Channel: Adnan Rashid
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Okay, so, everyone, thank you for joining us today. My name is Hamza daddy. I'm the CO president of the Muslim Student Union at Stanford. And I'll be introducing our esteemed guest speaker who stared at the machine.
But before I do that, I just want to give a brief description of this event and of why we're here today. So the title of the event is Islam in South Asia and introduction to mobile history. And this event is part of a larger series of events that some of us to the MSU have been working on, called Islamic history, discovering our roots. And the purpose of this series is first to increase the knowledge of Muslims, especially young Muslims, of the fascinating history of Islam, and our collective civilization as an oma as a community of believers. And the second purpose is to connect us to our intellectual and cultural heritage so that we can actually identify with this history
as our own, because if you're like me growing up in the West, you probably didn't have a lot of opportunities to learn about Islamic history.
And most of what you did, read or hear through books, media, Hollywood is probably negative. Even if you take classes out of Western University like Stanford, what you learn will be from a Western or secular or orientalist worldview, which of course can be very biased. So in this series, we're specifically inviting Muslim speakers who studied both history and Islam, so they can give us a more authentic picture of our history from an Islamic paradigm. And inshallah The plan is to focus on a different region of the Muslim world each time last quarter we did African history. Today shenana will be giving a lecture on Moodle history. And so who is who has shut her down nonetheless, she is
an international lecturer from London, UK, who specializes in Muslim history and Islamic numismatics, which is a study of coins. he attained his BA with honors from Birkbeck college at the University of London and completed his master's from the School of Oriental and African Studies. He's currently pursuing further studies in history, and he has studied headed sciences and holds a jazz as certificates in that field. He has also debated high profile Christian theologians and appears occasionally on major media outlets such as BBC, Islam channel, ITV, etc. And now she has travelled extensively and has conducted history tours to a number of Islamic monuments. He's an avid
book collector, and takes a keen interest in studying ancient and medieval coins. He's taught many Islamic as well as history courses and workshops around the globe. And and then he is currently working on a book on the history of Muslim civilization.
And he also writes poetry and the order language occasionally, and is an admirer of poets like mirror Valley and echo bed
at and then Rashid is deeply fascinated by the legacies of men such as Shah Wali, Allah and tippu Sultan, and he currently resides with his family in London, Masha Allah, so the plan is shifting in a lecture for about 45 minutes, followed by a q&a. So if you're ready, Shere Khan and you can take it away.
Thank you for that have fun they were aim from the low salatu salam wa salatu salam about early realize some elimination regimes later on our aim series will have on Luca Karna, aka Tanaka dB.
So the color the perspective brothers and sisters in Islam, I am honored, I am
very, very pleased to be with you today. It is an absolute source of pleasure for myself to deliver a lecture on this important topic, Islam in South Asia and in general and the mobile history in particular, I will start with a very brief general introduction to Islam in South Asia. And bear in mind, this is going to be a very brief introduction, and then we will move on to the mobile history. And I will also be talking about mobile period and the lecture will be very brief. Again, it will be an introduction to mobile history. For lengthier studies or detailed studies. I will be recommending some books in due course. So how did Islam come to South Asia? What we today know as the Indian
subcontinent. Islam came
in a number of ways to South Asia, many Muslim traders came to the south western coast of India, and they inhabited that place for a very long time, mostly Gemini traders. militarily speaking, the Muslims appeared in the Indian subcontinent on a significant scale in the latter part of the seventh century, we're talking about in Hijri year we're talking about 92 Hijri. And in common error
year, a Gregorian calendar we're talking about 711 see exactly the same year when parekh zeod landed in Spain, when whatever when Muslim was taking land in northern China. Here we have a general called Mohammed bin possiamo, a young man a teenager. Sources tell us he was about 17 years old when his uncle called hijabi use of who was the governor of Iraq, on the part of the omega T was the governor of Iraq, he sent an expedition of 5000 men to the province of Sindh. Sindh was a province of the Indian subcontinent at the time, and it was governed by a Hindu King and cut the long story short, Mohammed will pass him with his 5000 fighters landed in Sindh near current de Karachi, the city of
Karachi in Pakistan, and he made an incursion towards the capital of Raja Dahir, the ruler of this region. Now there are many reasons as to why this expedition took place in the first place. Many historians have put put it down to
a kidnapping of Muslim merchants were traveling via sea and some of the pirates had kidnapped these Muslim merchants and some of them managed to get their message across to hotjar admin users and as a retaliation as a response to these pleas for mercy or for help hijabi use of center this expedition, how authentic are these are these reports is a very good question no one knows Okay, there is no reason to believe that they are authentic or there is no reason to reject them. So, we leave them in the you know, these authentics these, sorry, these sources are there, we can choose to believe them or we can easily choose them choose to leave them.
So hamedan Qasim came in cut the long story short, there is no doubt all the stories are unanimous that an Arab expedition took place into the province of Sindh. And this was the first military incursion of any significance within the Indian subcontinent that took place in the year 711 z and 92 hijiri and Mohammed bin Qasim, and this is bear in mind, this is a time of the tambourine and the Sava, some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad are still alive. For example, underspin Malik was alive when this expedition took place, and has been Moloch was a very important Companion of the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam were delivered many, many reports from the prophet to his
students, his followers. So this was the time of the tambourine. When the students of the Sahaba were alive in abundant abundance. It may well be the case that hominid passing might have met some companions of the profit easily. So he came with this army of 5000 men, he took the land of Finn by storm, Raja Dahir, was defeated in battle and the province of Sindh succumbed to Muslim military incursion. And then sport, Muslims governed sin for nearly three centuries. The history is far too vast for me to cover in a short lecture like this. This is only an introduction, how Muslims actually appeared militarily speaking, in the Indian subcontinent. So the first incursion into the
Indian subcontinent took place, from the say, southwest of the Indian, or maybe western part of the continent at the time, which was governed by a man called Raja Dyer. So this was about it. Many governors came to rule, the province of sin, then later on domains lost the power, the influence that Ambassador launched and other incursion into the land of sin, and they took the land of sin, and then Arabs governed parts of sin for nearly 300 years. And that's about it. This is how far Muslims went for nearly three centuries. Then, almost 400 years later, after the Prophet's death. We're talking about, let's say, the 11th century CE II, when from the north from the city of Ghazni,
another invader or another adventurer, depending on perspectives, right? If you were to read some of the Hindu nationalist narratives today in India, Mahmud ghaznavi was simply an invader, an unwanted uninvited invader. From the other side, if you were to read traditional Muslim narratives, he was a hero of Islam, who came to defeat this belief in India right?
Both these perspectives can be questioned. As far as historians are concerned historians don't See things in black and white like that. Rather, historians look for nuances as to why these invasions are taking place in the first place. Right. So from the north, we had Mahmoud resonably. From the city of Atlanta, in currently Afghanistan. This basically dynasty was formed by the father of mood. His name was Sabine, who was a Turkic slave, okay, and this slave dynasty came about as a result of the fall of another dynasty called the summonings. So many were the clients of the ambassade Caliphate in Baghdad, society declared independence later on, as far as political independence was
concerned and militarily 70s became independent. Then an offshoot of semones was basically these Turkic slaves who came to rule some parts of Afghanistan, and currently Persia or Iran, right, this was a huge power rule by Sultan Mahmud ghaznavi, bajo baja would invaded India nearly 17 times to accumulate wealth because he had heard about temples in India, in current day dewdrop, filled with gold and silver, because the Hindus had this tradition of donating gold and silver to temples. So the temples were a very attractive, how can I put it prize for invaders, and Mahmoud had heard about these temples, so to simply accumulate wealth, like any other King would do? In India, there are
many kings at the time Hindu kings, invading other Hindu territories doing the same thing. So anyone who found gold in temples, let's say or silver, or anything valuable, that temple would be a prize to win for any invader. So Richard aegeon, in his book, India in the persianate, he talks about it. In the very beginning of the book, he talks about how Hindu kings are invading other Hindu territories to accumulate wealth and defeat, the Hindu kings and temples became the target of these invasions very often. So my brothers and sisters, this is how the second entry into India took place on the north, as far as the Muslims are concerned. So my mood was not interested. Mahmoud was not or
also known as Mahmoud.
He was not interested in establishing a stronghold in the Indian subcontinent. So he came in, he basically took a lot of gold and silver, he looted temples, and he went back to Ghana, and he became very powerful as a result, gold and silver was in abundance. As far as my moods court was concerned, Mahmud II patronized many scholars and points in the gozney. As a result, one famous Persian poet who flourished in the court of Mahmoud al ghazali was Ferdowsi, the author of the famous shot Nami, an epic poem, which describes legendary legendary Persian history, talking about many imagined Persian heroes, and that was the birth of Persian poetry, the classical Persian poetry we know
today, right? So for those who was working in the courtroom mode, and he had dedicated shunammite or chef Nava of doji to my mode, the ruler at the time, also, I would I had Albay Rooney was another scholar who was working in the court of Sultan Mahmud ghaznavi, who wrote first extensive first extensive social study or socio cultural study of India. And his book was called gettable Hindi literally translated as the book of India. So, I would I had al biruni. He observed many things in India, he came into India, he observed the Hindu religion, he observed the culture he observed politics in India at the time
and he gathered information. It was like an intelligence report for the king of larceny mode. And that book is a fascinating piece of work, which is nearly 1000 years old. And the sheer detail and accuracy of this work is very much appreciated by the students of Indian history and the scholars who study Indian history. So, my moods invasions were the second military education
within India from the Northern Territory when Mahmoud did not establish a stronghold, and he went back to the first stronghold from the north, we can say was the city of Lahore and this happened in the 11th century. This happened in the 11th century See, if you have any questions, brothers or sisters, please post them, so that they can be put to me later on, and I will do my best to answer them, inshallah. So after my food
originally had come and gone in the 13th century, or the late 12th century, to be precise, the late 2012 century another invader, or adventure from the current day, Afghanistan or Afghan territory, came into India invading northern India. And again, cut the long story short, this is an introduction because I want to get to mobile's very quickly. But I want to give you some brief background to the rise of the mobiles, so that you understand why we're talking about the mobile first. Right. So
Shahabuddin Gauri was the man or more is the dean Hamad bin zom avari, also known as Shahabuddin, Gauri was the man who invaded India and a famous battle took place in the year 1192. When,
at the same time, remember, Sultan Salahuddin a UB was fighting the Crusaders in the Holy Land, right. So tan Salafi had defeated the Crusaders in 1187 July 11 87, in a place called 18. And shahabad been hammered with some worry. So Tom is the dean is known by many different names, and his coins can be found even to this day, scattered all over on his town in northern India. Right. Very powerful man, contemporary of his town Salahuddin. He came into India and 11 1192 he defeated a very powerful Hindu king who govern northern India at the time and his name was Prithvi, Raj Jo Han. He was defeated in battle. And first battle there was there was another battle that took place
previously, in this battle, Shahabuddin Hama Dori was defeated by Prithviraj chohan, but he let him go,
when he came back the second time in 1192, and defeated johanne in the Battle of terrain, a very famous battle. And then fourth, he established a stronghold in northern India. This was the first time when Muslims established a very, very, very strong power house in India. And that power house was later known as the city of Delhi. Delhi was the capital of Muslim power in northern India for another five centuries to come, please bear in mind, remember this part, another five centuries to come, Muslims governed from the city of Delhi with immense power and glory.
Right. And the city of Delhi was made capital, Muhammad Ali was on his way back to a Weinstein to the territory he came from. He was assassinated in his tent in the year 11, or six or 12, or 612 or six, he was assassinated in current day Pakistan near the city of Jerusalem. And then, after him came to power, his slave or to do a book, a book was a slave bought from Central Asian slave market, he served his master well, and after the death, or the assassination of his master, to be in a book came to power. And it was good to be in a book, who established
the dynasty that came to be known later on as the daily Sultanate, the very famous daily Sultanate, which was also known as the slave dynasty of India. Remember brothers and sisters in Islam, my brothers and sisters, ladies and gentlemen, friends who are listening to this lecture, you may be a Muslim, you may or may may be a non Muslim, I hope I will present this history in an objective way so that you can all enjoy this talk and take knowledge from it.
So, portable Dean a buck, who had succeeded his master as the Sorbonne as the ruler,
established this dynasty called the slave dynasty of Delhi. So, at that time, there were two slave dynasties in the Muslim world. One was in Egypt, also called the mameluke dynasty, literally meaning the owned ones or the possessed ones because they were also slaves.
Then the slave dynasty of India, which was established by powerful slaves who became generals and then they became this upon themselves. So the slave dynasty lasted for nearly 300 years afterwards, after could have been a book
ruled or established this dynasty so good to be in a book established a powerhouse in Delhi, and in Lahore. Again, four years later, having established a stronghold in northern India coding while he was playing the equivalent of Polo in those days, he fell from his horse and he died in Lahore, the city of law in current day Pakistan, and he's buried To this day, in Lahore, near a place called Anarkali. So after he died, a very powerful so docile party came to power his name was ill Toto, Sultan shamsudeen input wish, he came to power. And he was a very, very pious, moral, upright character. And he was also a slave. He belonged to the slave class, he belonged to Sultan vody as a
slave because he had many slaves. So after couldn't a buck passed away, it took measure was another slave succeeded. And it was, at this time when he took measures in power, because he came to power in 1210 c 1210. And he governed until 12 1236. That's nearly 26 years, right. It was at this time, when the Mongol invasions started, it was in total 19. When gang gets con, he invaded Northern and North Eastern territory of the Muslim Empire ruled by at that time, quarrelsome Shah, Mohammed with the cash for azim Shah who was the ruler at the time and Ganga Khan immediately devastated caused the mighty Empire. And as a result, from Central Asia, there were hundreds of 1000s of people who
emigrated to either Persia or Afghanistan and further down to India. So, Delhi at that time, although was a stronghold of the slaves, slave kings, rather,
a lot of these immigrants are running away or taking refuge in other lands coming from Central Asia, they took refuge in the city of Delhi. So the cream of the crop, so to say from Central Asia ended up in Delhi, many scholars, many points intellectual architects, artisans, calligraphers, book producers, you name it, they came to Delhi. And immediately Delhi's economy boomed, daily became a hub of civilization daily became a powerhouse in the in the real sense of the word daily, became one of the most powerful one of the most, you know, bustling cities in the world, one of the busiest places in the world, because of the Mongol invasions. So, that gave a lot of confidence to the
rulers of Delhi, and they started to repel Mongol invasions, because the Mongols also invaded India this time. So after intubation, another very powerful band came to power. Of course, there were minor kings minor towns who came to power not for very long. They were important of course, because the rule, but they their contribution was not significant enough for us to discuss in a short lecture like that, of course they are important historically speaking, like Razia Sultan, Razia Sultana was the daughter of Sultan and took the first woman on for the first Muslim woman to rule India was rebellious or tarnish. He ruled India on northern India to be precise. for about four
years. He was a daughter of Sudan and took mission after her, her brothers came to power. And they were not very effective rulers, and then another slave came to power. His name was Sultana riyaz have been bulbar who was also turkey in origin. And he governed with an iron fist and he repelled Mongol invasions. So brothers and sisters cut the long story short, I want to move quickly on to mobiles because you may be waiting for me to talk about mobile that Time Is Flying. So this slave dynasty, repelled more Mongol invasions and after Baldwin chame.
Another dynasty, which was also a slave dynasty, but it had a different name. They were the hedges after the hill just came over looks after the doublex came.
Say it, and then the ladies and lo, these were the people who also belong to the slave dynasty system, or that period. The historians relegate this dynasty the Lord He died
To the slave dynasty period, for the reasons of, you know, convenience or accuracy, you name it. It's all there. So who are the moguls? And why are the moguls so important? Why do we need to talk about novels? So, slave dynasty, with different names with different individuals from different clans lasted for nearly 300 years from the year 1200 to 1500. And I have like, basically skipped a lot of important details a lot of important things. For example, one of the things I've skipped is
the invasion of India by timberlane, or pay move the lane, who was a Central Asian adventurer, very similar to Ganga Khan, have Ganga con in the Mongols having devastated land from northern China all the way to Syria. People thought, Okay, this is never going to happen again. But it was so bad. But then again, in the 14th century, another Central Asian adventure arose, who was father was a recent convert to Islam and taimoor also was a nominal Muslim, right. He started to take this territory again and he wanted to revive the legacy of Genghis Khan. Again, he wanted to be another Ganga spawn, so he went conquering as far as Syria. He also came to India in 1398. In the year 1390, he
devastated the city of Delhi, completely destroyed it, raise it to the ground, and went back to Central Asia where it came from. So Taymor the name, who was also a Turkic ruler, had some Mongol links. He was from a distant Mongol clan, and he was a Central Asian ruler, so he went, but from his children, because the table reads, after taking a lot of this land, they continued to govern like the Mongols did before them, they continued to cover govern parts of central Asia. And after Timo had passed away, nearly 100 years after him, his grandchildren came to govern,
due to the reasons of, you know, inheritance being distributed among many, many of his children, so many small principalities in Central Asia came about one of those principalities was the Fergana Valley, okay, where the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara were situated at the time, the Ferghana Valley was basically governed by a clan that belonged to the Tim Reid, and they claimed direct descent from timberlane or to move the lane,
which is the name is known by he was a great conqueror great in the sense of the magnitude, not necessarily due to his deeds, but the magnitude was huge. That's why it's portable in the Great.
Just like Alexander is called Alexander the Great, okay, whether he was great morally, ethically, whether he did good things great things, in that sense, is a good question. But he was great. In terms of magnitude, the magnitude of his conquests, they were absolutely phenomenal. Likewise, timberlane what to move the lane was a very big conqueror in Central Asia. So from his descent descendants came this man called chef Omar, who had inherited this small principality called Ferghana. Chef Omar had a son, or baba, his name was his name was the Hebrew Dean Muhammad Bauer, okay. These people they followed a mixture of Islamic principles, Persian tradition or culture and
also some of the Mongol values. So these people will Persian ized, Central Asian, semi Mongol, semi timurid or Turkic people. They were a mixture of many different cultures and ideas. So the team reads, and to be precise,
Humbert Barber, who was a young man at the time when he inherited the state from his ancestors. He was a very young man, he could not defend his state against his rivals, who were also claiming this territory from bother, so bother having inherited
from his father, and from his predecessors, tried to defend the value of Ferghana from rival clans, who eventually defeated Bauer and barber had to leave his territory for a renaissance a barber started looking for land elsewhere, because it cannot simply defeat his rivals in Central Asia. So he had to leave the value of Parana, which he missed very much the details again, far too many for me to indulge
At this stage, so Barber, who was an adventurer who had an army backing him, he had a band of followers. So he needed territory. He was a young man, an ambitious young man. For him to get the territory, he invaded northern Afghanistan. And when you did that, it took the city of Kabul successfully, and he came to rule the city of Kabul with some trouble. There was a lot of trouble. At that time, India was governed by the remnants of the slave dynasty I've already talked about. And this particular clan was also originally from Afghanistan or the land of Afghanistan today, and they were called The Lord is the Lord. He's, we're governing at the time. There were a few rulers from
this dynasty attempt to cover and the law these govern for nearly 50 years. rulers are like the Congo, the Brian loaded
and bobber basically came to confront one of the low D rulers, right. So some, basically, some of the Indians invited Bauer, some of the Hindus, merchants, they went to see barber in Cabo, and they invited him to invade India so that they can be liberated from the ladies. So Bauer, who was already an adventurer, who was ambitious, and ambitious young man, he saw his opportunity to make a living out of India. So he invaded India cut the long story short again. He was vastly outnumbered, significantly outnumbered in the first battle of Pani pot, which took place in the year 1526. It was the year 1526 when the herodian Mohammed bother the first Mughal Emperor forte, another Muslim ruler
of northern India, called Ibrahim lodhi. At the time, right, a battle took place in this place, named Daly City of Delhi to place the battlefield was called Pani, but because it was close to a sport, or a village or a town called party, but and the battle took place, and bother due to some tactical advantages he had, he defeated his enemy. And there were, of course, a lot of differences among the generals who were representing the law the state at the time, Baba took full advantage of that, and he managed to defeat the law the king and managed to capture daily and after daily, he captured many other northern Indian cities for the loading dynasty, including ogra with treasure
wars, so but Baba overnight, from an adventurer, from an impoverished ruler of a small principality in a town called Cabo, he became a powerhouse in in himself and immediately he realized that he has become someone very, very important because India at the time was extremely rich. India has always been rich. India was always rich until the colonial powers later on,
bled dry. India was the richest land in the world as I will talk about very quickly.
So, Barber, having taken much of northern India in the low 30s, he started to consolidate his power. He appointed general he appointed governors in different cities. And at the same time, barber started to write his personal memoir called barber nama, which is a very, very interesting read. It was written in the Turkish language, the moguls, who were originally a Turkic people who were to read, of course, and the moguls By the way, always referred to them as the team reads. It was only later on, let's say in the 18th century, when the term model was applied against the Mughals, possibly by the British at the time, the East India Company, writer or authors in the 18th century,
they started to call the Mughals, Mughals, the moguls always took pride in calling themselves the team reads. They never call themselves the Mongols because the word mogul is a Persian ized
corruption of the word Mongo, Mongo and mobile you can see the similarity there. But the the models were not necessarily strictly speaking Mongo. They were teammates. They were the children of Timo, the lame, and they drew inspiration from Tim Timberlake and of course a mother who was one of his great grandchildren. So barber having consolidated consolidated his power, he started to build garden
You started to miss the cold and the clean weather of Cabo and the value of Paragon Ah, he was missing. Summer come in Bukhara he, because he was new to India. He was an outsider he came from outside. He didn't like India much because of the heat because of the dust. And he talks about it in his personal memoir, Baba nama. So it was written in the Turkish language, it was translated there are many English translations available of power nama today, if I'm not mistaken, one has been published by the penguin press. It's a great translation with a with a good introduction.
I strongly recommend that particular memoir, if you really want to get into the mind of the first Mughal Emperor, who was an intellectual, who was appointed for excellence was a great author, a great adventurer, not necessarily a great human being because I'm not claiming that he was perfect, but he was an intellectual. And he committed many atrocities as well. Unfortunately, because again, he was inspired by Timo or blame or accumulate, who was inspired by Ganga Khan. So the traditional Ganga con trick trickle down to timberlane. And from timberlane, that inspiration came to the Hill, the Mohammed Baba who committed some atrocities. Again, bovver only governed for four years, and he
fell ill fatally and died in 1530. As a young man, he died in his the 40s. Were not very old, and he left behind his son. How are you? Oh, my Yun was a very interesting figure, who happened to be,
again, an intellectual.
And he ruled for nearly 10 years. And after ruling for 10 years, another dynasty came to remove him from power. And these are again, Afghans who had come from Afghanistan. And they were brought by the law these before the models, and they were basically working for the roadies. So this afghan clan was led by a man called Fareed Han is there was Fareed Han, also famously known as Cher Shah, The Lion King, The Lion King shesha, literally translated means the Lion King, this was the title he was given because of it is better in war, his leadership skills, qualities, his characteristics as a strategist, and he successfully removed my own power, and my own went into exile to Persia. And
apparently, at that time, this was the end of the Mughal Empire. The Mongols had fallen as soon as they had risen. I hope I'm making sense this is very, very interesting. The history is getting very interesting. So the moguls almost never came back for the moguls almost never had India.
What happened later on all the magnificence of the moguls all the achievements almost never happened. Because as soon as moguls took power in India, when barber had taken India and then his son came to rule for nearly 10 years, the lost power. What are the general one of the generals from Bihar, a city of the land of Bihar,
who was drawn share Shah outstays asked him the Emperor, Mr. Yun. So homayoun had to literally run for his life and take refuge with the stuff of it in Persia. So the top of it kept volume for nearly 10 years in prayer. Right. So in these
coming 10 to 15 years, another dynasty was formed called the Suri dynasty,
initiated or established by this man called share Shah, The Lion King, also known as known as share, share story, a very, very powerful King, a very able ruler. He goes on for the next six to seven years almost. And he did many, many great things.
He built roads he built.
You know, when it comes to infrastructure, he did some magnificent work within five years, 10 years or so, there are rulers in the history of Islam, or the in the history of humanity, for that matter, who ruled a very short time, but they left a huge mark on human
mind. One of them was of course, a man called Omar bin Abdullah. He is specifically talking about the Muslim history only gone for two years, but he left a huge impact on Muslim psyche. His reign lasted for literally two years, from 9980 to 101.
And the only year he got
Completely speaking completely was the year 180. Right. But he left a huge impact on Muslims. I personally love him for his two years 10 year old local. Likewise, Sher Shah Suri was another example of government for six to seven years in India. And he ruled from 1539 to 1546. I'm not mistaken. And this is when he was killed in a battle when he was trying to take a very difficult fortress in India and gunpowder, reserves or the stock, or the storage of gunpowder blew up and it injured the king severely and the king in Seoul succumbed to his injuries. And then his son Islam shot so he came to power. And then the Sunni dynasty started to crumble and started to deteriorate
because of internal fighting, civil war between the sweet clans and homayoun, who was sitting in Persia waiting for his opportunity to come back. He took his opportunity, he saw the Saudis are fighting each other, he with the help of the Persians came back to take power in India again. And he successfully did that. He removed the series, the series were completely removed from power. And lo and behold, the mobile returned to India, this time again, ruled by my own on my own. I was only back for a few months, when he was descending from his library. In Delhi. He was very fond of books and collecting manuscripts. He was in his library while he was descending from his library, and he
fell on staircase and he died as a result, he succumbed to his injuries and he died. So now the burden of power the burden of ruling India such a powerful place such a rich place, the burden fell on the shoulders of his young son called jalopy Muhammad Akbar, the famous, awkward, the great. Akbar was a very, very interesting character for a number of reasons.
genotropin Muhammad Akbar came to power in the year 1556
homayoun came back from Persia, he took India at 35. And he only ruled for a few months when he died, having fallen to a library and then his son was a teenager at the time, according to some reports, he was 13 years old, when he was put on. So obviously, this young man who had already lived a life of turmoil running with his father and staying in exile, at times being captured, and
you know, was taken as a hostage upper he had a very, very troubled childhood. So he could not study because he was on the run with his father continuously, he could not study so Albert is known to have been
when it comes to reading and writing and learning, he was not learned he was some people call him illiterate. I wouldn't call him illiterate, but he was unlearned unlettered to use the right term, he was unlettered. So at 13, he came to power, his generals ruled on his behalf, and they helped him out. And he was under the influence of a foster mother called mum or not.
This was a lady who had breastfed him. And she also had another son called Adam Han, so awkward, grew up under the influence of his foster mother and a few of his generals and advisors. But he realized that he were simply a puppet.
And other people were taking advantage of his power. And he was playing into the hands of other people. Again, the long story short, he took back power by himself, and he kind of got rid of all these people around him who were using him. So ogburn became a very assertive ruler. He became a very creative leader. Initially, he had deep interest in Islam. So if you pick up a verse coin, Jelena Deen Muhammad Akbar, who was the grandson of Muhammad bother
Initially as a young man, he had a deep interest in Islam. He was very much into Islam. At times he would go and clean mosques. Basically, he would go and wipe the floor of mosques, he would pick up the slippers of the Lama, and he would put them in front of the shoe out of respect and dignifying them, but as he grew older, he became more and more haughty
became more and more rebellious towards religion. And he started to basically go away from the religion of Islam. I tried to do his own thing. He didn't want to follow the undermine the guidance, partly because of the Allah at the time, well, because Allah would not, unfortunately very wise people, I'm saying, most of them are not all because there were some good allamah but they didn't have access to the Emperor, those who had the excess are definitely not good Olimar Unfortunately, some of them are probably evil, some of them are simply there to make money to fill their pockets. And they wanted to take advantage of this closeness they had with the Emperor. So the Emperor
established in 1870, having come to power nearly 20 years, he established this place called a bad economy, where he would hold debates among scholars from different faiths. So they would be induced into philosopher sitting there, they would be Muslim intellectuals, some bull[???]ting like unorthodox thinkers and other orthodox scholars, and then there would be a Christian thinker sitting there time, they would be left they are, you know, Jain monks sitting there, they will all be debating each other. And about being an illiterate man not having the ability to sift through the sophisticated arguments that we would use against each other. He wasn't, he didn't have the ability
to really assess that information. And he had assumed that the scholars of my time the Muslim scholars are the best scholars in the world. And he was, of course wrong, because the the the lot he had in his court was the worst of all, who says so, actually one of the scholars who was inside the court, his name was of the Father, Mala. Abdulkadir by the union, who was an eyewitness to all of this, he explains as to why a lot of Mohammed Akbar, who later on apostatized from Islam, why did you die? Why did you leave Islam a Mughal Emperor, such a powerful man and he expanded the Mughal territory significantly, you know, what was left behind by his father and his grandfather was
large enough, but not, you know, the territory he himself later conquered when it comes to western India and as far as east, you know, he took a lot of land in India, a lot of good Muhammad Akbar. But with that power came a lot of influence from other people. Advisors really messed him up, as they say, in our language today. They really really corrupted his mind and his thinking. So he became very, very reluctant towards Islam. So he started to go with it. He started to persecute Allah. Authentic Lama good honor, people who were honorable, insincere, they will not permit court. So mala Otto kasi by the uni, who was one of those people present in the quarter awkward. He writes
about all of these debates that took place. And he writes that these Allah Ma, these Muslim Allah, who were mostly there for money and influence and pain, and to get close to the Emperor, they are not sincere people, they started to abuse each other in front of the Emperor, while they were debating with each other, they would abuse each other, they would throw abusive terms against each other. So as we're having seen this behavior, he became very, very, very put off. Not only of these allama, but Islam all together. Again, cut the long story short, Akbar announced his apostasy. And he announced a new religion, which he came to
believe himself, he became the head of the church, his own church. And what was his religion called? It was called Dini. Illa. He did a live sound Islamic, but it was anything but Islamic. Basically, it was a completely,
you know, concocted system. It was a philosophy he himself came up with, and there was an advisor with him called abolfazl. Our father was again, a heretic, who was advising Akbar, on many of these matters. He was a very learned man, no doubt. He was a very learned man Apple puzzle. There were two brothers, our puzzle and Phase II, Phase II was a point of a puzzle was, again an intellectual of lots of Tinker. And he really, really really broke away from Islam, and made us think that he had some sort of divine powers. so awkward. Not so many words himself claimed divinity. This could be seen on his coin. Okay, so if you pick up a lot of coins from the latter part of his reign,
You will see terms like janela jalala from his name gelato being so awkward name of gelato being from his name, the term jelajah. Lala will can be found on its own bitcoins basically signifies signifying or highlighting the fact that he may be somehow out of the villa divine, right? On the other side of the coin will see Allahu Akbar, which is the term Allahu Akbar, right? Allah is the Greatest. So these were some insinuations on the points he was putting for people to believe, some sort of divinity, alien, right, of course, the Olimar rejected him, and they rejected his DNA ilahi and they declared the fear against him as well. And a lot of the allama they would call him a lot of
being Oxford, not gelada been a cover, rather, it was called dollaro being asked for, basically, in other words, he is the misguidance of being not the glory of the deen rather the misguidance of the being and the biggest disbeliever basically, this is what the term means actually. So, the allama used these kinds of derogatory term, and many of them are during his reign were persecuted and Muslim Empire or the Muslim civilization in India was shaken to the poor. Now, this is one of the reasons why Hamad Akbar Chalabi Muhammad Akbar was so loved by the anti Islamic
establishment in India at that time, and this is why he is loved so much by some anti Islam or Islamophobic entities in India today.
Why do they love awkward, Akbar was himself anti Islam in many, many forms, in many, many ways. He was anti Islam, he was killing all of it was persecuting Allah. He didn't want orthodox Islam to take hold of Indian Affairs, as far as the Muslims are concerned, didn't want him to polish Islam. So, he was very much loved by anti muslim establishment in India at the time. And to this day, you know, there is a funny anecdote which I would like to very quickly narrate when Pakistan became an independent state in 1947, when after the colonial rule of India for nearly 150 years,
two countries came about as a result, India and Pakistan, east and west Pakistan put together while Pakistan and India in the middle was another secular state, which was created by the British colonial establishment. So Lord mount batten, who was
the the Viceroy of India, appointed by former King George the sixth at the time to send he was sent basically to partition India and speed the process. So mom Wait, baton came to India. So when the inauguration of inauguration speech was happening in Pakistan, in Karachi, in the city of Karachi, Mountbatten was present on the 15th of August, when mount back in Baton, he delivered a speech for the then Governor General of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the very founder of Pakistan and so, so Mountbatten, in his speech, he advised the Muslims of Pakistan at the time to follow God, Mohammed Akbar, why? Because he was an epitome of power. This is the image that was portrayed by colonial
thinker and historian at the time. This was the image of Akbar, they were putting forward that he was a torrid man because he hated Islam, because he wanted to do away with Islam, but that's why he could he has to be tolerant. Right? So he said, This tolerance, the Muslims of Pakistan must follow general came back to deliver his speech. And in his speech, he responded by saying that why do we need to follow up but when we have Mohammed salam, as our model, we have him the Torres you're talking about, was practiced by the prophet centuries before jalala Muhammad Akbar came to power in India. So we have a greater model in other words, so this image of gelato been Muhammad Akbar as a
beacon of light and tolerance and justice. And all that is basically are doing of the colonial historian writing in the 19th century.
To do away with the Islamic movement of India at the time to suppress it intellectually. They basically gave rise to these
made up heroes, heroes
Islam people like a lot of the Mohammed Akbar, but he was anything but a Muslim. So, he died in 1605 having gone for nearly 50 years, a long, powerful reign, some people even call it the golden age of the Mughal Empire. Okay, awkward died and when it comes to tolerance, he was anything but tolerant. He dealt with his opponents, just like any other moral King would deal with his opponents. So, Akbar was no different to any other mobile king. He did what he what had to be done for pragmatic reason at the time, so he was no different. So what he's portrayed as a beacon of light and tolerant in a today, today's Indian literature,
pumped or pushed by the current BJP government. It doesn't make sense to historian. Historians don't see things like that. Right. Moving on. Akbar was succeeded by one of his sons, or john Lee, who govern for another about
27 years government for nearly 27 years and then came to power. Histon, Sharjah Han Shan Xiao Han was a very powerful Emperor, charge on govern from basically 1627 to 1656. JOHN going from 1627 when john D died show John's father died.
He came to power in 1627. So the time of show john these nearly 30 years are known as the golden age of the Boland charge Johan was very much inclined towards Islam. Shah John's father john D was awkward son was also a semi practicing Muslim. He would very often brain can use opium and he will womanizing very often for Sharjah, Han was more inclined towards Islam and II govern effectively for 30 years. And he conquered many different territories within India that were not conquered. Previously, he had four son, cha cha Han had four sons. So now brothers and sisters mobile period, I want to very quickly mentioned I should have mentioned this earlier, mobile period is divided into
two parts, the the rise part, the rise of the Mughal Empire, or the peak of the Mughal Empire, and the decline of the mobile app. Okay, the rise part lasted nearly 150 to 150 years, mobile employs one after another, governed somewhat effectively, and had a very, very prosper India under prosperous India under them. But after the year 1707 the mobile's went into a very, very sharp decline. why that happened?
I will quickly
I will quickly explain to you why that happened in India.
So, after shahjahan
his four sons came to, you know, fight each other so I can talk about the reign of shot Johan, by the way. Very quickly, I want to mention a few of his achievements. During the reign of Sharjah on the Mughal Empire went through our nation's it went through a lot of improvement in culture, economics
grow across religion, interactions, Muslim philosophers debated Hindu thinkers, Hindu thinker producing works of
high magnitude many Sanskrit words are written. There is one book in particular, I would very strongly recommend it is by Audrey trust. Audrey trust is a great scholar of mobile history. And she has been going through a lot of trouble recently, having written books objectively about the mobile history. she faced a lot of criticism and attacks on social media from the BJP, or the current Indian Government supporters on Twitter and elsewhere. She was attacked for writing history objectively. So historians writing in India
objectively faced a lot of backlash whether they are Western historians or Indian historian, if they write history as it is, it is not accepted by the current government for some reason. And this is another question. I don't want to indulge in the politics, but Audra trust. Flight is there for everyone to see. If you read her work, her recent work she has produced another book, whereby she talks about how stress
get sorted paint the Muslim rule. Sanskrit is the religious language of Hindus. And many Sanskrit authors had written in their own language talking about the Muslim rule. And she has written a book on this recently she published it. I don't remember the title of the book. Exactly, but you can find it olbrich trust you. Right. So orams it. Basically, before I get to where I want to talk about charge on charge, Johan was a very interesting character. So he governed form 1627 to 1656, nearly 38. Right. It could take 29 years to be precise.
In these 30 years, nearly 30 years, he made many reforms, economically speaking. He did a lot of good work. And interestingly enough, he was the man who built the famous Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal is basically seen as a symbol of love in the world, you know, a love from one man or his wife, basically. And there's no doubt shot Johan loved his wife, Mumtaz Mahal daily. He loved her more than life, basically. Right. And there is a reason for that because he went through a lot of sacrifices with him. He gave him a lot of children shahjahan had, if I'm not mistaken, nearly 13 children with Mumtaz Mahal and she died giving birth to the last child. And she went through a lot of trouble. A lot of adventures a lot of
problems when charged himself as a fugitive running away from his father charged on had rebelled against his father, like Gandhi rebelled against his father and
was going through a lot of trouble with his son. So this was a common Mughal tradition when a son rebelled against the father and then he makes up with the father or maybe gets killed by the Father. Right. So, Shah john had rebelled against his father, john gearin. For some years, cha cha cha Han was on the run within India, in remote territories with his followers and his wife. So his wife went through a lot with a lot. So he was madly, madly in love with his wife when she died, so john was absolutely devastated. He had lost any taste for life, he had lost any interest in life. And it is said that he spent long time long period in seclusion, alone, sitting alone, and possibly missing
his wife. So as a token of His love, as a symbol of His love, he built this magnificent structure, which people from all around the world come to see in India, in the city of Agra for the Taj Mahal, the Taj Mahal, basically, literally translated to mean the crown, the crown palace, this is where Mumtaz Mahal, the beloved wife of Sharjah, Han was born. Okay, that was one of his achievements, which he gave to India, which is cherished very much to this day. Right? So after shajahan came to power his son, orange, red, but how did orange they've come to power is a very good question. Orange a to put it in simple terms, was the most Islamic of mogul kings, orange zabe.
without any hesitation, I would like to say was the most islamically observant islamically practicing King among the Mughal emperors. There were again, as I stated earlier, there were other Mughal emperor who had interest in Islam as their faith as their religion. Originally ancestors. They had interest in Islam, but their dedication to Islam,
you know, at times was nominal. They only did Islam for pragmatic reasons to make the allama happy, but orange there was genuinely a Muslim at heart. He was a Muslim at heart. Okay. Now, the history of our exam is far too long for me to address in this short lecture, which is again an introduction.
Now, I would I would like you, I would like you to go and watch my lecture on oral exam, my YouTube channel, you can find the lecture. It's a long lecture, live alone, and you will find it to be fascinating, except it's on my YouTube channel. If you put orange zip by Adnan Rashid YouTube, you will find the lecture. Okay. There is also another video I would like to recommend very quickly is my book recommendation on mobile history. If you write a non Rashid moral history book recommendation on YouTube, you will find that video as well. So you can go and watch that video for an extensive
book recommendation on the bible history. So please do watch that particular video on mobile history where recommending books.
shahjahan became ill in 1840, not at 1656 shahjahan became ill, and there were four sons shahjahan had four sons and the morals, they had this tradition of giving power to the son to rule provinces. For example, john had followed the same tradition, he had inherited from his ancestors and shahjahan appointed his son to rule different territories. For example, one of his sons called
shots your job was given bank ball, the regional bank ball in eastern India. Then orange wave was given the leadership of decades, the South, the south of India or southern India. Then there was mirage.
Mirage Bosch was another son of Shah Johanna
was another son of shajahan was given the territory of bedrock, the province of bedrock. And Dara Shaku the eldest son, Chad, Johan kept him very close to himself at the court, because he wanted Dara Shaku to come to power after he died. And this was a mistake on shahjahanpur part, the man he kept close to insult to keep you mad code to be close to the politics of the code for the most incompetent in battle, and the man he had thrown away. And the man in this light for the sun, he disliked, didn't want him to come to power was the one who was battle hardened. And that was already there. Cut the long story short in 1656. A rumor spread that Sharjah Han had died because there was
a mobile tradition of appearing on the gallery every single day the Mughal Emperor would rise on the day. And after sunset, he would appear on the gallery for people to see him in the Capitol either in Delhi or ogra. He would come to the gallery for people to see him and this would be called Darshan. This practice called Bashan. Basically beholding the Emperor beholding the Emperor Emperor is there on the gallery, people would gather in large crowds to look at the Emperor and pray for him. So Emperor did not appear some day. And when he did not appear for some days, shahjahan was ill at the time hadn't died. people assumed that he is dead, and the rumors spread. And when the rumors spread
all the poor son of Sharjah on
actually three sons who were distant, were away were very far on the center of power, which was in Delhi and Agra.
The three of them they had realized that the father is dead, was actually not dead because that ushiku who was at the court, the eldest son, who was at the court knew the father is not dead, but he wanted to prevent any alarm. But the damage was done on David heard, the father has died. Murat box had heard the Father has died, the Emperor is dead. So did charge the job. So all three of them had to bite it up. There was a principal and agreed principle among Mughal princes, who were establishments within themselves. Each Mughal Prince was ruling territory, territories as largest countries today, for example, you know, work for example.
You know, these mobile printers are very powerful. They had their own state, they had their own governor, they had their own military generals, they had their own army. Some of them employed close to 50,000 people. This is how big the system can you imagine a prince who has a staff of 50,000 people running his army, his administration, his finances,
you know, managing his domain. So these are very, very, very, ultra powerful mobile printers. And each and every single one of them wanted to become the king. So this was this mobile tradition or 13 tradition rather, which was bought into India, that every Prince has to pick it up, and the strongest would come to power. This is all temporary. So mobile, Prince's knew that once the Emperor dies, chaos will follow. And whoever wins the war not the battle necessary, necessarily
will become the next Emperor. So, there was this understood slogan or understood principle between the Mughal princes. And it goes as follows. In the Persian language, you
get tabooed basically, it's either the throne or the box, the box has in coffin, right. So it's either the throne or the coffin, there is nothing less we would want. Why? Because they knew if they lose the battle they would be killed anyway, so they would rather die in battle. Right? Again, long story short, after John's death, was announced, falsely or inaccurately as an error. These three princes mobilized their armies towards the Capitol. Right. And I want to cut the long story short, the victorious Prince among them was born with all of you, the most disliked son by Sharjah Han
and Sharjah Han became a prisoner of
Sharjah Han wanted orange live dead and charged on luck, Dara Shifu, the eldest son,
so much that he wanted him to be the Emperor adarsha, who, who may be a scholar, maybe a thinker a point but was not a good warrior. He tried to win the war of succession here in huge support because the Emperor's backing
but he lost the war against against all of them, and so did other brothers. So Mirage box was killed by orange vapes, or was that a shampoo after a trial in Delhi, he was put on trial for treason and other things. And he was killed and charged your job. He basically left India, Burma, and it is thought that he died in Burma or Myanmar, at that time, Burmese territory. So orangette became the ruler or and there was a very religious man, he was inclined to religion. He was in love with Islam. And that's why Allah Bactrian, they didn't want to come to power because Darshan was seen another individual who had interest in Hindu philosophy and he wanted to basically disturb the order of
Islam in India. So they didn't want another awkward situation in India. Remember, I talked about our initiative, his own religion. So the Olimar very nervous about Russia. They didn't want him to come to power, hence the back orange and orange it was the right man for them. And the details again, a far too many for me to go through. For that you will have to read out read trust book on our exam, audit trust, whom I have mentioned earlier, has written another book, titled The life of Warren Buffett, you must study that book, orange a by Audrey thrush, a very interesting introduction of Warren great history, to orange they memorize the Quran, having become the Emperor, can you believe
it, someone who becomes an emperor at the age of 40 and he started memorizing the Quran. So at the age of 40, or read memorize the Quran.
He was he was known for his deep interest in Islamic sciences, he surrounded himself by the Allah. He also ordered for a great Compendium to be compiled for
the Muslim law or the Hanafi Fiqh in particular, and his collection collection, made in his name or by his behest by the allama was called alpha tower, alpha tower on Island area, basically also known as alpha Taiwan, India, okay, the Indian jurisprudence, jurisprudence or Indian Compendium, for example, for that matter, or the Compendium or of Emperor Arlen, good, okay. So, this is the largest collection of Hanafi jurisprudence in the world which was, of course, sanctioned or patronized by orange, orange, they both have very simple man who govern for the next
50 years, nearly 50 years, and he lived a very long life. He died in 1707,
nearly 89 years old or nearly 90 years old, and he is his brain was the richest period in Indian history. This has been confirmed by historian orange vaibhavi. With very much maligned by again, the current Indian government as a policy. There are two individuals from the Muslim ministry, who are especially maligned do more to in particular, if not more, of course, there are more Muslim heroes, heroes of the past, who are definitely maligned by the current Indian government, and schools and colleges and universities are being pressurised into demonizing these figures from Indian history, too.
In particular received special treatment, one is orange zevalin gear and the other is people so far he was put on who also governed parts of southern India in the 18th century. And that's another topic maybe perhaps we can do another lecture or keep us hooked on pacifically in the future, I have been speaking for nearly one hour. So, I want to quickly summarize the lecture and conclude the lecture so that you can ask your question inshallah, very, very quickly, I want to do that. So, Auden's about him, he was one of the most powerful emperors who ruled India were the most Islamic of emperors. And he was one of the most is he is one of the most controversial figures in Indian
history not because he himself was, you know, any different to any other mobile King, but he will he is most most controversial, because the British colonial historian, painted him as a villain. So, did the Indian nationalist authors later on and the current Indian Government, for him as a villain, okay. So, why is that the case because he was the most Islamic mobile King, and because the current Indian Government is
promoting dislike of Islam as a policy, anyone who was attached to Islam in Indian history has to be maligned at the same time. Right. So orange volunteer had many, many good qualities the man who built the famous, the large, the humongous, watch a mosque in Lahore. So if you use the old Grand Trunk road to enter Lahore,
you will see the bachi Mosque as the first monument that hits your eyes. It is a spectacle. It is a spectacle to behold. It is a masterpiece of martial art, which is absolutely magnificent. I strongly recommend anyone visiting Pakistan anytime soon in the future. You must visit Lahore to see the badshahi Mosque built by orange dibala. Here, it was completed in 1674. By this venerable Emperor, he used to write the Quran in his own hand. He was a calligrapher, he was a he was an intellectual. He took justice very seriously. When he saw wrong done anywhere. during his reign, he took matters into his hands person, he got the wrongs done right person.
At the same time,
people accused him of bigotry was somehow against Hindus is accused of that. But scholars have clarified that he employed more Hindus in his state than all of the Mughal emperors put together before I repeat, orange zabe employed more Hindus in his military, in his administration, in its state abroad, just generally speaking, then all of the Mughal emperors put together before him, including Charles Johann, his father, his grandfather, john D, his great grandfather, Akbar, homayoun, and power, all of them put together, they employed less Hindus in the state of progress, that orange dead did, widely maligned as a big.
In fact, scholars have estimated that 33% of employers in the state of broadcast are Hindus
Some of his best generals were Hindus.
So, he fought against the Murata. He spent 25 years of his life in southern India fighting the Murata rebels, devastating the land, devastating the country, you fought against them. Shivaji, who is a hero of
the Hindu nationalist movement today in India was the rebel what against him, but he is given a Hindu
image for the wrong reasons. In India today. He was he was not fighting for Hinduism necessarily because he had Muslim generals in his army, he was working with the Muslims, but it was a bit of a
mixture, just like Reconquista in Spain, it was not necessarily
war of religion, rather, it was a land grabbing enterprise. Likewise in India, in the 17th century, it was a land grabbing enterprise as far as the mulatos are concerned. They were troubling the moguls because they wanted the moguls out of the territory, that that's what it was. And they were using Muslims where they occurred they were using Hindu Parata and the Raj were fighting against Bharata both of whom are Hindus. Okay, the rajpoot were siding with the Mughals and while the beracha was
against the Global's, so again, it's a long history or in depth spent 25 years of his life the last 25 years of life in southern India, he died there and he was buried in the city of orange about and he fought as he was alive,
when he was alive, India was the most powerful country in the world militarily and economically 24% of global GDP was in India.
I repeat again 24% of the global GDP was in India, and when the British left India, in the 1940s, the GDP of India was 4% Global.
Basically, when we look at the global economy at that time 4% or 24% to 4%. So, why do people claim that the British colonial period was good, the mobile period was not if anything, the Mughal period took India to heights it had never seen before. Culturally educationally, you know, when it comes to military strength, and economically you name it, the moguls made India a big power. The Mughals made India India. India was never united before under
for such a long time. One dynasty under one dynasty, there were individual there were Emperor like Ashoka had conquered a lot of India, no doubt. Okay, but it was not never United for a long period. But under the Mughals, India took identity for itself. It claimed identity in the United right. So
after orange says that my brothers and sisters came the decline of the Mughal Empire 1707 when Mughal Empire started to decline, so why in 150 years we saw about six Emperor's on the throne. Let's say from 1526 up to 1707. We had bothered we had my own, we are awkward, we had john D, we had shahjahan and we had orange with six Emperor's 458. But after the death of orange dead within the next 12 years, five Emperor's if not more, from a mistaken, actually more than five Emperor stat.
In the next 50 years, there were 13 emperor who sat on the mobile phone from 1707 to less than 1757 13. Emperor fat on the mobile phone, and
who took advantage of this chaos, many regional and foreign powers. For example, the mirages from the south were a raiding entity, they would come into the north and braid the north and rape and pillage and go back. They were not interested in forming an empire initially, when they started the Sikhs in the Punjab region, they rose than the British, who were outsiders, foreigners, the East India Company, we came for trading, they saw an opportunity and they started to scavenge for land like other local powers are doing. And on the ashes of the Mughal Empire rolls, the British Empire that started to take the line after the 1750s gradually from the moguls and the moguls lost their
political military economic influence in India forever and the British by the year 1800 managed to take large territories within India large so it took nearly 50 years for the British East India Company to take a much of mobile India, on the hands, partially from the hands of the mobile, and then in the hands of the bharatas, who had taken a lot of territory on the mobile. So the mobile eventually became nominal rulers, they became puppet rulers, the British started to appoint Emperor just as an end, just just like a showpiece decoration people mobiles were simply decoration feature. So the court of Delhi was simply confined to Delhi. The rest of the power came into the hands of the
British and the British started to exert power all over India having defeated all major local powers, like for example, pupils will burn in May school, he was defeated by an exam of doctrine of Hydra Bob was neutralized by the British politically speaking, and then the Murata were defeated in 1803 decisively. So the Mughals came for it, the British came to govern the city of Delhi. So it wasn't the first time
let's say in 600 years, when Korean power came to rule the city of Delhi after the Muslim that do that for nearly six centuries for 600 years
and cut the long story short in 16
So in 1857,
a mutiny took place against the British rule and the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah was appointed as the leader. The mutiny was lost the battle or the war was lost, the British came back to power and they deposed the last nominal Mughal emperor and exiled him to Burma when he died in
poverty. This was a very sad end of the Mughal Empire, okay. Now, there is so much of a talk about when it comes to moral intellectual history and moral contribution to knowledge arts, mobile art is some of the best art in the world, mobile produced manuscripts Islamic and otherwise on a grand scale. India became a power hub, India became a center of learning a generally speaking all over India under the Mughals right they were born in India during the Mughal period there were scholars they were theologian, they were philosophers, thinkers, India was
so powerful and prosperous that Europeans were coming into India to trade like the East India Company, the Dutch East India Company, the French came to try their fortune in India, the Portuguese had taken go up from the models and kept it for a very long time
right. So, India was filled with gold and diamonds and precious gems and manufacturer, India was the largest manufacturer in the world on the Roman period onwards. Even the Roman sources mentioned India, the subcontinent as a supplier of cloth,
good quality clock and that was stopped by the East India Company later on the colonial powers. So, that their clock produced in Europe or produced in Britain in particular could be sold. One book I strongly recommend on this topic is by Shashi Tharoor is an Indian
intellectual Indian author.
And his book is titled
The dark Empire or something like that the dark Empire okay talks about the colonial period in India and how India was bled dry or how India as a continent for as a subcontinent as a territory was exploited by foreign powers for their own gain, and how foreign powers to this day continue to take benefit from that wealth looted from India. Another book by William Dalrymple is highly recommended, it is titled The NRG the Anunnaki is another book which talks about the rise of the East India Company in India, how this colonial power came about, and how a trading company got enhanced on power in India and then later on, drained India dry to an extent that India now is the struggling
economy. Like with Pakistan and Bangladesh, Bangladesh is a very good upcoming economy, of course, Bangladesh in the last
10 years or maybe 20 years and made good progress. But India and Pakistan, as economies are struggling to this day, as a result of colonial looting, and polluting, and abusing, and exploitation and all that. My brothers and sisters, I would stop here as open more than I was due to speak. I do apologize. The topic is absolutely mind blowing is fascinating. And while I don't have the time, each and every single point I mentioned, my brother and sister is a lecture in itself. I need to do a long series on the mobiles, and the achievements what they did for India and how great the dynasty was and what were what were the shortcomings they had. All of these things need to be
talked about for in a short lecture like this. I'm sorry, I apologize. I will take your questions. salaam aleikum.
Thank you, Shannon. That was very fascinating, full of facts and
an interesting stories. So if people have questions, you can either unmute yourself and ask or put it in the chat and I can read it out loud.
I think there were many comments that came through. So if there are any comments, we can take them first inshallah. And then let them last.
Yes, yes. Saigon. Thank you for a wonderful lecture. Fellow. I learned a lot. I had a question on. You mentioned that Akbar had sort of created his own religion sort of in during his reign is there
any similarities between that faith and then the sort of new world A high faith, that's also sort of like taking from a bunch of different past cultures and religions?
To be fair, I'm not too aware of the Baha'i Faith, I haven't read on it yet. So I wouldn't, I wouldn't be able to comment on what the similarities are between being a lie and by faith. But there is no doubt that DNA lie was a mixture of different philosophies, or had adopted.
And he came up with this new idea. And he started to basically practice it himself. Although he didn't enforce this so called religion on his code years. And in fact, many of his followers in the court, were very reluctant to even consider it, they knew it supports religion or bridges through his lost his mind. And that's why I've never enforced this religion on people, or even as coaches. He had some diehard followers who ended up following it. Scholars put the number to about 80 people who ended up following his religion. So in other words, it was it was a was a failure, and it died with him, but died been a lie, he went with him. And the ilahi months were used on the coins on
mobile coins later on, on the coins of Jahangir. And because Akbar came up with his own calendar that he liked the lie e calendar, he introduced his new calendar, replacing the Islamic calendar. So these months were used for practical reasons, because these months had been used in India for a very long time for nearly, let's say, 25 to 30 years. So it wasn't easy to remove an already existing system immediately. So for that reason, for the reasons of practicality, the models later on, like jagi, and shahjahan also use these months on their coins and on correspondence, in correspondences. But later on when orange zip came to power, he re Islam ified, India, to what India came to be later
And when I say re Islamic FIDE India, I don't mean he forced Hindus into Islam. This is another huge lie against or observed that he was he was forcing Hindus to accept Islam, how can you force his own generals fighting for him against other into power, like the mulatos in the south? They were rajputs rajpoot are Hindus and orange. They've had them as generals in his military. So what do you how do you force them to accept Islam? This is ridiculous claim claims like that are absolutely ridiculous. And they're based upon ignorance. I hope I answered your question.
Thank you so much for everything that you shared. I had like a couple of questions. So it seems like the most I guess, like besides orange, a, most of the Mughal emperors were not that religious, perhaps like I mean, definitely. They're, like Ecuador, for sure wasn't but like, it seemed like they weren't that religious. So how. So first of all, how were the like, who gave the automap power? Because it seems like they had influence on the Emperor. And second, how did the majority of the people of India become pretty like how did they accept this now? If the moguls themselves point out that Okay, very good question. Before I forget, I would like to start with the recommending a book
on this very topic, the allama and politics there's a book authored by I hate Qureshi. I h. Qureshi, who was a Pakistani scholar historian was produced a fascinating work on this very topic, how the alama and politics work together. So he talks about a lot of history in this book, and the title is the allameh and the politics by AI Ah, Qureshi Qureshi is spelt with QURESH I, right. So
when it comes to the Islam of the Mughal emperors, they were as Muslim as an emperor could be at the time. Okay. They they were not. I wouldn't say they were like the Olia of Allah, praying day and night praying to God and not indulging in any pastime like music and drinking wine and, you know, having dance parties, whatever that meant at the time, right? They were all involved in this, this was part of the culture, right? organza was an exception. But when it comes to having read of Islam or having, let's say, you know, a desire to be Muslim and to to defend Islam
To declare Islam to be a public faith, the moguls are all Islamic in that sense. If you pick up barbers coins, for example, it has the Shahada on it, right La ilaha illallah wa, sorry, La ilaha illAllah. Muhammad also lies in the middle and you would have the names of the four Caleb's. Right. And then on the other side, you will have the mint and the name of the Emperor and the date when the coin was minted. So, when it comes to Islam as a public religion of their domain, they made no compromise. They made no compromise Barber, who, again himself
was a Muslim in the nominal sense when I say nominal sense, he did pray no doubt he did read the Quran, right? But at the same time, he had weaknesses, like any mobile prints, or any team will print at the time had, for example, his drink, right? He wasn't to music. So was homayoun homayoun was using opium. Right? I'm pretty sure. We're also because like we're apostatize from Islam, so we don't really need to talk about Islam is Islam much. But those who did declare themselves Muslims, like Jang Yi are charged on an orange zip. Out of all of them orange, there was the most observant of Islam as a king.
And he lived like a simple man he did not. He removed all the pomp and the glitter of the Mughal court, you know, moguls had put traditions in place that if you came to their court, you would have to bow and wave at the Emperor three times it was called coordinates like you have to bow and wave with your hand to pay your respects or observe removed all these erroneous practices because they were an Islamic orams. They removed music from his quote, he didn't want his court to have musicians basically. Right. There's a funny anecdote, which is mentioned by one of his biographers.
If I'm not mistaken, Saki was David Hahn.
He mentioned that when organza was once leaving the palace, to go and pray the Juma at the mosque.
He saw a procession of janazah there was a janazah, there was a funeral.
And he stopped and the people who were carrying the funeral the dead body, they were making a lot of noise. They were crying loud. So orange came out of curiosity, the Emperor, he asked, What is going on here, who are these people, he was told that these are the musicians, and they are carrying the janazah of music.
So basically, they're saying the Emperor has killed music. So
the Emperor, quite humorously, he responded by saying, Tell them to bury it deep.
Tell them to bury it deep. So this was a funny anecdote which was mentioned by one of our exhibits, biographers, and even a European source. By the way, mobile history is studied according to a number of in light of a number of primary sources as well as secondary sources. So primary sources of bias, there are too many for different brains. And there are also European travelers who travel to India at the time.
Some of them were Italian, or French. They were English authors who had written who were eyewitnesses who wrote about mobile India. So there is a huge list of books you can find in the book recommendations I have done in my YouTube video, title book recommendation on mobile history. So please do look into that. So orange zabe was the most Muslim, Islam observing King. Others were semi Muslim men as a semi Muslim, semi practicing Muslims, semi practicing Muslims, a part of Akbar, apart from Muhammad Akbar.
All of them were semi practicing Muslims, they had a high regard for Islam. They rated Islam very, very highly. Islam was a very important part of the lives, political and otherwise. And they made it very, very clear. But were they perfect Muslims? Were they great Muslims? Were they fully practicing Muslims? Did they not do anything wrong ever in their lives? Did they have any non Islamic practices in the course in their dealings? Or in their daily business? Absolutely not Lancer is absolutely not. They were not Muslim in that sense. There were imperfect Muslims there were 70 practicing Muslims, but all in develop, he was an exception.
I have a question. So you mentioned like the history of the at the beginning of how Islam first entered India, you know, there was many different episodes of military conquests and
And obviously a lot of it was fueled by a search for wealth or land. And eventually there were conflicts between Hindus and Muslims and Hindus and other Hindus. So it's very complicated history. But a lot of right wing pundits will try to compare colonialism to, to like Mughal history or Islamic conquest by saying, Oh, you know,
colonialism, Europeans were the first to colonize these lands like before, before the British, it was the Muslims, and then they'll make that comparison. So how do you respond to that? How would you, how would you, not let people
sort of make a comparison where the Muslims appear equal to British colonialists? Who that's a very
that's a very good question. And thank you for that. Thank you for asking that question. This question was recently raised in a discussion by a very famous
spiritual, spiritual thinker in India is very, very well known, his name is Sadhguru. Sadhguru is has millions of followers in India and beyond. Even in the West. He has many followers and he's seen as a as a spiritual guide by many and he has recently shown Islamophobic tendencies in many of his talks and discussions possibly to please the current Indian Government for pragmatic reasons. He was in a discussion with Shashi through whom I mentioned earlier, and he mentioned that the mobiles are like invaders and they came and they devastated like colonial powers. But Shashi through responded by saying that mobile's did not take anything to Central Asia, whatever they took from India was
used in India for the betterment of India, both made India powerful by living they became India. In fact, the mothers of some of the Mughal kings, emperors were Indian. They were Indian women. If you look at early moguls, like barber and Moon, they look Chinese they look Central Asia, they look they look very oriental. When I say Oriental, I mean Chinese looking, but later moguls, they started to look Indian, they started to have Indian features because their mothers were Indian. So the moguls you can say that about barber barber was an invader he came from outside, but you cannot say that about later moguls, later moguls were very Indian, they were as Indian as it gets. Of course, they
followed the Persian
model that was inherited by them. Persian language was not brought by the Mughals, rather the Persian language came with Mahmud Rustavi in in the in the 11th century. And then it remained with the Delhi Sultanate period, the slave dynasty period so the Persian language was the language of the court
and the Mongols would bring it over the simply using it because it was already there. So the moguls were the true sons of the Indian subcontinent. They made India what it is today. And they did not loot, pollute, exploit India and take wealth to foreign bank accounts or started building mansions in Bahamas or let's say, exotic islands
in the Caribbean Sea, or you know, they were they weren't like these drug dealers or colonial administrators like slaveholders in the 19th century, and in the 18th century, who had plantations, let's say in, in the Caribbean islands, like Jamaica, and they were bringing all this this wealth back to Britain, you know, to live lavish lives. Likewise, they were East India, company administrators and,
you know, workers who would come to India to make a fortune and go back to Britain and make policies and buy estates there. The Mughals weren't doing that the Muslim kings weren't. They weren't doing that, including peoples who thought they were the true sons of the land. They loved the territory they were living in, and they served it to the best of their abilities. If we start talking about the achievements, your mind will be blown away, believe me. I mean, I wish I could talk more about the technology, the military technology, mobile pioneered in India, there are books written on that, right? How moguls promoted poetry. How moguls promoted tolerance for each other for religions to
How mobile's pioneered in a book production, how moguls pioneered agricultural reforms how moguls took care of security situation in India. Mobile is a very brutal against criminals. Of course, the colonial powers later on, but more organized. They were more modern in that sense, but the moguls they had started the process. In fact, the British when they came to power, they use
A lot of administrative reforms left behind by October, who of course, took these reforms from a share share story, who was also a very religious King, share share, sorry, whom I talked about earlier, was a highly religious King. And he left behind many, many reforms, which October adopted and took full advantage of and then later on, the British adopted a lot of those reforms into the system. And the last to this day, a lot of those reforms brought by the Muslims.
They lost to this day in India and in Pakistan, you can see the remnants you can see the signs of all that history even today. So mobiles did not loot the Indian subcontinent and take the wealth somewhere else to make mansions and palaces somewhere else. Rather, they used everything in India, and they cause all territories and all people to flourish. Of course they will. They will know your utopia. I'm not saying mobiles are perfect. They came from the heavens, they were angels. And you know, they were pearls and diamonds dripping from the hair. Okay, when this nice there was gold all over the place.
Not saying that. I'm saying moguls were as human as any other kings governing India at the time. Right. But they were when it comes to the contribution they made India the most powerful entity in the world militarily and economically definitely is not. I believe mobiles are possibly more powerful than the Ottomans were
militarily speaking, because mobile the richer moguls were richer than the Ottomans. I hope that answer your question. But they were not necessarily more Islamic than the Ottomans, the Ottoman emperors with all the weaknesses with all the Hanky Panky and, you know, all the problems they had.
Personal and otherwise, they were definitely more islamically inclined than the Mughals were forced with the exception of orang Zavala
quick question. My parents grew up in India during Indira Gandhi's Congress government, and they're fed some of this similar state narratives about Aurangzeb. And
in stark contrast appbar about salako Bardot Hana de la he versus auronzo being the sort of almost extremist jihadi figure and I imagine that's gone a lot worse since the BJP is government. I'm wondering after having taken a class with munez Farooqi and read Audrey Peters book, if there's any sort of grain of truth to the accusations that are leveled against or an example of it's all just
sort of concocted by British colonial governments or modern post independence Indian state.
So your question was what was your question? Yeah. Is there any sort of grain of truth to the sort of accusations of mass conversions or forced?
Absolutely not? Absolutely not. There is. I mean, what what these propagandists Islamophobic propagandists who are working hard today in India, unfortunately, promoting a lot of mistrust and
dividing communities along communal lines. And
what these people do is they used, they use some truth with a lot of lies. So what they will do is they'll take one incident and they'll put their own spin on it, historians don't agree with them. Historians don't work like that if you pick up any serious historian and read about these Mughal emperors, you will be fascinated not because these were perfect characters, rather, you will realize how many lies that have been fed to people in, in India, the masses, okay, how many lies have been told against some of these great rulers, I mean, without praising them too much, you know, with
all the imperfections, albeit with with a lot of the imperfections, they but they did great things for the continent. I can no one is perfect, right? So these narratives are specifically created to cause political turmoil to score specific political points. Right. And and it's all politics, right? Sometimes people read the current events into history and start to read. For example, people start to equate or exhibit ISIS.
But there was no composing. Imagine ISIS having a Hindu general.
This is my answer. This is this is how you make these people look stupid. State Historical history.
Tarik facts imagine ISIS having a Hindu finance minister. Can you imagine that? brothers and sisters? Can you imagine ISIS correspond corresponding with Hindu intellectuals and having friendly discussions? So where is ISIS in orange? Where is ISIS in people's home? So people these propagandists, these liars, these islamophobes, you know, to paint to be this is why Muslims This is why these lectures are so important. These talks are so important so that we can go back to our sources, study them carefully, and see through this facade see through this propaganda and these lights and start to educate people. The only cure to this disease of hate and misrepresentation is
education. So you mentioned moonies Farooqi. He's an amazing scholar, a very, very
good historian. He has written an amazing book, which I have personally read, it is titled The princes of the Mughal Empire, you must read that book, all of you, brothers and sisters, is an absolutely fascinating work on how the mogul princes worked, what the lives are like, how did a mobile Prince live? For example, right? What was his education? Like? What was his upbringing? Like? What did he go through what kind of teachers he had, what kind of military training he went through? What kind of people he hang around with? What kind of, you know, expectations?
There, they were from them. So all of these things he discusses in this fascinating book, titled, The princes of the Mughal Empire, when he's Faruqi. He's also working on another book on oranges, which might be forthcoming soon. I don't know when but he's working on one. I'm aware of that an older truck again, if you read these books by modern historians, who are working for academic institutions, you will see you will see light. I'm not saying they are all liars. There are biased historians no doubt, but majority of them, they give you good information. And it does make sense when you start reading through these works. It will bring a lot of knowledge to you and a lot of
understanding to you of history. Right? history is not black and white, it's never black and white, it's always there are always nuances one has to consider, right? So all of these things you hear about orange zaev, and people so on, and other Muslim figures. Most of them are lies, a pack of lies, there is no truth in these things. And people claim and you know, a lot of these people are guilty of an acronym anachronism. anachronism is basically reading your age into the past, reading your standard, your more moral values into the past, they didn't live in your age, they were not dealing with you. They were dealing with a different kind of people, they, those people expected
different things from the kings and the rulers, and they gave them those things. So it's very important for us to understand that. I hope that answers your question and
Any more questions?
No more questions and follow me can you can
I just want I just want to say this was an amazing lecture design Allah, May Allah give you a lot of reward for this and we would love to hear you more. And how can I do that?
If you go to my YouTube channel, you will see a lot of lectures on Indian history in particular, and other history in general. I've talked about many Muslim figures. I've talked about Muslim dynasties and Muslim periods
historically speaking, so you will find lectures on Islamic Spain you will find lectures on shower your logical barn, will find lectures also tonsil out in a UB you will find lectures on history of Islam in India. It's a short introduction to the documentary in a documentary form. So there is a lot on my YouTube channel. If you put my name at non Rashid YouTube, you will see my channel there. Okay.
And thank you for the beautiful lecture. You're welcome. I would like to make some final remarks that just remember keep in mind, brothers and sisters that as objective students of history, we must not glorify our past.
In a way that utopia, as if there was nothing wrong with right at the same time. We must not reject or be apologetic about our past to an extent that we don't own our civilization. We are proud of our civilization. Wherever the Muslims went, there was human imperfection. There was human error, but
What made the civilization of Islam beautiful from India to Spain is this common theme of beauty in art, beauty and architecture, beauty in books and literature and poetry in all these things, they went everywhere Muslims went, however they went, they took this knowledge,
this love for
coexistence, this love for tolerance. Of course, it was never perfect. I'm not saying it was ever perfect. I'm saying all of these people were humans, they made human mistakes. They had human weaknesses. At the same time. They took Islam with them. And they made sure that Islam was a beautiful thing for the people of these lands. So mobiles represent the Muslim civilization in somewhat in somewhat imperfect way. So do the you beat sort of the meme Luke. So do the morava tune in, let's say, in Spain, the amazing Spain
and the list goes on. The list goes on the economists who became Muslim later on the Mongols, who became Muslims they were known as the Upanishads. So there is a lot to talk about, and you're more than welcome to get in touch with me in the future. inshallah I would love to deliver more lectures and talks and talk about these things openly. inshallah maybe we can start with pupils Hold on one day Joe, is a fascinating figure. I would strongly recommend a talk on him inshallah.
Bigger inshallah, I'd love to organize that.
We have taken up a lot of your timeshare. So thank you, thank you very much. If you could stop with the dryer. That'd be okay. Wonderful.
Thank you so much for inviting me. May Allah bless you all, may Allah May Allah bless you for your patience, and I thank all of everything. And I'm not perfect, I'm possibly made mistakes and do forgive my mistakes. So I end with the name of Allah, Allah, conical llama, Michelle ally Laila and Roberto Blake have been around for a while don't follow fildena with a hammer an akuna nominal fostering a banana for dunya hacer una velocidad Hassan Allah Kannada would not have been Allah, Allah, Allah Allah for both Ilana, a banana Candela These are 100 reliable alameen salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.
Beautiful v cinema