quran was not all given at once. And this is something you know, amazing because some people might wonder as to why
this happened. And perhaps if I make a couple of references to the Quran,
it will show that it is perhaps the only scriptures in world history that contains within itself, replies to those who objected to it. In other words in the customer things that the scriptures are revealed, and then people raise objections. But the discussion has already been reviewed in the case of the Quran, because it was reviewed over this long period of time. Any objection that was raised concerning the Quran was responded to in the Quran itself, which is rather amazing.
In fact, a very rare similar question was raised at the time of the prophets as the Quran explicit in Surah. Number 25. In is 2032 and 33. What
that means, and they said, Why is not the Quran revealed unto him at once? And then the Quran replies, thus, that is that it was revealed, that we may strengthen your heart thereby and we have rehearsed it or send it in piecemeal to you in a slow, well arranged stages are gradually
and no question Do they bring you but will reveal to you the truest and best explanation there are.
Now, in this crucial passage in the Quran, you will find that there are a number of reasons as to why was the Quran revealed in this gradual manner.
First of all, the part of the verse that says you said better before that to strengthen your heart with
Obviously, the mission of Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him was a very difficult one indeed, to change the nature of humans to transform them from the stage of ignorance and ungodliness, to the path of Islam, the path of life, godly ways to change people who are very stubborn in their attitudes and in their roles.
And that required superhuman patience, perseverance, and constancy.
In order for the prophet who was also a human, to face up to these difficulties, this very hard task, it was very crucial and very, you know, refreshing for him to have this constant contact with the creative CEO, this revelation in various ways, but one of which was cursor, this revelation, always receiving the Word of God. And this is why we find him frequently the Quran speaks about the various difficulties that other prophets before you or Mohammed suffered and faced, to strengthen him to give him an example,
to remind him to assure him to do him glad tidings whenever the going was really rough. And the Prophet was subjected to all kinds of abuse and attack and assault in various forms.
As a human again, when he really gets, you know, discouraged because of this, you find that revelation came to him to give him the glad tidings that ultimately that believers will have victory. So this was a very important reason to start with.
The second main reason is that, because the Quran was revealed in piecemeal, over this long period of time, it can also to meet the practical needs of the people.
It wasn't just like a book, an abstraction, a book that just to be it should be respected and revered, but has very little relevance and applicability to the lives of the people. It's commented on people's life. The Quran was meant to be a book of a movement, not a stagnant community moving people.
It has it meant to be, as we call today, in modern terms a case study, it used the contemporaries of the Prophet as a case study, a non case study launched longitudinally over 23 years, because in the treatment of 33 years in the life of any people,
that all kinds of problems will arise, marriage, divorce, belief, and beneath war, peace is on. And as such, the message of the Quran became more alive, when it is directed to comment and give examples of what is happening, comment, and direct. The other thing, which I hope you perhaps appreciate, as a medical doctors, is that in order to deal with people diseases, many times it's useful also to give them the cure. In doses, you wouldn't swallow a whole pack of penicillin. Again, they've traveled. Now those people needed a great deal of medicine because there were all kinds of diseases, spiritual, moral diseases, social, economic, and political. Now, if the Quran came all at
once, so right here is the list of what you should do from one to 175 or whatever, it would have become very difficult for people who have lived all their lives in this, you know, ignorance. Exactly.
So the Quran gives us an example again, as to how to read these verses gradually, as the need may arise. Another third reason, what's the verse also reflect? That they don't ask you a question or bring any issue except that we give you a better explanation? Basically, is to respond to any question or objection about the Quran or issue pertaining either to the Quran or even the message or the Prophet himself. So that there will be no doubt about any of those elements at all. This questions included sometimes questions from quote unquote, the People of the Book. This is a term used to refer particularly to Jews and Christians, who wish to ask so many questions in order to
You know what they have in the scriptures with what the prophet the last prophet peace be upon him was a teaching and to clarify certain issues for them,
but also to clarify or respond to challenges, or other questions which were put by way of challenge and by the pagans, or the people who were rejected even believe in God
objecting to the prophet or the message or the Quran and it is interesting to notice the decode and not only replies
Questions and objection, objections are very meticulous and very effective. Well, that many times even it describes what they secretly were thinking about, which is, of course beyond any, you might say, in themselves, in their circles, they were saying this and they could not deny, which again shows that there's, there's someone who's really aware of what you're thinking even in your own head, that is the creator. And that shows that the Quran actually came from him to exert them, to, to accept it. And as such, with any doubts, and nude rebuttal of any question, they raised and established the proof against them, this would have not happened of course, if the Quran was
revealed all at once, because, you know, what can be challenging us respond to this, this kind of a first reason, which is very important also, is to make the memorization of the Quran easy,
especially as we have seen from previous programs, that the Quran was preserved, both in writing and by memorization, committing it to memory. And that second means even was the most important and more meticulous, even, especially with the memory of the herbs and their love, of, you know, memorizing beautiful
passages as we find, for example, in the, in the Quran. And that's especially important if we realize, again, that the herbs, were unlettered people,
writing was done but not very common. So that made it easier if you ask someone to memorize at one time file versus a file is from the CLI becomes easier than symbol It was 6000 verses or so.
The final reason is that
the very fact that the Quran was revealed in this manner is in itself a miracle, a proof that this book could have not been produced produced by a human. And as has been explained in the previous section of the of the series on the authority of the Quran, how do we know it came from the creator?
How could anyone imagine
a book that is reviewed over a period of 23 years?
What we send me in the chronological chronological order of the sutras or units or chapters that we find today. And sometimes some part is revealed in this chapter or some part in this part. And sometimes there are there are years
time lag between one part of a chapter and the other, but miraculously, that some of those parts revealed in different places and different times dealt with comments on specific events that took place that showed that the Quran pre existed, that because after all, that was it, the Quran became a complete and consistent unit, the surah was a complete unit by itself with a flow of meaning that if you look at it, you find amazing consistency, which means that no human being whatsoever could have predicted what will happen in the future up to 23 years, wrote something to comment on it. And then finally, everything from the linguistic as well as meaning standpoint, flows and fits very
perfectly. So that was again, a reason for that revelation to prove that this Quran could have never been produced by any human being
There is no question that
I have planned that looks like the last time we will continue this topic in our next week's program.
I thank you very much for joining us, and we hope to see you once again next week in a stem focus