Channel: Ahsan Hanif
Usul Al-Fiqh (Part 1) – This talk was given at the Green Lane Masjid on Feb 26, 2017.
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Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.
smilla rahmanir rahim al hamdu. lillahi wa Taala.
Want to stop?
When are we gonna be learning Sheree and fusina woman siata Marina
Mia De La La La La
La ilaha illAllah hora de Alessia Cara
de la ciudad de Mohammedan Mohammed Abdullah Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa ala alihi wa sahbihi wa seldom at the Sleeman kathira
nos Takahashi tabula eterna
Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam Mashallah
Hakuna Matata Hakuna Matata Hakuna Matata Latina
Welcome to this inshallah shortish kind of seminar that we're doing on this topic of this sense of Islam on a sort of
this is a series that we began last month. And we began with the sciences of the Koran. And just as a reminder for everyone, the purpose of this series is to give all of us an indication as to or a brief introduction to some of the various and most important sciences of Islam.
Often when we come to the Quran, and the Sunnah, and we come to the status of the scholars, and we come to how the scholars derive their rulings and formulate their opinions, and so on and so forth, most of us are at a loss with regards to the process that is taken by the squatters in reaching those opinions and giving those verdicts on those fatalities, even when the scholars come and they choose between the different opinions of the scholars and they choose which one they consider to be a stronger opinion, and so on. And so for all of those things that go on within our religion, most of us are at a loss, to explain the processes that go on behind the scenes. And those processes are
summed up by these different sciences inshallah, that we're going to study. Over the course of the next few months within the lightoller. Every month, we choose the different signs of Islam. And we condense it into a two three hour format, just to give you the basic understanding of the scope of the science in Islam.
And when I say that, it's something that we condense into a two or three hour format, it is literally a condensation, it is literally condensing the information and summarizing it into what is in our big goals column. It has just the bullet points that we cover of those sciences. And sometimes it is difficult when you come across a science that is vast, that the scholars often when they specialize in these fields, they study for not just years, but decades, it is difficult to come and then to condense all of that information into two hour format. So one of the things that I want to bring to everyone's attention and make clear is that the purpose of this
brief introduction is not to say that the science is as simple as I'm going to try to explain it to be, because we just want to take the basic points, we're going to take the headings, we're going to take some of the main bullet points, and that's all but in each and every single one of those headings. And for every single one of those bullet points, there is so much more information that can be given so much more knowledge that is on offer. So when scholars come and they study any of these sciences like also don't like the sciences of the Quran, like the science of any signs of Islam. It is for those people who are specialists in those fields a lifetime's work. It is something
that they spend years and decades specializing in and reading and studying before they get to a level where they consider themselves to be experts within that field. So bear in mind as we go through this that yes shala The purpose of this is to make an informative and the purpose of this is for you to have a
Over view and understanding of the science model entails. But at the same time, there is much, much more information and it goes far deeper than we will ever reach within this short seminar.
So today's shala seminar is on the signs, I will sooner or sooner.
And also, in fact, is one of those sciences that is extremely important in Islam, even though in English language is something which is very rarely discussed and studied. And one of the reasons behind that, and for that is because there is a very specialist science
is the science that tells you how to understand the texts, and the different sources of legislation that we have within our religion. When you come to the Quran, and you open the book of Allah Subhana Allah and you read the Quran, you're reading the verses, and perhaps you're reading the translation and you're reading the interpretation, you may even be reading a book of difficile. But in order to go to the Koran introduced rulings from it, derive rulings from it, things that you should do that Allah wants you to do to take from it, the legislation of our religion, the do's and the don'ts and what we generally call the Sharia. That is something that takes a lot of skill and effort. It's
something which requires knowledge not only of the Koran, but of many other sciences as well that will come and study and explain.
So that's what effect does. It is, in some ways, the precursor or the introductory step to fake fake is the rulings of Islam, the do's and don'ts in Salah that you pray like this, and you don't play like that in judo, you do a B, C, and D. And if you do X, Y and Zed, then it breaks your Salah is the practical rulings of our religion, in every single issue that we need those practical rulings to be pro sooner is the step before that. How did we arrive at those rulings? Where did we take them from? How can we deduce from the Quran whether something is obligatory or recommended, or something is haram and prohibited or something is disliked? How is it that we can do the same from the son of
the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam? Because understand and realize that in our religion, we don't divorce the sources of legislation one from another. We don't study the Quran in a box. And we don't study the Sunnah in a different box. And we keep them separate at all times. But rather than each one of the two complements the other, there are a whole, there are two pieces of a greater puzzle. So we always look at them and study them. And we look at the relationship between the two. And even then within the Quran. We don't study Surah Fatiha on its own and deduce his rulings as in Surah Baqarah on its own and sort of Iran on its own and Sauron is on its own. And every single one
of those 114 chapters of the Quran, we take them individually and study them on its own in seclusion, but rather the Quran again complements each other one another. Each Sora will have rulings that those rulings will be explained or abrogated, or added to or deduced from in another piece of the Quran. So therefore, the Quran complements one another. And one of the biggest dangers of our time, people that aren't well versed in the sciences that are unqualified to do this type of stuff. One of the biggest dangers that we have is when people study the Koran, or parts of the Quran and the Sunnah, in seclusion, they divorce it from the rest, they take a verse and study it on its
own, and they ignore the rest of the Quran. Or they take a hadith that comes to them from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, but they are oblivious as to the 10s of 1000s of other ahaadeeth that exist out there. So therefore, the ruling that you take from that one Hadeeth in no sooner, a scholar wouldn't just take that one Hadith, but he would study it in the context of the broader religion, what the rest of the Quran says, what the rest of the summoner says. And then not only that, but the understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, that the companions had rather your love language, Marian, when they would come because they witnessed legislation. They were there at
the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. The command and mastery of the Arabic language was far greater than anyone that came after them. They saw and understood the context of the Quran and Sunnah because they realized when and why and how it was revealed, as we mentioned in our previous seminar in the sciences of the Quran, when we were studying Tafseer, and so on. The statements of the likes of Abdullah bin was rhodiola, Juan and others from amongst the companions concerning the Quran. The narrow single verse was revealed except that they knew when and where it was revealed and why it was revealed and how it was revealed and what the meaning of the verses
Mujahid Rahim Allah one of the greatest, most illustrious positive seal from the tab hearing from the students of the companions, and he is the former student of Abdullah bin Arbus from the Allahumma. He said that I went through
and revise the whole of the Quran with even a bass a number of times at the end of every verse, I would stop him and I would ask him concerning it. So that his knowledge of the Quran. So therefore those scholars when they come to Salt Lake won't just take the Koran as a whole and the sun as a whole, and see how it complements each other. But they will also go and take the understanding of those companions, and their students, those earliest followers of Islam. So as you can see already, just from this 345 minute introduction, the science of disorder is extremely vast. And that's why I said that people who are experts and qualified in the science and I'm not from amongst them, they
are people who dedicate decades of their life to this single science, and they study it from so many different aspects and so many different forms. But the purpose also of these seminars is to show you the importance of some of these sciences in Islam, our religion and from the blessing of Allah subhanho wa Taala upon every single one of us, even though most of us may not realize it, from the greatest blessings of Allah azza wa jal is how Allah has preserved this religion. Our religion is not just the Quran, or the Sunnah, meaning that you just go to those books, but you have no additional information or understanding, no way of understanding no principles and understanding
those texts. But alas, dogen has blessed this religion by giving it scholars that codify systemized, analyzed the whole of those texts, and they derive for us principles, which if we follow them, we can arrive at a similar understanding. And that's how we deduce the rulings there is a system to this. So today when you hear people with these factors that, for lack of a better word seem weird to us, people coming up with weird fatwas and rulings of Islam and things that we never heard of as Muslims our parents never heard of before. People coming up with these types of warnings, and they using verses of the Quran and they using Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam be people
for example, who support an extremist ideology. They try to justify the actions they use the Quran and the Sunnah. If you look at their texts in their books, they don't just pull from their minds, they will give you verses of the Quran and the Sunnah, when someone else comes and wants to distort this religion in a different way, make it liberal or change it in some other way. They will also use verses of the Quran and Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. But the one thing that will always be missing is that the understanding and application is incorrect. So the scholars who are qualified and well versed will look at it and they will notice nothing. Why? Because they can
see that the way that they used it, the logic behind it, the principles that they use, are faulty. They're not things that have been legislated within our religion. And that's why the sciences are extremely important. And that's why when you have qualified well versed scholars, who give their opinions and their fatwas in Islam, to respect them for that knowledge, is it is a part of our religion, it is rabada it is a means of worshipping Allah subhanho wa Taala and drawing closer to him, by offering those people your respect and your love, you may not necessarily agree with every single opinion, I may not necessarily take every single opinion of a scholar, but the respect of
that scholar still remains that scholar every opinion that they have may not be correct, and he will not be correct, because they are human, and they will make mistakes and they will. But the fact that they have reached that level of knowledge, where they have expended the efforts in arriving and ruling even if they may have been correct for one reason or another, they are incorrect, that respect still there for them. And that is why our Prophet told us sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, in which they had the Hakimi for our sub fellow agilon ye the
fella who a job in our religion, if a scholar who is well versed and qualified, expends the efforts they put in time and effort to arrive a ruling about the religion of Allah and they correct the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam that they have two rewards. And if they do the same thing, and they are incorrect, the first one is one that is incorrect. It's not accepted in Islam, they still have one new word, why? It is because they reach that level of knowledge where they're trying to arrive at the truth. Yes, they may earn they may make a mistake because they're human. But it's not because they had a bad intention. It's not because they were trying to distort the religion of
Allah. It's not because they were trying to call to some group or justify some haram action. They were genuinely of the opinion that this is correct, but they happen to be wrong. So allonzo agenda will still give them that reward that is the position of the scholars. So if that is the position that Allah has afforded them, Allah has given to them and there are countless verses in the Quran, numerous Hadith, in the Sunnah, that speak about the virtues of the true scholars of Islam and the
position that they have and the favor that they have over all of us, because of the efforts that they have expended in the in, in understanding this religion, if that is their position that Allah has given to them, then at the very least respect and love that we must afford them is no less than we will afford people like our own parents and others. So, the scholars of Islam when it comes to silver,
or silver is one of those sciences of Islam that is beautiful. It is amazing. And it's something which even in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was being was being established by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, and he was being practiced by his companions a lot, the Allahu anhu image Marian, also referred to as with every single sign from the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was not formulated, wasn't a science wasn't something which was known as a topic in and of itself. Like every other topic in the time of the prophet SAW Selim, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam will never come to his companions and say, today we're going to study to
seal today we're going to study Sierra, tomorrow we're going to do a pita. The next day, we're going to do solar feck, the day after that will study the sciences of headache if you wouldn't do this, because those terminologies and those sciences would be developed and systemized later on, systematically put together later on, in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would teach, and he would advise, and he would tell people what they needed to know some of those issues with with regards to belief of either the belief of a Muslim in respects to their belief in Allah, the angels, the Yama, Yama, many of the issues, and
sometimes the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would speak to his people, the companions about the signs of Yama, Yama, a shout out to Sam, and sometimes he would speak to his community about the rulings that he needed. While we would call up today, because he saw that there's a problem. It is time when people have questions and they need a fatwa, they need a ruling. So depending on the situation, the profits on a lower they will send them what address that situation. or other times you would explain a verse of the Quran. Today, we would call it the seal. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would teach in this way and the companions would take that knowledge in the similar
way. And they themselves will teach in a similar way, they will teach and give that religion even though in the time of the companions, now scientists are becoming slightly more formulated,
and the seal and so on, they are beginning to be formulated during the time of the companions, and especially the younger companions, but in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the principles of those of those sciences and the foundations can be found. So in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would practice elements of a soldier with his companions. And what a sword is essentially is it as equipping a scholar to be able to go back to the banana and the Sunnah, and produce rulings to derive the rulings of Allah subhanaw taala the rulings of Islam, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would equip his
companions in doing so because we know that there were companions during the time of the Prophet Solomon in his lifetime, who would give fatwa, they would teach people their religion, and they would give people Islamic legal rulings, not in the presence of the prophets on the law where it will sell them, because if the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is dead in his present, no one's going to go to any other companion. You're going to go back to the Prophet of Allah alayhi salatu wa sallam, but in his absence, they would go to companions like Abu Bakr radi Allahu Akbar, Amara man at the focal alpha rhodiola, one whom he married, they will companions like morality. bingeable
companions like Abdullah live in mushroom companions like our mother, Arusha, rhodiola, and her other companions, some of them in the lifetime of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and some of them after his death, who became well known as the scholars, amongst the companions, they were the most knowledgeable of the companions concerning Islam. So in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam he would allow these companions to teach and to give rulings. He would allow them to give rulings, and he would establish the principle of that giving ruling, deducing rulings and giving rulings is something which is established. During his time. A woman came to the time to the
Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam towards the end of his life. And she said, O Messenger of Allah. If I come back to Medina, and I don't find you here, who should I go to? Meaning who do I go to next in terms of asking about religion, learning my religion getting fatwa? The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, If you come back and you don't find me, then go to Abu Bakr
Go to Abu Bakar that is a test here it is a qualification it is the recommendation, whatever term you want to give to it, but it is giving a MOBA karate along with that status that he is qualified. He has that position to be able to give fatwa. And we know that when Hydros first obligated in the ninth year of the hijra, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam didn't perform Hajj himself. He will perform. The year later in the 10th year of the Asia in the ninth year of the hegira. He sent Abubakar, the Allah one as the leader of Hajj as the Imam of the people to teach them the rulings of hedge. Now that means on a practical level, as all of you have done hedge or maybe even armor, I
know that there are always issues that come up during that time. You forget how many offs you made, how many circuits you made in power, you forgot that you weren't in a state of auto and you make off you're making stallion, you forget. There are so many issues that come up that require someone to say do this, do that don't do this. Don't do that. So Boubacar the loved one was given that position. That's a position of fatwa, because he is someone who has that ability, and that our understanding of the sources of Islam. He knows his religion for the long run. And that is why scholars like scheffel Islam in leukemia, Rahim Allah used to say that Abubakar on the long run was
the most knowledgeable of the companions. For the reason that he was selected to be the Imam of the people during Hajj, he was given that position, and hunters we know is one of the most difficult and most complicated issues and acts and rites of worship, in terms of the way that people deliver them.
So that is an example of a book rhodiola one is given that ability is given that permission. Another example, when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam after the Battle of exam, was going to go to bedroom or Eva Monterrey la was a tribe, a Jewish tribe that lived in Medina. But that tribe, they in the Battle of reserved in the trench, they broke their alliance with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and they took the sight of the Confederate armies. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam after the Battle of the trench had finished gibreel alehissalaam came to the prophet SAW Selim and he said, Oh, Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wasallam Why are you resting? Why is
your army taking off their battle armor? For we meaning the angels have not done so? The professor Selim said Why? He said, because we are going to go to bed.
So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said to his companions, let's go to bed or Eva, and no one plays a song until we reach
the time of Assad was the next prayer. don't pray ourselves until you reach Allah. And this is something which you mentioned later one, because it applies to one of the segments of Sorrell. But just to show that the professor sent him enabled his companions to practice the science, don't press on until you get to know karela. So the companions left in the went towards bento karela, the time Ambassador came upon them, and they hadn't yet reached. So the companions amongst themselves because there was an army, the processor, Muslim president with all of them, a group of the companions who went with the processor limb, the different, some of them said that we're not going to play an ICER
until we get to Bernie or Eva, even though it is time for us on now. The time has come in, because that is the explicit command of the prophets on the law. Why do you sell them don't pray, until you get to know karela? others from amongst the companions said, No, we're going to pray because it's our sort of time. And when the prophet SAW Selim said, don't pray, what he meant was hastened Be quick Hurry up, get there before I saw didn't mean that if I saw comes in, don't pray. What he's trying to say is Hurry up so that by the time you're there, but obviously if that's what comes in, you pray, some of them pray, and some of them didn't pray. They arrived at Orion. They met the
Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and they informed him. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam didn't say anything, didn't criticize those who prayed. And he didn't criticize those who didn't pray. Why, even though only one of them was right. Because when the processor Selim said, don't pray, until you get to banaba, he only meant one thing didn't mean both things. He only intended one of those two meanings. Either you only played Monopoly law, or hasten up Be quick Hurry, and if so comes pre wherever you are, but he didn't say anything to either of the two Why? Because both of them had a valid understanding. And they used a principle methodology and arriving
at their understanding. And that is what sort of fit in a nutshell. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would allow that so when it's something that you use principles in arrive to ruling and established methodology that that is bought or sold, on the profits on a lower it will sell them on the law with you
His time. So when the companions when he would send companions, like earlier on the alarm rang to Yemen, Abu Musashi to Yemen morale to Yemen, other companions to other places to call people to Islam, and he would say to them, how will you rule? How will you judge? They would say we will judge by the book of Allah. Okay? But if you don't find it in the book of Allah, we will go back to the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Okay, but if you didn't find it in the center, it's not something you heard from me, what will you do? They will say, we will use our HD hand, we will expand our efforts at reducing the ruling. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would
agree to this, that they have to go because it's impossible, that every single issue that takes place in life, the professor would have spoken about everything. So in our time is we have banking, we have modern medicine, we have technology, we have finance, we have so many issues that today exists in contemporary forms, that never existed in the time of the Protestant we didn't even exist 100 years ago, let alone in the time of the early Muslims and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, how do you get those rulings? Therefore, that is
what we have in our religion is an established methodology, established principles. So a qualified scholar today can take those same principles that are found in the Quran and the Sunnah, and using them they can deduce a ruling for today. For a modern day issue. Seeds, Hillel says haraam seeds, dislikes is recommended, whatever the ruling may be, that is Suraj
and also the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in a third example, to show that there has to be a methodology that is principled. One of the armies that the Prophet sent him sent out he sent out an expedition of, of companions and army.
And as they were traveling, one of the people in the army was injured after the battle. He was injured and they slept the army rested during the night. This particular companion who was injured and he had a serious injury, he had a wet dream during his sleep he had a wet dream. So he woke up in the state of major ritual impurity, Geneva, Geneva as you know, if you're in that state of major ritual impurity, you must take a loss of there is a ruling in Islam. But this companion is injured his his bleeding is had a serious wound. So he said to those companions that were with him, those those people in the army that is time for fudging I'm in the state of Geneva, do I need to make also
look Can I make tiamo they said to him or one from monster and said to him, that since we have water you must make although you must make muzzle so the companion made awesome. And he became even more ill his condition worsen, and he passed away. So the companions returned to Medina and they told the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam became extremely angry. And he said, concerning the companion who gave that ruling, why did he kill him? If he didn't know he should have asked? And that is a clear Hadith that says two things. Number one, that yes, you're allowed to give that ruling when the situation arises to make each the hard. It is something which
is legislated in Islam. But number two, it can only be done by people who are qualified and well versed. And if you don't know, you ask someone else. So the average Muslim me, you everyone else, when we don't know the ruling, we don't just open the Quran and think, Okay, let me figure out what the law says. Let me take the sun and figure out what the ruling is. We go to people who know and understand why because that's something which takes decades to study and to learn. So the prophets on a lower it was also established that principle, and that is the principle of asking those people of knowledge, if you don't know.
So the point is that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam allowed this during his time. And then after the death of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the companions would continue in this regard. So because of the long run, if he had an issue that faced him that he never heard of before, hadn't come across before he would go back to the Quran. If there was nothing to be found in the Quran, he would gather the companions and ask them, did you hear of a Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu? Well, he will send them and if they hadn't heard, he would ask them for their opinions. Tell me what you think is the ruling. And then the companions would give a ruling, they would come
up with a factor and a ruling, or motto, the law one would do the same, but he would add a step, he will look at the Koran. He will look at the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And he will look at the decrees of Abu Bakar on the long run the rulings that Abu Bakar gave, because he has a precedent now, someone who was before Him who preceded him who did something so if he did something, then you would accept it. And if not, then he would do the same thing. So the companions who came later on they would say, consent normal rhodiola one you
I would say to the students, that today you are hasty in giving fatwas. If this same issue was to have come to Omar, he would have gathered all of the people of Buddha, meaning the companions, the 300, odd companions, whoever was living from those companions that attended the Battle of Bhutan, if he wanted a new ruling, those are the people that he would gather, because they were the most senior, and the most knowledgeable of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So they would expend all of these efforts. So the companions of the time and the time of, of, of the companions, the time of the companions, and then the students, they also practice to sort of ship
they would also practice with solar field. And from the time you have companions that were well known for giving fatwa and for teaching from amongst them is I'm delighted in our bass for the long run, whom I'm doing live in Hama, Arusha. Abdullah bin Massoud, and other companions as well as the four calibers obviously during the time, these companions were all known for giving fatwa for introducing rulings. During the time of the companions. The Muslim Empire expanded as we know, in the time of Ramadan, man earlier the Allahu anhu, the Muslim Empire expanded, and many people accepted Islam. And from those people that accepted Islam or people who were non Arabs, Persians,
Romans, other people of other ethnicity that didn't speak Arabic, Arabic wasn't their first language, it wasn't their mother tongue. So when these people started to accept Islam, and they came into the fold of Islam, now we had people who didn't understand Arabic, they couldn't just read the Quran and understand it the way that the companions of Mecca and Medina would understand it, by virtue of being Arabs, and so on and so forth. They couldn't just understand the Sunnah, because they weren't there for every single situation. They didn't understand every single context, and so on and so forth. So now you have people entering into Islam. Additionally, you also have people who
enter into Islam, that are really sincerely Muslim, they're hypocrites, or they're coming up with their own brand of Islam. So the emergence of new sects, the hawara, Tarawa, all of these people, towards the end, the latter time of the companions, and the major students of the companions, this is the era where you get those initial groups, those groups would come and they would use the Quran and the Sunnah also, to justify the ideologies. Then you also have a third problem. And that is that you have people who will fabricate a hadith lie upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or people who are narrators of Hadith, but they're weak narrators. All of these different dynamics are
taking place. The companions are spread out across the Muslim Empire. And it's not like today where you can send WhatsApp, send emails to people, Facebook posts, and the whole world knows what's going on. You wouldn't be able to communicate until you travel or you met. So what you had was those companions establishing what they call their own madrassas. It's not a physical university or school, but it is the methodology of teaching and they call it a madrasa. So you have two main madrassas, we have the mother serve the people of hijas, which is Makkah and Medina. In modern day, Saudi Arabia, you have the companions that stayed there and continued to live their life up to live
in armor, like Abdullah basmati Allahu anhu mage Marine, these companions, they call our call the madrasa of anri Hadith. And Hadith means that they would give preference to narrations of anything else. Why? Because in Mecca and Medina, Islam is still strong. The scholarship of Islam is still strong. The companions are many in number, the bastions of Islam are still in Mecca and Medina, the students of the companions are many in number. Most of the people in Mecca, Medina are still Arabs, and they have the command of the eloquent Arabic language. They know each other. So if someone comes with the Hadith, because you're in Medina, and you only the second generation of Muslims, you say to
him, Who are you and where did you get it from? It's not very easy for him to make it up and say, oh, there's some companion that you've never heard of. But you can't say that to a companion. There's a companion that you don't even know. So it's difficult to fabricate Hadith. So you had the madrasa that used to give preference to narrations because it was easy for them. And then you had a second madrasa in Iraq, which is known as the mother of Allah right. And from amongst the companions, who are in Iraq, and were credited with that type of methodology is the famous illustrious companion, Abdullah bin Miss rhodiola. One, this purpose or the purpose of mentioning
this is not to say that one is greater than the other or those companions are better than others. We are more mature than having those types of discussions. But that is a fact of history, that those people in that part of the Muslim world combined.
like to live in Missouri rhodiola Juan and his students are hassled robustly and even Syrian and all of those tableting that would come and study with those companions and so on. They had some other issues and dynamics that they had to deal with. They were the ones who had to deal with all of the non Arabs were non Muslims. They were not Arabs, and they were Muslims. And they didn't have the command of the Arabic language. They were the ones who had to deal with all of these new ideologies that were emerging, they didn't emerge in Mecca and Medina, they emerged in places like Iraq, in Kufa and Basra and other places. They had to deal with people coming and fabricating Hadith for
whatever purpose and ambition and motivation that they had. You wouldn't get that in Mecca and Medina. So those followers and companions in Iraq, because they weren't shown, they didn't know who these people were, they knew Muslims, and so on and so forth. They are new to those lands themselves, those companions that are from those lands, these aren't their places, they would be more strict. When it came to accepting peoples and regions, they would have a stricter measure of accepting Hadith. Why? Because we all know that from the foundations of this religion, is that we respect the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and it is one of the most sacred
things in our religion. And our Prophet told us a little while he was seldom men kazaa, barely yamata ammidon for the other woman, and now, Whosoever lies upon me intentionally, they let him take his seat in the fire of how that Hadith means, that if me and you even today, what was scribed to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam a hadith that he never said that he never did. That can't be authentically attributed to him, we are effectively lying upon him. But if it's a hadith that has no bearing, it's just a story. That's bad enough. But then if the Hadith has a practical element, someone takes a ruling and says, Now that's a part of Islam. And the Hadith is incorrect. It's a
lie, it's a fabrication. That means that everyone that acts upon the Hadith does so from a basis that is incorrect, it is inauthentic.
So those companions because of the water and their taqwa, their piety, the fear of Allah, they weren't just willing to take a hadith from any and every source. They were cautious when it came to that and they had a right to be so. So you had those two emerging madrassas from the scholars who came from those mothers we have in Medina and and obviously condensing the history of a solar effect. But we have the likes of Imam Malik and Medina Rahim Allah, a scholar who is known for anything He is known for Hadith. The motto is one of the earliest collections of Hadith that we have, even till today, a scholar known for his low preservation teaching of the son of the Prophet
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he followed the madhhab of our Hadith, because he was from the scholars of Medina and he took from the students of the likes of Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abbas, radi Allahu anhu missionary, and then in Medina, Sri and Iraq in the madrasa. Hello Roy, you have the great illustrious emman Abu hanifa Rahim Allah tada who will take from students of Eben Masaru rhodiola one. Both of those scholars as you know our illustrious scholars in our religion, both of them have their status within Islam. And both of them both to both of them we are indebted, as in the membership, allow us to see at about a memorable honey for everyone who comes after him is dependent
upon him. And we know about him america he mahalo. Remember Shafi was from his students, those scholars that would come after him American Emmanuel hanifa Imam Shafi anyway mathema than others, they would combine between the two, because by their time
it was easier to differentiate between weak and strong, the Hadith, the sciences of Hadith and the sciences of faith and everything else had become more developed, more established under scholars had more of a tradition of traveling amongst each other. So it was easier to know who's authentic in Newsweek, you could benefit from one another. Whereas in America him home loaded said that he never left Medina except to go and perform hajj and umrah. He only went to Mecca. And remember, we're hunting for him. Allah never travelled extensively to learn from different scholars of different regions, he would only go to Mecca and Medina again for the same purposes. So you have those two
great Metro cells. Both of them have their mummies at their virtues, you have those people who preserve the tradition of Hadith, but in in Iraq from the scholars the likes of remember hanifa. We also see the development of a surah using introducing and deriving principles from the Quran and authentic sadhana because they had to do that. And they had to rely upon that strategy, that methodology more than the scholars of Medina.
Prior to that time, the likes of Imam Shafi Nima mathema, those scholars that would come after remember hanifa Nima Malik and both Imam Abu hanifa
Imam Malik are from the scholars of that about 70. They are considered to be the third generation of Muslims. You have the companions, you have their students evenly remember honey from Allah, it's different over whether he saw some of the companions in young age and he said that he's so unassuming Malik which will make him from amongst the tabulating, but only by virtue of having seen him not by virtue of study, by virtue of study, they are both about tabulation. They are both from the students of the students of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the third general, the third generation of Muslims. And the third generation is still a generation of Muslims
that has a great status in this religion because the Prophet Salim said the best of generations are my generation than those who came after them and then those who came after them. those first three generations, all of them have that virtue, the point being, but from their students, the students of Imam Abu hanifa, the students of Imam Malik Rahim Allah, we have the somewhat some extent the combination of those two madrassas, the merging of those two mother says, you know, I'm a chef in Oklahoma, we in many ways, and we'll speak about him now is credited as the father of a soldier. And I say that in inverted commas because obviously the science existed before him, and he was but he
was the first one who wrote a book in general. And he was the first one who systemized and formulated codify the science. So he's considered to be the father of a soldier. But he is a student of human medical human law. And he is also a student of one of the students I remember behind Eva Mohammed Ibrahim escena shibani Rahim Allah, Who the fatwa are many of the fetters of the Hanafi method are given by him and him as a student. Remember hanifa Imam Shafi Rahim Allah studied with both of those illustrious scholars, and a member of Sheffield Rahim Allah in His time, it has said that he was the first one who wrote a book of pseudo phip. There are different versions of how it
came to be him to write in this field of a silver phip. One of those versions of the story and the most perhaps the most popular one is that the horrific of the time one of the leaders of the time, he came to an Imam Shafi Rahim Allah and we're talking now about the ambassador dynasty, talking about the ambassador times the dolet la bassia. One of the one of the governors that he does, he came to Imam Shafi, and he said to him that we have a problem, whereby things on a codified, people are coming up with these fatwas and so on and so forth. And we don't know how and they don't know how to use the Quran and the Sunnah. They don't have a methodology, they don't know the principles.
So why don't you write something that would write and mentioned the principles of using the Quran and the Sunnah, how you derive rulings from it. So he wrote and he agreed that he wrote a one volume book that is called a reseller, or reseller, reseller means, the message right rissalah. And this book is still available today it is printed and many editions have been printed on it. You can buy it today, it is a one volume book. Obviously today, books in a sort of span 1012 1520 volumes. And remember Scheffer I'ma holla wrote something very summarized why, because the scholars of his time didn't need, you know, like long explanation. They were scholars themselves, but they just needed
something that they could use as a guidebook. So remember, Shafi Rahim, Allah wrote this, and it is called a reseller. And because of this, He is credited as being the father of a solar ship in this regard, he is the first one to write in it. And then scholars would come after him would write, in fact, some of them would just speak about a single topic of a solar eclipse, they are so rich man, they would only author on a single subject of a solar film, and other scholars would come on. And they would mention all of us together as a science as a complete science. It is in the fifth and sixth centuries of Islam, the fifth and sixth centuries of the hijra, that the signs of a super fit
would flourish, meaning that you have many scholars that would write in it, many scholars that would expand upon it and so on and so forth. So that is a brief introduction to the history of solar, solar.
Before we go on to what it covers the broad categories that it covers, what is it actually mean the temple solar? Well, silver is a combination of two words are soul and
the word soul is a plural in Arabic language, and its singular is awesome. And also, as a very quick translation would mean principle, by principle is the most common translation for the word awesome, which is the singular of the soul. And what it means in Arabic language, the definition of the word also, is anything which you build other things upon, like a foundation. You have the pillar of a house
The pillar of a building you build upon that there is something that keeps the structure up. Right? That is the meaning of
the word fit
in linguistically in the Arabic language means to understand what it means understanding. And Allah Subhana Allah says in the Quran
concerning the creation of Allah, other than the humans and the jinn, the birds and the plants and everything else. alaric xojo says that each and every single question of Allah praises and glorifies him, while a killer Akela, tough Kahuna to speak. The word for Hoon, comes from the same root word of
Allah is saying all of them glorify Allah, but you don't understand the glorification. That is the meaning of chuckling mystically to understand alhfam.
Technically, when we speak about fifth, what it means is to derive the practical rulings of Islam, from the sources of legislation to derive the practical rulings of Islam, from the sources of legislation. Where are those sources of legislation? How do you derive those rulings? What are even the rulings that you can have in Islam? That is suitable? That is what it does? So first, we'll give you the rulings. Why is this called or pseudo? Because there is the principles before? This tells you what are the sources of legislation? How do you derive them? How do you understand them and so on. And that is what you're sort of, broadly speaking covers four main categories. You know, pseudo,
you study four broad areas. The first of them are the sources of legislation. One in Islam, can we use as a delene as a proof as an evidence to say that Allah wants us to do something? I can't just turn up in the morning and say, You know what, actually, I feel I just feel that we should pray like this. When someone else comes and says, I dreamed last night, right? I had a dream that we should worship a lot in such a way. Are those valid sources of legislation in Islam? So what are the valid sources of legislation? That is the first category? What do we use as a source of legislation? Number two, from the sources of legislation, how do we derive the rulings? What do we look for? What
are the wordings and the terminology used in those sources of legislation that will tell us that this is a ruling. Why? Because as we know, the Quran and the Sunnah is not just rulings, the Quran has stories. The Quran speaks about Allah. The Quran mentions the names and attributes of Allah. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam speaks about his mannerisms, his characteristics, speaks about battles, speaks about history speaks about stories and examples and life issues and so on and so forth. We in scholars, as scholars have a solar fipple students of a solar fifth, we're not studying here in this science, the stories of the prophets of the past. So therefore, what are the words?
What are the indications? What are the terminologies that when we see them? We know this is a warning? This is what we look out for? That's the second thing. So what was the first thing?
Make sure you're awake? sources of legislation? Number two, is
the terminology right?
What are the wordings the terminology being used? in those sources of legislation? Number three, the third broad area are the rulings themselves. What are the rulings of establish? So what are the rulings that we find in the Quran? And the Sunnah, and other socialization that we'll speak about? What are and how many are those rulings? That's number three. And number four is the topic of each the head and top lead, which is who is qualified to deduce those rulings? who is qualified? So basically, the whole of this science is speaking about how to derive the rulings of the Sharia.
Two sources, where do you get them from? How do you derive them? What will be the end result? Meaning, you know, what are the rulings themselves? And who can do that? Right, who is qualified? And who is qualified? And what both groups do? Right? Those are the four broad areas that are studied in are sort of,
do we need to take a break? Or should we carry on I can carry on all the way Trisha, we can stop for five minutes and we can come back.
There's always the minority to speak and the majority just go with the flow, but it's normally the majority that are tired and the minority that are not
willing to speak about consensus. So okay,
so now what we're going to do inshallah, just to give you a brief overview, in the remaining time that we have, and I don't plan to go to 930
In Sharla, 24 to midnight, I plan to finish before inshallah, what we're going to do is give, take each one of those now four broad categories and speak about them and what they refer to. Okay. So, the first of those categories is the sources of legislation, the sources of legislation. So remember the four port categories, that is basically also warfare, right? I say basically, because as I said before, there is so much detail in each one of them. It goes on four volumes, but basically, it is those four broad categories that are being discussed. The sources of legislation in Islam are of three types, those that are agreed upon, everyone agrees that they are sources of legislation.
Number two, those that there is difference of opinion over but it is a slight week difference of opinion, the majority of scholars of Muslims have agreed to our source solicitation. And the third category is where there is a strong difference of opinion. Is it an acceptable source of legislation for us or is it not? That is basically
the three broad categories that you have the first category,
the sources of legislation that are agreed upon, there is no difference upon or it is completely agreed upon? Or two or three, right? I say two or three because some scholars said there is a slight difference of opinion in the third one.
The first of them is the Quran.
The Quran, the Quran by unanimous consensus, not even of the scholars of all Muslims, it is a source of legislation, and alaric xojo tells us as much in the Quran the Quran as we know is the speech of Allah, that he revealed to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam by way of jabril, ali Salim is the speech of Allah in word and in meaning that speech of Allah the Quran, so in the Quran is the speech of Allah, it is not just you know, the most half doesn't have to be in the book form to recite the verses of the Quran, you read them you pray, all of that is the Quran. So the urn, the Book of Allah Subhana Allah is a source of legislation a large soldier tells us in the Quran yeah
yohannes objet como Eva to murghab become a Shiva Lima pseudo well, who the word maternal meaning or people or mankind that has come to you from your Lord abor hana clear proof and he has come to a cure for what is in the hearts and that has come to you a guide and a mercy for the believers. So the panono la cosa guide Allah says that he can keep terrible, Lara Buffy toppin. This is the book in which there is no doubt what is it? It is a
guide for the Mottaki right. So the Quran is called by the canal as guide, a guide guidance. Allah says maharatna flipkey Terbium in shape. We haven't missed anything out from this Quran meaning everything that you need to know it is contained within the Quran. So the urn is a source of legislation, by default by each man of the scholars of Islam. And the Quran is mutawatir. It isn't something in which there is any doubt. It is something that the scholars have all agreed upon unanimously. And it is something which has been preserved by a law as a law says in the national agenda, or in the law one indeed we have revealed to the Koran, and we have preserved it. What does
that mean? It means that no two Muslims can come and differ over the wording of the Quran. I can't come and say actually is not radical Kitab which has Al Kitab. can do that. Why? Because it is written and preserved. And because millions of Muslims across the world have memorized it. And they memorize it from generation to generation. And many of those people who have memorized the Quran, they have a standard. They have a chain of narration where everyone between them and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is mentioned by name. I have one such Senate. So a senate ism is a chain of narration from you all the way back to the prophets of Allah mentioning every single person
between you and him, that you took around in the way that it is correct and that is something unique to this religion. It is also one of the ways that a law preserved this religion and the Quran. So the on earth is unanimously agreed upon, it is impossible for two Muslims or a group of Muslims or group of people Muslim or non Muslim to come together and to change the Koran because it is so well preserved. Now we can have differences over some understanding of those verses and as I said, there are methodologies to understand the Quran. But even come and say means a B, C and D that's a different issue. There are methodologies for that but that is a different thing. So the pattern is
preserved and it is moto Moto, moto moto mean it is has been narrated by so many people and we
by so many that it is impossible to change. It is impossible for those people to collude and to lie. So they are on the book of Allah azza wa jal is a source of legislation Meaning what? That if something is found in the Koran, it is sufficient as evidence. It is a proof. If you find in the Quran that Allah says, do something, or don't do something, and we're coming to what that means do and don't let the part of the terminology and wording but basically speaking, when Allah says do something or don't do something, that means that we do it, we don't do it, because the Quran is sufficient for us. So when Allah says in the Quran, Aki masala and someone else comes and says, I
had a dream, that instead of praying the way that we play Salah, I saw in a dream that instead we jump up and down five times, which one are we going to take?
You don't say I'm sure that's a problem.
We're going to take the Quran, right? Obviously, we're going to take the Quran. So that is because the Quran is a source of legislation. That's what it means the source of legislation, everything found in the Quran is sufficient for us to take and to practices our religion.
The point of this study of sources of legislation, why do we keep and you hear some people like they keep going on about this deal, then why why do we need evidences and proofs, and so on and so forth. The whole point of this is because every single person on your multi ama, when you stand in front of a law, normal piano, you will be asked how you worship a lot and why you worship Him in that way alone will hold you to account for your deeds. So when you stand in front of a lion, you say, Oh Allah, I did this because you said, do this, I found it in the Koran that is sufficient. That is sufficient for you to absolve yourself of responsibility in front of Allah. But if you stand in
front of a lion, you say a lot is because I had a dream our lives because the man came from the desert and said something I don't know who he was, or something else, that's not a source of legislation. I had my fortune told to me, a soothsayer came to me, a poet's know. So a source of legislation means that in front of a law on human piano, it is valid as proof that you what you did was correct and pleasing to Allah subhanho wa Taala. So, that is the first source of legislation and as we said, it is agreed upon there is no difference about it. The second source of legislation,
before we go into detail, let me just mention the the ones that the scholars agreed upon and so on and so forth. So, the ones that the scholars agreed upon that there is a difference of opinion upon that it is a social decision, number one, number one, number two, the sooner the sooner the apostle sermon will go into the detail concerning that the student of the profit center and number three is each mal consensus. Now, there is a slight difference of opinion, like some scholars had about some issues of judgment and so on. But an Allah knows best It is something which scholars have agreed upon. It is something which is from the first category. And each marriage means the consensus, the
unanimous agreement of the scholars, right, not of the Muslims of the scholars, and we'll come on to that in detail as well. The second category of legislation and sources of legislation is that in which there is a slight difference of opinion, small difference of opinion, but the majority of scholars accepted and that is basically LPs, Bs, Bs because the majority of scholars accepted, but when we speak about we will speak about there being a slight difference of opinion. The third category in which the sponsor is different. And what I mean by this follows different is even amongst the four main schools have checked the format hubs. There are differences of opinion over
this issue. Those are the ones that fall in the third category, and they are all the other sources of legislation and we'll speak about them. Like for example, the statements of companions, like for example, the previous Sharia as before, our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam like for example, and Masada Mercer are looking for the overwhelming benefits, these things that we will mention inshallah briefly, they are the ones that the scholars differ on. Those are the three categories. So going back to it in some more detail, the Quran we discussed. The second one that the scholars agreed upon is the sooner the sooner the profits on a lot more it will sell.
Sooner in the Arabic language means a path or away the path or the way the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said using the linguistic meaning of sooner, Manson nothing. Islam is sooner than Hashanah. Whosoever establishes in Islam, a good practice a good way a good path, he will have the reward of it, and everyone who follows them in it. Right? That's what sadhana means linguistically. You do something good. It's to set an example is to it's a path. It's a way
in the Sharia technically it means the statements, the actions and the tacit approval of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in a super fit that is the definition
If you were to study this from a hadith point of view, the scholars of Hadith would include also his characteristics, his mannerisms, the way he looked, and so on. But also, what is it about? It's about practical rulings. So the way the professor looked, his mannerisms and so on, have no practical element to it in the sense of Hello Hara, yes, they are soon, yes, there is part of his life, he has something that we need to learn and emulate and so on. But that's a different issue will still reflect is about practical rulings, do's and don'ts. So what we're concerned with and what the scholars have defined, the sooner to be meaning the part of the Sunnah, that they are
interested in are the statements, the actions and approvals of the profits on a level are the was
the word so now obviously, also means has another meaning, which we will discuss when we speak about the rulings of Islam, and that is that it means highly recommended, right? means something sometimes say this action is a tsunami that is recommended. That's the terminology of a ruling. That's a different thing. So leave that to the side, right. Another understanding of sin is that it is the opposite of bizarre, right? You have tsunami of data. But that's more on RP the issue. So again, that's something which we will leave to the side. So some, as a source of legislation, the statements the actions that has to prove that the profits on the long run, he was in it. So his
statement is like the majority of the sooner right, much of the sooner his statements in MLR mailloux been yet the process of him said your actions are judged by intention. The hurry that we mentioned already, were realized intentionally upon me will take the seat in the fire. All of these are statements when the open body Muslim, any book of Hadith, the hadith of nowhere. In any book of Hadith, you will find that much of the sooner is what it is the statements of the prophets are seldom his actions. His actions are those things that the companions told us, they related to us, that it's something that he did. He didn't see it, it's something that he did, the way the process
of selling them pray, the way he performed Hajj, the way he would eat, the way he would drink the way he would go to the bathroom, so on and so forth. A common common law. All of these are actions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, and they also form part of the Sunnah. The third is his approval. Approval means that something is done in his presence. He didn't say anything. And he didn't perform the action himself. But he stayed silent and he gave his approval. Why? Because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was sent by Allah as a guide, and he was sent by Allah to clarify the truth from falsehood. So when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam sees something in
front of him, that is happening and it is wrong and incorrect, he must speak out. He must, it is an obligation upon him. He can't stay silent. So if someone is doing something wrong, and it's against Islam, it goes against the shehryar the process and unconscious sit there and think, Oh, it's okay I'll do it next time or I'll mention another time or I won't say anything, or maybe I'll hurt someone's feelings and that's why you often get Hadith well what happens? Someone comes and says, Oh messenger of Allah, such and such happen. So the process of selling goes to the machine stands on the minbar calls the community and says why does so and so do such and such a thing? Why because he
must tell the people what to do. Allah says in the Quran, yeah, you heard rasuluh building mountains in a in a coma Robic or inland turfan. former military salata Oh messenger, convey the message to the people on alarm system, convey the message to the people and if you do not do so, you have not conveyed the message of Islam. He must convey at the time when that issue takes place. So the fact that the officer seldom sees something and doesn't say anything, what does that mean? It means that it is a part of this religion. For example, the profits on a low while he was selling was sitting with his companions in Medina, and some of them bought a desert lizard. The Bob abab is a desert
lizard that lives in the desert even till today. Like when I was a student in Medina, you can go to the deserts of Medina and you can find these lizards running around they're called the dog.
Those companions went and they killed the Bob the sacrifice started it they bought it back and they were eating it. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam didn't want to eat it, because he wasn't from Medina and he didn't eat that type of food that doesn't lizard, but he saw companions like holiday deliveries rhodiola, one another's eating from it. And he didn't say anything. What does that mean? That the desert lizard in his in Islam? What type of food? Hello. That's what it means. Right? Because he gave his approval if it was haram could the professor have sat down and said nothing. And let them eat? No. He would have had to say stop. This is wrong.
So that is the approval of the prophets of Allah when it comes to the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in the scholars have sort of come to it. They divided into a number of they look at it from a number of angles. Number one is the first angle that they look at it from is by its narrators, by the number of incinerators, how was it narrated to us how many people narrated that sooner to us, and this is also the study of Hadith. So in sha Allah, if Allah gives us the ability in the future, and we do a short seminar on the sciences of Hadith, much of this will be covered more in detail, because there is the science of Hadith. But this shows you what does it show
you already there in a solar flare? We already spoke about the Quran, so Salah was super fit has to be qualified to a competent level in the Quran. And now we're speaking about Sunnah and Hadith, which means what the responsible surah has to be what? competent to a certain level in Hadith, right? Islam God as part of a soldier, being a specialist in Koran, but they don't have a clue of Hadith. obvious.
Because both are sources of legislation that they need to know. So we're going to cover some of these things briefly and won't go into too much detail. The first thing is how is a Hadeeth?
How is the How do you categorize in terms of the number of narrators, the narrated to us, which is basically Water, water or hot water, water, as we mentioned, like the Quran, so many people read this Hadith, that it's something that can be no difference of opinion on something that everyone agreed it is more or less impossible for all of them to have come together and collude. 60 7080 companions to read something 7080 companions for all of them to come together and have the same lie. Exactly contradict No, it's more or less impossible to take please. It is impossible. That is called mutawatir. There are details when we come studied science of Hadith, what is the minimum level of
water what all of that stuff is a different science, but the scalable solar field would have to know that stuff. The second category is our had anything below the level of mutawatir is called a HUD, HUD it was only mentioned by one Morita by two by three that is called a HUD, right? So those are that is an angle of Hadith that the scholar of a surah must consider. Another angle of Hadith is the authenticity of the Hadith. Is the Hadith authentic or not, because for it to be a source of legislation, which Sunnah is it that we're referring to that is a source of legislation. It is authentic sooner, because what isn't authentic isn't considered to be the Sunnah. Anyway, it may be
called Hadith and it may be mentioned the books of Hadith and so on, but it is not called the Sunnah, because there is not the action or the statement of the approval of the Prophet Selim. Because he never did it will set it or approved it right, it is weak. So therefore, the scholars of Sauron felt like the scholars of Hadith also must look at the grading of the Hadith. Is it authentic, and authentic hadith means that a person who narrated it was someone who is trustworthy in their religion, who's good in their memory, precise in their recall, and they inherited from someone similar to themselves all the way back to the prophets of seldom and there are no defects or
any other hidden issues within the headings, it is a whole science and inshallah if we come to it, you will see that in itself, it is something that is in itself something which is amazing, but the point being here, that that is the definition of a Sahih Hadith. So when in the moment Buhari Imam Muslim, all of these scholars of Hadith they have these books called Sahih. This is what they are looking for. Below that you have another acceptable level of Hadith which is called Hasson and Hasson means, again, that that person is a scholar, a narrator that is good in their religion, trustworthy justice, and so on and so forth. But in the, in the position of memory in the recall,
they are slightly less, they make mistakes here and there, they may forget here and there, not so much that they're going to mix the palate and so on. But on occasion, they may be slight weaknesses in their memory that had eath is called hassane. And everything below that is weak and weak. The weak Hadith or bereave. Hadith is of many, many categories and many, many types. But that's something that all of us will also look at. The other thing that the scholar of assorted will also look at
how the iron and the sooner relate with one another.
So as I said at the beginning, the four hour isn't taken in isolation and the sun isn't taken in isolation. So now that you have these two sources of legislation, you have the Quran and the Sunnah the scholar was
must have sufficient knowledge and oversight of the Koran and sufficient knowledge and oversight of the Sunnah to see how the to complement one another. Does one abrogate the other or contradict the other
Does one explain the other? Does one contradict what does the Quran and Sunnah? How do they complement one another? So that doesn't mean so that means practically speaking that a spell of a super fit, wouldn't just have read the whole body. Because they had Bukhari is a very small element of all of the sciences, all of the books of Hadith is only one book. So a scholar of Hadith must have studied and read extensively, the books of Hadith to know that when it comes to a ruling, there's not some Heidi 30 mister that actually would cancel out the Hadith, or will explain the verse of the Quran in a different way. Right? That's what it means. So when a large soldier says
pray in the Quran, what is the description of that prayer going to be found? It's going to be found in the Sunnah. But is that going to be found only in one Hadith and the Sunnah? Is every element of the description of the prayer only found in one Hadith, or are the many howdy to speak about this? There are many hats, right? So therefore, the scholar will soon or must have sufficient oversight of these sources, and be able to go through them, there are issues
that we're not going to go into. But there are issues for example, concerning you know, what kind of had Hadeeth you can use. And so this is a different issue that goes into the details and so on. But if you're interested in this, and that is a more advanced level of study that I would recommend that you go and do in a different format.
Also, what the scholars of Hadith scholars have a suitor fifth will do when it comes to the Sunnah, and especially when it comes to the actions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, because the statements are easier statements that tells you do this, don't do that. But the actions are slightly more open to interpretation. The scholars must categorize the actions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, into what were his normal customs and habits. What was special for him there from his associates, there are particular for him special for him. And what is similar for everyone. So for example, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to dress in a certain way, he would wear
head coverings in a certain way. He lived and slept in a certain way, because that was the custom of his people and the custom of his time. those actions are the things that we must do. so must we today in 2017, in Birmingham, dress the way that the prophet will send them dressed? Is that a Sunnah? That's something that scholars will look at, right? So is that a certain meaning in the sense that is it something that we must apply? Right? That's what we mean when we say is it too soon? So therefore, that's something that the sparrows look at, what are those things that the prophet SAW Selim did that are special to him? Only for him, they are special to him. So for
example, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam never used to miss the homily. Every night, he prayed the night prayer to the Spanish say that it was an obligation upon him. So if it's an obligation for the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, is there an obligation for me and you?
Is it obligatory for us to pay to emulate? No, right? Because most of us, frankly, don't pay families every night, right? So it's not an obligation upon us to really emulate. But it's something that the professor did every night. So why is it not obligatory for us and obligatory for him? How did we make that distinction? Where did we get that from? Why is he got a ruling and we have a ruling? We know that the professor Sela married how many wives
11 wives, he married 11 wives, if he married 11 wives, what is the Quran say you can't marry more than four wives. How is that special for him? What made it special for him? That is an action of the process. And so to define and categorize and, and determine which category unfolds in that is also something that the spouse of a soldier will do. And then the rest of his thunder, that we actually have to follow that it's a sooner for us to follow as recommended, or it's an obligatory part of it sooner that we must follow, right? because not everything in the Quran is obligatory and everything in the Sunnah is recommended. You have both here and there. So that's something else the scholars
would also look at. So this is something which the scholars do so basically, therefore, when the scholars studied the student in this regard, they join it with the Quran, they categorize the look the you know, the analyze and so on. And then they look at the rulings, right, what is it that made the Quran for example, the prophet SAW Selim, Miss Pamela, every night before us we didn't have to, because we know that there is a hadith where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wouldn't pray
in congregation with his companions every night. And he said to them, that the reason why is because I fear if we do so Allah will make it obligatory. And if he does, so, you won't be able to mean the oma won't be able to perform it. So now we understand by taking the comprehensive overview of the Quran and Sunnah we know that
For that action must have been specific for the prophets of Allah. The prophet SAW Selim would often fast and he wouldn't break his fast, and he would carry on fasting to the next day without eating or drinking. But we need a new slot allowed for us to that we saw is haram for us. We can't without intention. We can't just keep fasting days on end without eating and drinking. But he would do it and it's authentically reported that he did it. Why isn't enough for us? Because there is a hadith where the Prophet Salim said don't do so. Indeed, my lord feeds me and nourishes me. So this is what the scholars do. They combine the compliment, they look the Analyze, and they do all of this in the
Quran and the Sunnah. That's the second source of this. The third source of legislation is h Ma. It means the consensus of them which the head does all those who can make each the hand the scholars who are qualified to derive rulings, they are called much the hit those spoilers, it is there consensus or a particular time over an issue in any given time, when all of the Muslim scholars come together, and they agree upon a ruling, that is for each man, the qualified scholars, not all of the Muslims, not only the one mil billion plus Muslims across the world have to be consulted, it is the scholars, they have to come and they have to say yes or no or whatever it may be. And that becomes
then each mouth. And the Prophet told us on Allah where it was tell him that this is a source of legislation, because he said, learn to tell me your own material about Allah, my alma will never unite upon misguidance. So when the oma unites upon something, it cannot be misguidance it cannot be misguidance because the Prophet Solomon said that and we know generally from speaking within our religion, studying it, that unity is a principle of Islam. Generally speaking, even though it is hard to achieve in many formats and settings. It is an ideal of Islam, that we aspire to, to have unity, right. So unity, and each map is something which is a source of legislation.
The Jamaat is of two types is Martin sorry, and each mazzucco t, H Ma, which is explicit. So the scholars come together and this is rare, by the way that all of the scholars came together. And they all each one of them openly said that this is my opinion, and they all happen to agree. That's rare that all of the scholars would come and like you know, a voting system like Parliament where they all have to, like actually give a vote. That's not how it used to work. But that is a type of rich man. The second type of rich man and the more common one that is referred to is college master code, the silent era. What does that mean? It means for example, that in Medina Armada, the Allahu Akbar
gave a verdict, he gave a ruling, and no companion went against him. No companion said anything to the contrary, no companion said no is wrong. No companion said no, actually, there's another way of doing this. No companion said no, there's a verse of the Quran that is misunderstood. Well, there's a Hadith of the Prophet Selim that never he never came across. They didn't say anything. So he became each Matt support is silent, each man that is called each man, right, and this is the more common one of each man. So when we say for example, that Salah is you know, like praying or praying family, it is highly recommended by each man. What does that mean by age map doesn't mean that every
scholar from amongst the companions or every companion, every scholar of Islam, physically, you know, recorded and said and wrote down the research map. It means that scholars said this, and it was known that scholars have this opinion and no one ever went to Kingston, that is called each map.
That is the third, the third source of legislation, and it is as we said, something established in the Quran and in the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. There is a type of rich man, a third type of rich man that is particular to the school of the Maliki's, the Maliki rahima, whom Allah, Allah Malik and others, his students, the Maliki Mata has a special type of rich man that they refer to pull each man of Abdul Medina is many of the people of Medina What does that mean? It means that from the time of Imam Malik and before, so not after, not today, right, there's not actually even in Medina, but the amount of Medina is Imam Malik and those who came before him, the
previous generations of Muslims from the time of the prophet SAW Selim to Mr. Malik, who as we said is the third generation of Muslims in Medina, if they all agreed upon something, he would consider it to be a form of valid HTML. Even if everyone else just said we didn't Mecca in, in Khufu, in other parts of the Muslim world, he would say because Medina is what
the source of legislation where the professor Lim lived, where the companions were based, where the whole effect mostly work. So the scholars they are the most knowledgeable the companions with Islam was preserved in Medina and from the signs of Yeoman opium is that the man will return to Medina and so on and so forth. So it is each man. He This is particularly to the Americans, no other school of Islamic
Law. No other scholars from outside of the molecules accepted this as a valid form of which matter, but it is something which he mentioned and he believed in Rocky Mahalo to Allah. So it's something that I will mention the fourth source of legislation. And this is the one in which there is a slight difference of opinion is called LTS. lts means analogy. to deduce you using your analogy, a ruling of Islam. And LTS is the one that there is a slight difference of opinion on the four schools of Islamic law the four mainstream ones the mannequins the Hanafi is the Shafi is the Henry's and many other scholars in from outside them accepted the law Hiriya, which is also a school of Islamic law,
the Valkyries, they rejected BS. They said, No, you only go to the Quran and Sunnah. If it's not mentioned there, you don't go to anything else. But most of the spirits allow it and it's allowed and it is correct, because it is something which the prophets on the lower it will send them around, as we mentioned at the beginning, when they gave those examples when the companions would leave, and they would go to him and they would make he had when the companions were going to burn oil and they had to pay so they immediately had this is all to us. What is the STS is that there is a ruling already established in the Quran and Sunnah. And then you have an issue in which there is no ruling.
But there is a combined element between the two there is an overlap. And because of the two you take the ruling of the first and you apply to the second, let me give you an example. In the rebel interest, where do we have rebel? The Prophet total sallallahu alayhi wa sallam available visible football to Bill football. In gold for gold, and silver for silver, there is interest, meaning if I give you 10 pounds, or 10 kilograms of gold to borrow how much must you give me back? 10? Can you give me nine? No. Can you give me 11? No. Why? Because it is ribbon. The head it says gold and silver. Right? So today in modern times a scholar would come and say well, frankly, Norman uses gold
and silver to trade anymore, right? We don't buy anything gold and silver. And as Mashallah you do the vast majority of us don't use long pounds real dollars rupees, whatever you use, you use a modern day currency, the head, it doesn't say pounds, four pounds. dollars, it says gold and silver. But what is the reasoning behind gold and silver, they were what trading currencies. So today we have other forms of trading currencies, the US is taking the ruling, because there is a combined element that's a trading currency. And today pounds are a trading currency. So you look at the overlapping element. And because they match, you take that ruling, and you apply it here. And that
is something which is which takes obviously qualification and it takes, you know, dedication and knowledge and so on. But it is extremely important in Islam. Because the vast majority of modern the issues that we have, they didn't exist in the time of the prophet or seldom. So if we had to have explicit narrations were everything you wouldn't know. You wouldn't know, because injections didn't exist in them. You know, like insulin didn't exist in the transformer banks didn't exist, home ownership schemes didn't exist, traveling by aeroplanes. There's like, this microphone didn't exist. So therefore, what is it that we do? for the vast majority of these issues? We make prs. And I don't
mean we, I mean, the scholars may be us, right. And they will say this is this. So this is basically the meaning of PR. So in the US, you have the also the ruling, you have the new issue, you have a combined element, and you take the ruling, and you apply it from one to the other. And that's why in this issue that can also be a difference of opinion among scholars, because it is something which the scholars will differ over is it matching or not? Is there enough elements of overlap in the issue or not? This is why the scholars differ in these issues, and a large soldier knows best.
So these are the four ones that I would say even though there is some difference of opinion in the last one, they are more or less accepted by the vast majority of scholars and today in our time, there are more or less accepted by all of the scholars of our time. Because the VA hitting your man's head doesn't have many, many followers after that time didn't have many followers, but from amongst the most famous policies even hasm Rahim Allah, Allah the Great scholar, he has a whole book about how the US isn't valid in Islam. But anyway, we come into this category of legislation in which there is much difference of opinion,
whether schools, schools of Islamic law, even the four main ones amongst themselves, the different and that is over a number of sources of legislation. I will mention them like somewhat quickly because we're running short of time and we're still on the first broad category. The first of them is a statement of a companion, Polo Sahabi. The opinions of the companions are the valid sources of legislation in our religion. What do we mean when we say
The opinions of the companions, what are we referring to? We're not referring to those issues that the companions spoke about, that they had, must have taken from the prophecies seldom. So when the companion speaks about, for example, an element of the unseen, the companion would never have spoken about that unless they heard it from the processor. Because the competitors don't speak about elements of the unseen from themselves. So that's not what we're referring to. We're not referring to either the HMS Ducati that the companion had an opinion and it became well known, like Armada said something and all of the companions heard of it, and they all accepted it. That's a huge amount
of security, or it's something else. It is not the opinion polls, Sahabi that will refer him to here. Nor is it something where the companion had an opinion. And we know the other companions different. One companion audio, the alarm said something disagreed, had a different opinion, and they had their own evidence had been our best at something, it must have disagreed. That's also what we're referring to, because now, there is a difference of opinion amongst the companions themselves. So you can't use one opinion over the other. What we are referring to, therefore, is whether the companion has an opinion, but it didn't become very famous and well known. And so therefore, there
weren't many people or anyone that we know of that went against it. That type of opinion. Is that accepted as a source of legislation? The majority of the scholars said yes. And Lima Shafi Rahim, Allah said no.
So if the companion says something he gave a ruling didn't become well known. And it wasn't something that was well known, even amongst other companions. So therefore, no one really went against it, because there wasn't one note is that something which is a valid source of legislation? This is something which the scholars differ over. Okay. And the majority of this fellow said, Yes. And they said, because the professor seldom said, Hey, don't ask me the best of people or my generation. So he implicitly gave them or explicitly gave them a test and a recommendation. The second source of legislation that the scholars also different over is Sharon Roman pub, Lana, that
the legislation and the shut er of previous nations, the legislation of the profit use of silly man moves, there is a Brahim alima Salatu was Salam. If they are mentioned to us, either in the Quran or in the Sunnah. Is it something that we can take and apply? This is of three categories. Number one, that whichever Sharia has agreed with me, no, it's part of our religion because the Quran and the Sunnah tell us that they are anyway. For example, when the law says put the barley como cM kamakoti ban and levena mean publico, fasting is obligatory upon you, as it was obligatory upon those who came before you. Do we accept that? Yes. Why not? Because it's something mentioned in our religion
itself tells us that we must fast right. But it's something that is found before in other Sharia ours as well before us. The second type is what the Sharia doesn't agree with explicitly rejects. So for example, amongst some of the shadows of the profits of Minnesota Eagle, their people were able to benefit from the fact of their cattle, they couldn't eat the fat and benefit from it. Sanyo meat and in your clothes, and so on. You can't take from the fat, but in our religion, we know that it's hard. You can eat from the fact and so on and so forth, of the animals that you sacrifice the cow, the sheep, the Lamb, and so on and so forth. So that's the shedding of a previous religion, that in
our religion has been what? abrogated. So what are we referring to therefore, it's not any of those two categories. It is the area that is mentioned in the Quran and the Sunnah. And our Quran and Sunnah does either agree or disagree, it just remains silent. For example,
in the story of Yusuf Ali who sent him when the brothers of use have come to him, and he's now one of the rulers of Egypt, and they still all he places in the in the in the bank in the belongings of his younger brother Benjamin Binyamin, he places the vessel of the king and the brothers leave and the court announcer calls out and what does he say there's a thief, right there's a thief and he says that the king has lost his vessel or the vessel of the king the utensil the cup of the king has been lost volume and V henlow barrier and whoever brings it will have as reward everything that I come up with and carry.
This is called in our religion Jana, a reward meaning that I can see to you for example, and you wouldn't say this in the masjid, but I'm giving you as an example, right? We're outside the box, um, I lose my wallet and I say I lost my wallet. Whoever finds it gets 20 pounds. That's a reward right? Find my wallet and I will give you a reward. Is that allowed in Islam?
Yes, it is allowed. Where did we take it from? This verse? So it is mentioned
In the Quran, how is it mentioned in which context in the context of a previous Sharia, it is mentioned in the context of a previous Sharia. Again, this is something that the majority of the scholars would allow majority, the scholars say it is a valid form of legislation, some of the scholars of the referee and others the different and they said no, and allows the will in the ruling or the reason why the majority of the scholars accepted it as a source of legislation is because a large soldier says concerning the profits will not equal levena Hidalgo Mullah for Buddha homotopy. Those are the ones that are not guided. So follow them in their guidance and allies referring to all
of the prophets and messengers of Allah, in that verse, other socialization, I will go through these very quickly, because we don't have time to go through them in detail, for example, is is this hub is this hub is to take the original ruling and to carry it forward. So for example,
a person are they born innocent? Or are they born? guilty?
They're more innocent, right? So if someone comes to you, and they say you stole my money, who is the burden of proof upon
upon the accuser, right? It is not upon the accused to say no, this is all my money I can prove it's my money, because that's the US law says that you're not a thief, you're innocent. So therefore, that is this habit. That is this this have that original ruling applies until another ruling comes that is stronger that will contradict it or change it in some way. Another source of legislation and these are all obviously this difference of opinions, not only over the the source of recitation as sources but even in the details and the minute and Masada masala the overwhelming benefit, is that a source of legislations if we're going to do something, and we know that this ruling has an
overwhelming benefit, or the opposite will have an overwhelming harm. What do we do? How do we give that ruling? Also from the socialization that the scholars different always said to Thuraya closing the door to evil. We know in Islam, that when a large social makes something Haram, many of the things that lead up to the huruma also made haraam. So it's not just the person who drinks alcohol that is sinful in Islam is the one who crushes the grapes with that intention, the one who carries it, the one who pours it, all of those people have a share of the blame that is called said to the or is that something that we can apply within our time as well when we come to do rulings? The point
of this all of this is these are the ones that the scholars differ over. This is basically the first category that the scholars look over, I gave it to you in a very, very, very brief condensed way. Each one of them has so many tangents and so many things that the scholars would study and look into. But it is the first category that the scholars would study and that is the sources of legislation, the sources of legislation, the second category, the broad category that the scholars study, and inshallah we'll cover this and then we'll break for salata, Russia,
is the rulings, right, I'm going to cover the rulings before I cover the terminology because this will shorter the rulings in Islam what are the rulings in Islam? So when we go to the Quran and the Sunnah, and we derive from it to rulings, what are the rulings that Islam tells us that we have in our religion? What are the do's and don'ts? What categories do they fall into? And what we refer to here is what is known as gamma techni. Fear and fear are those rulings that you will be held accountable for. There are other types of rulings in Islam as well. There are, you know, like rulings that are last pieces, universal laws, right? If I pick up, you know, like, if I if I drop
something that's gonna fall, that's a universal law. So anything to do with right or wrong or do's and don'ts, right? There are other types of like laws of senses. If you pick up ice, what's the point you feel like? Cold, right? If you pick up fire is going to be hot, right? Those are the types of different types of rulings that the scholar is going to, well, we're concerned with here, especially in this seminar, is the rulings that allow will hold you to account for meaning you will either be rewarded or punished, or neither of the two. That is called a common fear. And that is basically what the scholars do when they derive rulings from the Quran and the Sunnah, the source of
legislation, what they're interested in, is that action that you're performing, what is it and then they will tell you these are the five categories depending on which category they fall into, you go into the science of Yep, there is the science of film tells you Salah is watching this is that that is now the science of what sort of factors is tells you from after studying all of these sources of legislation. These are the number of categories of rulings that you can have and they are five the Hanafi is Rahim Allah have two additional ones but we're not going to go into them. I will speak about the majority because of shortness of time. They are five, the first of them is word
obligatory. So when the
Congress went through all of the sources of legislation, they found that there were five distinct categories that all of our actions can fall into. The first of them is that it is obligatory. What is obligatory, mean? obligatory means that the shehryar by immunoassay, the shehryar. We mean all of those sources of legislation, however, it's legislated. The Sharia has asked you to do something, and is asked you to do it decisively, portable Jism. It is decisive. And that is conviction in its demand of you to do something. And another way of also defining this is that a word job is something that if you do it, you get reward. But if you don't do it, what happens you are punished you are you
can be punished, or obviously a large division is the one who chooses how to reward and how to punish, he can forgive someone, or someone can do a good deed or a law doesn't accept it. Those are other mitigating circumstances. But we're speaking from a very technical point of view. And as you can see, now, scholarship is a very technical science, right? We're not involved in people's intentions and other external factors, they have other parts of the region that deal with it, but talking about technicalities here. So therefore, the word job is something that if you do it, you are rewarded, and if you don't do it, you are punished. For example,
for example, Salah, czaka, song, Hajj, so on and so forth, right. These are obligations, if you don't pray, what happens, you may be punished by Allah. But if you pray, and then what happens in sha Allah, you will be rewarded, right? And there are ways of categorizing and going into detail concerning worship, for example, there are certain things which are worship more if you have to do them in the way the Sharia specifies. Prayer means pray in a certain way. You can't just go off and play any way you want, right. But there are other obligations in which you are given a choice. For example, when you expiating for an oath, Allah gives you a choice, you can either free or slave, you
can feed tempo, people, you can post and bow people, that is a choice that you are given. For example, in. In Islam, there are obligations that are limited to time, they are time sensitive, and others are not time sensitive. For example, Salah is time sensitive, Azhar has a time, Muslim has a time to pray outside of the time without valid reason is wrong, and you are likely or you can be punished. But there are other obligations in STEM that are not time sensitive. Right. So for example, expecting for an oath, it's worship, you must expect for an oath if you broke it. But sometimes you don't have to do it tomorrow. You don't have to do it the next day is not time
sensitive. There are also things for example, obligations in this time another way of categorizing it, there are individual and others that are collective, that are individually obligations, meaning prayer, I have to pray my own Asana, you can't come and play my song for me. And if you did, it wouldn't be valid. You can't come and do my hunch for me unless there is a valid excuse. Normally speaking, you can't make my headphones, I must make my head for myself. But then there are other obligations that are collective, we share a collective responsibility, which means that if some of us do it, the rest of us don't. The most famous example would be Salatu janaza. janaza is an
obligation there is a right that every Muslim has upon another Muslim that someone prays their janazah prayer is not a right upon every single individual Muslim. It is a obligation upon the community. So if 10 people 15 people whoever was here for Muslim whatever prayer, there was a generous and they prayed 100 in love the rest of us don't have to worry. But if no one came and pray the janazah then we are all liable. It is a click it is still an obligation, meaning that definition of reward and punishment still applies, right but it is just done in a different way. That is the first warning. The second warning was time for me to show you
and then I'll call you Okay, then I'll carry on after that.
The second ruling of Islam or the second category of ruling is min Dube, almost the head which means recommended. Right. And this is called min Dube is called Mr. hab. Sometimes it's called Suna. Right. All of these are different ways of seeing the same thing. But just to eliminate any confusion between the source of legislation that is sooner and the ruling that is a sooner we will call it Mr. habermann. Do Mr. haben Mundo means that it is recommended, which means what it means that the Sharia asked you to do something, but without conviction, meaning he didn't say it in the form of conviction in a in a wording of conviction. And what it means in terms of reward is that if you do
it you get rewarded. But if you don't do it, do you get punished? No. So it is therefore a type of optional act of worship. For example.
The ama lane, for example,
turn away from the center to robotic the slot to Doha elevator depending on which opinion and there is different
opinion on some of these issues as well. But the point is you get the you get the picture, right? These are recommended sada and this chapter as you can imagine, Mr. hab is vast it is. There are so many actions that would fall within this. And even within this you can categorize and break it down into subcategories. There is a center for example that is called Suna makeda asuna. maka is a highly recommended or an established Sunnah. And what it means is that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would leave the Sunnah, whether he was traveling or whether he was resident, right, like, for example, the Yama Lille, for example, with, for example, the two summers of pleasure, these are
things are appalled,
because the processor would never leave them. Whereas the other son does before and after the war, after Muslim after Russia, he would leave them on his travels. So therefore, it is still a son, but not when you're traveling. Right. So it's not quite as in America, there is the second type of ruling that you will find
the we will come on to, you know, like how you differentiate between them legislation and so on. That's the next category that we're going to speak about. So that's the The second category of ruling. So you have wajib, and you have recommended, and one you must perform it. And if you don't, you get punished. And the other one, if you perform it, you're rewarded, but if you leave it you are not liable for punishment by a large surgeon. The third category is haram. haram ROM and how ROM means, as you all know, unlawful, prohibited. And that is what the sheriff told you not to do with conviction. And what it means in terms of reward and punishment is that if you do it, what happens
you are punished. And if you leave it for the sake of Allah, you're rewarded, right? So if you leave it just because you left it isn't something which you do anyway, there's no reward, because it's something that you just do out of habit. But if it was something that came upon you, and you chose not to do it, then you are rewarded. So for example, stealing, stealing is something which is haram. If a person does it, they are punished by a lot of social they are sinful, right? Most people don't steal by the norm, right? The default is that you don't steal. Are you rewarded every minute because you didn't steal? No, unless you had that intention not to steal something that you're rewarded for
just like that. But if the opportunity arose, you're at work and you see someone who has 1000 pounds laying around on someone's desk, you could take it and no one would know that's an opportunity. You say you know what, no harm I'm not going to do what doesn't like it's not. Now you're rewarded, because you left it for the sake of Allah subhanaw taala that is basically called haram and there are things as we know
that are Haram.
And again, the subcategories for each one of these, each one of these issues can be many, but there are things which are Haram in and of themselves and there are things which are made haram because of external factors. Things are Haram in and of themselves. For example, drinking, you know, alcohol, obviously, interest, Zina, all of these things are haram murder, stealing, all of these things are Haram in and of themselves. But sometimes an action becomes haram not because the action is haram, but because of external factor. For example, buying and selling at Juma time, a large social prohibited in the Quran. When the time of Juma comes, it's not allowed for you to buy and sell,
which is why the majority of the scholars are of the opinion that when the other end goes for Juma and the Juma prayer has started, and you're outside and you bought a house islamically that transaction is invalid. It's not a correct transaction, even though you took the keys obviously under British law is valid and legal and I'm talking about Islamic law, it would be considered invalid. Why because the timing was right a law prohibited buying and selling during that time buying and selling in and of itself is it haram know what made it haram here and external mitigating factor, and that is the particular timing right. So this is another way of categorizing Haram. The
point is that we're not going to go through all of that in detail.
So that is the third category out of the five. So it was the first one
watching right which means obligatory number two was Mundo booster which means recommend, number three is haram which means what
which means prohibited okay
We learn from the de la salatu salam ala rasulillah
novella. But just to finish off those two remaining categories of rulings inshallah, before we break for Salah, just to keep everything in shala compact and, and together the fourth ruling so we had worship we had Mr. Hubbard we had haraam, right, we had obligatory were recommended and we had prohibited the fourth ruling is macro, which means disliked. And this is the opposite of
almost a habit, meaning that it's if you that to that if you leave it, you are rewarded, if you do it, you are not sinful. So if you leave it you are rewarded mean obviously with the intention that you're leaving for the sake of a lot. And if you do it you are not sinful, right? So for example, one of the examples that will be given for this and there is a difference of opinion over this issue. eating garlic and coming to the masjid, eating onions and coming to the masjid, right. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, as we know, in the Hadith, Whosoever eat from this tree, did not come close to our Masjid, meaning garlic and onions, right. And the process of them said in
the Hadith, that indeed the angels are harmed by that which the people are harmed by. So the angels don't like that foul smell of garlic and onions. Is that hadith of prohibition? Or is it a dislike for the sake of argument and for the purposes of this, we'll say it's a dislike, right just to give the example across. So those folders that would say his dislike would say, therefore for a person to come intentionally, like you go and eat your onions and whatever, and then you decide, oh, is Russia time let me go right. And you obviously don't clean your mouth, you don't get rid of the smell and so on and so forth. You come into the masjid, with that intention like that, you would be
it is something which you're not sinful for, but it's something which is not recommended. But if you were to leave it for the sake of Allah, you would be it is something which you would be rewarded for, okay. The fifth and final category therefore is Alibaba. Alibaba means permissible, you are neither rewarded nor are you punished, there is no recommendation there is no dislike, it is just simply in the middle back means permissible and that is the vast majority of things in our life, working waking up walking, sitting, if your intention is not to please Allah in your everyday activities. Therefore, under this banner of mobile app, it is simply allowed eating, drinking,
walking, talking all of this stuff, as long as there is no haram element or no worship element, it is just everyday activity. They fall under the banner of of of MOBA. Okay. So these are the general rulings that the scholars category so we have the sources of legislation from those sources of legislation. The scholars when they looked at everything, they found that our rulings they fall into these five distinct categories, things which are obligatory things which are recommended, things which are prohibited things which are disliked, and things which are permissible, so shall not let's break them in the law. For those of you that want to make old ones, so on and so forth, and then
we'll carry on inshallah we'll finish the two categories remaining. In the last episode Russia, satin the hills on a bit