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Pivotal Moments in Islamic History #01
Channel: Abdullah Hakim Quick
Series: Abdullah Hakim Quick - Pivotal Moments in Islamic History
File Size: 51.42MB
Episode Transcript ©
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Okay, hold on Shala
Bismillah R Rahman and Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa sallahu wa salam ala Salle overlain will Akon in the bnm Muhammad and while alihi wa sahbihi wa barik was on them. All praises are due to Allah, Lord of the world's peace and blessings be constantly showered upon our beloved Prophet Muhammad, the master of the first and the last, and upon his family, his companions and all those who call to his way and establish his sunnah to the Day of Judgment, my beloved brothers and sisters to our friends, to our viewers, a Salam aleikum, wa Rahmatullah.
Alhamdulillah, Allah subhanaw, Taala has enabled us to reflect upon His mercy to humanity, and that mercy being the way of Islam, the way of submission, the way of the great prophets, the way of all parts of creation, that are in flow, that are moving in the divine systems created by the Creator of the heavens in the earth. And within that divine flow, there is a section that has been specially made for human beings. And that has been led by prophets and messengers who came to every nation in every tribe.
Within the struggle of these prophets, there were high points and there were low points. And there were transitional points. And many cases, we can actually go back and see those key transitional points that have taken the believers from darkness into light, that have opened up a new chapter within the flow of Islam. And so, with that in mind, we want to look at some key pivotal moments in Islamic history. There are so many moments and so many important historical places, so many changes that Allah azza wa jal manifested amongst the believers. But we want to look at some in a different light, to shed light upon them and to show that when the times were the darkest, when the Muslims
found themselves with their backs against the wall, Allah opened up a way for them, and great change came about. And that is very important today, especially when we are looking at the condition of Muslims in the world. Although we have great potential, although we have youth, although we have wealth under the ground, although we have the Quran, we have the Sunnah, we are not able to really take advantage of this. And the enemies of Islam are now pouring down into the Muslim world, and secularism is coming to so it's not just a hot war on the outside. But it's a mental war, a battle for the hearts. And it is now that the believers are turning to Allah subhanaw taala and praying for
this transition to happen. And so we want to look at
some of the great transition moments within Islamic history. And of course, to start off, in looking at the last revelation, or the last, you could say, Chapter
of the great chapter chapters of the prophets and messengers who came to every nation in every tribe. That chapter, the key pivotal point that everybody will agree upon, is the beginning of the revelation. And that is something that we recognize, and it is understood. And so as a base for looking at pivotal moments, I want to recognize this transition period, because without this transition period, there would be no Islam.
And we find Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, born in 570. Ad in Mecca.
And around that time, there were people who believed in one God, the overwhelming majority were following idols. They were following their ancestors they were following created things, but there were people Hanif people who was searching for the one true God in and around Mecca. Amongst them was watercop been Nofal who obeyed the law even Josh
With the man in Kuwait, us zayde Even Amir, these were some of the Hun alpha, or the pure good believers Mawashi doing that we're living at that time and praying and hoping for revelation. And by the will of Allah azza wa jal Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him, who through his life and through what Allah had manifested in his life, was a true Morehead. He was a true model deist and he was Hanif.
And because of the negative atmosphere in Mecca and surroundings, the prophets are seldom used to retreat high to the mountain of Iraq, or to the cave, the mount Jebel and nor Mountain of Light to the cave of Hira. And he would go there, and he would meditate, hoping that Allah would bring about some sort of change. And it was, as we all know, in the 27th of Ramadan, that Allah subhanaw taala manifested, this change. And so it is at this time, in the 27th of Ramadan, that your pivotal moment comes. And this is where the contact is made between the creator and the creation between human beings and the Lord.
And that is the pivot of everything. But following this, there was a reaction
and that is part of sunnah to law. That is what Allah has allowed in this earth. The law has allowed the shaytaan Well, yeah, the biller to have a chance to take us straight, to take us off the path. And so
with that in mind,
with the teachings of Islam starting to come, very, in very small portions, first to the wife of the Prophet SAW Salem, what have been Nofal, one of the one of our he also, in a sense embraced Islam, because he recognized the prophethood of Muhammad Salah Salem, then the family members, and from the family members, it went to Abu Bakr has a deep read the law one had a small group of believers, so it started to spread.
But the evil one, and his father was began to react. And so this is what you could call the first stage of repression. There was open hostility.
Abu Talib, the uncle of the Prophet SAW Selim was under tremendous pressure to leave his nephew to turn against this message.
veiled threats were made.
There was offers given to the Prophet peace be upon him. You can be the richest man in Mecca, you can have any woman that you want, you can be the king, but just leave this message. He refused.
The common people
living in and around the Muslims were being riled up. They are being put in a state where they would turn against the believers. And so we see people like Abu Jamal
and allow us ebony Wilder Sahami going amongst the people riling them up the caravans coming in
inciting the people against the believers. Finally, they had a council meeting but not one. And this is where the courage gathered together with the leaders of the tribes to try to think of a strategy to end this repression, to put it down. And this is similar to what we see today. That is happening in the world, with think tanks going on. And we see orchestrated efforts being done to attack Islam. Of course, they are distorting the message. Ridicule is happening. You see people even burning the Koran. You see terrible things coming on the internet. This is what happened to the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him. They were being degraded. And enemies of Allah were trying to use
degradation as a means of putting down the message and putting down the beliefs. The next stage of this persecution came about
with intimidation of the prophets of Salaam, himself. And so he was attacked. He was strangled by the Kaaba tones were put in his path where he walked, intimidation was happening directly to the Messenger of Allah alayhi salatu salam. But Allah willed that his uncle Hamza would accept Islam and that gave him some strength. The courage then would turn to bribery. So bribe hums a bribe, the prophet tried to pay them off. That did not work.
They tried direct negotiation. They went to his uncle and and tried to show okay, do something with your nephew. Let's negotiate. Okay, we'll give you the son in one hand, the moon in the left hand, give up this message. That didn't work. The Prophet SAW Selim continued. And so assassination. They thought about taking his life. And you see it happening today. When leaders pop up in the Muslim world, they will be intimidated, ridiculed, slandered, and assassination attempts will come about.
But alhamdulillah the message continued, despite the attacks. The third stage of this persecution was the direct torture and murder of the defenseless believers. And this hurt the Prophet peace be upon him because he was protected by Allah subhanaw taala, to the angel Jibreel and also through the Banu Hashim, his tribe.
But the believers, who for the most part, were people from the lower classes, ex slaves, or even some still in slavery, people who were not on the top of the Quraysh. They were defenseless, in a sense in a society like this. And so the persecution got really, really bad is at this point, and this is a pivotal concept. And that is Al Hijra. And this hijra, or this migration, emigration
is a key turning point, a pivotal point in Islamic history. And Hitler is not escaped, by the way. It's not just running away from persecution.
But it is a well orchestrated migration that is made. It is a transition period. And that is important for the believers, to recognize that changing your position is not necessarily retreat is not an act of cowardice.
And so what was in the fourth year, after the prophet would remember, is the Meccan period.
And going into the end of the fourth year, beginning of the fifth year,
it is at this time, with the persecution reaching the heights that Serato calf was revealed. And this mighty chapter of the Quran, is, in a sense, a call to Hijra. Because it is a chapter of movement, by the chap by the name of the chapter itself, the Alkaff. The cave, is a story of the companions of the cave. These are believers in one God, who fled with their religion.
They were inspired to leave out from the ignorance and from the persecution, and they moved into a cave.
This chapter also brings the story of Prophet Musa alayhis salam.
It's hijra, he's migrating now, migrating, seeking knowledge, and he meets alpha. And we find in the story of Musa alayhis salam, we find great knowledge that comes about through movement. So it's a movement chapter. The third great story of the many great stories of Serato calf is our new car name. This is the third story of movement. Though car name was the great believer in one Grace, God, the great king, who traveled throughout the earth, calling to the good and forbidding evil, so movement is happening.
This is the hijra, and so it inspired the Prophet SAW Salem and Allah subhanaw taala revealed insert Zuma verse number 10
the Latina Assa knew he had he had dunya Hazara were our doula. He was here in the MA UEFA sabe Runa. Jerome, be ready his app, Allah revealed, for those who do righteousness in this world. They will get goodness and righteousness or the law he was here. And this Allah's Earth is wide. It's spacious. Verily, the patient ones will get their reward. Without rework reckoning be ready his out. There's no accounting happening, a great reward. And so Allah is showing the earth is wide have patients travel in the land, make movement and you will get a great reward. And so because of this inspiration that is coming, and the terror
Will persecution in the fifth year after the Prophet with
the Prophet SAW Selim directed his companions, not north to Syria,
not to immediately to Yathrib.
Not to Pakistan, not to Turkey,
not to Yemen.
But he sent them to Africa. He sent them west across the Red Sea.
This is a movement
that the Prophet SAW Selim was reported to have said, if you go to Al hubba Abyssinia, it will be better for you for in it, there is a king who will not tolerate oppression, it is a land of truth. Go until such time as Allah shall relieve you from your distress. This is an A Muslim remark Muhammad. So they went to the land of Al hubba Shah that was ruled by a great Christian king. His name was US Hummer. His title was under jiashi, we would say in English to Negus. And it was the Great Empire of Exxon
one of the four great powers on earth. This is an African country. And this is a mistake, that many historic history books even Islamic history books make. They do not include axon has one of the great powers they talk as though Persia and Rome were the only great powers but that's not true. He was recognized for peruse your Rome,
three kingdoms in China.
And also exome, which is Habesha present day Ethiopia, Eritrea, the Great Empire of that horn of Africa, and the Red Sea. And so as Hama was the great king and the Prophet SAW Selim enabled his companions to make migration. So this is now a movement, a well thought out movement, going into a place, the Prophet said, here are do set, it is a land of truth. So they were going to the truth. And 12 men and four women which included with Manny buddy are fan and will pay a bit Mohammed, may Allah be pleased with them both. They made this journey. So this is a high level delegation that made the journey and they settled in an herb shop for a few months.
And the word came to them that the Kodesh had embraced Islam. reality was that notables of Quraysh around the Kaaba, where they had heard certain najem
from the Quran being read, it's an are inspiring chapter. And it mentions it mentions Latin Rosa, of course, in a negative way, but it mentions them and they were caught up in this and they prostrated when the chapter said prostrate.
But they changed their mind afterwards. But once they prostrate the word started spreading, the coronation is prostrating, it's over, you can return. That was not the reality. And when the Muslims went back, they found the repression was worth. So a larger group of immigrants were allowed to leave Mecca and head toward el Habesha. This is 83 men and 19 women. Okay. And so this is important because when we talk about Egypt,
it's two sections of the header. This is Angela Talulah. This is the first hijra, so it's connected to the great hitter. And it's part of a transition period that is happening. And so they migrated to Exxon.
And it is now what we know as ticket A. and Ethiopia is in great crisis now. The ticket eight people who live high in the mountains, and even go down all the way to Eritrea.
It's a great nation. And at that time, the ticket aid were the most powerful of the Ethiopian nations and their leader, Osama the jiashi was triggered. Amen. And that's very important to understand when you think about Ethiopia, because people tend to think about the Amharic people, the Semitic type people, or Muslims tend to think about Oromo or the Somali, but this is dignity
and the Quraysh recognizing the danger, they sent a delegation led by Alma everless and Abdullah ibn Abi Robina.
And they went to the Joshy
and bargain with him, bringing him in very expensive gifts and showing him no
These people are dangerous these people have gone against their idols, their traditions. You know they don't like you they don't like your religion. And this was dangerous and so the Joshi then called the believers. It is reported that the leader of the Mahajan
This is Joffrey but I'll be Tada Radi Allahu Allah and he read from Surah Maryam from this beautiful chapter in the Quran. And when Osama heard this, he cried, and the people in his course cried and he gave them full protection.
So this is a migration, they spent some time
but it wasn't a six year after the Hijrah. There is a report from historical sources, saying that a letter was sent from the province to from the prophets of Salaam. It was delivered to the Joshi and you will see the great letter that is still there in the top Capitol Museum in Istanbul, and the Joshi then he sent a group of which was led by his son Arma. And this is what 60 writers, they went toward Medina but unfortunately they perished in the Red Sea. But the Joshi
his heart was opened, a revolution was going on in society, there was a struggle within Christianity between those Christians that believed in the trinity of Rome, and those who believed in Unity. They believed in one God. So as a struggle was going on. And el hubba Shah was nearly overthrown during this time. So in this tumultuous time, the believers were there in Ethiopia, going through all their changes.
And finally, the revolution was put down at the Joshi had embraced Islam.
And he died as a Muslim because the Prophet SAW seldom through inspiration realize this, and made Salado Janaza vibe. It is the first funeral prayer for an absent person.
And so this is an important part of the first migration. It is the entrance of Islam into Africa, not as slave Raiders. And this destroys the narrative of so many of the orientalist and the secularists. It was not slavery this, but they entered as refugees. They were Maha God and they were immigrants coming into these lands. Now the thing that people don't realize that 15 Sahabas died during this time. They were there for a while, and many of them are buried in the gash Tickity Province, which unfortunately, was partially destroyed because of the war and needs to be rebuilt in Sharla.
but then the message started to come out. And when the great higit are was called for 32 Abyssinians 32, Ethiopians migrated to Majeed Medina with Joffrey but not be tolerated. So that's part of the transition. But to understand the transition, while the first part of the migration was there, in El Hubba, Shah, other things were happening.
There was in and around Mecca, still persecution, the Prophet SAW Selim even left and went to taught if he was stoned and he had to leave and his his uncle died, his uncle died, his wife died.
There is Islamic Raj, you know, but these things are openings. Now he see he's moving as well. He moves to tough, and then Allah takes him up. So movement is happening, right? That's the concept of Elijah that believe it should not be static, that believers should be ready to move and go forward. And so it was during these turbulent times, that during the season of Hajj, because there was a type of pilgrimage. It wasn't really to the One God but there was a season. And it was during that time, that and this is the 12th year after the prophet would that the Prophet met
12 People from Yathrib and he made a limited pledge. This is in a place called Acaba, this valley. He said pack Musa bin OMYA are the last one. And he gave Dawa. And the following year a large group came. So the second pledge of the acaba happened with 73 men and two women. You might say, Well, there's only two, how come it's not 35 and 35? No, but this is something serious in those days because women generally in the in the ignorance society were not included at all. So these women represented the women of Medina, this is a vote for women. This is a place in the Parliament. It is there in the time of the Prophet so seldom. It's very significant point.
Hold pledge was made 12 leaders were chosen. And at the same time, Allah gave permission to fight. So the Muslims were able to defend themselves now. CIRTL Hodge, verse 41, so it'll unfold verse 39.
So this now the call is coming for the major Hijra. So this is now the the extension part, a group is already in Ethiopia. And so everybody now, whether you're in Ethiopia, whether you are in Mecca, whether you're in the outskirts, you have to move toward Yathrib.
And this is north of Mecca. So the great hijra, was called for after this pledge was there, and the people started to move. And so we find that people moving out of Mecca in different groups, however they possibly can. For some, it was very difficult, so they couldn't even leave Mecca, the province so seldom asked Abu Bakr to stay. He also asked Ali to stay in the families.
And this is a divine purpose for this. And by the Cordish went to the extreme, they said, We're going to end this completely, we're going to assassinate
the Prophet Muhammad, we're going to kill him. And now this whole Islam thing is over. And so they made the plans to surround his house and to take a youth from all of the tribes to be there
to commit this assassination.
By the will of Allah subhanaw taala
the Prophet SAW Salem made his dua
he threw sand out of his house he had Ali lay in the bed.
And they, the unbelievers, the wishes are keen, were put in a type of slumber.
And the Prophet SAW Salem that walk right through them. And when they woke up the next morning, they found Ali in the bed.
At least they had some decency about them. They didn't kill Ali and kill family members and everybody. The plot was foiled. And the Prophet SAW Selim went south, and he met with Abu Bakr radi alarma. So this is the movement of the Hegira now, so you're in Mecca, South Yathrib is north, it would make sense for you to go straight north.
But using intelligence because remember, intelligence is very important part of life. It's a crucial part of war. It's a part of struggle, they were decided decided to take the coastal route. So instead of going straight north, they went south.
And then from the south, then they would go to the coast, which is West, and then they would hug the coastline of the Red Sea. And they would go north. And the guide was a Abdullah ibn or apt. He's an excellent guide. He was trustworthy.
Not necessarily a Muslim, but trustworthy.
But the police put a bounty out. And they said they will give 100 camels they will really take care of anybody who can give information or bring back the Prophet SAW Salem. It was serious. So people went all over the desert, into the mountains, everywhere. It's what they call bounty hunting, which was so
well known in the United States, and other parts of the world. When you put out a bounty on somebody's head, the bounty hunters welcome and Soraka Ben Ben Ben Malik. So aka Ben Malik, was one of these bounty hunters. It is reported that as the Prophet SAW Selim, and his delegation of Ibaka, and Abdullah were moving up the coastline. That Soraka excellent Scout, he thought he saw them.
And then he started to go forward. He felt some negativity, and he drove through lots they because they're very superstitious people. So he threw lots, you know, should I do it? Or should I not do it? I was like throwing the dice. And I kept saying, no, no, no. But he continued, as he came close to the Prophet SAW Salem, every time he went forward, his animal sat down.
He couldn't and so he recognized this man is protected. So he shouted out to the Prophet peace be upon him.
I'm not going to harm you. I realize you're protected. Do something for me, I'll do anything for you. So the Prophet SAW Selim forgave him and told him go back and tell the Quraysh a story that will take them off of our path.
He also said to him that one day you will take over the sofa
And that is the ceremonial item. It's like a circular thing, probably with feathers and things hanging from it, of the of the Shah of Persia.
And this is like taking the pen, or taking the special items from the President of the United States, how you got to get into the White House, right into his room to take his stamp or his pen. That's impossible. But Soraka
And he went back and did what he did. And it is reported that eventually, you'll see in Islamic history after the great battle of Al qadisiya
When the Muslims took over the Persian Empire that had attacked them
that they said, Where is Soraka
and they gave him the SWOT.
And that is really important. Again, it's part of the prophecy of the Prophet peace and blessings be upon you.
And so, the Hegira continued, and it was on Monday, the eighth of reveal our
that the Prophet peace be upon him in Abu Bakr, Siddiq Rhodiola when they arrived in Cuba, which is outside of yesterday. Okay, so they finally made it. So they stayed in Cuba for four days. And after that, a masjid project began in the heart of the city. And the city then changed. And the city became then known as El Medina, talamona water, the lighted city.
And this is the great migration. And so yeah, that it was the sanctuary. The people of Yathrib included the Arab polytheists of the house and the Casa Raj. It also includes the Jewish tribes have been on the DIA benoquin, acabado, Ko, Raisa, who became allies,
and the MaHA Julene themselves from Mecca, and the answer from Medina.
And it was the believers with the Prophet SAW Salem, who took over as the head of state, so to speak, the leader of Yathrib at the time, and he sat down foundations. So again, this is the pivot is the transition.
And certain things happen during the pivots. And it's important to understand how the transition happens. Because we are in need of this transition today.
The first of the great three changes that went about the great foundations of the Ummah
was to strengthen the relationship between the believers and the Lord. So the Prophet SAW Selim established the masjid, the house of Allah. And it was not just a place of worship, where you just make salon, but as what we would call today an all purpose Islamic center.
And that's the basis of any community and all purpose center that not only has prayer as Juba, special occasions, but also has Talim education. It has social welfare going on, people are fed, people are taught their religion. Dawa is given outreach, all types of things happened within this all purpose, Islamic center. And that is important for us today. When we look at our communities. What has the masjid become? And not only outside the Muslim world, in the Americas or in Europe or Australia, but what about the Muslim world itself?
What is the purpose of the masjid were the decisions of the societies made?
Okay, so this is how this transition has to come about.
The second point was that he established a true brotherhood market. And this is a type of social contract between certain individuals. Of course, the answer who are the
the the helpers, they received the immigrants that Mahajan. So that's like a social contract, they have the city. They have the products, they have the land, and they received as their brothers and sisters, those who came from Mecca,
but also the prophets ourselves and I will be the brother to ally
which means it goes beyond just word.
Plus nominal Muslim.
Also Hamza and Zaid Bin has
also Abdul Rahman Ibn Aoife and Saudi bin Abi Robbia. This is the famous one that sad
When I went up there a man came, he said, you know, you take half my land, take, you know, whatever, you know, I will give it to you, you're my brother now. So that's a that's a different relationship for we call today sharecropping.
And after a man said, no, just give me some sticks, some twigs, clarified butter
was the marketplace. And he took it there and he became one of the richest people in Medina in a short period of time. The key point is functional relationship between believers not just praying in the mosque, seeing how each other is doing. Taking it a step further, this the second foundation of the OMA that is developed during this very important period of time.
The third foundation is the covenant of Medina.
And that is a series of edicts that were put out, what you could say, is a type of constitution or a covenant. within it.
It says that the Muslims of toleration Yathrib, all of them who follow them and join them and struggle with them are one Oma. So it says you're part of my nation, and that included the Jews and the polytheist anybody who will live in peace, who will be decent, you can follow you can believe what you believe. Basically people are the book. However,
the rule of Islam will be the rule of the city. So this is the covenant of Medina. And a unity was developed. So these are three important areas that Muslims need to think about. What is the relationship with Allah?
What is this OMAS relationship with Allah is adjust prayers. Are you really submitting to Allah? Are you muslim, not only in the masjid, but socially. How do you enjoy yourself?
Alright, how do you run your house? How do you run your business? Are you involved in interest in usury?
That is the upper class or pressing the lower class or the light skinned people or pressing the darker skinned people.
Right, what is really the relationship? Okay, so these are three very key points. And because of this
Yathrib it was changed. So nobody, hardly anybody knows the word Yathrib say that today. People don't know what you're talking about. It became three bar or taba Medina turn the beach or al Madina Munawwara.
The lighted city.
Okay, so what was the basis of the city? It was not warmongering.
These are people who had made migration, they were fleeing, or they were moving, emigrating away from oppression.
So they wanted peace. They wanted to share things. They extended greetings to people Muslim or non Muslim. They maintain close relationships. They observe their prayers. They watched their tongue. They showed mercy to everything, even the creatures of the earth. They felt for others, they call to the righteous and forbade evil. That's the basis of an Islamic society. And unfortunately, because of the confusion of this time, when we say Islamic State, right, people think of some extreme version of violence. And no,
this is why the Islamic State or an Islamic society is right. It is peace sharing.
It is mercy. It is calling to the good and forbidding evil.
That's the basis of the society and that came about through a pivotal moment, a pivotal moment. And that is the Hijra.
So we could say in a sense, that the Hijra
it not only reshaped socially and politically, the Arabian Peninsula,
it had an impact on the worldwide civilizations. And the Prophet SAW Salem. Before he died, he sent letters out to the Ethiopians to axon to the Romans, to the Persians, to the leaders, the kings of Arabia, he put it out there.
And so it had an impact because Romans attack Persians attack, Muslims responded, and these corrupt societies fell apart.
The whole map of the world change within 100 years.
This is a phenomenon never seen before, and probably never will happen again.
But the transition, the pivot point where it changed was an Hijra.
That is the important
next, you could say it's a transition. So think about as a transition. And even in Islamic history, it's a transition between what we call the Meccan period, and the medina period. So it's one phase to another phase. So during the second phase, and even when you look at the Quran, you'll see that the revelations in the second period are dealing with Tawheed, oneness of God, the next life, it's dealing with character. Right? It is building the beliefs and the personalities of the believers for 13 years. And then the transition and then 10 years, and that is when you see the laws of Islam coming, you'll see that this is now a society. Okay, so Trent digital brings about a transformation.
First, they were a small group of people surrounded by the enemies attacked and persecuted. They had to go out to Ethiopia, they had to go north, right? After the transformation. Now, they are regional power. They have strong central leadership. And they are surrounded by allies, by believers, or followers and allies, that totally different you see, it came about with hijra, pivot.
That's the major change that came about.
After this hijra,
they were able to establish what you could call the first real Muslim community.
Okay, because it's not just a group of people trying to struggle just to pray to Allah and stay alive. No.
They had social independence, political independence, economic independence, these are all very important in the transition. And the Muslim world is going to have to have also economic independence, even social independ let's start with that. Okay, how are we a McDonald's society, Coca Cola?
Do we follow the movie stars coming out of Hollywood?
No, we need to be culturally socially independent. We have our own heroes.
We have our own economy is not based on interest in usury.
And so that is the type of independence this is your first Muslim society, which is your example
and so, they were able to establish the principles of Islam and here you see the quran being revealed in the medina period, this is a bottle cap. So, this is where the verses dealing with the rules and the commands to set up the society are revealed. And so, we see the implementation of sloth, the implementation of the fasting of zakat of the hatch. So many things surrounding marriage, surrounding inheritance, the eating of halal and haram
you know, all those different things are established during this period. See, so this is the real Muslim society that is developed.
And because of this, Omar ibn had Tarboro, the lower one is around 638 CE or AD. He consulted with advisors, Omar was organizing the Muslim society
and naturally what calendar they need a calendar. Are you going to follow the pagan calendars? Yes, there is a calendar that you have to follow in a sense of solar calendar that that you have to follow because of planting, you know, but the lunar calendar became the base. And the name that was given and decided upon through Shura mutual consultation was the Hijra. So it's a Hijiri calendar. Very important concept to understand that, in a sense, this is when Islamic history begins. Think about this.
Because after the transition, pivot,
and then Islamic society, real Islam,
not just your character, but something impacting the world around the believers. So that pivot was crucial.
And it was something that we should never forget.
And in a sense, the Hijra
it was a light for the whole world.
It gave hope to the hearts of the early Muslims. And they became an example to the Day of Judgment
even up until now we think about what did the Sahaba do? What happens in Medina, we go back to that time when we project for what we would love to have established in the future in sha Allah. And it also was, in a sense, making a stage for a light. That would be the light that spread around the world is because of this pivot. That happened, that now Islam was poised to go out to the rest of the world. Because yes, it did go out and they headed out to Alibaba.
But the believers had to move out of there. They moved and they went to Yathrib, they went to Medina.
And with this major pivot that happened, then Islam entered into Syria, it entered into Persia, you went across the North Africa, it went South Yemen, you went across the Horn of Africa, and then it started to spread. But that spread was was was based upon a pivot. It was based upon a very important transition point. And that is on hijra, that is the migration for Allah subhanaw taala.
And so this is
the first of our key pivotal moments
in Islamic history.
And I want to
open up the floor for any questions or comments that anybody may have. We want to open up the floor for people
and to see
if there's anything that they have, they would like to ask
so some messages are coming in from different parts of the world. And
floor is open for any questions. I know this is the first period, you know that that we're having. And
so, but get in get in the habit of asking questions. You can write them down, you know, even as some of the questions in next week's class Inshallah, because we'll be continuing this on, you know, for four sessions, some of the key pivotal moments in Islamic history, and we hope to be able to follow this up as well. So, floor is still open for any questions that anybody has flowers open
question said where's our Khalifa
this is important.
The concept of the Khalifa you know really is
the one who
took over authority after the time of the Prophet SAW salah and the great qualifier of Russia Dune, that is all bakr Omar Earth man and ally.
Great Khalifa is there have been other believers that have come in or made period of acid period. Even during the time of the Ottoman Turks. There was a Khalifa. But unfortunately, from the early 20th century, this was taken down to our weakness and to the attack of those who did not want Islam to be established in the land. The Khalifa was taken down, but the concept is still there, and inshallah it is destined by the Prophet SAW, Selim predicted that there would be a Khalifa would come back. This is a righteous one. This is not an imposter. And extremist who stands up and kills people and claims he's a leader. No, but this is a righteous leader that will come back before the
day of resurrection. And we need to study more about this in the science of the last day to understand how they can appear at this point in time. There is no Khalifa in the Muslim world. There are some people who are practicing aspects of Islam.
But the true Islamic Society and the true leader doesn't exist right now. And we pray Inshallah, that this can, you know, open up?
Now the question says, explain the migration of those Ethiopians at the end. And I'm not saying you are the best of mankind.
The in terms of the migration of the Ethiopians, this is reported and you go to a Tabari and you know, even Kadir and you know, different books, and you actually see the names of Sahaba who died
there in Ethiopia and the names of Abyssinians
who actually made the migration 32 And so there are a lot of Africans within the community of Medina people think it's only
pilau probably Allahu Allah. But now there are a lot of African Muslims in his early community that was very small. But people do not
front their names or they don't want to be nationalistic. So you don't, that they became incorporated within the society of the believers there in Medina because it was a mixture of people of different backgrounds, and this group, and, of course, the many verses we don't have time right now. But yes, you know, the best of people are those who call to the good and fit in and forbid evil, and they believe in Allah.
Now, the question says, How was the first year of Hutch that the enemies in Mecca, trouble the believers?
We find, you know, with the
Treaty of who they be,
that the Prophet SAW Selim, and his companions wanted to make umbra. This is a lesser pilgrimage. And they traveled to Mecca, but they were stopped by the quotation negotiation happened, and they made a treaty, which allowed them to come back the next year.
So when they came back the next year, they made Anwar and it was according to the treaty, they would not be touched. And they made the Umrah successfully and returned to Medina, following this, then the province of Salem took the believers and they opened up Mecca completely.
So by the time the Muslims then reestablished Mecca, and when they made the Hajj the first ones, they were controlling it. So by that time, there were no problems. And the first great Umbra was okay, as well, because there was a treaty called salah, or the Treaty of Abu Dhabi.
Now the question is saying any thoughts and ideas on how perilous the journey from Mecca to Medina would have been? And what does that what does this say about tenacity of the Muslims? Yes, it's amazing how time is I can recall Alhamdulillah I was living in Medina, in 1973. And at that time, there were no major roads and major streets. And I lived in a house, you know, without running water with redwoods. And life was very beautiful life. But it was a hardy life. And when we would travel from Medina to Mecca in the 70s, it was an arduous journey, you're in this minibus, and you're traveling in the desert, and you stop along the side of the road and there's the statue benches and
they're cooking fish and it's hot, you pray, you want to go to the bathroom, they give you a can.
And you go into the desert, Sunday, right? That's the way it was in 1973.
I recently saw a picture of the of the train, which is going from real Mecca to Medina, beautiful train, which is better than some of the trains in Canada and America and Europe.
Muslims living in style, okay, and which is good Alhamdulillah because it's more hygienic and it's safe. But at the same time, the Muslims were able to go through physical changes. When an attack comes upon them when life gets difficult, they're able to hold the line. So, yes, modernization has got two sides, we need to use modernization, but at the same time, we need to keep physically fit, you know, and also be able to withstand difficulty when it comes.
So we pray that Allah subhanaw taala would bless the believers still in the Muslim world because of the changes that we're going through. It's all not beautiful trains, like Mecca to Medina. Most of the Muslim world is actually suffering now they're going to droughts, they're going to floods. They're middle of wars. So Muslims are very tenacious. Muslims are strong Muslims can withstand, but what we need is leadership.
We need to understand our religion. We need guidance. This is what this is the point where we're at Inshallah, and we're waiting for a pivot to come from Allah subhanaw taala a pivot, and we will train our youth. This is why these discussions are so important for us to understand how in the time of darkness light came, it's not all over. People look at the Muslim world, they say it's over. We'll never come back. No, that's not true. And we will study in history, how it changed, how the transition has happened. And Allah subhanaw taala is causing another cliche, he is power of all things. And even though it seems difficult
out in the world today, a transition can be made.
And we can only pray that Allah subhanaw taala would bless us with a pivot with a transition to take us today from darkness into light. So I leave you with these thoughts.
And I ask Allah to have mercy on me and you
Wakata that one. And Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salam Wa alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh