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Usul al-Fiqh 2: The History of Fiqh
Channel: Ismail Kamdar
Series: Ismail Kamdar - Usul al-Fiqh
File Size: 20.66MB
In this lesson, Shaykh Ismail Kamdar explains the history of Fiqh and how the various madh’habs developed over time.
Episode Transcript ©
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Lillah wa salatu salam ala rasulillah. Before we get into this week's topic, very brief recap of last week's topic because hamdulillah seeing lots of faces here who we are going to last week. And as last week's topic was very technical,
you'll be a bit lost if you if you didn't know how many people didn't attend last week, just raise your hands. Okay, do any of you listen to the recording of last week's?
If you raise your entropy, listen to the recording. No. Okay, so I'll have to go through it again. But for those of you who want the recordings, or audio recordings of the series are available on Muslim Central calm, also on my iTunes channel and my Google podcast channel. And hopefully from this session, we'll have it up on YouTube as well if you can get the video right. Okay. Otherwise Muslim Central, everything's available there. So last week, we spoke about pseudo tech and introduction to the topic Kizomba Tell me briefly in one sentence, what is
this you will remember, in one sentence, what is the
principles of what
understanding is the principles that the Obama use for working out fake rulings, right wish to fix simply means the methodology and principles, principles of Obama to work out fake. Fit isn't just something where someone looks at the hedges and comes up with an idea or some big something off the top of their head, there is a methodology to it. And that's what we are studying. Over the six weeks, we are studying the methodology of how to derive him. Very important point I mentioned last week, I have to repeat it for those who are new, by the end of the six weeks, you will not be able to make your own recordings. This is a crash course this is a
introduction, right? You literally need years of study before you get to that level, as you will see now with the history of IQ. So last week, very briefly, we went through the basic
terminology, fake means are a human understanding of Islamic law. Sharia is Islamic law is a human understanding of Islamic law. Who should fit is how a person derives the understanding of Islamic law. And we said that generally there's five categories of fit. When he when a scholar is doing, what they're doing is they're trying to summer to put something into one of five categories. That's what it is. Someone brings something to you to say is this Helen O'Hara, right? That's basically what they're asking you. So you have one of five answers, right? It's either wajib is compulsory, it must have it's recommended. It's halaal. It's makuu. It's disliked, or it's heroin. And by the way,
the first four categories together all actually a holiday, including macro. Right? macro is a subcategory of halaal. Right. So that's the other main terms we spoke about the other terms that we discussed, inshallah, we'll come to them over the next few weeks in more detail. But we basically we went through the basic rules, in terms of the definition, Quran, Sunnah, consensus of the scholars, which is called each MA in the Arabic language, trs, which is the logical deduction from a scholar, and local culture, right, and we're going to do a lecture on each of these. So next week, we will discuss Quran and Sunnah, and how they play a role in the week after that, we will look at the
consensus and chaos, logical deduction, and how they play a role in cake. And in the fourth week, we will look at all phase D, local culture, and how local culture is an important principle, particularly in the Hanafi madhhab. So this week, we are taking a break from the technical stuff to look at the history, right. And normally, when I teach the history of fake, I spent five months teaching it, today, I'm going to attempt something completely different, which is doing the entire five months in one hour. Right? So just a disclaimer, I'm going to make a lot of broad sweeping statements about entire centuries. Because you cannot discuss 1400 years of history in one hour
without making broad statements. So I may say, for the 400 years that will accommodate this. And you see, but I knew a certain Hollywood live in an era we'll never do it. Yes, that's true. But we don't have time to go into all the details. So we're going to take this in a very broad manner. Now, why do we need to know the history? because number one, most Muslims don't know what a madhab is, or where it came from, or how it came about. And so we are confused about it. As soon as you study the history or make sense. It all makes sense. Right? Number two people don't understand why are the differences of opinion every day. I get this question from young people. Why can't we all just have
one month? Why can't we all just have the same opinion. When you study the history you understand why it's just not humanly possible. It's just not humanly possible for everybody to have the same conclusion on every issue. That's just not the way Allah made us. rightfully, history will clarify
buy these things, and also clarify the importance of the issue. So I'm going to break this down very quickly into about five or six errors, right?
Yes, six errors. Generally, the book I use breaks it down into four errors, Revelation development, flowering and stagnation. I'm adding two more from my side, because just to make it a bit more nuanced, we break it down into six areas. We're going to start off revelation, the profit side, what happened in development, the first 100 years of our history, the qualifier Rashi. And the Omega time what happened within the flowering phase, the early abasi era, the expansion phase, the late Bassett era, the stagnation and decline phase, the late Abbasid era and the Ottoman era. And then finally, the modern era, which is the attempts at revival. So this sounds confusing right now. But once we go
through the history understand what I'm talking about, basically, anything in history goes through ups and downs, right? Anything that rises, it goes down, and then it goes up again. So the same thing happened with flick, flick went up, it reached a peak, it started going down, and now we try to take it back up again. And that's what you're going to see through this history. So again, we're doing this very quickly, it's literally five months of teachings condensed into one hour. So I'm going to very quickly go through the revelation and development phase, I'm going to spend most of the time on the flowering phase, because that's the most important that's when the Muslims actually
came about. So we're going to spend the majority of the lecture on the flowering phase, but the first two phases, we will go through them very quickly. Number one, obviously if we go back to the life of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, in the time of the Prophet sallallahu, wasallam Vic wasn't needed much. Who can tell me why.
Why was not needed in a time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, he was there, right? Two people are fighting over Japan should be above the ankle or not. What do they do? Go and ask him right? After he passes away gets more complicated. One person being one relation, someone say no, I didn't say something else. Someone else said No, he didn't mean that he meant this. Now the differences come about, right. But while he's alive, not much difference of opinion. Why? Because he's there asked him to clarify. Right. So two main things happen in this period, over 23 years, the Quran is revealed and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam explains it and presents the details of it. That
is called the Sunnah and the sooner is recorded in the Hobbes's. Right Hadees means integration, integration which we get information about the sooner so the Quran is revealed and the prophet Elijah explains the Quran so the Quran tells us to pray. The practice of law is I'm sure that how to pray when to pray, how many records what are the movements what you say that is all found were in the Heidi's reality is the majority of it comes from Heidi Saqqara, majority of it comes from Hades because the prophets lie some explained the details of it. Right.
During the time of the Prophet lolly Sung, we do see examples of each at heart. Or and again, for those who are new who weren't here last week, he had simply means a scholar trying to figure out the correct ruling. So we see this primarily with Abu Bakar with Omer, also with a few of the others like some of the scholars who the prophet SAW some sent to distant lands to do Dawa, like Musab even made when he sent him to Medina, and the scholars he sent to Yemen and to other parts of the world. We do see examples of he had, for example, when the Prophet sallallahu wasallam got the prisoners of the Battle of butter, right? He asked, I will work with Omar What should we do with the prisoners?
So Abu Bakr gave one opinion over gave the complete opposite opinion, the prophets have always unfollowed Abu Bakr his opinion. And then the Quran revealed that Omar was right on this issue. So already we see Abu Bakr and Omar, the prophet slicer is doing what he's training them in. He had another example, right, one of the scholars for monks, the Sahaba, the prophets lie, some sends him to Yemen. So before he goes, the prophet SAW some gives him advice, he tells him, if people ask you questions, what are you going to do? He says, I'll check in the Quran. So the prophet SAW some asking if you don't find it in the Quran, he says, I'll refer back to what you taught me, meaning
this, say what if you don't find it in the Quran and Hadees? Then the scholar said, I will use my mind. The prophets have said that's the right way. Right? So here we see the first examples of what the US right we are approximately the proving that a scholar when he moves to a new land and deals with new issues, he's going to deal with chaos. So four things happened in this time Quran was revealed, the sooner was developed, we see two schools of interpretation, interpretation evolving. What do I mean by this? I gave the example last week, one group of Sahaba took whatever the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, literally, the other group of Sahaba, they looked at what does he
mean, what is the context? Right? So we see for example, Abdullah, even Omar Rajaraman who he followed the singer very literally, and he was extremely literally the Prophet said
That's it, we follow it, Abdullah even much odilon, who he would look at, okay, what did he mean? You know, what was the context? When did he say, Why did he say Who was he saying it? Was it just for that person? Or was it for all of us, you know, he looked at it from a different perspective. So we see two main hubs developing one, one hub, they get the names in the next era, the people are for authorized the people of opinion, the animals of the people of Hades, right.
And number four, we see examples of Sahaba starting to make it really hard to go to the Dutch very quick. Not much happens, then that's related to our topic of faith because the Sharia was still being revealed. Okay, next period, the first century of our history, which is the time of the machine and the early humans. Now, the history of Islamic writing begins with
the new unknown which century do we actually get Islamic books?
In the second century, right, we don't actually have books dating back to the first century. Does anybody know why?
Why don't we have had these books or fifth books written like 50 years after the prophets thoughts and passed away? You're 60 years after he passed away? Anyone knows why.
People? Yes, people until that point in history was a Chinese secret. Around the turn of the century, the Muslims learned that secret from the Chinese and so they began to produce books. So it's only at the turn of the century we see the first books being produced So in the first century of Islam, they are no books. They are no mishaps, right. Roger fick is a very practical thing. What happens people go to the local alley, there is simply what begins in the first century, right? You living in Kufa, you go to the masjid, you see one check sitting in the masjid, you will ask him your questions. You are living in Damascus. You see someone sitting in the masjid, when chef you will ask
him your questions. It's a very practical thing. There's no mazahub there's no books, there is no schools of thought is just one old man sitting in the machine, or could be young too. And you walk up to him and you ask him your questions. Right. So every generation in this 100 years had the allameh the first generation we have abdulah even abass i srabanti. Viehbacher Abu huraira Abdullah, even among us, Abdullah, even Omar even aloha top we have all of these are the minds of first generation second generation. We have hassanal bursary. We have Ayesha beetle ha, we have Omar bin Abdul Aziz, we have many, many scholars. Now the third generation is when fic really developed. So
we'll come to that in the next phase. So in this phase, these two different chains developing into different parts of the Muslim world, in the Hejaz, anyone know what's the Hijaz?
Makkah and Medina and the surrounding area. So I gave a call the ages until the current Kingdom took over and slept their family name on it, right, but before that it was the ages. Right? So the ages, Makkah Medina and the surrounding areas and in Syria, the olema are moving more towards a new Heidi's approach, meaning the mind those areas preferred to just follow what the Hadith says. Meanwhile, in Iraq or the Buddha motto of that area, like Ibrahima Nakai, and from the Sahaba, Abdullah Massoud, they are moving more towards the right approach, which is using the opinion Why? Two reasons. Number one, this more had this is available in the Hijaz in Serbia is less Heidi's
available in Iraq. Number two, in Iraq, there are a lot of Shia and adhaar, region, other groups, and they are the ones narrating the Hadees. So the allameh growing up in that area and studying that area, they're more skeptical about whether the hedis is in the area authentic or not. So they relied less on hedis in the allameh, in the hedgerows in Serbia. So now you have to you can see too much hubs developing right one part of the world, they taking a more rational approach the other part of the world taking more textual approach. Now we come to the main part of our history, and the bulk of today's presentation will slow down on the bulk of today's presentations on this part of our
history, the early Abbasid era, late omega, which is the second and third century of our history. This is the main part of our history. For those of you who don't know,
the second and third centuries of Islamic history was the golden age of the Golden Age of Hades, the golden age of science, the golden age of technology, the golden age of culture, of language of philosophy of everything in the Muslim world. At this point in time, we have the Romanians ruling over Spain, and Spain becomes the most dominant civilization in Europe. And the Abbas's ruling over the rest of the Muslim world and it becomes really the main civilization in the world the global superpower, right, so this is the Golden Age. And so in the golden age of Islam, this is when the must haves develop. This is when the books are thicker than this even the books of IDs are written.
This is when really scholarship blossoms that's what we call it a flowering phase it blossoms whatever was growing in the first 100 years it now
We see the fruit of it in this period. So what we see happening in the Abbasid era is that many scholars are now starting to write and to develop their suit the methodologies. And these scholars developing a following. So like nowadays, a lot of people have this problem with the idea of celebrity scholars. I see so many people are following that misty or Madonna. It's got too many fans. Naturally, in every era, they are, they have more fans than others, right? So you can see Imam Abu hanifa Imam Ali, given the celebrity scholars of this era, meaning they'd be one shifts in the master teaching, you'll have 10 or 20 students, Mr. Abu hanifa, come to the masjid 10,000 people
come for his lecture. Right? So they are like the celebrity scholars of this era. Why? The Internet, the depth of their knowledge, their piety, right, the ability to deal with the problems of their time, all of this put together. This makes them people who people flock towards people want to follow. So during this time, we see the first fake and pseudo fake books written by the first fake book, the oldest fake book that we have is the motto of Mr. Malik, Mr. Malik, third generation Muslim. Right, he writes the Mata. Now many of us know them, what is the book of Hadees? Right? reality is it's a book of fake which contains Hadees. If you look at the system that the Mata is
written in the chapter headings, the explanations, the quotations of other odema it's a book of fake, but it relies primarily on Hades. So it's both Hades and Vic, right?
Yes. And he was in Medina, and that's a land with a lot of Hades. So naturally, his fit contains a lot of Hadees. Around the same time, his student, Imam Shafi icmr, shopping is Mr. Malik student, he writes the first pseudo pick book, or risala. And this book is so brilliant. I read this book recently. And what really struck me about this book was the methodology in which he voted. Obama Shafi wrote this book as a conversation between him and an imaginary opponent. Right. So he wrote this book in a form of a fictional conversation, someone's asking questions, and he's answering the question, somebody's refuting his point, and he's refuting their point. But the entire thing is like
a fictional conversation, which teaches you all of your Sharpies.
So it's really fascinating in the first ever book on a pseudo freak was written in such a creative manner. It wasn't originally as a dried fig manual like how we have nowadays, he was very, very creative in his style.
Now, there is something that happened in this time that made all of this take place a few developments, but just to name a few. A number one, we said people became available, right, so people available, you can start writing. Number two, the old Mr. Rogers called the governance of this time and the kings of this time, they supported scholarship. Right? So we start around 93 years after the professor passed away. King Walid the first he establishes a new policy, which is the dilemma of paid a salary by the government. Right, his brother in law or even Abdulaziz when he becomes the halifa, he increases the salary of Allah. So now we're going about 50 years after that
people becoming a llama, they are guaranteed a good salary, a good life, not like nowadays, right? So that's the Golden Age. If you becoming an olive in the Golden Age, you are guaranteed a good life. For the rest of your life. When we look at Mr. Malik, he took a salary from the government, he was the best of the best or perfect live the best of life's right, they were guaranteed a salary and a good salary, you could live a nice life. So if you aren't living in that time, you have money, you're not stopping, you're not you're not compromising your principles. You're not worried about how can I support my family, right, you have access to books, you have access to other allameh you
have access to information, you have all of these new ideas. So at this time, for example, Muslims started studying Greek philosophy books, from data get the idea of dividing things into topics and dividing those topics into sub headings. So now, we have fake pseudo fake IDs Tafseer from the each of these are broken up into different fields, they do the broken up further, right. So they are taking knowledge from different nations and they are developing around that. So all of this causes the rise, the rise of the different birth hubs. So during this period, between 10 to 15 month hubs become popular idea between 10 to 14 alama, who gained a large following these become the major
Muslims of the time. So we live during the golden age of Islam, they will not form as hubs as many people think. I this is a myth that has always been for Muslims, rather, in the Golden Age, they be anywhere between 10 to 15. It's hard to really say because each person has a different level of following so you can't sometimes hard to see what can you really consider the scholar that must have or just one guy with 10 students you know, it's it's pretty difficult to see what
categorizes Muslims at this point in time.
But just to go to some of the wisdom out of this period and the malherbe see developed. Number one, of course, Abu hanifa, he was from the second generation the dobbyn. And living in Iraq, he, he took the approach, right. So this means he because he lived in an area where the majority of people who enraging Hades were not very what's the word? They weren't very authentic narrators, there is a bit of doubt about whether it's authentic or not, he took a very strict approach towards accepting a decent so he would not accept the Heidi's In fact, and this is reached like the highest levels of authenticity. And I can't go into the details of that now, because we have to do an issue Heidi's
class understand that, but
suffice to say you'll find it 100 females have more rulings based on chaos and on culture than in the other bathtubs because he has this approach. in Medina, Mr. Malik develops his very unique approach. The unique approach of Mr. Malik is anything that people of Medina do is this.
This is his approach. So if the people of Medina are doing something and the one Hadees from one scholar says the opposite. He goes with what the people of Medina doing. What do you what do you think's the rationale behind this?
These are the grandchildren of the Sahaba literally the people of Medina let me Who? The grandchildren of the Sahaba Where did they learn it from? gay parents Fulani, from their parents without the from the prophets lawyer Salaam. So in the Maliki madhab, we have the principle of faith called the practice of the people of Medina, which is considered a sinner passed down through deeds not through words. So, in that he gave preference to that over Hadees right. So, now, you see now different approaches. You mama Shafi he studied under Mr. Malik is a next generation now he studies and Mr. Malik, he studied under Mr. Abu hanifa students, and he developed his own approach. This is
the pure absolute Hadees approach, Quran Sunnah, den Iijima denki us and just these four things, right? So if this is the approach of a sharpie, his student muddiman humble takes the abdulhadi approach even further. He says even if the Hadees is weak, we'll still use it.
Right? He is so strict on following Hadees he says even if the Hadees is weak, we follow it in. So now you can see why this difference of opinion between these four alama because they approaches to fit very different. Now, here's the thing, none of these approaches are wrong.
It's just a matter of people developing these ideas.
Okay, so he was in Iraq as well. Right? Yeah, most of them only my only mmid mmamoloko, Medina, Yama, Sharpie, he traveled a lot, right? So he was in Medina, and he was in Egypt and he was in Iraq. He was all over the place. He was a traveler, right? More Muslims.
He wasn't shy in the sense that we understand today. He was Shia politically. He was the Shia is considered him the Imam. But at the time and he was alive. She isn't wasn't that really the theology? It is today. It was more a political. Yeah, it was a political movement at that time. And I'm actually going to mention one of the Shama tops now as well. I think not only the Joffrey ones. I'm gonna talk about another one that came up during this time, right, but pretty simply Java. Sadiq was a scholar of ultra well, Jamal, he was a descendant of the Prophet sallallahu sallam. He was Shia in politics. What do we mean by Shin politics? We mean at that time, some people felt Romanians
deserved the falafel. Other people say no, the prophets family, these are the philosophers. So this is political. Nothing to do with what we believe about the individual what we believe about people having certain divine right this is a matter of politics.
Not by the No, this came centuries later. Yes, this came after them. Right.
Well, we'll come to that later. Okay. Okay. Before I move any further, let's see the questions for the end. Okay, because it's disturbed my train of thought. So, again, if you have questions, write it down. At the end. We have half an hour just for q&a. Okay, the next month now the next two months hubs going complete opposite directions. I call this and I don't mean in a bad way. I just mean in terms of how the to get extreme absolute Hades and again, not using the word extreme in a bad way and extreme or extreme I will Hades we have doubt as or hearing as though he remains the literalist. So people have resigned calling Tao electroless because he took everything in the Quran and Hadees
literally, and he rejected chaos as a source of fake. So he's like, we're going to follow the IDs to the word AI to such an extent that, for example, the Hadees that says that
if a woman is asked for her consent, in marriage, her silence is her consent. So he said she has to stay silent. She can't see anything. If she says yes, it means no. This is how the journey took it.
So this is literalism opposite direction. We have the so called Shia Muslim, I don't really regard him as Shiva, most people do disease, right? So they even Ali, he's one of the descendants of Rasulullah sallallahu sallam, he has his own battle. And by the way, this Muslim still exists today. Many people think only for Muslims existed as a these still exists in Yemen. This must have been to follow title today in Yemen. Right? So again, much those who think only for Muslims existed long, those people who think only for Muslims exist now still wrong. They these still exist today. Right? This is a must have they still exist in Yemen, they went completely awry, meaning they considered
human intellect a source of Islamic law. Now, what's the difference between chaos and human intellect?
What's the difference between chaos and human intellect? We said Abu hanifa made chaos but imaams eaching human intellect as a source of
based on practice before Yes, based on Quran and Hadees Yes. So basically the US is using your internet, but you are restricting it to principles taken from karate, while intellect by itself means you know, whatever the Olympics is right? So this is the opposite direction this must absolutely exist. Other muscles so piano, sorry, obliques, a double alcoholic, all of these allama at that time had their own fate and their own following right. So all of these ones are like Mr. Malhotra again amid Some people say Mr. McCarty follow the Shafi Mata. He did not he made his own fake rulings, they are issues with Mr. Bukhari has a completely different opinion from automata. For
example, touching the Quran without to do well for Muslim say Haram. Malik says
it has Hello. So which must be the following. Now he's independent, which is an independent scholar with his own students and his own following. So all of this goes on. In the flowering phase many Muslims develop. And as you can see, they're developing different understandings of fick. Why? Because they have different approaches to fake. So all of these are pious individuals, all of these people remember when it comes to differences of opinion amongst it, what am I don't, don't judge a person's piety for it. These are all pious and sincere scholars, they just have different approaches. One takes something literally want to experience it, but the old sincerely trying to
follow the Quran and Sunnah. And that's why all of the approaches are acceptable.
Right, so what happens now the expansion phase.
Now, this isn't found in the book that I use by adding on my own side. So basically, what happens now is, over the next 300 years, the mud hubs start to dwindle. So for example, Abu Ali's, his followers don't last much longer, because he doesn't have dynamic students, I for months have to last It doesn't mean that not only the founder has to be dynamic celebrity type of personality. But the students as well as students as well, it's got to be this, this generation of generation of scholarship, keeping it alive. So I believe his students weren't as dynamic as him, and within a few generations, his mouth disappears. The soil he must have wasn't practical.
He wasn't practical. So therefore, you find throughout history, every few generations, a few door hinges pop up, but he never really sustained itself to be the ultimate Hampstead. So for example, in late Islamic Spain, they were
right. In fact, at one point, the rulers of Spain was organised himself. But it comes in goes comes and goes, comes and goes, just recently, I met someone on Twitter where identifies as odd, right? So he's coming back now, so when did with this method, but he's not practical because when new issues pop up, if you don't make here's how to deal with it, right? So literalism is something that came and went.
So now what happens in this era, the Obama this era, they stop making their own soul. Instead, they pick from the previous college or school. So one argument say, you know what I like Abu hanifa admitted.
And allamuchy Anika Malik Smith IV Maliki. Somebody else's I like that would make it obvious. All right, so they choosing the school based on the scholar whose method make most sense to them, right. So let's see what's going on in this. Notice they are not blindly following their scholar. They are not, for example, someone who becomes a hanafy in this point in time, as I'm not talking about the average Muslim, an alum at this time, who is Hanafi is not following every opinion of Abu hanifa. Rather, he's using the suit of Abu hanifa to formulate his own opinions. Right. We see the same with all of the other massage as an example from each month. During the expansion phase, the humble
Yamaha produces even Tamia, even Tamia. A lot of humble if it comes from him, and his opinions are very difficult money but humble in many issues, but he follows the same issue. The Maliki Mata we have even Arabic we have our Guru to be we have many others.
They differ with the mmamoloko many issues, but they follow him.
In the Shafi masa we have al ghazali mama nawawi. And they again they differed with the mama Shafi on many issues, right? So for example, the mama Shafi believe that music is not permissible. Imam ghazali believes it is possible. He's using the same shoe, he's doing the shafiul shoe, but he's coming to a different conclusion. Right, the 100 females that we have at the hobby,
the hobby writes the first aqeedah book. So aqeedah was written much later in all the other fields when he started developing this era. So for example, if you look at the hobby, he was hanafy, but he would raise his hands before and after Rico. Why? Because using Abu hanifa was possible and analyzing the Hadees of his time, he came to a different conclusion in Abu hanifa, but he's still known right to today by all enemies, as a Hanafi scholar, right, which means even within the honeybee must have this opinion exists. And in resolving the matter we have the most famous of all the scholars even more famous than Tao does, or himself even has an offspring. Even Hashem is one of
the most famous scholars in our history. In fact, he was the most literalist person you'll ever meet. Right like I recently read through his own little fix section and I couldn't understand it because it was so Lynch's I'm like, this doesn't make sense. This doesn't make sense. He was so like, he spends like 10, five to 10 pages just trying to prove that no such thing as chaos. Yet, when you read his his ruling, he's making chaos. He is not calling it chaos, because it's impossible to do without chaos. I but in other areas, he's a genius. So for example, he has this book that I read recently called the ring of the doubt, that's a translation. And he's a book he wrote for fun,
which is basically a collection of love stories that happen in Spain during his lifetime. And the book should have a jurisdiction because he gets very descriptive and very, very, let's just say Muslim, Lithuania as conservative as we are. So an ultimatum and no problem writing a book that was very descriptive of the love stories of his time. And then he got books of philosophy and books on a variety of other subjects. so brilliant, brilliant Olli. So, now again, we go into the errors. We had the USB hubs developed now the math hubs in the next era of what they are guidelines, and this is an important point they are guidelines, they are the rule to allow these LED choose these will
soon but they are not expected to just follow the scholar every ruling. So for example, the Sharpie Maasai mama Imam, Shafi said that growing a beard is larger. Right. And that shaving the beard is haram. Mm hmm. Now what we said is mcru different conclusions in the same as, right. So this is happening now.
Essentially, we're looking now at the fourth fifth and sixth century. Yeah. Right.
About 300 years between I think I'm getting very broad obviously given Dania came much later. Right then you mama came much earlier, but I'm just like to be doing a very prominently moving on from there.
Now we come to the part of our history in any subject I don't like this part of our history. When I'm teaching about science or history or anything, the stagnation and decline part of our history, so every nation rises and falls and this woman fell twice.
Who knows what those two occasions are? When? When it went downhill and it collapsed. Twice.
Mongols and World War One. Mongols and World War One mark these two occasions these two occasions? Were one good one they recovered a century later with the mom, Luke's and the Ottomans. World War One we still haven't recovered. We still at the bottom right. So what's happening now happened before what's happening now with the downfall of the oma the stagnation and decline? It happened at the time of the Mongols, and within 100 years recovered, that's why I believe you can recover Okay, is possible inshallah. Right. So every nation goes up and down. Two major things, the Mongols and World War One. So, what happens is that people start to take things for granted. And they stop.
You know, they stop making an effort. Okay, this happens to every nation, right?
We plan is happening to America right now. Right? They go up, and then the stagnation and decline begins and then what happens? collapse? Right? Every nation. So what happened to the oma in the ambassador, it happened in the Automator, the opposite era, they started going down, you start losing power, people stopped really taking things seriously. People start falling into mortal sins. The scholarship starts to decline as well. The quality of the MapReduce starts to decline as well. And before you know the Mongols come in Genghis Khan himself saying Allah is sending me to punish you for your sins, and the people are so generally believing it and is sitting here letting their
heads get chopped off, because they know what sins they're committing. Right? And it looks like kiama it was so bad that the Obama who lived during this period, they honestly believed that the Mongols regarded him
Module door, this is the end of the charging module through through the wall the Wall of China. They're coming for us killing everyone, the world's gonna end. Right But he didn't. And just say you have any Muslim stating the world's gonna end could it could not only Allah knows we don't live our life with the world and mentality. So the Mongols happened and they took 1000s of Islamic books and destroy them. There are many books in our heritage which are extinct, they don't exist anymore because of the Mongol invasion. Right? Very, very important books are fake or destroyed completely. We don't know. We don't know anything about these books. Sometimes we know the names. We know them
because they just call us it this book, you know, I got information from we can find that book destroyed. World War One again. So what happens the boomer rises up up to the Mongol invasions with the mom, Luke's in Egypt, the Ottomans in Turkey. And again, I'm going through this very quickly, already running out of time, but
the rise up again, the Ottomans go to the golden age in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, and then they start the decline. The Ottoman decline, same thing happens again, scholarship levels decline, technology declines, culture declines, economic decline, the Ottomans now become like the weak link in Europe. And this is very important, why the Ottoman decline is happening, what's happening in other parts of the world, the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, all of this is going on. So during our golden age, Europe were to be black barbarians. Europe was about being in debt, right? They looked up to the Muslim civilization. Now, as the Ottoman Empire is going down
what's happening with Europe, they becoming the dominant powers of the world, right? And then the colonizing of the Muslim lands became, and it all comes to a head where World War One, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the division of the Muslim world into many states, and that's where we are today.
So what happens in fifth during this period, they simply stopped producing real Allah. Yeah. And do you find one year India every, the way I look at it, sonically, I think out of every generation you'll find towards the album's were like really like the album's of the past. But now the llama like, they just start following it, basically, memorize the books of this of the elders. And teachers bookstore, students memorize, teach, memorize, teach, but you asked him to explain the account. Right? Now there is a logical reason for what happens next.
What happens next is called the closing of the doors of HD heart, and it's vital to the very controversial. So what happened during this period is a lot of Allah say, We don't need each Jihad anymore. It was a closed.
The question is, did they close it permanently? Or can we open it again? Right? That's the big problem that causes debate cycle today. So why did they close it? And scientists put this into perspective for you.
Basically, imagine if you will, for like 500 years, nothing important happens. Your the culture doesn't change, politics don't change, technology doesn't change. And whatever is happening happened 500 years before, wherever people come to ask you, you can find it in the books. So all of us living during that period, like there's nothing left for us to do. We just teach the bookstore, this is nothing new, because they literally was a prisoner of history where there was nothing new, you could let you just learn a book, pass it on. And that's all people needed to know. Right? So what you'll find is the books during this period normally focused on explaining the older books, there's nothing
left to do. So you find for example, a book of IQ, then you find explanation of that book of IQ, then you find explanation of the explanation, that book of IQ, then you find summary of the explanation of the explanation demographic, then the summary of the summary of the explanation of the explanation, because people are bored, as well as honestly, when I say this period adjusting, or the amount of work, they have to write something, right, so it's going around in circles. And during this time, everything falls apart.
This brings us to the final stage. And again, this final stage is not in the book I used, but for my own readings of history. I work this out. And that's the past 300 years old people think is the past 100 years. But the word Allah I'm going to mention go back to the 18th and 17th century
revival. So what happens? Europe is rising, the world is changing, colonialism, industrial revolution, what am I realize, hold on, we closed the doors of which tiagabine that again, I didn't realize we may need again things are changing. And during this period, three new approaches developed.
So we can say the 300 to 400 years before this 50 is now simply follow a method. Right? But now the British are invading the kicking over Muslim lands, they have better technology, new things are coming about what do we say about coffee? What do we say about the printing press? What do we say about all these things? Each jihad is needed again. Now automatically
Four approaches. Approach number one, our forefathers follow the Mazda following the model. Right? That's approach number one. approach. Number two, shower Nikola Tesla, we have India. He says, hold on, we don't have them as hubs, we need to reopen the doors of HDR, because new issues are coming up. Who is going to deal with the new issues? alama have to make it hard again. Right? So you'd like to entire books about the importance of each the heart and the goals of the Chevy student fit and he tries to motivate the alum of India to start making HD heart. Right. Meanwhile,
in Yemen, a Shogun studying for Mazda, Mazda. We don't need this anymore. His approach is that we don't need these models anymore. Let's go directly to Corolla. Right, so he calls for abandoning of mas hubs, and just make it hard on your right. Number three, sorry about that. Go back.
Right. Number three.
In Egypt, Egypt gets colonized one of the first Muslim countries to get colonized the orlimar in Egypt now Muhammad Abdul, his student, Rashad Rida de like, we have to catch up with the rest of the world. Today, like we need to open the doors of HDR. But we need to interpret Islam in a modern way. This is the mentality we need to interpret Islam in the modern way. And this we see the birth of the modernist movement. Right. So now we have four different approaches. And guess what? This hasn't been solved. Right through today. All four approaches are, right, today, you're going to find all four approaches. So this develops about three centuries ago, and it still exists today.
Before I conclude, I just want to mention one quotation from one of my favorite books that basically beautifully summarizes this history in one paragraph. And I apologize, the writing is a bit small, but you can listen to me say it instead. This book is from the road to Makkah by Muhammad Asad Muhammad after the famous convert to Islam, he wrote a beautiful autobiography called ultimate guides. One of my favorite books I've ever read, like anyone asked me for a book to me, like give them this book. It's beautiful. It's really, really beautiful. But my favorite passage in his entire book, he goes to another university in Egypt, and he meets one of the Lama. And this arlynn tells
him the following. Listen to this.
He says, and he points to the other one. He says, Do you see those scholars over there? They are like secret cows in India, which I am told, eat up all the people they find in the streets. Yes, they gobble up all the printed pages from books that have been written centuries ago, but they do not digest them. They no longer thing for themselves. They read and repeat, read and repeat. And the students will listen to them learn only to read and repeat generation after generation. This is the composition between an olive in Egypt and a convert 50 years ago. Right. So the contrast is but chef Mustafa Azur is the central seat of Islamic learning, the oldest university in the world. One
encounters its name in every page of Muslim cultural history. What about the great thinkers, the theologians, the historians, the philosophers, the mathematicians it produced over the last 10 centuries. Listen to his recliner. Again, this composition summarizes the whole history. He says they stopped producing them several centuries ago. He said perhaps not quite a year and they're an independent thinker has somehow managed to emerge even in recent times. So he's saying Yeah, and you will find to find out you can even Tamia shower EULA dependently, because a new emerging here and there, but on the whole Azur has lapsed into this the reality from which the whole Muslim world is
suffering important. I'm not talking about picking one university, talking about the whole Muslim world, right. And it's all in but this has all been distinguished. Those ancient Islamic thinkers whom you have mentioned, would never have dreamt that after so many centuries, they thought instead of being continued and developed, would only be repeated over and over again. We think Abu hanifa Shafi Malik, dito people are going to follow the word as if it's the Word of God, oh, the way academic intellectual thinkers, and they thought these students and their students and the students were following their footsteps. But things changed, right?
So he said, You think that this will happen, that people will just memorize their thoughts and they repeated over and over again as if it was ultimately infallible. And so people are nowadays, you know, if they read a certain audience said something, they take it as if Allah said it, and this is a problem.
He says, if there is to be any change, for the better, thinking must be encouraged instead of present thought imitation. This conversation summarizes where we are today. It really summarized it beautifully. And really, if you haven't read this book, please read it. It's a very beautiful story. So that brings us
Full circle we are.
where we are today is we are divided. Simple as that we are divided into four camps. Number one, the traditionalists, those are those who say, we have our mother, we stick to it, we follow it. No, he had nothing. Just follow the muscle. And that's the majority. Number two, we have the non conformance. These are the ones who say we don't need metopes just make your own he had,
like 300 years ago, Ashoka any
recent century Allah Bunny, right albani who started the Salafi movement, he saw this camp, the ladies movement of India also fall into this camp. Number three, we have the models, the modernity abandoned the Muslims, change Islam to suit the times. Right? This is the this is the methodology, Islam must suit the times. And this is a dangerous methodology. Very dangerous methodology. I mean, I respect the items that are listed here Mohammed Abdul Rashid Rida great thing because of the time but the methodology they started today it's out of control. Today is completely out of control venturing towards coconuts. I mean, nowadays we have modernists saying that homosexuality is halal
in Siena is halal, and alcohol is just changing everything. I don't think they would have approved of that. But that's the methodology they started in, which led to 200 years later, right. And finally, we have the reformers and the reformers.
They say we need the Muslims. Muslims are important to give us your soul to make it easy to learn things like Salah would give the community something to hide behind, but the allamani to make each Jihad This is the difference. The reformers say Follow me. But the AMA at least need to be intellectuals. They need to be able to solve the problems of their time. They need to make HDR. So Sherwin EULA was the one who started this, he wrote about Cujo, lava, and many albums after him followed in his footsteps. In the previous century. Perhaps the best example of this was the great Maliki scholar even assured by he wrote a great book on the goals of the Sharia. And he really
revolutionized how we teach the hard in our times. Nowadays, many many will ever fall into this category around the world.
Even if you don't think they fall into this category, right like Mufti Taqi Usmani I don't think he considers what he does. I don't think he considers it to be HDR, but really in the field of Islamic economics and Islamic banking. He is the main which date of our times, right he's the man who basically revolutionized that field. So, this is where we are we stuck, we are unable to unite on it on a position to take and this this unity is causing a lot of problems or infighting, a lot of clashes, realities.
I don't think this will be solved until one method starts to produce actual results. It then the advocacy that methods working, let's follow that right. For now, we remain stuck wherever you go in the Western world, you will find traditionalist, you will find non conformance you will find modernist, you will find reformers, you will find all four types, right. My personal position is the last one
reformation. We simply means let people follow the Maxim's nothing wrong with it. Right. But the Obama did that study in these Institute's need to become rich that is at some point, at least some of them at least eight plus student should become much tighter. I mean, someone's passing alum costs with these and says we don't want you making it too hard. Right? But at least take your most intellectual students and raise them to the level where they can deal with the problems of our time.
Because why did they close the doors of HDR because nothing new was popping up. There's no need for it. Nowadays, every day, something new is popping up just last week, Doctor brought up AI right that's something you we have to make HDR difficult whether we have to make HDR to figure out whether an AI can make HDR, just figuring out its shot itself. HDR, everyday people come up when you think you know, if I fly to another country and back in one day, am I most often you think the Muslims answer that?
Imagine that. I never imagined that. Right? All kinds of things we needed today. But we still need the Muslims. Why? Because for my personal experience abandoning the madhouse, especially for the average Muslim, it just leads to confusion. It leads to confusion. I mean, how many Muslims have the time to study all the pseudo fake and read through Sahiba Hardy and read all the books of the Buddha mark and do that, but the average Muslim should follow, which I think we should go back to the method of the first few generations which is who the man should be intellectuals and it all among intellectuals, then the local people can follow them. And they will actually actually give them
solutions to their problems rather than just memorizing a passing on. So that's the history and
hoping to come across as too rough or conceding any of these positions. But I'm very passionate about this topic because we as a community
To move forward, to be blunt, we need a South African.
Right, we cannot import fick from India or Saudi Arabia or somewhere else, we need a South African, it can be based on news on the interview, can be based on the Sharpie, which will fit all of that is fine. But we have to deal with the problems of our land, we have to make things relevant to our land. And for this, we need a new generation of olema, who are trained in this field. And that's going to take a while. Right, that may take an entire generation of two, if you can get moving in that direction.
So Zack will adhere to all of you for your attention. I knew this was a lot to take in in 15 minutes, as I say that it's been five months teaching this side to summarize the 15 minute know how good you are by this time. But we open the floor to q&a now for the next half an hour or so. Again, raise your hands and I'll take questions, one to trade one that says Oh, any questions or anything from this past history? Or any of these things mentioned on the on the slides? You can raise your hands now and we'll deal with your questions.
Sure, our model organizer copies.
This is quite easily accessible to most people. Yeah. And it gives you the level of all the different aspects.
It would be but not for solving new issues.
Yeah, but here's the thing, strongest IDs according to who you are, what you're going to find, if you go deep into IDs, you come across IDs, which is strong, according to the Sharpie, metabo. not strong enough, according to the Hanafi madhhab. It's strong, according to one scholar, but he's weak according to another scholar, right. So it gets technical. So it could be strong, according to even rushed. But it might not be strong, according to him. And
I'm seeing this the sciences can be technical. So these issues are not that easy. If they were we have just one method to be that simple. You know, a lot of times younger students Tommy, teach me the strongest opinion on every issue. And I tell them if it's that simple, we wouldn't have differences of opinion.
choice between, okay, but now choosing between Muslims again, I myself choose between Muslims. Just to be clear. I follow interviews with effect, but I praise Allah humble limited, because I found that it seems to be strong on that issue.
But it's very technical. I don't recommend it for everybody, because let me give you some of my experience, right. 10 years ago, I spent two months in India living in the ladies community. And you're familiar with this methodology, on
the other hand, is believed that Muslims are a bit of an innovation, they see the methodology. So everybody must follow Quran and Hadees. So we meet people who don't know Arabic who don't know what to do. They pick up ideas, they'll read it, and they'll make their own conclusion from the Hadees. And their conclusion will be completely wrong. But they are convinced I'm following you, you and Allie, I'm following the Hadees. Right. And they came up with bizarre bizarre rulings. So my point is, this is a field that requires a lot of study. If you want to do that. You need to study you need to study Arabic you need to study McAfee to choose your pseudophakic for Saif Ali Malik's method,
and Avi method, Rohini method, and then using that you have to analyze everything it takes years of study. It's not just for example, one of the guys I met he told me Juma on a Friday is watching. It's in Sahih Bukhari and he's like, he didn't say anything. Right. And so he because he does, I had used the
whistle on Juma so me who's still on Juma is watching. Right. So whistle on Juma is watching this insightful hardy is whistle and Jamal wajib. According to any mother,
anyone knows. No mazahub says that even though the IDS inside a party Why?
Because there's another hedgies in other IDs books that abrogates it. With the profit slice. I'm says I used to make your bath on a Friday. But now whoever wants to botch your budget we want to make Widowmaker do so that had his abrogates are the Hades how many people know both Hades exists, you'll have to do an in depth research to figure it out. Right? So that method is good. But with the pre study to go into it, not just jumping headlong. It's like It's like someone's diving into the deep end before learning how to swim. That's why we should okay comes first before we go there. Yes. Question. This a thumbnail picture. Okay, Doctor
Given the politics in the Muslim world, and the freedom of religion, and Association, to set up
our own university, to study
the methodology in order, to the best of your knowledge
are the processes by which students are taught in the local groups conducive to giving, germinating that seed of trying to develop
a lateral thinking,
but just an ability to start looking at things differently. Okay, so my history of studies, I spent seven years in a local darkroom. Yeah, I did. I spent seven years I graduated as a molana. And then I went, I did a Bachelor's in Islamic Studies and headed in different direction.
So I did do that first. So I have done both. And I can compare both systems.
And having studied in the UK can tell you straight the way it's taught in our country. No, it's strictly traditionalist. It is exactly what the other ship was saying. You learn the book, you memorize the Book, you teach the book, right? to such an extent that last week, I opened up a book I studied when I was 15 years old.
And I started reading the book, I'm like, this is such a brilliant intellectual book. It's a magnificent book, I mean, studying it. Now it's blowing my mind how amazing this book is. But we we learned in the madrasa we basically memorize the Book, and had to repeat it word for word in the oral exam to pass. And not a single student in my class understood it, not a single student, it was literally just learn for the sake of memorization and passing an exam. And therefore what it is when the exam is over. Now, going back and rereading it as an adult, I mean, this is a book that can solve problems of our time, if it is taught in a proper manner if it's taught to the right people in
the right manner. So
we need a new method of teaching. Now there are dark rooms in the world that do teaching the right method. A good example would be number two, in India, right? The methodology is brilliant. They are training all them on this level, honestly, many of the alma mater graduated from the on this level. And that's because they found these are influenced by the founders.
Right? They are also, for example, in many other countries like that, but it's the is the exception, not the norm.
The norm is that you taught something, you memorize it, you pass it on, you don't question it. And that's problematic, because you see what's being passed as the mud hops today, a fight was generated in India 300 or 200 years ago. So if I go past India, 200 years ago, saying is haram for a woman to go to school? We have people saying it today. Why? Because it's in the book, whatever is in the book, you have to follow. Well, that Arlene pasty for that time for that culture in that situation for a reason. Maybe it made sense. If colonization was happening, the school was using to brainwash woman. So you didn't want a woman go to that school, in a different culture, different time, a
different place, we can't just take the photo from the book and follow it. Right, we have to rethink it in terms of our time and our place.
So that that's an issue, we, as a community, I think the first step would be to open a whole new series of mattresses, or die rooms, right? Or at least one university that teaches in this manner. Because otherwise, we're not going to produce for them on this level. Either that or, you know, that wouldn't matter to attend this class and try and convince them to change their mind.
Any other questions?
How does read, scholars study and really based in around the world affects the thought so for example, from reading, the Molly's fathers in Spain had more or more open minded music
because they were in Spain a new musical culture.
And that's the same for the honeybee in the Ottomans compared to the honeybee the
phase a bit and when what what, how does that become?
Okay, so we're going to discuss that in week five. Week Five is about old local culture, which is a important principle of picking the Hanafi and the Maliki Mata. Conakry mamajuana embolic fix should be based on the culture you are living in right so this is why you will find actually from shopping with even humble also a few others they just didn't use a template in use the template but they did they do have this.
So for example, even today you see this the Sharpie Muslim Imam a sharpie was of the opinion that for a woman to cover faces compulsory. You go to a sharpie country like Malaysia today.
Nobody covers the face. No one tells him to cover a face for a single Sharpie album set is compulsory. Why? Cuz that photo doesn't make sense in that culture. It doesn't make sense in that culture at all, to tell the woman or Malaysia to cover their faces would not make sense. They won't understand what you're telling us to do. I mean, the men lower the gaze, if you've been to their culture, you see how many liquidity is the community, there's no need for how respectful they have a woman, there's no need for that. A shop, we lived in a different time at least he lived in a place where every woman covered her face for a woman to reveal her face with a problem. Right? So his
first two hours affected by the culture he lived in the shop is today affected by the culture they live in, right is the same across the globe. Now, there's two ways it affects them. One is like this with actually using the tool. The other is where they take their culture as their religion, that's when it becomes a problem. So for example, someone goes to Saudi Arabia or to India to study. And then you come back to South Africa, and it tried to make this place like Saudi Arabia or India, that's a problem. That's a major problem, because now they're essentially trying to enforce a foreign culture or country lens. Right. So we see a lot of people who study in Saudi Arabia, and
then they go to the USA or the UK, and they just tried to aerobicized everybody, right? It doesn't work, you have to adapt to the local culture. So this is a principle we'll cover it in detail in week five. And the the maxim is adapt wahaca local culture is the deciding factor. Which means according to all four mud hubs, when there is a clash of cultures, and none of it is haram, that's the key point. And if it is haram, you go with the local culture, right? Meaning someone saying we're caught up someone else's English shirt and pants, so long as your shirt and pants are not violating the shirt condition of the Sharia, which is coming from your navel to nice modestly, we
should enhance local culture. Right? So this is where the principal comes in, we will spend an entire hour just discussing it. All the ins and outs of it, how it works, what's the restrictions, all of that inshallah
was based in the westernmost country of Spain has actually renewed
the fact that Europe colonized
a lot of the world.
There's a movement back towards America, because it incorporates office and culture is easier for people.
To to, I've seen, I've seen that happening in America, not here, but in America. Makes sense here. It makes sense for people in America to follow. But again, remember, it's gonna differ from place to place. So if someone's in America, I would actually tell them Maliki mother may be better for you. Why is Africa we have to face reality 100 females have is dominant to the 100 to shoot allow us to do the same thing, because it is part of the unofficial, right? So we can use the 100 viewers who will still be happy and come up with dosing photos, right? Because it doesn't go against our pseudo fake. So there's no need for us to change our muzzle completely, you know, say Okay, you know what,
the guys in this class will be the first molecules of Africa, right? No, it's real and fake from beginning less than Maliki Salah Maliki will do Maliki everything. Just stick with what you know. And let's go forward this way that we use our su to reform these issues right? Now you get a very good example the issue of music, music in the Hanafi model, the Turkish or not, we have a problem with it. No Indian has a piece of a problem with it. Some yes, some No. Why the cultures in the Turkish culture music is such a norm that even the 100 Viola had no problem with it. Right? Because culture affected they must have been that way. And this is again, many people they think the mud hub
is just what Abu hanifa said, it's not 1000 years of scholarship evolving in different parts of the world affected by the local culture affected by the local teams. And so you can't just take it as if it's a word of Allied is the words of people. Right. So here we will talk about cultural eating shall another day. Any more questions? Yes, professor.
Basically, what I was saying that the
syllabus or curriculum
must be put aside
because it's too much emphasis on
what I was saying today to this time
Okay, second one is, you know that we know we have Okay, what makes sure that we have families
we do not simply disagree with opinion. They actually sway
I met him as well. Yeah.
I felt was the
First of all, you know, the the bullet was drafted
based on all four
because it's not practical today.
Okay. Yeah. So again, three points. All three. First.
Your first point was about
the curriculum. It's a good point. Yeah, I forget that one. Okay, so he says our curriculum locally focuses on acts of worship Arabic originally but not on a worldly dealings of Allah. Right. So in fact, we have two categories, that that solids, aka fasting, Haji jihad, this is called the ibaka acts of worship. And as I said, you had him a lot, manage divorce, business, all of this. Now, our local curriculum, we teach people Salah, Sokka, hydro, all of that. How many of us actually learned difficult business?
Nobody, not even a difficult business. You can see honestly many of them are gonna pick up is Mr.
mamani Bo was a businessman, he was a wealthy businessman. Right? So we have to adjust our curriculum accordingly. I believe this is a you know, I actually came up with a curriculum recently, I was developing my highlights for high school. I primary school. My opinion is as primary school we teach you by that we teach them Salah sakala High School, we teach difficult knowledge of divorce rights of the spouse, the core business of employers, think of employees teach them all of that. So when they graduate high school, they know how to live life. Right? This is something we need to do this has to change. So you're right about that. Like the other point, you mentioned, that taken from
the Maliki visa for certain laws because it's more convenient, again,
across the Muslim to Allah mark and say, okay, on this issue, this must have been stronger. Let's go with it. And we have seen that like, we like we said, the issue of covering the face, Shafi must have very clear we must cover the face. But today, the sharpener followed up by 100 people who don't have to cover the face, but they took down the Hanafi madhhab, because it's more suitable to our times, right. So we can do it the opposite way as well. In fact, another thing people take from the Hanafi Messiah visa, Mufti Taqi was monies for that fatawa on Islamic banking, right, that's based on 100 views. But now the other month follow his partners, even Maliki Shafi is all for the multi
use money says with that issue, because it makes sense what he says makes sense, and he is very strong opinions and he gives proper denial and all of that. So we can borrow across hubs like that based on evidence and need, but only when there are problems with it not based on desire. It must be based on you know, I like this one, and wasn't really going to the fatwa that music is valid. I like it. So I'm gonna follow it. fatwa that don't have to Jason certainly I like it so much. If you follow me based on what you like, you know, following the football, you follow your your knifes and instead, it must be based on what makes sense according to the lawsuit. That's what we have to cover
that when I used to pick, what conclusion do I come to, right? So that's what you have to keep in mind because many people nowadays, this is where the modernist camp comes in. They move towards what I like, and they will find a way to twist it to go towards what they like. And that's a problem. Right? Otherwise, you know of itself is not a problem. In fact, we need cross must have a discussion on every issue, and they are councils that do that in Saudi Arabia in the UK and USA with a man from all the different matchups get together once a year they discuss issues. They discuss all the different perspectives. And at the end of the day, they all follow one united fatwa sometimes, if
they end up agreeing even becomes from a different method. Right. So that does happen. Just do you mean any more over your other countries we did have?
One of the problems we have in the history? Is that the combination of a hobby What did you place on the desk in the left part of the second messages? Yeah. What does the buzzer have preceded that show Malik Shafi humbly and healthy and unhealthy preceded her a Muslim did me the others in the copulation? Yes. Just so historically, that there's a big gap. I think, in terms of the compilation of a hobby, I can imagine the cost is 250 years after that.
To what extent those hobbies were actually sign.
I think is the biggest death adult people have. Yes. Okay. So with that, that one of us will be requested. He said visit the holiday fit. Yeah. Which started this 140 and 50 years, whatever it was right. Money was about 90 Yeah.
is the point is to what extent did the the fit of honey for the family, whoever it is? interrogate the Hadith in Bukhari Muslim and,
and revise the fatwa if based on that, based on that, because, you know, it's just amazing to see, the question about is having so much data. And I'm reading a lot of other things right now in one book on fake as well. I can just see all the different contradictory. Yeah.
So Heidi's again, this is a whole separate subject we will do, we will do it right. Just for those of you who want a quick answer on the spot in terms something to read. Read Jonathan Brown's book on Hades, Hades, in the medieval and modern world, Muhammad's legacy namit, medieval and modern. I'm actually reading it at the moment again, he discusses all of this he clears all these doubts up and he explains all the controversies overhead is very clearly.
So basically what what he's asking is that fake books came first and came out these books, right second century. We have Shafi mmamoloko, writing their books, third century, we have a marble, Karima boosterpack in their books. So this makes some people doubt, Hades. That's number one. The density of ideas number two, it makes others doubt whether the Muslims are actually based on it. So based on something else, right, so we have two opposite doubts to deal with. Okay, for those who doubt the Hadees The thing is, these allama were following Hadees is just that they didn't have access to as many Heidi's as we have. Right. So Mr. LEAKES mortar is full of IDs. There are hundreds
of IDs in there, right. That is the earliest IDs between the biggest IDs book to reach us by who
you are, somebody's been humbled by this book has over 24,000 IDs or something like that. That's before Bukhari and Muslim right? Of course, it has weak it says, well, because we said he took me a decent pic. Right. So the point is, Heidi's did exist at that time, I had these books didn't exist at that time. It's just that
the history of Hades also winter stages. So we had the completion phase, then we had the authentication phase, then we had the peak, he was a Muslim with a peak of writing IDs, but the recollections and the generation before the recollections the generation before that, they just were still working out, you know, for example, okay, let's find all the IDS a phone and put them all together in a book. And then he's like, Okay, let's go to this and see what's authentic and what's not. So it's a process it took a few years. Now what happens when latest scholars found Hades contradicting the Muslim easiest example. And if he must have you can't combine your Salah when
traveling, the Hadees one that is very clear and SIBO one the Prophet slicin Minister haba combined Islam and traveling, right, that's why we have later interviews like Abu Jaffa Javi shower Lula not following the baton issues they don't like Mambo hanifa was wrong on this issue. There's nothing wrong with seeing human being was on an issue no matter how much we love him and respect him. Right. So, you know, the the issue of reconciling the Muslims with the Hadees every mother has called us with a debt in the valley cameras have we had the scholars with the debt in the handle in the Shafi must have sent me something even though even though he was the one who did for the Shafi Mata, I do
see it in his commentary and Sahih Muslim and is capable much more, he does basically what he does, he reconciles Hadees from the later books with a sharpie method and he changes some of the positions of the Muslim accordingly even then he did that with the with the with the humbling method. Right. So they are scholars who did end up doing that as well.
So that's my quick answer again, inshallah, we will do a full course on that. In fact, next week our topic is Quran and Hadees. As we will discuss a bit more about Hadees epic next week. One more point. Remember your second point now for
some of the ladies swear the maps, right? So when I was in India, the last name of India went to a city and offense will be Be careful with a group of people and the very extremes of so what do you mean by extreme so the people came to meet me and they're like, what do you think of Abu hanifa? Mashallah, goodie mama pick you up Garfield. This is exactly anyone who just picks up one he buys a coffee. This is his words. hope no one took that as a recording and cut my voice out saying that.
This is the extreme that I found in India. That pushed me away from that way of thinking because people that like taking it to the extreme. How do we deal with that? Firstly, no Muslim in the past 1400 years had bad thoughts about these four emails. All of them is even those who didn't follow a Muslim like albani and ashokan. They loved and respected all the mobs, right? He just found themselves on the same level as the market in terms of being able to make he had nobody you know, 1400 year history had a problem with the moms themselves. Right. So now for people who come and start sweating, the moms are talking bad about the moms This is the new This is a beta. Usually this
is a beta for some of you swear the moms to see if you believe in the moms know of those who say the Muslims are better. They are making better by saying that because Muslims are unnatural.
It's just what's going to happen when people get together and discuss, they're going to form a Muslim. I guarantee you it will actually abandon them as hubs start making their own Ishihara making their own sort of Vic, they will end up with new Muslims, and their opinions will be very similar to these Muslims. Right. So it is a matter of people coming from strange backgrounds saying strange things.
Honestly how to deal with a group. I think he teaches history, history may be tough on them opportunities like okay, these were great people. And it's actually a natural order of what took place, you know, just something somebody invented. I think that's an extreme reaction to the following to notice whenever people go on one extreme, the reaction is always opposite extreme. So people are saying you must follow a bonafide everything. The opposite extreme was? Well, for the one he was on a Muslim. Right? People like jumping between extremes. And Islam is always the middle part. Right. So this this is the part I've chosen, I decided to go to
countries where Muslim majority not as a sizable portion of Muslim.
question is which question is the month hubs originated in Muslim majority countries we live in English, the minorities what's being done about that? two things. Number one, by the way, I mentioned earlier the Maliki madhhab developed in Spain, with Muslims were the minority. Right. So that's why in America and several other people are adopting Maliki pick because it was adapted in a Muslim minority country. And it's actually very suitable for practicing in places like America and things like that, for example, in the Maliki mazahub, the leader multimethod, early Maliki Most of it was different, but with a later Maliki master that was developed in Spain, they had no problem
with music, right, because music was part of the Spanish culture. And you will find later molecule scholars saying it's hot, right? And we find molecules in America saying the same thing today. Right. So that's one point. The other point is what's been done about it now? Well, that's really what we want to do. Yeah. In America, in the UK, they have their own councils, where they get together, and they discuss difficult minorities in the find solution, and they work it out. We're not doing that in South Africa. That's our problem in our country, only other countries are doing that. For example, they have committees with a map of all the Muslims get together and discuss, what
do we do about insurance? Is there a way to allow it? Right? What do we do about stocks and bonds? And then what do we do about the fact that in this country, you can't own this without insurance? You can't own dental insurance? How do we resolve this, and they discuss it for hours, and they come to a practical fatwa. So this is being done in the USA, this is being done in the UK, it's just a matter that we need to start to get in South Africa, right? So people are working with other countries, inshallah, we can copy them into something similar to
Everything, as you mentioned,
and the reputation
of those who signed the backlash against you will say, for example, and it carried on until that one, I came from India and audience forget his name now.
So until a man said in the lecture, you know, he must be nice, because he has the same people who have returned to lunch. The scientists have something similar for suddenly silence. So obviously, he had that gravitas. Yeah. How do you build that? Around the modern issues?
In South Africa, for example, what language do you have to come to our rooms?
a conference over three days, or three days.
From the human, it was one of the following eaters from all over the country.
But simple thing, like talking about politics in domestic spending, not even get involved in politics. They will be working, as you mentioned, to someone who wants something that says someone in India
that is like, that has to be the basis on which we even discuss this going forward. So I'm saying how will you what a credit test you have to have already to build up that that
type of thing that you can eventually say yes, it is right.
Okay, that's a question I talked about for many years, right? How do you build up to that level where people take you seriously, actually follow you? Or do you build somebody up in alchemy that people take serious and follow in this area? A couple of points that come to my mind about it. Because I spent many years thinking about it. I still don't have a clue. I just didn't have a explicit answer. But just a few points that come to my mind about the number one, I believe that change comes naturally and gradually, right. Meaning, if some people are doing this work, first, you'll get 10 people listening to them, then those 10 people will tell their friends and then
they'll tell their friends, and over 10 or 20 or 30 years, that person will say Follow me. It's a very slow, natural thing. Second thing is that
I know you said that Mufti Taqi Usmani has this, we didn't always have this, when I was studying. In the same school of thought that he's called the leader of leading the 500 most influential Muslims in the World Book, number one for 2020 is moved up to us money, and he's listed as the leader of the Deobandi movement. When I was studying in a Deobandi Institute. Our teachers told us don't listen to talk, he was mine, he secretly a Salafi.
That's what he told us. 20 years later, he's the leader of the movement, why he stuck to his guns, he said, This is my position, this is what I believe, here's the evidence prove me wrong. And over time, over 20 years, people grew to respect him. And, and now he is who he is in his community. So people need to take a stand, people need to, to, to prove what they believe in, and you need to work slowly from the ground up, change comes from the ground up. What happened is is like what will happen is that if somebody is doing this work, they will start off with a few students. And those students will grow in number and the students may teach other students and within 100 years, within
100 years, things will change. Oh, by the way, as a history student, I can tell you, anytime about change like this in our history, it took 100 to 200 years, not not something that happens in our life. It's not, it's not something that today become a good idea tomorrow, suddenly the whole country changed. Change is slow and gradual. Yes.
So I have to say that
I enjoyed this. I'm quite disappointed that 35 years old.
For that change to come about, we need more young people to come about and a lot of forum members here. You guys were in your 30s 20s when you started this. So I know you've tried. I know you've tried to build that same momentum that you guys had that time ago with the youth.
But maybe we know.
Yeah, no, this this is my biggest concern. Every time I come to teach anywhere, is I look around and I hope you see people in their 20s right. So all my Uncle Joe would agree. I love you all. When I see your faces, I get disappointed. I get disappointed because I'm like, Why is his son not yo his grandson? Nadia, why isn't where's the next generation? I because what's going to happen? We losing the next generation, let's be not losing them to all traditionalist or to non performers we have to atheism, we losing them to we losing them to Cooper, right. And if we can't get them in here to teach them, we're going to lose them completely. So we have to work out some strategy to get them
here. Say you grounded a punishment, you come in for one lesson. And maybe they fall in love with a one lesson that stick with the rest of their lives. I know what it is, but you've got to get the guys in there somewhere. Tell the guys go do something, whatever it is just get people to sit and listen.
Did she also have the tabs like how we have the people have opinion and people are for hobbies. They also have the same thing. They have the shoes. And so the issue is I like the people have opinion in fear. And the worry that gay people have had the same people follow the bodies of the mobs. So they also have different mud hubs with the same differences, the same problems, the same four categories today, that today you will have she has what traditionalist, she has one modernist, she has reformers, the same history is happening parallel in their communities is happening in our community. It's just that they have different hubs and different issues. But literally the same
history is happening paddle in the community
open all the time.
Maybe that's true.
If we if we examine all the various colors, I mean, the amount
developed different mothers, fundamentally in terms of the fundamental principles of
there isn't much of a difference.
No nothing, nothing believes
it only in this what we call this, what I told last week is a person's interpretation of Islamic law. That's where they differ in how they interpreted and worked out Islamic law. As far as belief in the six pillars of Eman and the five pillars of Islam, there's, that's consensus. Now that's the area where you're not going to find differences between these. It's just a matter of, of how do we do it, that's where you find a difference. And that's why I say these are not important differences.
very balanced approach, very pragmatic.
And the academics that some of the scholars who went through in terms of developing this science,
these are very important and good beacon,
treasures for the Muslim community. But the prophet in a much more balanced, he was extremely pedantic about issues, to the extent that
he mounts by this nowadays.
And have been lost as a result of that. And therefore, to transcend from one and take the best ever balanced approach. And pick the best from each column because each quality in his own right and develop the science. And if you find something that makes logical sense, for example, combining the seller,
any other like when you're buying a house, at times, I think the follow the shopping is easier. So
the fundamentals are the one examines all the profits? Yeah. How do they teach their communities, I think, when we get the academic aspects of very, very good, they're very good for us in the treasures to us. But if you look at ordinary people like myself, What is important is, we must be able to practice Islam in an easy way. And Islam is easy. And here's the thing, whatever you said, I agree most of it. But here's the thing. What is the job of argument? What do you think is the job of it? What do you think Abu hanifa and MD find the job of the alum has been to make is to solve people's problems and make Islam practical for the people. When you Mount Abu hanifa became involved
in this field? He did he for two reasons. He wanted to solve people's problems, and he wanted to make life easier for you. He didn't do it. Like how are we doing nowadays? Religion doing the opposite? Right? We taking his opinions as if it's the word of Allah? No.
Ali's job is listen to see my community they see the problems, how can I solve it? How can I find a balanced middle part for them? So again, the problem comes down to creating a new generation of boredom, I will actually do that. Right. Until then, people have to probably follow them or from other countries, they can't find someone in the community who does this. Right. But the point about just going to the clubs and taking without issue is very hard to do. Because as I said, sometimes you may read the Hadees in one way, but you know that we have another adisa abrogates it or not like the professor may have said something in the beginning part of his life and something else in the
later part of his life. You reading what he said in the beginning of his life, he is not aware of what he said later on in his life. Well, how does the hub on the street, right. So that's why Google Fit is important. It gives us the ability next week, we will discuss that next week, I'm going to show you how each of them as hubs approach had ease. And also like for example, the mothers know consider every Heidi used to be a revelation. They did not they broke it down certain things, the proper subsidies, Revelation, certain things were culture, certain things, we use personal opinions, certain things, were just a formula for an individual. Now who's going to break that down, or that
might have to do that, even as she did an excellent job of that. In fact, I'll go through his division next week, he broke it down into 12 types of ideas. We'll go to that next week. And then you'll see just what the Deep Field is and why we have to have propulsion to do it. But yeah, time's up.
Yeah, we'll cover all of that next weekend.