Channel: Adnan Rashid
The Islamic Perspective
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hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa sallahu wa salam O Allah azza
wa jal he was heavy. Miami, Samantha Who will
also be live summary ministry corny regime is in LA Rahim Nakata cover and loving Apollo in the law school in the state of New Maria or call him a CFO Yamani Sri Lanka de la hora. Be welcome. In nama you should rely upon haram Allahu Allah in Jenna na. Omar Ptolemy saw respected brothers and sisters and dear friends salaam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakatu. May the peace and blessings of Allah God Almighty be upon you all. The topic which I have been given to address today is an interesting topic as well as a very much demanded topic. In this day and age, this topic has been debated for centuries among the Muslims.
And the Christians as well as the Jews for centuries, when the Muslims and the Jews and the Christians interacted together, for the first time successfully in the history of mankind, and Islamic Spain, and others, and prior to that, prior to that in Jerusalem,
about which Karen Armstrong in a book, The history of Jerusalem on page number 225, states that the Muslims, for the first time in the history of mankind enabled the Jews and the Christians
to live together in peace.
Prior to the Muslim arrival in the Near East,
the situation for the Jews and the Christians war was very much chaotic. The bars and teams were governing the land of
Syria, as well as Egypt and North Africa.
The Christians different from
each other in doctrine, and in practice.
Chelsea don't need Christians, who were the Byzantines were governing the land at the time. And the Orthodox Christians who were in the land of Egypt, and the wonderful sides
who were living in the land of Syria or
against each other.
And they were at each other's throats. So the Muslims came, and they took this land from the Byzantines and for the first time, they enabled the Christian
to live together in peace, the Christian groups or different Christian denominations that came together for the first time in peace and lived together because of the Muslim protection they are.
And a debate emerged. Many debates took place, about the nature of Jesus Christ, and within the Christian community that the base was still taking place as to what the nature of Jesus Christ was, what is easy God?
is a God in flesh. Is he a man and not God? Is he a create a creature? He was he created? Is there a beginning to him? Is he of the same essence as God Almighty? Or is he separate, in essence from God Almighty? Does he have two natures? Or does he have one nature? This is exactly what the debate between the sides and the other Christians who were living in Syria at the time was.
So the debate escalated because the Muslim arrival now the Koran emerges as a divine book. So the Muslims claimed that this is the book. This is a revelation which came to Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam who was born in the city of Mecca. In the year six 571, approximately, it's an estimate.
When abraha the Yemeni general invaded Arabia, in that very year, this prophet was born in the Arabian Peninsula. And he received a revelation
which claimed to be divine.
And this revelation contained some passages on the nature of Jesus Christ.
Who was Jesus, the crux of the question?
What was his nature?
Was he got older just a man? Or was he a special man, a messenger of God or a prophet of God.
We read in the chapter five verse number 72 of the Quran laqad kufr en la de la Carlo, in the last one was a memorial. Those who say that Jesus, the son of Mary is God Almighty, our blood streamers. The Quran has a very explicit statement and disregard as to what the nature of Jesus Christ was called on rejects
the divinity of Jesus Christ. outrightly those who say that he is God Almighty, a blessing because Jesus himself the Quran states for call mercy, said the Messiah, because Quran acknowledges that Jesus Christ was the Messiah, promise to the Jews. This Quran affirms
Messiah said to his people, yeah when he saw all the children of Israel
or the larvae or a Baku worship, one Lord, your Lord, worship one God your Lord My Lord. In the home I usually Kabila anyone who has Christ partners with that God because I'm a lot more lenient gentleman
for cause haram Allahu la agenda, that Jelena is forbidden, the garden, the heaven, the Paradise is forbidden for such people. Well, my wife and daughter and they aboard will be fired. So very, very harsh statement. For those people who believe that Jesus Christ was God Almighty or God and flesh or God incarnate. Then another place for an rejects the doctrine of the Trinity
are our states in chapter four verse number 171.
Out of the relationship energy, manual handful, Yeah, hello kita lotta roofie Deena, wala Taku, Allah Illa
se or Mohammed salatu salam God Almighty is telling Mohammed Ali Salaam to tell the people of the Scriptures, the Jews and the Christians, lots of lucchini do not transgress limits in your religions. Do not
be extreme in your religion. What are Taku Allah, Allah, Allah, and do not say about God Almighty accept the truth. And then the Quran goes on. And in the same words, it states
all our Taku sarafa do not say, three
is better for you. It is better for you. So for Ali saying Do not say three. Now, amazingly, some Christian scholars assert today that the Quran got the doctrine of the Trinity wrong
because we're under the athletes payment, but they haven't managed to understand the nature of the Quran is a book Koran is not a book on Christian theology. It doesn't want to get into the intricate details of the Christian doctrine, because the Christians themselves have been writing volumes upon volumes on this very issue. The post Nicene era, the Council of Nicea took place in 325 feet where the constant the Emperor Constantine resided within this council. And he tried to make up between the bishops there were two groups arguing with each other about the nature of Jesus Christ, one group was allegedly unitary, known as the ariens. area.
These Christians were accused of being
the followers of a man called areas areas with a man who himself was accused of calling another man called Hall of Fame. assata policia SATA denied that Jesus Christ was divine in any sense. Rather, Jesus Christ was a man,
a creation of God Almighty, and a prophet of God. This will pull up some policies that are believed and the third century see mid third century CE II, when Paul was a life policy Masada does not call the Apostle Paul, who has written the epistles of the Bible. This is someone much later, a Christian who believe in Jesus Christ, but he didn't quite believe that Jesus Christ was God Almighty flesh. Rather, he believed in what the Muslims believe in
and areas, took his teachings on this guy, this person
and followed his teachings and preached his teachings everywhere. So a big group of Christians emerged.
And there was a divide between the Christians at that time. The divide was about the nature of Jesus Christ
is Jesus Christ on the same essence as God Almighty, and he is one with God Almighty.
And this concept we know in Islam as well, some of the Sufi is invented this kind of a concept, which came from neoplatonism anyone knows about this concept? The Arabic term, Susie's talk about it a lot.
there's a term that is used some of the extreme selfies,
they believe in this concept called, watch.
Have you come across this before
the unity of essence, the unity of existence. So there comes a time a person reach reaches a level of piety, that he becomes one with God Almighty in essence,
that person, whoever that person may be, when you do certain things are falling apart a trigger, you reach a level of piety, there comes a time that you become one with God Almighty, an imminent Arabi, who was born in medieval Spain, believe this believed in this doctrine. He promoted this doctrine, very well known,
personally personality in the history of Islam.
So this comes from neo platonism.
This is a platonic theory which Plato in the fourth century BC forwarded, and some of the Christian thinkers in the second and the third century were neoplatonist. They want you to describe the essence of Jesus Christ and His nature, in the light of platonic teachings.
So origin, for example, in the third century, was a played neoplatonist.
So other thinkers, who were alive at the time, these people are trying to describe or explain the nature of Jesus Christ, within the light, or platonic teachings. So what is the platonic theory state, there is a triadic formula.
And this triad belongs to one being.
There are three persons within the doctrine of the Trinity.
the God, the God, God Almighty, with the Jews believed in God the Father, as Jesus confirms it in the Bible, as I will come to address this issue in due course. Then the sun, the Jesus, the Messiah, Jesus Himself, the son, then comes the Spirit, the Holy Ghost.
So these three persons who are distinct persons, different personalities, these three different pathologies share one beam, in one essence, so they all one, in essence, but they are three different persons. This is the crux of the doctrine of the Trinity. So there are some Christians in the fourth century in the Council of Nigeria, 325. See, they believed in this, not in the doctrine of the Trinity as such, in particular, but they believe that Jesus Christ was born in essence, with God, God Almighty, the issue of Holy Ghost wasn't raised as yet, the issue of Holy Ghost would be established, another 50 years later, in the year 381. c, in the Council of Constantinople, all of
these details you can find in a book written by J. and D. Kelly, a professor who was teaching in the Oxford University, and he wrote a book called
The history of the early Christian doctrine.
All of the details can be found there. So
these Christians believed in that the other side believed that Jesus Christ is not God. He was created, he was the only begotten Son of God.
And if he was begotten, according to the Bible, he was created, there was a beginning to his existence. And if he began, he can possibly not be God. He cannot be God. Because God does not have a beginning. He doesn't have an end. Therefore, Jesus Christ, if he had a beginning, according to the Bible, which he does, cannot be God Almighty in flesh. Rather, he is the adopted son of God, rather, he is one of the Supreme agents of God, in other words, is the prophet of God. To put it in simple terms. This is what the areas believed in, and they were in majority in this council. 200 bishops, according to some
reports, there were 318 bishops present in this council, where Constantine Emperor Constantine himself was present. And he
initiated this council in order to bring the Christians together because he himself was having problems in his empire. He had the battle against maxentius, the Battle of Melvin bridge, and the three Chelsea and he successfully defeated his rival and became the sole emperor of Rome, or the Roman Empire. Now he had another problem to confront, which was the growing Christian population, so he wants to govern them. He wants to be a man of the people.
So he wants to be loved by everyone. So he wants to please the Christians. So he issued an edict of toleration. Just before Constantine came to power in the year
33 or seven if I'm not making a mistake.
The emperor who was governing before Constantine was Diocletian, digression. he persecuted the Christians
for a very long time for few years. And this was the most severe persecution of the Christians within the Roman Empire.
And because of this persecution, the Christians got the sympathy vote, more people join them. So when you oppress someone,
when you start killing people or persecuting them, like what happened in India, the Sikh religion was a mystical Sufi type order the Sikhs up to the fifth guru, Guru Arjun Singh. They were a mystical order, worshipping in their own way in their own seclusion in their own circles, until the Mughal Emperor Gru killed the fifth guru, and the sixth because of that murder became militants. So this became a militant Sufi or mystical order. And it turned into another religion, and it was finalized by the 10th Guru Guru Gobind Singh. So this is exactly what happened with the Christians, the Christians more they were persecuted more sympathies against and more numbers they gauge. And
therefore, Constantine had to take them seriously. Now, what is the problem with the Christians? There are so many Christians believing in so many different things, having so many different documents as the Word of God?
which one is right? Which one is right? So there were Christians, as late as the fourth century, they were reading different gospels, different records, to get their understanding of the personality of Jesus Christ. So now Constantine wanted to bring them together. He basically said to the bishop, this sorted out between you guys just come together and reach a conclusion, which everyone agrees with. So they came together, so 200 bishops, which was the majority will you see Viens,
the followers of a man called Eusebius, of Syria
Eusebius of Syria was one of the most learned men at that time in the Christian world. And he is the father of the church history. All the Christian histories without exception,
have to refer to Eusebius. Who is the the main story and we refer to for the life of the Prophet sallallahu Sallam? Anyone?
the biography of the Prophet sorry.
But who who wrote the book of divination, even a sham is an abridgment of an earlier work
in his heart, Mohammed bin his heart, who was born in the year 80. History and died in 150 51. Mohammed bin his heart. So we refer for the life of the police on us to make sense of it in a chronological way to this history. Likewise, the Christians refer to Eusebius, who was writing in the mid fourth century on the church history, and he had access to some earlier parties. He had access to the largest library in the Christian world, established by a man called Confucius, who stood
for who was a student of origin, and pamphlets, history was Eusebius. This is a chain of Christian narration. Okay. So you see, this was a student of pamphlets, pamphlets with a student of origin and origin had established a massive library. So Eusebius had a lot of documents in front of him. So he was himself accused of being an arien. In other words, a Unitarian Christian,
and 200 bishops and discounsel reporters, those who believe that Jesus was not born Almighty, He was something less, he was definitely not going to go to Mike because he had a beginning.
because there was a man who was very close to the the Emperor, Emperor actually forced majority of the bishops to sign a document,
which is what jnd Kelly states
which went against the wishes.
Emperor, Constantine, who was a pagan at the time, arguably was not a Christian. Until then,
he insisted that you issue a term or sorry, you add a term
within the creed of Nicea with a Christian was trying to they were trying to build a creed. What is Jesus Christ is a God is the man is he pocket voisey so come together and have a common understanding. Emperor Constantine insisted that you add this term who maku[???]a
The Greek term within the creed of Nigeria to refer to Jesus Christ. So Jesus Christ is of same who see us as God Almighty, same essence. Moses is a restaurant, restaurant alien term which Aristotle used in his writings to refer to the essence of a beam. So Jesus Christ is of the same being as God Almighty.
But the UCB is the majority of the bishops did not agree with that. They didn't believe that Jesus Christ was of the same essence as God Almighty or the God the Father.
So they refused to believe that. But they signed the document because they were forced to bishops, they refuse to sign the document, they will exercise and be excommunicated. But the rest of them they signed the document. But then when they went, when they went back, they had another Council, and they canceled the conclusions of the Council of Nicea. So this is to give you a bit of background about the Christian debate about the nature of Jesus Christ, which continued
as late as the emergence of Islam. So now, when the Prophet was born, there were still countless taking place, the Christians are still discussing the nature of Jesus Christ. Now, Ron comes with a claim that he is not God
is a prophet. He's a messenger of God. He had a virgin birth birth, Mary conceived Jesus Christ without any major intervention. And this was a supernatural act of God Almighty.
This was not unnatural, a normal birth. This is why I lost count Allah God Almighty, deals with this issue in specific terms in 359. So de la Ron, was number 59, where Allah subhanaw taala states the similitude of Adam, sorry, the similitude of Risa is like, Adam, Adam.
Why? Because Adam did not have a father.
And he did not have a mother. Jesus did not have a father. So Allah is telling us go to mighty, the Jesus was like administration, when God Almighty wants something to be, he says, Call for your own and it is there it becomes it. It comes into existence, when Allah says been, and it comes. So this explains the birth of Jesus Christ. And the story is in chapter 19, Surah Maryam, the entire story of his birth, and Mary was in seclusion, and the angel appeared to her, told her that you will conceive, and you will give birth to one of the most beloved personalities to walk the face of this earth, and he will be one of the most powerful men to have ever lived. And he will be an Allah
subhanaw taala explains the virtue of Jesus Christ. And Mary, in short, says, How will I conceive when no man has ever touched me. And then angel says the same thing that it is not a problem for Allah. Allah is Almighty, He can do anything. When he wants something to be, he says Be and it is. So Mary conceived through a miracle. And Jesus Christ had a virgin birth, and this is what we believe in. And he was not crucified as the gospel state. He will not crucify gospels are unanimous on this point that Jesus Christ was put on the cross.
This is a central issue within the Christian doctrine, the redemption,
he was put on the cross, He died for our sins, he was the Lamb of God, sacrifice for our sins. He was God Himself in person. And he was also the Son of God. And he sacrificed himself he came on Earth, to live with the humans, so that the humans can feel him and he can feel the humans. Okay. And then he gave his life for the sins of the Christians. This is a very, very attractive claim.
And if it was true, we would believe in it. But it is not true because he was not crucified as the Quran puts it. So why would Koran make such a radical claim?
It was easier for the prophet of Islam to save the Christians. Yes, he was crucified. And it was something bad which happened. And I'm the new prophet. Most of the Christians would have believed in him.
JOHN of Damascus, writing in the eighth century in the Indian youth code, he was present in the Youth Court and live not very long after the police on the livestream himself, almost 70 to 60 years after the Prophet john of Damascus.
He writes, and he's the last Greek church father, as the Christians refer to him. He writes, that if Mohammed
stated that Jesus was in fact crucified, I would have believed
and he regarded Islam as a Christian heresy. Islam is a Christian Muslim law, a Christian group, and they have gone astray, led by Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam
Mohammed claimed that Jesus was crucified. In fact, if he affirmed that assertion, I would have believed in him. So it was it was much easier for the Prophet sallallahu Sallam to come up with this thing and say, we as he was crucified, if he was an imposter, but he was not an imposter. He wasn't making things up. He was saying what he was receiving from Allah, God Almighty, Almighty God, and in our, in our in law, when you have, Mohammed does not speak from his wins. rather he speaks from what he has from Allah. So he was telling the people that he was not crucified. And the gospels are adamant that he was crucified. Why were the Gospels insisting
that way? or Why? Why were the Gospels
insisting on this point.
Paul's writings are the earliest writings of the Bible. Pause it his writings, earliest writings of the Bible, all died in approximately 60 CD, killed by the Roman authorities.
And he left some lectures, and it was Paul who came up with this idea of redemption. Your Jesus Christ was crucified, and he died for our sins. And all the gospels were written after the year 60 C. And the Christian scholars are almost unanimous from that point. Almost most, the most serious scholars are unanimous on that point, that the earliest gospel was the Gospel of Mark, which was written in the year 60, C, between 60 to 70. c. And the last gospel was the gospel of john, which was written between the years 90 and 110. So now, we have these gospels telling us the same thing, Paul says. So some of the scholars believe that this is a specific particular understanding of Jesus
Christ. While there were other records circulating among the Christians about East La Silla. This is the Gentile polini in Christianity,
and Jesus never preached to the Gentiles. This is established, even in the gospels as they stand today. Jesus Christ never preached to the Gentiles to the non Jews.
Where does it say that? The Gospel of Matthew chapter 15, verse number 24,
he said, Jesus Christ, allegedly, that I will not send to anyone, but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. What does the Quran say? The Prophet, exactly the same thing that he was sent to Bani Israel, to the children of Israel, he will not send to anyone else. Jesus denies any such doings. It was poured over to the Gentiles. And he told them, You don't have to circumcise anymore. You don't have to eat kosher meat or purified meat, eat anything you even eat pig, no problem, eat pork. And whatever goes inside, there won't be any questions asked for that. And you no longer have to obey the Jewish law, as Lamb of God gave his life on the cross, and he offered your redemption from your
sins. So you don't have to follow the law anymore. It's in the book of Romans, chapter two is all day.
So Paul came up with this idea, Jesus never came up with this idea. So there was another group of Muslims or the Christians, I apologize. Who were Muslims, as they believed in exactly what the Muslims believe in today. And the model scholarship is actually confirming this. There were two groups of Christians in the earliest days of Christianity.
We heard about the fourth century, right? How many groups are there in the fourth century major groups? How many groups
put your hands up to?
I just spoke about it for 15 minutes.
For the stand up, please
stand up. Your hands up like this.
While you're waiting, shall I sit down?
Know how many how many Christian groups are there in the fourth century, the major Christian groups who are devoted to the horrors of areas, the areas or the ucbs and the followers of Athanasius, or the bishop Alexander, who was a bishop of Alexandria at the time to many groups, one group is saying Jesus is God. He's a one essence with God Almighty. The other group is like, No, no, he's not God, something lower. He was adopted. He was created. There was a beginning to be was not thought that was the fourth century. What was happening in the first century when the gospels were actually being written. What does Luke say in his gospels? when Luke begins his gospel? What does he say? He says,
There are many other records going around about Jesus Christ. Many other people are writing about Jesus Christ. And I thought that I should write a record on my own views at the time available within their own lifetime. And they were alive, pause even states in his epistles, that anyone who teaches any other gospel than the one I have taught,
it must be rejected, must be rejected. So Paul was in fact making a career and all the rest of the Christians are saying, These people don't listen to them. It's me who's the man, I'm the disciple. On the apostle, I saw the vision. I know what Jesus is. But there were others as well who lived with Jesus Christ, who knew him better Paul never met him. Paul never met him. There were those who live with Jesus cried Isa, salaam, his companion, the Sahaba.
Those Christians, they believed in different theology than what Paul believed. They believed they did not assert that Jesus Christ was God. There were strict Jews, they worshiped in the temple. It is very clearly stated in the book of Acts that early Christians are still going to use temple. If they are exempted from law, as Paul claims, what is the need of them going to the temple? You don't have to go to the temple anymore, and sacrifice. So the earliest Christians were worshipping in the temple, and Robert Eisenman, a Jewish author from
the USA states in his book
that James was the successor of a solicitor or you will be brothers and sisters. Am I making sense so far on Am I going on too much? In too many details?
You wouldn't be here. Short. Okay. So James was one of the disciples of Jesus Christ.
And in one of the earliest gospels found in Egypt, in the year 1947. Among
a mixture of documents known as the Nag Hammadi documents, this gospel is the Gospel of Thomas, and it is not in its original form is in its corrupted form. The earlier version was different than what we found it, but even then,
it caused some interesting details.
The Gospel of Thomas is
a mixture of all it consists of 114 sayings of Jesus Christ. This is what Jesus said, 114 of the Hadith, the 100 114, the number is 114 reports of Jesus Christ, and one of them states that someone asked Jesus Christ that who do we go to? After you? Who do we go to once you disappear? Once you go? He said, Go to James. Go to James. He's my successor. The Gospel the four gospels tell us that
the Christians are to go to Peter James. Peter is the successor of Jesus Christ who was in Rome. Okay, the Gospel of Thomas, which some scholars Christian scholars argue, that is earlier than the four gospels, which was written in 50 ce. States go to James. What was James Robert Eisenman states that James was a strict Jew, who believed in monotheism, who believed that Jesus Christ was a prophet. He affirmed His Prophet and he worship in the temple, and this is why he was killed by the Jewish authorities in the temple. He was thrown off the temple walls and killed because he believed in a solid salah and the Jews at the time, they were claiming that they are the ones who killed the
Messiah. They managed to kill him at the hands of the Roman authorities.
where does it say that in the Quran, Quran confirm this right? That they say
they say in nakatani Colossians.
Chapter Four, was number 157 of the Quran. They say, in Naga terminal mercy. The Jews say we killed the Messiah,
the Son of Mary.
Okay, the Quran says Omar Cthulhu Omar sallahu wa kenshoo Bella, they killed him not they crucified Him not rather, it appears so to them. That's what they thought they did. But it didn't happen. And where does the Jews? Where do the Jews claim this? This is another miracle of the Quran. Now it's not in the Gospels. In the Gospels, you don't claim that we call the Messiah, Jesus Christ. It isn't the Talmud. It is in the Talmud, in the Jewish books of law,
which are not accessible to any other man except the Jews themselves. And they were written in Hebrew. So how did the Prophet notice that they claim this? They claim that we kill them
via the Kindle, not the crucified No, but they did kill his followers, his companions, because they thought that Jesus is crucified. And crucifixion was considered to be one of the most hideous and the worst ways of dying, cursed way of dying, he cannot be the Messiah, the Messiah will come and take us to glory. Okay, this guy came, he claimed to be the Messiah and he was crucified, he died. He cannot be the Messiah, the Messiah, he failed, he didn't do nothing. He came and just died. So this was the Jews claim was, but the other Christians who were Jews, they believed in them. And they lost it as late as late as a third century. And then people like Paul, Masada and the area's, they
were followers of these people. They actually believed in what the early Jewish Christians were believing that Jesus Christ was a prophet of God, a man not God in flesh, and they were law abiding Jews, they observed the Jewish the Mosaic law. And some people even Eusebius in the fourth century writes about them. They were known as AB unites everyone as Eb IO. And it s of unites were our group of Jews who believe that Paul was an apostate. And
that's why you see these rights. The Paul they believe these Christians are living in the second century CE II, a century after Jesus Christ disappeared. They live in the second, they believe the Paul was an apostate, or disbeliever, because he broke away from the law and made a new religion up. As far as Jesus is concerned. He was a man he was a prophet of God, and they believed in Him, they were Jews, they were Jewish Christians. And this tradition continued, until the fourth century, when Theodosius the one to two sort of Judaism theodosis, the first came to power. And in the year 381, Theodosius issued laws
known as the theodosian code, and one of the more stated that anyone, anyone who disagrees with the Catholic Church, the one which believes that the god god consists of one being
and three persons, anyone who disagrees with this church, even in a minor issue, will be deemed a heretic, and will be featured as such and persecuted theodosian code. So now this became the state law in the year 380. And the entire Roman Empire was forced into trinitarianism, the entire Roman Empire, you could not hold any other books,
except those which were accepted by or forbidden by the church. You cannot have your Christian documents, and you could not believe in unitarianism rather, you must not believe in injuries if you want to live. And if you refuse to believe in trinitarianism, you will be killed by the Roman Empire. That's why that's why majority of the Christians in the fifth and sixth century, the Christian world change, and most of the people became trinitarians, because they were forced into it. And
Jerome, writing in the fourth century, 350s states
that I am short, Jerome, one of the church fathers, the one who translated the vulgate Bible, the source of the English Bible. As it stands today, Jerome wrote in the fourth century, that I am shocked to find the whole world to be ariens. So the majority of the Christians, as late as the fourth century will Unitarian Christian, they will not Trinitarian In other words, they did not believe that Jesus Christ was God. This is what the historical reality of a sudden Salaam is, and even
a Christian author, name is.
Fred friend, his name is fr E and G. friend is not the friend, friend, but friend, Fr end funny name, but he he stated in his book, early church history, that James, the successor of Esau esalaam, Jesus Christ, established a caliphate style government in Jerusalem. I imagine that a Christian author telling you that the James who did not believe in what Paul believed in establish the caliphate, Caliphate, Starkville style government in Jerusalem based upon something like Islamic law, and he was duly killed. So this was the historical reality of a sonic Salamis and I think I've spoken a lot more than I was supposed to be speaking for.
I will welcome all the questions please. If you want to criticize me, if you want to question me if you want to clarify certain things, if you want to make statements, go ahead and have an interaction. inshallah. Thank you very much for listening to me while I was on 100