The FINAL Expulsion of Muslims from Andalusia (1609 CE)
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
File Size: 29.89MB
In September of 1609, roughly 420, what three years ago, this very month, King Philip the third of Spain, ordered the expulsion, the final expulsion of the Muslims of Andalus. Today, Inshallah, we're going to go back to that point in time and contextualize where and how are Muslims and under loose in 1609. We thought or we are taught that in 1492. The final Sultan of the Nasir is handed over the keys to Ferdinand Isabella, and the end of Muslim and de Lucia took place. How then in September of 1609, is an edict given that Muslims have to be expelled, and it was one of the most tragic incidents in all of Andalusia in history. Over 30,000 Muslims were forcibly forcibly expelled, and
many 1000s of children were kept. The point being these children are innocent, they're not corrupted, we're gonna keep them to make them Christians, and the parents were forced to go into exile, and over 30,000 at the very minimum, were asked to leave within a few days. How and where is this happening very briefly today, inshallah we're going to go over this final expulsion. Now. Technically, the people who were expelled were not called Muslims, they were called a modus skos, who are what is a Morisco. Morisco is a derogatory term that the Spanish used, and it means little Muslims more is what they call Muslims is called Yanni, just like a, you know, a set of sleet or
it's a little, it's like a dim unit diminutive making fun of it. You are not real Muslims. You pretend to be Muslims, but you're not really Muslims, who are the Moriscos. The Moriscos was a term that the people of Spain used to describe the descendants of Muslims who were forced to convert to Christianity. Outwardly, they're Christian. They have Christian names. They are living lifestyles of Christianity, but inwardly, ethnically, their language, their culture, everything about them, they are descendants of the Muslims of Spain, the Muslims of under Lucia, they never were given equal status. And so for 200 years, they're living separate, but distinct, and the term Morisco is given.
And this story of the Moriscos is a very fascinating story. It is one of the saddest tragedies of our Islamic history, because it deals with the final remnants of Islam and under Lucia, you see, go back to 1492 when Ferdinand Isabella conquered the kingdom of Granada When Sultan, Abdullah had to surrender the keys, and of course, I went over that story multiple times. And our own guard Christopher Columbus, our own Christopher Columbus was in the gardens of Grenada. He was witnessing Ferdinand and Isabella conquering and handing the keys the Sultan Abu Abdullah handing the keys to Fred and Isabella, our Christopher Columbus, the guy who quote unquote, discovered America is in the
gardens of under Lucia and he's going to then petition and then find his way to America 1492 That's why 1492 Every high school kid in America knows discovery of America quote unquote, and every Muslim kid 14 I need to the collapse of Grenada, the collapse of under Lucia the two dates are the same, because the same person is involved because there is a causal linkage now, when Grenada is conquered, you have to understand Grenada is like 80 90% Muslim, the entire population is Muslim. You cannot overnight expel everybody. You cannot overnight, tell everybody to leave, there will be no community left. And so Sultan Omar Abdullah, the last so fond of the Nasir dynasty, and the
original contract is still present. If you go to the museum in Spain, I've seen it with my own eyes, the original signature, the original, you know, the same document is still there. You can read it and it's actually you can read it online even Sultan Abu Abdullah put an entire paragraph I will only surrender with these conditions. The main condition, the Muslims of my kingdom will not be touched. I will leave the royal family will leave you will get the Treasury you will be the rulers but the Muslims their religion will be protected. Their right to practice Islam will not be infringed. Their court systems the Cobots the judges are going to be in place you shall allow them
to live as they are religiously. You will be the leaders you will get the time
AXYZ but you will not infringe on the rights of the Muslims. That was in the treaty. You can read it yourself in simple Arabic it is still there. And if you read Spanish the translation is there as well. This took place what year? What year was this? 1492. Okay, so thought of what Abdullah leaves and the Muslim armies leave now who was in charge Ferdinand and Isabella, how long do you think it took them to start breaking the treaty less than a few years, less than a decade. Because now Hala, there is no buddy in charge other than them, within a decade, they made the announcement. Either you convert, or you expel, or you shall be killed within a decade, literally less than 10 years, and the
entire treaty is made null and void. And the Muslims have to make a tough choice. Now, now begins the history of the decline of Spain. Now, obviously, this is a very complicated history. Why multiple reasons. First and foremost, we don't have eyewitness accounts from within the Muslims, very rare. We have external, we have the Spaniards documenting number one. Number two, the history of the decline of Spain the last century and a half. It varies from city to region to state. And so Granada is not the same as Valencia, as we'll talk about Valencia is not the same as your chief Shelter by a yachtie ativa. And that's not the same as El pura everybody, every region is different.
And then number three, you had different rulers and kings, some were more lacks, some are more strict. So I'm going to make a bit of a stereotype and be very simplistic with the caveat that if you really want to study deep, you're going to have to go regional and era by era, which we don't have time to do, we can make some general trends of the general trends is that within a decade of 1492, I think it's 15 to 115 or one, King Ferdinand and Isabella gave the decree you cannot practice Islam outwardly, you must convert to Christianity, or else be expelled, or else you shall be killed. What happened? multiple reactions now here, you know me I don't sugarcoat I don't romanticize. Not
every movement not every Muslim is like Yasser, in Somalia. Not every Muslim is to that level of Bilal, Radi Allahu Han. We have to be fair with our history in our times when there is no persecution don't we have in our times when there is no throat? You know, knife put to your throat down we have Muslims not not practicing Islam. Well, then what do you think is gonna happen when the government says we're gonna kill you multiple reactions. One group said, We cannot live here they made hijra. And that group of Hijra persisted for 200 years, throughout every decade or so people would leave because they don't want to live in Darfur. They don't want to live in this land anymore.
And you have that, you know, understanding as well. Another group, they fled the major cities, and they went to the villages they went, they established their own cities, they established their own little villages in the middle of nowhere. Remember, this is before the era of, you know, the railroad and electricity and whatnot, you can run away to the mountains, you can run to the heights of the mountains form your own small community. And so to this day, in under Lucia, there are small little villages that are the descendants of those Muslims. Within especially an hour and a half of Grenada. Grenada, most famously, is the area called Al po Hara from the Arabic Al Bashir RotZ Al
Bashir surat al Pura, Al Bashir rot, it's up in the mountains. I've been there every year we go it is absolutely phenomenal. You go there, you find the original villages built by the Muslims, you find the last fortress of the Muslims, we're going to come to the story very quickly that the Muslims fled Granada and they founded their own mini villages. Now the government is far away, and the other one is called Salah is prayed there is a masjid, etc. But again, the government will eventually get involved. It's gonna take a while, but they lasted a generation or two. So this is a second group, they fled the major cities Granada and Valencia, and they went inland, they went to
the mountains, they went into the middle of the country, the majority of them decided, we have no option, but to just pretend to convert. These are the Moriscos. Outwardly they converted, but inwardly they tried to maintain their Islam. And for many decades, actually, for more than a century and a half. The bulk of them managed to retain some sense of Islamic identity. Some sense
They were not allowed to establish Juma they weren't allowed to foster Milan they were not allowed to, but they kept their Islam secret and they attempted to portray themselves as Christian. But internally they were Muslim. And a very famous fatwa was given by the ruler ma of the Maliki school in North Africa. It is called an English the fatwa the Quran fatwa. And an Arabic is fatwa to Wuhan fat for photo to Iran, Allah wa Rani, and that is because the Alamo the chef who gave it, his name is Emma, Debbie Juma al Mojave, and Ronnie. So this is an album in North Africa. When this EDIC was given that you have to convert or you will be killed. This shift it was Ronnie he sent them a fatwa.
And that photo became famous amongst them and they implemented it for a century. What is that fatwa? The fatwa is if you cannot migrate, then do whatever they asked you to do outwardly and inwardly retain your iman. If they force you to drink alcohol, drink alcohol, if they force you to eat pork, eat pork, if they force you to go to church on Sunday, go to church on Sunday.
Allah will forgive you because you are forced. But whenever you can pray, pray in secret. And if you have to make Juma of all the Salah and pray at night, go ahead. And if you have to pray Juma alone, go ahead. And if you can only pray by a shout out of the eyelids go ahead. Just do whatever you can to Allah Hamas to talk to him and the rest is all forgiven. This is the famous oran fatwa. And this oran fatwa became the lifesaver of this motorcycle group. And this motorcycle group, they then attempted for the next 150 years to secretly preserve their Islam and the man. Now, unfortunately, we don't have much details. How are we going to have details who's going to preserve but we find
documents in fact, I posted on when I stopped. Of course, I'm no longer on social media. But right before I stopped I think two or three weeks ago, I posted a photograph of a document that was discovered in an Andalusi and house that was being rebuilt. And there were two walls they didn't realize there's an empty space in between the walls. So for 400 years, 300 years, there is that empty space. When they destroy the wall, they come across a series of books. Those books date back to this timeframe, secret prawns, secret textbooks, vicar books secret even hijabs because the edict came out the government said that you cannot wear the hijab, just like France is doing now exact
same thing, no Muslim can wear the hijab that you cannot read the Quran, you cannot congregate for the Salah, you cannot
congregate for Juma and you will be tested how will you be tested in Ramadan for example, you will be forced to eat in public and Ramadan. Everybody knows this Ramadan, you are going to we're going to be forcing you to eat in public, you will be forced to eat pork and we're going to see your reaction. Because Muslims when they eat pork, they will automatically vomit there so it's a disgusting meat it is actually disgusting meat. And so if you're vomiting when you eat pork, this means you're a secret Muslim, they would actually do this rumors would spread so and so is a secret Muslim. So the secret police would come the Inquisition would come they would raid the house in the
middle of the night they would see are there any Quran is hidden or not. If there was a Quran immediately taken to the court tried treason, either execution or exile, or if there's a hijab, or if there's decal beads, or anything that gives the semblance of Islam. So the Quran fatwa allowed the Muslims to retain their sense of secrecy for over 100 years. Now what happened? Obviously, it's only a matter of time before even this is going to fall apart for a while actually we know for a fact. So we have what do we have? We have the court records during this timeframe. We have some of the court records, you read the accusations and it is truly like it's scary. One of the slaves says,
I heard my master and mistress that wife and husband speak in the middle of the night in Arabic. This was the accusation. Another neighbor says, I heard the husband call his wife, Fatima. Even though her name is supposed to be married or something, whatever it is, I heard her secretly say Fatima. This means they're Muslim, because the Muslims had double names. They had their internal name, the secret name, and then they had the public name, you know, one or whatever it might be. So if somebody heard you accidentally speak Arabic, accidentally say the name, then you would be reported to the Inquisition and depending on the king, depending on the ruler, there were Muslims
who were killed by the way but factually speaking for some reason. The Jews were given the brunt of the Inquisition, the Muslims, the majority of them were sent
tend to exile or find and then forced to convert over and over again. But yes, some groups now we don't know how much maybe 10 to 20,000 were actually killed over 100 years, but the bulk of them were either find or thrown in jail or forced into exile. If they were taken to the, the courts have the Inquisition. Now eventually, of course, things are going to come to an end. In 1567. King Philip the Second the father of the guy who did the expulsion is 1609 tinkle of the second that his son came for the third King Philip the Second made a general band, no one is allowed to speak Arabic anymore. No one is allowed to speak Arabic If you're caught speaking Arabic, you will be thrown in
jail or maybe even executed. This was the final straw for the Moriscos. The Muslims who are outwardly Christian.
Multiple rebellions broke out across under Lucia. This was the last major revolt. And the bastion of the revolt was the land I just mentioned al pura the Bashar Al kohara. And one of the descendants of the original OMA years ago Abdullah Al Omar was one of the descendants of the original holder far became the leader. And for a number of years 1000s of Muslims were traveled to Alpujarra in order to try to wage a rebellion against Granada against King Phillip the second, unfortunately, as is always the case, he was backstabbed from within, and a Muslim you know, traitor always the case we have to worry about our own. Somebody from within came and killed him in his own tent. Our our guy one of
our Muslim guys came in and did what he did as monolith this guy, a boy Abdullah, normally, he would be writing letters to Solon Salim of the Ottoman Empire, we need your help. You need to send the ships you need to send his armies, we're going to be massacred, at the very least send us equipment, send us military send us aid. Nothing came for whatever reason they had their CSM. And again, you can understand I'm not at all condoning, but from their perspective, to send aid is to declare war with the Spanish Empire, and the Spanish Empire is the superpower of the time. So by the way, what we're seeing now is nothing new. It is the reality throughout history. The empires or empires and
the rest are not sold on Selim was super powerful in his region, but he doesn't want to take on the Spanish Armada. He doesn't want to take on the Spanish fleet. He does not want to do that. So the Ottoman Empire never directly sent troops even though there was correspondence. It is said that some of the local you know other regional empires did send some aid and weapons, but nobody sent troops in the end of the day. You don't want to take on the Spanish they were the Empire at the time. And so it's only a matter of time, local bribes this and that somebody comes and kills the leader of the rebellion. And then the army attacks Aleppo Herrera, and a massacre takes place. I have visited that
fortress. There's actually a video on my Facebook from long ago when the last time I visited I the last fortress where the Athan was called where the Muslims you know, died fighting Shaheed it's still to this day, you can see it there. You can you can see it out. This is in around 1570, the last stand of the Muslims of El Pura, and then they were massacred. And the rest were sold into slavery women and children 10s of 1000s of women and children sold into slavery, and they brought in local Spaniards to take over. But the villages and the houses are exactly the same. So when you go to Alpujarra, you will find the houses the Muslims, you will find the original springs of the
Muslims, the names of the areas are all Arabic names, but the people are no longer those people. Interesting story was that a few decades ago, in one of these houses in Alpujarra, they discovered again in these walls in these hidden places, because what the muscles would do, they would dig a hole somewhere and bury their books, they would have a secret place when they were expelled, who's going to discover the place slowly but surely, recently, a discovery was made of a beautiful new sheet about our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, which is in majority Castilian Spain and phrases of Arabic phrases of Arabic and the rest of it is in you know medieval Spanish. And this,
this nod or this praise was taken by a group of modern nasheed artists and they replicated How would have sounded you will find it online. It is called Mudhouse Morisco madhhab Morisco. If you just Google that you will find it online. And there is just an A sheet in Spanish that the Muslims of Alpujarra would say to the Prophet sallallahu either he was setting them phrases of Arabic and the rest is in Spanish, these are the Muslims. This is third generation moodscope And they're still saying salaam to the provinces. I'm still keeping their tradition alive.
If, in any case, as we said, this isn't 1570 And so in Grenada, and NL por hora, there has been an almost all out complete expulsion. One major city remained, and that was on the other side of Underoos. And that is Valencia Valencia. Okay. Valencia in Arabic with Valencia in modern time, Valencia was under a different dynasty, a different king. And the dynamics was different 30% or 40% of the locals were still Moriscos ie outwardly Christian, but inwardly Muslim, and the Muslims were in charge of the agriculture, of the trades of the craft of the business and trade. So the people couldn't live without them. The people needed them. So for 150 years, the Muslims remained in
Valencia, the Moriscos, even though technically they're not Muslim, outwardly, they're Christian. But everybody knows you turn a blind eye, let them be, we need them whatnot. But now, in after this 1570 Rebellion, a new bishop comes, a new Archbishop comes. And this Archbishop he was the most, you know, bigoted, hated Archbishop of the time, and he made it his personal life mission to get rid of the Muslims. He made it his personal life mission. And he began clamoring fomenting public hatred against the Muslims of Valencia, and his name is Juan de Ribera, Juan de Ribera, Juan de Ribera, he began to write to the king now it's King Philip the third to multiple times saying that this group,
it is a traitor group, their treacherous group, you have better get rid of them. And he began because he's the archbishop, if you do so God will forgive you, if you do. So this is, you know, sanctioned by God, because lots of other Spaniards were saying, firstly, these are Christians, we shouldn't treat them differently. Secondly, our city depends on them. If we kick them out, we're not going to have trade we're not going to have but the archbishop didn't care. And eventually he convinced the king to issue the edict to expel all of the Muslims. And so in September 16, oh, nine this month, September 16. Oh, nine, the edict was read out. The king was very sly, very, very, you
know, tricky. He had already defang the Muslims, without telling them he had already cut off all exits, he had already brought in extra troops right before the announcement. The Muslims were caught totally unexpected. In September 15, I think are 17 This is basically right now this these days, so I'm gonna give me this cotton. Now, in September, surprisingly, I mean, it wasn't a surprise, the Muslims were told you have one week, get out, or kill.
There is no conversion, because technically, they're already converted. Now you have no option, get out, or we'll kill you. Actually, this Archbishop wanted them to be killed. The king said, I don't want to kill them is going to cause a problem and what and maybe they're Christian, what if they're Christian, so the king actually thought this was the humane treatment to not kill them, only to expel them. But he did allow for multiple groups to keep children because they needed people. I mean, you have to realize people is a commodity humans are a commodity. And so children beneath the age of six, some families were allowed to be like some rich families were allowed to keep Muslim
children. Some powerful people could forcibly take Muslim parents away from their kids, and say, These children are baptized Christians, they haven't been corrupted by you guys. So we cannot allow them to go to Muslim lands. And so that was one of the biggest tragedies where eyewitness accounts of mothers wailing and fathers trying and you know, 1000s of children were kept behind. And these adults were sent in, where did the adults go? The majority that went to Morocco, by the way, the adults had to pay their own fare as well not that they got free. No, you have to pay the double fare, whatever is the price, you have to pay your fare to go to Morocco, and you're not allowed to
take anything with you other than your bags, your properties, your wealth, anything that is stable, you cannot sell it is going to be going to the local population and the government. So the Muslims had to flee to Morocco, majority that went to Morocco, small pockets went to the Ottoman lands as well. And within a few years, the entire Morisco population was gotten rid of how many we don't know for sure, but probably in this expulsion, probably 30 to 50,000 people right throughout the last 100 years, around a quarter of a million Muslims, but in this last expulsion 30 to 50,000 Muslims, by the way, really interesting story. Some of them who were expelled some of them they managed to come
to the Americas, the Moriscos we have documented reports of some of these Moriscos most
Muslims making their way to the Americas. But it's 1609. So where do you think they're going to land? New York? Who can tell me, especially the high school kids should know this? Maybe they don't. They're excused. The high school kids, where do you think 1609 They would have landed Plymouth Rock 1609 Where would they have landed? Hmm. Mexico, and where else?
other South American countries, right? We have documented reports of Muslims making their way in 1600s to South America, but none of them can retain their Islam, because the environment is anti Islam. Right. So they were actually accused of being secret Muslims. That's why we have their documented reports. And they have to confess we have a lady. I forgot her name right now. She confessed that she was born and raised a Muslim. But then she said, but I am now a Christian we forgive ask Allah to forgive her. She is she has no other option. I mean, what is she going to do? So she confessed she was a Muslim in her youth. But in Mexico City, this isn't 1629 in Mexico City.
So she's brought in front of the court. What is the charge? You are a Muslim? And she says I was a Muslim. You're right. But I'm no longer and we have the records of this. I have no doubt in her heart. She was a Muslim, no Muslim, leaves Islam and starts believing in you know, false gods. But she had to say what she had to say. My point being the expulsion here, created a chain reaction across the globe, and so many Muslims had to leave to conclude.
What was the goal of King Philip? Why did he do this King Philip was a king in the end of the day, the religious bigotry doesn't really concern him the main thing, when you look at why the king would have made this edict, and this is one of the reasons why I'm bringing this hotter here today, we find the sentiment the mentality is exactly the same as what we have right now.
1600s, Spain, it was a time of great political and economic chaos, wars going on with France with other European countries, people are scared, the economy is going down.
Anytime the country is going down, all you have to do is create a false enemy from within.
Create a false enemy from within, tell the majority of people, this is your enemy, make this a bigger threat. The politician then says, I will save you from this enemy. And the politician swoops in for months, hatred, causes the majority to hate the minority, and then comes in as the knight in shining armor to save the majority from this small minority. Look at history. What did Hitler do in Nazi Germany, when Germany when the German currency was at its weakest, when World War One was a disaster, when Germans are feeling a sense of complete humiliation, at that point in time, Hitler creates the narrative or the enemy is within and hatred rises to unprecedented levels. And people
feel they're doing something when they turn on their own German citizens have another background, another nationality? You know, I'm talking about right. And now what happened here 15 years ago, right? Our economy, our national debt is in the trillions. We are spending more overseas in military expeditions than all 100 countries combined. In many ways, our country really has national disasters of the highest magnitude, or healthcare is in shambles, et cetera, et cetera. What's the best tactic? Create a false enemy from within? Create an illusion that these guys, us the Muslims are the terrorists, create an entire narrative, and then foment hatred, pass bills, et cetera, et cetera? It
always works. People never learn from history. But what they also don't learn is the opposite as well. How will this we conclude? What is the net result of destroying the social fabric of your own society? What happens?
The long result, the long term result is always failure.
No society can turn on itself and be successful. People never learn from history, neither the politicians nor the masses, you cannot divide your own country and then conquer What's your own country. You cannot. And so when the Muslims were expelled from Spain, when the Muslims were expelled from Valencia, 35% of the population leaves the majority of them skilled traders, craftsmen, farmers, they know how to plow, they know how to take care what's going to happen. Valencia used to be the
economic powerhouse of that region.
That was it with the expulsion of the Muslims. The Christians tried, tried tried, but it continued to go down until Valencia is a thing of the past. You cannot divide and conquer your own country, it's always going to result in failure. And the Spanish people saw this too late. And the reality is people never learned from their history. So bottom line brothers and sisters, it is important that we as Muslims, we go back to history we learn from history, we understand the pitfalls of the past, so that we at least in our individual lives, do not fall prey to them. And the final point Subhanallah no matter what happens to individual regions, Allah will protect the religion of Islam
Sure, pockets might fail Sure, pockets might disappear, but the religion of Islam shall always flourish as we see today, which is our Kamala Harris was said on body camera Julia Baraka.
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