The End of Islamic Caliphate 100 Years Ago
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
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hamdulillah All praise is due to Allah subhanho wa Taala we praise Him and we seek His help and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls and the consequences of our actions. Indeed whomever Allah guides, none can misguide. And whomever Allah misguides none can guide him to the straight path. A bear witness and I testify that there is no God except for Allah agenda, Judah Lu, and that Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is his final prophet and most perfect worshipper. As to what follows ALLAH SubhanA wa Tada reminds us in the Quran, when he says yeah, you Hello Athena. I'm an otaku Allahu Akbar to quarter wala to moeten illa Anta Muslim on are you who believe be conscious of
Allah, the way that it is befitting that you be conscious of him and do not die except in the state of submission.
Dear Muslims, today 100 years ago, one of the greatest political disasters of the last 14 and a half century
Freeze occurred literally today 100 years ago on the 27th of Raja 1342 Ah, and today is the 27th of Raja 1442 on the 27th thorough job 1342 After the Hijrah, which corresponds to March of 1924 by a decree of the Parliament of Turkey, under the nationalists leader of must by the name of Mustafa Kemal, otherwise known as a TA took the office of the hill Alpha was abolished, and the last Khalifa of our Ummah, Sultan Abdul Majeed, the second, the 37th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the 21st generation descendant of its founder, Usman went into exile, and eventually died in Paris in 1944. This week, this day, the 27th of Rajab marks the 100 Hijiri anniversary of this sad tragedy, a full
century has gone by, and it behooves us to remember to not commemorate because that's the positive meaning, but to reflect and to ponder, and to study and learn both the good and the bad. And obviously, this is a very complex topic that cannot be covered in one hotbar. It is worthy of many, many lectures and maybe one day inshallah myself or somebody will do them. But today's hutzpah, I want to most importantly, raise public awareness, the vast majority of us don't even know the realities of what happened to raise public awareness, and to create a curiosity to bring about a sense of I need to know, how could this tragedy have happened for 1350 years, we either Khilafah and
then all of a sudden, between a morning and an evening, it's gone. And now we have been for 100 years without one? What are the lessons to learn? What do I need to teach, especially the next generation, especially my children and your children, they need to know our heritage, our history, they need to know our civilization. And so in today's holds, but I can only do so much what I will do is inshallah shed some key points bring about some key points, so that in sha Allah, the goal is to incentivize us to motivate us to want to study more.
What are the causes of the collapse of the Khilafah, and especially of the earth money, philosopher, many things can be said, of them. The mismanagement of internal resources, resources, and the weakening of the Muslim economy of them was, for centuries, a sense of complacency, a sense of not understanding the threat of other superpowers, because once upon a time, as we all like to reminisce, we ruled the world for 500 years, we were indeed the greatest civilization. But unfortunately, that led to a sense of complacency, a sense of maybe even a little bit of arrogance. And so from around 14 1500 onwards, the Muslim lands began to stagnate, technologically, and Western
civilization began to rise. And there was not a sense of urgency, it really was not, there was not a sense of awareness of the threat of the rising European powers, as well. during this timeframe. The technological achievements of the Western worlds began to far surpass those of Muslim lands, and in particular, the Ottoman army. Also, there was the ossification of the religious clergy. And this is an awkward thing. But it needs to be said, there was this sense of closure, we don't need anything else. And that is why there was a sense of we don't need any technology. I've given an entire lecture about the printing press, and why so many scholars did not want the printing press in Muslim
lands. That's just an indication of a mindset if you like. And it is true that some early ama attempted reform, attempted revival, great thinkers like Rashid readopt, who was very active, the most famous alum 100 years ago was Rashid Rudolph May Allah azza wa jal have mercy on him, but it was too little too late. And so what happened happened? Another major reason for the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was the fact that global superpowers began playing around with Muslim politics. They began eyeing Muslim lands with direct colonization, like the British in India, like the French in Egypt and Algeria, or with indirect tinkering, like they did with the Ottoman law.
Hans. And so European Super Powers France, Germany, England, Russia, they all began to try to influence local politics within the Ottoman lands. And the Muslims became a plaything like a piece of chess on a vicious board that was way beyond their pay grade way beyond their understanding. And unfortunately, perhaps the greatest catalyst, they were lured into a global war that we now called World War One, they were lured into a global war, even though they didn't have to take part. They were made promises that were dangled with incentives. And so they took sides in a global war that had nothing to do with them. And unfortunately, is Allah's cutter, they chose the wrong side, they
chose the losing side, they chose to side with Germany against the allied forces against England and the other superpowers. And so when Germany collapsed because Germany lost World War One, when Germany collapsed, then obviously the European powers were able to invade Muslim lands directly, Allied forces invaded and conquered both died, the capital of the massive empire, British forces entered Baghdad in the early part of this century of the last century. And then they entered Jerusalem and they conquered Jerusalem. And then eventually they entered Istanbul and depose the, the Ottoman Sultan, but it wasn't an outsider. It was not an outsider that abolished the caliphate.
No, what is so painful, and this shows us that we have enemies from within just like we have enemies from without what is so painful was that the actual abolishment of the Khilafah came at the hands of somebody who was born in a Muslim family and given a Muslim name, and perhaps the most painful, the name he was given was a name that also belonged to our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and I mean by this Mustafa Kamal, who is called a TED talk, and he was the one who instigated the official abolishment of the Khilafah 100 years ago today.
The results are catastrophic, to say the least, so much can be said. Firstly, and there's no doubt this is the biggest of them. The loss of an institution that has been continuously operating from the beginning of Islamic civilization, an institution that was put into place by no one less than our Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the institution of a global authority, the institution of a figurehead that is going to lead all of the Muslim empire and that is of the Khilafah agreed. It wasn't a perfect institution. Yes, it had its ups and downs, and we had bad Khalifa, we had good conifers, but it was something and it was something that we could rightfully
take pride in. It was a symbol of a civilization, our civilization, a symbol of a political force, our political force. Throughout 13 and a half centuries, many dynasties came and went many dynasties rose and fall and they took over the status of the Khilafah. The OMA years the above acids the mum Luke's the Seljuks the Ottomans, but there was always a continuous Khalifa from the time of Abu Bakr, Siddiq, Radi Allahu Anh, up until 100 years ago, there was a continuous Khalifa, maybe different backgrounds, different regions, different names, but there was indeed a Khalifa for our faith and our civilization. And regardless of the calamities that took place, and how many have they
been, perhaps of the greatest of the calamities in our history was the advent of the Crusades. And perhaps the second worst tragedy, politically speaking, after the collapse of the Khilafah was the invasion of the Mongols without Gohan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, attacking Baghdad and bringing the Abbas in Halawa to an end in 1258. But even that the ADA was revived under the Mamluks. And it lasted for a century or two before the Ottomans took it over even the collapse of Baghdad, which was indeed very traumatic, did not bring the Khilafah to an end. All of this happened only 100 years ago. So this is the first of many, many negatives. The second negative that resulted
is a reality that we're all living with as we sit here right now, a reality that was unknown 200 years ago, 300 years ago, 1000 years ago. It is a reality that every one of us sitting here is not just aware of we are involved with and that is nation states. In the pre early time, pre modern times, Muslims identified with their faith, and then with a broad ethnic group.
their language, their culture, the concept of dividing imaginary lines between people who shared the same heritage, the same language, the same cuisine, the same ethnicity was non existent. But with the collapse of the Khilafah, and with the carving up of the Ottoman Empire, in particular with that infamous treaty known as the Sykes pico agreement, and I want every one of you to study this agreement, there's a Wikipedia page or there's a YouTube tutorial for high school students, it's enough for us to understand to Western ambassadors, one French, and one British literally sat down Sykes and Pico between a map of the Middle East and they negotiated and they bartered. And they
fought over where they would draw the lines to divide the pie, the pie, our pie, you know, when kids come and they fight over the pie, the parent comes in has to cut it up. That's exactly what happened with the Sykes picot agreement that py was our Alma it was a map of our literally, we have the original, you can Google it, we have the original map that Sykes and Pico are fighting over, and they decide this is the border of Syria. This is the border of Lebanon, this is the border of Palestine, this is the border of Iraq. And those borders are exactly the borders that we still having to this day, imaginary lines between people have the same background, same religion, same
ethnicity. And now what happens we are all at war with one another one another. Kulu has been the malady him for their own, this person hates that person, this person is bombing the other person. And we have the same God and the same heritage and the same religion and the same cabler the concept of nation state was brought in by outsiders and then handed to us. And now all of us we are caught up in that wave as well. The third negative of the collapse of the Khilafah. And it is indeed a painful negative was that it paved the way for the loss of Philistine and the brutal occupation of that region by the only remaining apartheid regime in the world today, the site's pico agreement,
and then the Balfour Declaration, were both instrumental in the destruction and the displacement of our Palestinian brothers and sisters, and the substitution of local residents of that land residents that had lived there for 2000 years since before the coming of Jesus Christ, the same people live there, their fates might have changed, but it's that ethnicity. But because of the collapse of the hate alpha and World War One and the site speaker agreement and the Balfour Declaration, those people that lived there for 1000s of years, were shepherded into refugee camps bombed and killed. And then immigrants brought in from Russia, from Europe, immigrants that spoke a different language
had a different background belong to a different faith. And then this country came, which is the only apartheid country that still remains alive to this day. And this is because once again of the collapse of the free Dafa fourthly, another negative that resulted was that it resulted, this isn't fully negatives, also some positives here is that it resulted in different movements and revive ballistic attempts across the globe. The collapse of the Khilafah resulted directly in thinkers starting to attempting to revive the OMA what is to be done, and so many global movements came about as a result of this, and we're all familiar with them. The one Jamaat e Islami, that a Harrier, all
of these movements are a direct result of the collapse of the Khilafah. And they're all attempting to do something or a bring about their own versions of it. And these revivalist stick movements created a ripple effect across the globe. Hamdulillah, much of it is positive, but we learned from the past. Also in India, a movement sprang up called the healer foot movement. And that could affect movement. It was one of the main catalysts not the only one of the main catalysts for the eventual creation of the nation state of Pakistan. This is the direct result of the collapse of the Khilafah Believe it or not, because many of those that were involved in the Khilafah movement, when that
fizzled out, they then jumped on to a new idea, a new project, and that project was the creation of the nation state of Pakistan. And the last point I want to mention and again, this is such a summary. So much needs to be said. The last point I want to mention for our chutzpah is that the collapse of the Khilafah it caused an intellectual and even a religious crisis across the Muslim globe. thinkers were literally in shock. They couldn't imagine a civilization of our faith without an icon that represents the fate How can you have a civilization of Islam without a land of Islam? That has never happened since the time of Medina now?
over, and it's sent Rolla ma across the globe into a type of shock, and questions began to be asked. And these questions don't have easy answers. In fact, we are still negotiating them to this day. What is the future of a land of Islam? What is the future of Islam without a land of Islam? What is the future of a civilization without a caliphate? That is supposed to be the symbol of that civilization? What does it mean to be a Muslim in modernity? How do we navigate our conflicting loyalties when we have these nation states, and we have the OMA and these are questions and controversies that are still shaping our discourses to this day, we haven't even answered all of
these questions or I should say the answers that are being attempted there are not satisfactory to every single Muslim. And again, much can be said but time is always limited. The abolishment of the Khilafah 100 years ago today is a topic that every single one of us without exception needs to study and learn lessons from May Allah subhana wa Tada bless me and you within through the Quran, and may make us of those who is versus the understand and applies heroin and haram throughout our lifespan. I ask Allah's forgiveness, He was while asking for his daughter for under Rama.
hamdulillah all praises due to Allah the one and the unique. It is He alone that we worship, and it is His blessings that we seek. He is the Lord of the oppressed, and the one who answers the drop of the week. Indeed, dear Muslims, the collapse of the Khilafah was a shock of the highest magnitude.
Many of our odema of the timeframe, and many thinkers and especially our enemies, they literally thought this was the end of the religion of Islam as they knew it. Many thought it was the end of the times. Yet Alhamdulillah Alhamdulillah 100 years have gone by and the Ummah is still alive and healthy. The OMA is strong and powerful in its own way, not in the way that it may be would have been Look around you. If you know the history of the last century. It is very true to point out that in the immediate generation after the collapse of the Khilafah in the 40s and 50s and 60s, there is no doubt that overall religiosity suffered and religious thought really did seem to wane. It was
affected but 80s 90s And now this generation, there is no question that there has been a resurgence of the highest order. There is a powerful revival underway and we thank Allah subhana wa Tada we are seeing the effects of this revival. We are seeing raw eemaan across the globe, from Alaska to Zambia from China all the way to the coast of South America. Everywhere we look at we find Muslim communities thriving in the circumstances that they could never have imagined three centuries ago, one century ago, places were even in this land now mosques are flourishing in so many cities and hamdulillah Al Hamdulillah every single major city of the globe messages are being constructed
mosques are jam packed every single Friday and every single prayer of taraweeh and Ramadan as will our Masjid Inshallah, and all massages across the globe. This was not the case in the 40s and 50s and 60s, read the books of history. We are seeing the revival, a global awakening of the spirit of Islam, which is pure Eman. It's not based upon civilization. It's not based upon politics. It is based in genuine faith in our Lord belief in our Quran, love of our Prophet. And the reason for this dear Muslims. The reason for this is that Allah subhana wa Taala promised to preserve, not the Khilafah the religion, Allah promised to preserve this religion until the Day of Judgment, nothing
will destroy the emaan in the hearts of you and me. Enough I can come and go and we are sad. Well Allah here we are sad. It is a tragedy of the highest magnitude. And we wish there was some type of land that we could call a land of Islam. But even if there is no land of Islam, Islam exists in me and you and no one no superpower on earth. No civilization outside of our own can bring that to an end who will lead the outer solar solar who Bill Houda were DNL Halki Leo the hero who Allah Dini coolly This is the Promise of Allah the deen shall remain you do you do another UDFI Oh no, no
Lybia Why him? Well, yeah, but Allahu Allah and your team man, the knower of Allah will shine from coast to coast from land to land, and nothing can ever extinguish this. What we learn dear Muslims, is that indeed, we've had an amazing, amazing history. And our Muslim children, especially the next generation, need to be taught about our beautiful religion and about our glorious past. But they need to be told that our past is human. Our history is human. It is our faith that is divine. Our history is human, you're going to find the good and the bad, the positive and the negative. But even in that human history, because our faith is divine, we had and we continue to have, even if we don't
have a killer for the most magnificent civilization that the world has ever seen, that is the message that we need to tell our children the religion of Islam is alive and flourishing, and it will continue to be alive and continue to flourish until the Day of Judgment. May Allah Subhana Allah to either make us of those who protect and preserve it and pass it down to our children, Allah Houma and NIDA and for aminu, Allama letter that I feel has given me them but the love about whether hand Manila for Raja whether they need local data when I'm dealing on election data, whether I see Ron Ilya sorta Allama fildena When it is one in Edina Saba Hoonah Bill Iman what attach I feel
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