Channel: Jamal Badawi
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Name is Gabi and obviously the Merciful, the creator of sustainable universe Peace, blessings upon the seventh and messenger Bahama forever. I mean, he was the most common in Islam, bringing a peace. Assalamu Aleikum, I'm your host and on the show. Today we have a program in our series dealing with the economic system of Islam. And we'll be continuing with a discussion of the topic of production and productivity. So this will be a forced program on this particular topic. I have gentlemen on the program, Dr. Jamal battery of St. Mary's University College, Jamal assalamu, alaikum. Other concerns, I found last week's program very interesting, I wonder if perhaps I could have you very
quickly summarize and highlight the main points that we touched on, we were discussing some of the contributions of Islam to the very sciences. And last week program was a continuation of the testing of the effect of progress in STEM expanses, or Muslim sciences in the so called Middle Ages. And its effect on the renaissance in Europe.
to look into some of the basic routes, through which Muslim men and Muslim science has penetrated into their inclusion, Kevin Europeans learning in western universities as well as the crusades, to some extent, we're starting to give specific examples of historical manifestation of this attitude that the Quran teaches about science and learning. And we discussed more particularly the issue of area of astronomy, and chemistry, and give various examples of
material that is still have the name of but you know, named after the Arabic regiment standard names like the invention, or the discovery, I should say, of alcohol. So this was basically where we at the present time,
we're not very, we'd like to address another important discipline in the eye of mathematics, certainly an area that's very important. Whenever we talk about scientific progress. I understand that the numerals that we use are called Arabic normals. Could you explain how that came to be? Well, this means that we're looking at the present time
practiced or used in India. However, to Muslims, goes the credit of popularizing the use of this numerals and bringing it to Europe, and introduction to the room that lies in fact, for that reason, it came to be so much identify with them because of the development that they made also on arithmetics, that they tend to be known as Arabic numerals.
In addition to the numerals, we find that one of the great Muslim mathematicians by the name of Hamlet,
and was talking about the consumption,
he actually invented. The concept of the 00 in Arabic means such a request, which means void. And that is related in some scholars to the term that came not to be more later on selfish and decipher.
But the scandal of this year was not really a simple thing. But according to many
science historians, it revolutionized the discipline of mathematics. It made it possible to express all numbers in 10 characters, giving them absolute value, and evaluate by position.
And, in fact, without this, the whole later development of mathematics would have been stifled. It is interesting to note that the zero as a concept
came to be known in Europe only about 300 years after Muslims have used it in the 15th century. It took 300 years before it became common in usage in Europe, and still ever since.
Now, it's also claimed that the term algebra comes from Arabic because it's connected with Islamic civilization. That you perhaps clarify that
First, well that's that's also true. In fact,
when we talk about algebra, basically we're talking about what sort of means of universal ethics
and ethics. As the mathematicians define it, it's the use of numbers, letters and symbols, in order to analyze and express relationships between concepts of quantity, in terms of formulas, equations, or to put it in a simpler way, a calculation about symbols.
The term as you indicated, actually has an
artisan algebra, algebra, algebra.
And juggling means literally to unite or to put pieces together.
This was initiated in fact, by the Minister mathematician Hamad bin used the Noosa Alfa ladysmith
in the ninth century and was connected with the Belgian Heckman House of wisdom that you mentioned before,
in the ninth century, which was establishing the impact that
his book on the subject called his habit jab cabela, which means in English calculation by simple smiles,
became actually a classic that for hundreds of years, provided the basis for status and mathematics. rather interesting thing about it is that what is the main
algorithm, I actually wrote,
actually, the wind algorithm comes after the name of Alcoa is now the science of discipline system, accounting, that was also introduced by him.
In fact, it's one of the historical major historians and the history and development of Salinger's system that you quoted before. So it's about a heresy that he is quote one of the folders of analysis or algebra, as distinct from geometry, algebra distinct type of discipline. In addition to this, we find so many others, mathematicians are contributed to the field of, of algebra, like Abdullah, who lived in the first part of the 10th century,
he did a great deal of study to perfect the work of Alcoa, Disney, and he did some work also on quadratic equations.
In fact, according to certain Also,
many of the works of the Muslim mathematicians passed on to work through translation from Arabic to Latin by such people. Robert of Chester ebla of bath and john at Sylvan
and I mentioned that Muslim mathematicians have contributed to making algebra a distinct field from geometry did they also contribute to geometry as well as a good deal in fact, without the contribution of Muslim mathematicians in this area of geometry, we have the golden treasures of the past work that was done on the subject could have been totally lost.
Took, for example, the work of the thermos, Euclid.
Without Muslims being keen about learning and preserving that heritage, it would have been totally lost to history. In fact, the first translation in Arabic booklets work was done in the first half of the 19th century. And from that Arabic translation, that heritage was passed on again to work later on, by being translated again from not from Asian because there was no question says from Arabic again, to Latin, but it was not simply a matter of really preserving learning of the past. But there were also lots of additions and commentary made on it as me as essentially one of the most important commentaries on nucleoids work and letters times came in the 13th century by an asset of
In fact, his commentary and critique of Euclid
provided the impetus for the study of non Euclidean geometry. It influenced tremendously people in the 18th century who were the forerunners of the so called non Euclidean geometry which emerged mainly in the 19th century. But in addition to this, we find that a credit to measure such as frequent frequent differences that is one of the most tremendous works done on history of science
He indicates that in the first two centuries, the leading books in geometry were basically in Arabic, and Latin. And one would expect that many of the latter works also with translation from, from the original Arabic works. In fact, it was not simply the attention that is given to the theory itself, but that the minister was also quite practically oriented. And that led to the development of a sub area also the sense of trigonometry.
Could you perhaps shed some light on the developments in the field of the sterile field of trigonometry? trigonometry is a very important field in mathematics. As you know, it has a variety of applications, particularly in the area of secondary navigation, and also in engineering.
According to john Jeff has requested in the US in the history of intellectual history,
who declared that Muslims were the first actually to develop a trigonometry in its modern form. Of course, the Greeks also had some knowledge of trigonometry, that wisdom is developed it and it's not a form, in fact, they were the first to use the sine, and cosine. And botanical example, is credited by that.
But this probably would be related to their interest, their deep interest in astronomy, because you see, trigonometry is connected, also add lots of application in astronomy.
It is interesting to notice that some of the works done by Muslim
trigonometric, if you will, and that's him. On the trigonometry of tangents was not known in Europe until 500 years later, it took 500 years actually, for that work to pass on to Europe. Some works best faster than others. But this was one of the areas where it's very strange, how much time it took before it was used in Europe.
They also wrote on spheric, trigonometry, which again, might be related to astronomy.
And that led the job Satish
just happened in his
introduction to history of science, to say, and I'm quoting him that's in Volume Two,
past one, page 12, he says that the development of trigonometry was entirely due to Muslim efforts for a certain period of time, during the so called Middle Ages. You can also refer to
a quotation directly from your session, which I put us on the same page, he says, this outline of trigonometry in the 12th and 13th century,
cannot but give the reader a very high idea of Muslim science. Indeed, all the progressive work to the very end of whisperwood, was published in Arabic latson, trigonometry was about a period of reflection of the Arabic and it was already a little behind the times.
It was looking behind the times when it was new, for the Arabic efforts did not stop at continued with increased efficiency.
So this is really a fascinating area also where a great deal of contributions was offered by Muslim mathematicians and really provided the impetus and inspiration for little mathematicians to continue.
I'm sure that any of our viewers would find this very interesting information. Other other examples or additional illustrations of contributions to the field of mathematics that you might be able to listen to. For example, if you go back to the let's say, the 10th century, particularly the second half of the 10th century, we found a Muslim mathematician by the name of Abba Rafa,
regarded by historians as the first one, to show the generality of the same theorem,
relative to the spherical
triangles, he also gave a new method in constructing
the sound tables.
In the 11th century, the second part of the 11th century almost a century later than Russia, very famous mathematicians like and biruni and glossina. not embarrassed as at the center, the last one
according to Sachin
lots of work are produced work which was generally of a high
And very high level use the term and full of originality.
And in Egypt Also, our great
astronomer and mathematician in the 11th century by the name of newness contributed a great deal also.
But one of the fascinating contributions also claimed in the second part of the 11th century, by a man who was known and still known in the West more as a poet,
as an English. And this fellow was so bright in mathematics that he, according to certain conceived a very remarkable classification of equations. For example, it is said that he
recognized 13 different forms of cubic equations, that's rather complex, at least for the time, he tried to solve all of them. And he wouldn't give partial geometric solutions to some of those equations. In addition to this, we find other people contributing to other branches of mathematics, for example, and you'd be surprised at the time, in the first half of the 11th century, you will find a Muslim mathematician like in a semi contribute to the field of calculus. Others also contributed in a field that might sound relatively new to many, that is the so called connection arithmetic called the mama mama dealings, or commercial
Now, perhaps we could move at this point to another discipline, which is closely related to the field of math. And that's the field of physics, that when you consider
to be the single most important contribution to this field, when it appeared, and that's not only my opinion, I think historians of science, people who have studied this more than he did, of course,
agree that perhaps the most important single contribution of Muslim physicists was the science of optics.
In fact, you cannot really speak of optics, if you try to trace it historically, without mentioning the names, the name of an Hassam, Edmund hoechlin, again, the adulterated Platinum name, which makes it difficult sometimes it is enhancing your life and ha ZN. But actually, his actual name is Abu Hassan.
he lived in the first half of the 11th century.
And he was described by Jeff session has caught the greatest mystery physicist, and one of the greatest students of optics of all times.
And his art will help them
according to certain existed a great deal of influence upon Western science.
And He further showed a great progress in the experimental method. And that was like the forerunners of bacon, and Kepler's, and as a result of his works, we find that the development and the use of the microscopes and telescopes
came at a later time. One of the main reasons for for this contribution is basically when classic that you're called to tap and monotony of optics, for brevity.
In this work is regarded by historians as the beginning of what you might call the modern science of optics. Let me give you a few examples, if I may, on some of his bright discoveries, and again, we're talking here about the first part of the 11th century. Yes. First of all, up to this time, there was a common misconception, particularly English in Greek songs about how the person sees or what, what is the source of sight. And indexing is the list of rules that array that has ever applied proceeds from the eye
from the eye to the object, you're correct with that and he indicated that
the ray of light actually emanates from the object to the eye and not the reverse that for that time was really measures shift and in the sense of optics. In addition to this, he showed a great deal of understanding of light refraction, and light and light deflection. Both are very important phenomena in physics.
And, in fact,
he arrived at a very important discovery
And that is the curvy linear path of the ray of light through the atmosphere. And this led him to explain the concept of Twilight. That is why we are able to see the sun and the moon before they arise. And after they said that was basically based on this concept of curvy linearity of the path of the, of the ray of light.
Another interesting thing is that, in a very, a very early age of scientific development, like
you was able to determine that directly
in the eye, is the actual receipt of vision. And that the impressions which are made by light upon the retina,
is conveyed along the optic nerve to the brain. That sounds quite advanced, even when you look at it in time perspective, he was able also to explain, why is it that we're still with a single vision, even though we use two eyes system have to extend the phenomena of a single vision is in both eyes. And he had a very nice experience, he said that the it is due to the formation of the visual images
on the symmetrical portions of both retinas of both eyes.
No wonder then that we find that many of his works, particularly this particular
two times, on optics were translated and used over and over again for several hundreds of years, that's for several centuries, in Europe after him.
Definitely an hazing, or it will hasten is perhaps the most outstanding physicist at least in the area of optics. But in fact, it was not the only one. There are some other Muslim physicists who introduced additional improvements, such as NASA Dean Toshi
Shirazi and canal gene fallacy.
This will also notable contributors to optics
in the time that we have remaining on today's program to perhaps touch on some of the other contributions to physics other than to the field of optics, and we've just been discussing. Well, for example, one of the most important things about serverless revolutionized trade
and really resulted in the improvement of navigation is basically compass.
Now, it is true, that the Greek knew something about the properties of the magnets. Right. It is also true that the Chinese understood
some of the basic directive properties of the magnet is not an ad about that, in fact, I couldn't custodians of science like you're setting
these people or these nations were not able to put this knowledge and information into practical application.
And it is believed that it was the Muslims actually, who adopted this ideas and put it into use and one of the first actually to use the magnetic needle for the purpose of navigation.
This is one another interesting aspect was the investigation in the field of hydrostatics
which started as early as the ninth century even.
One of the interesting
books written on the subject was written by a person His name is Abdul Rahman.
The book title was presented Heckman, which he translated literally means like the balance of wisdom, but actually talking about hydrostatics.
just such a describes the work of Atrazine in different terms he said that standard work on his on this subject was written by me and it is one of the main physical treatises of the Middle Ages, it was a principal source of knowledge on this particular area.
And then he gives some of the basic contents of
this book. He says he worked on
tables of specific gravities
so not just not knowledge of gravity, but he really specified certain gravities of certain liquids and solids. And the he talked also about a variety of physical facts and theories that's also found in the second volume of satin in the first part.
Another aspect that might also be of interest, both to physicists and engineers also
is the area of hydraulics, not just hydrostatics hydraulics.
Now, it is true that the idea of water
was known in past history. And there are some records archaeological evidence that it seems to have been known. However, according to such and also the Muslim physicists,
engineers introduced a great deal of improvement on the rest of this waterwheel.
And he actually choose this term this he said, they made very remarkable use of them. That, in fact might explain the great deal of prosperity and agriculture another issue that might let us touch on but it contributes a great deal to, to various methods of agriculture, an improvement in
production in this particular area.
In fact, Mr. Lyons married but evidence shows that, particularly in Syria in the 13th century, the this water weeds have been used quite frequently and efficiently. He gave the particularly the name of the city of Hemet
in the 13th century, and he said that there was as many there were as many as 32.
Efficient, which means that has been in use. And by the way, this is the same city which was attacked by the unbelieving,
oppressive army of hackers and assets in Serbia in which maybe 20 to 30,000 people
were slaughtered. It's the same set of benefits was made to be what I was. Seven. Look, it's, it's so overwhelming
to see the strides that were needed in this
particular field and all other sizes in science we discussed before
astronomy, mathematics, and I'll also be able to have a look on some of the additional
important contribution made in other sciences. And by the way, I'm not simply saying that all the configuration, we're just in science, yes,
we'll be able to see you better also that considerations to things like
geography, history, and other fields law has been just as, as remarkable, we simply started by investigating contribution to science, because that stands clearly in the face of some of the erroneous arguments and impressions that might be predominant interest, as we indicated in the beginning of dealing with this particular topic.
That stand stands against progress, that it's only processing as you might get from movies and other items. It's only the setting for nomadic people in riding camels and living and living in the desert, the simple life because that's what it is, and what is really forgotten this, this great contributions to the development of sciences, which continued over several hundreds of years, paving the way for
what we know today as the modern scientific practice. I think we'll stop at that for today. I think we've hopefully been successful in dispelling some of those stereotypes Have you just been talking about? We want to thank you for watching and invite you back next week and we'll continue with the contribution to the field of medicine. Thank you for watching. Assalamu alaikum peace