Major And Minor Sins
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
File Size: 24.60MB
I just had to sort of nudge him today and sort of nudge him. There is a verse that I want to comment on a little bit. Allah says in the Quran Alladhina Egypt's any buena Keba Iran ethnic Alpha Heisha il Mmm. The righteous are those who avoid the Cabal era avoid the big of the sins and of the evil deeds. And they don't have to avoid the lemon in the lemon it is allowed a lemon. So it is as if Allah is categorizing sins in the Quran. Allah is differentiating between sins and Allah is saying that the righteous are those who yearn to attend the Buena kabbah era with me will power fish, they avoid the Kaaba era of the sins. And then Allah makes an exception ill Allah mum, if the righteous
commits a lemon will translate this in a while, that doesn't negate from them being righteous. So this leads us to the very interesting, very detailed discussion, which we're going to very quickly summarized because always time is against us the categories of sins. Now, sins can be categorized in many different ways. You can categorize them based upon where do they exist, they can exist only in the heart, nobody knows about them in your art. So you have jealousy. Nobody knows you're jealous, you have arrogance, nobody knows the fact nobody knows or they can exist on the body, somebody can see them. So that is one category of sin. You also have another categorization from another
perspective, sins against Allah, and sins against the creation. So since against Allah, you are infringing between you and Allah, the rights of ALLAH SubhanA wa taala, you're doing something that Allah has told you not to do, or that you are not doing something Allah has told you do, but between you and Allah, and another category of sin, you're infringing on the rights of somebody else, you are stealing, backbiting, hitting, stabbing, taking the heck of somebody else, you can categorize in that manner as well. You can also categorize the sin of doing something you shouldn't do, versus the sin of not doing something you should not do right, not doing something you should do. So for
example, the sin of Iblees. Allah said, prostrate IBLEES said no, he refused a commandment, the sin of Adam. Allah said, don't eat, he ate, he did something he shouldn't have done. So this is another categorization of sin. So and there many other categorizations as well. But the categorization we're going to talk about today so this is a very detailed topic, obviously the the concept of sins. Today we're going to shed a little bit of light about what I just recited in the Quran, another categorization scheme, and one that occurs in the Quran and multiple verses. And this is the categorization of Kabira and celerra Kabira. And Sahara. The Quran has three verses, in which Allah
subhana wa Taala indicates that sins are Kabira versus sins are Sahira. So for example, this is one of them. Alladhina Yeji attorney buena kabbah. Ural if we will approach a dilemma. Allah is clearly differentiating kabbah il from a lemon lemon, by the way, it translates as something touching. So you're not really going deep inside, you're just like touching it, or you're just like getting involved a little bit. So there's an indication that the celerra lemma is not as big of a deal as the Kabira. Obviously, that's the whole point. But in a more explicit verse, Allah literally says the word Selena and Kabira and this is in surah. Alkaff Surah teleca Huff, Allah subhanho wa Taala
says when the worry they'll get up when the book is laid out, and they say, Molly huddle Kitabi now you are the euro. So the Euro 10 Wallah can be rotten ill.
Where's this book coming from? There is no Sahira or cubby at all, except that the book has demonstrated it right. And Allah azza wa jal says a certain Nisa integer tenable Cuba Iran Mattoon Hona Anhu no Kofi Annan come say your article will he'll come Moodle Colin Karima, if you avoid the Kabbalah era, we shall forgive your Sejad meaning there's a category of sins, that Allah shall forgive automatically if you're righteous and pious, these are called the say yacht and the the other verse, the Sahara, and the third verse the lemon. So there are three verses in the Quran surah nisa Surah Al calf, and what's the third one?
Very good. So the tender like I just recited it. These are the three verses in which Allah subhana wa Taala explicitly differentiates between the concept of Selena and the concept of Kabira. Now, the big issue comes and this is the big controversy if you like that what exactly is the difference between the Selena and the Kibera? What is the definition that it
eliminates or differentiates between Salina and Kabira.
This question, no exaggeration, I could spend many hours on many PhDs have been written, I have some in my library, many a path or research papers have been written, many scholars have attempted to differentiate. And this leads to a very deep topic, which I don't really want to get into the depth of it. But I just want to indicate that what we find here and this is an academic analysis, which I'm not the first time many people have said this, what we find here is that our scholars, many of them when they talked about Kerberos, when they talked about major sins, we have a common trend, that there seems to be a emphasis on adding more and more things to this list. Whereas the earliest
of generations, like the Sahaba, they seem to have a few things on the list. So it is reported that even Massoud said, There's only four Kerberos, and Ibn Abbas. So even Omar said, There's seven Kerberos. And other Sahaba said, There's around 10 of them, right? So we have this notion that there's just a few Kerberos. And on the list, we all know what they are, like murder, for example, right? Or, you know, Xena, or, for example, stealing. So these are all, for example, running away from the battlefields explicitly mentioned in the or obviously should, because on the list as well, so you have the short lists, but the later you go, there seems to be a trend to make this list
bigger and bigger and bigger. And our scholars, especially those that are we call them the the analytical scholars that will help contain our scholars point out. The reason for this is the human tendency, especially amongst preachers to frighten the people from committing sins, right. And it's a natural tendency, and it's a good tendency, you want to tell people to not do sins. And so what is one of the easiest ways to do that? You just point out, oh, that's a very big sin. That's a Kabira. So we have for example, later scholars and Mr. Medina Hubby, even vegetal hate me, they have these massive lists. And in fact, other scholars criticize that, actually, you're making almost every sin
imaginable into a Kabira. And if you look at the list, it's a lot of things that the majority of scholars don't consider a Kabira. Now the problem comes, and this is a very legit problem and have to make this disclaimer, when we say it's not a Kabira. Does this mean we're trivializing the sin? Does this mean we're opening the license to commit the sin? Does this mean we're saying Oh, no big deal. Go ahead and committed? No, not at all. We are simply being academic and fair to the Quran and Sunnah. So what then is a Kabira? Again, lots of definitions, no exaggeration, over 17 definitions have been given throughout Islamic history. What is the Quran Saphira, the one that is the most
popular it is generally attributed to Ibn Taymiyyah. But Ibn Taymiyyah wasn't the first to say this, as shortly before as well and others before him, they have this this phrase, and that is every sin, in which number one, there is a worldly punishment had right or number two, there is an order we punishment. Allah has said this is either Bucha Hanham, Allah has said you do this is going to be either Bucha Hanham and number three, Allah has Lana line Allah, then it becomes a Kabira. So they give three criteria. Every punishment that has a worldly sin, if you do it and the government catches you Islamic State, you're going to be punished What is an example of a worldly punishment
Murder, Zina, this is a head or a punishment that has Allah's punishment in the ark era. What's an example in the Quran?
Share because obviously the number one major sin what else?
Eating orphans property in the Lydian Quran Amalia tempo Gouldman in nema. Yeah. kulula people tuning him now raw. Allah is saying eating orphans property you are eating the fire of health for example. Right. So this is Allah's punishment of Jahannam or number three liner? What's an example of China in the Quran?
Killing a Muslim, yes, and volum unto others, the end of July. I love volley mean, right? When you take the rights of other people, you oppress other people learn and others there's like 10 categories of voting in the Quran. majority of them are caphyon Right? What I call Elana Mala, who the those who commit coup for Allah's land is upon them. So these are this definition seems to be a more precise definition. And if you look at the sins in this category, they do not get to 70 8090
Some of the lists have them, it's a bit too much. Now, there is a statement attributed to even a bus that there are closer to 70 Kabira versus seven, l kabbah. are closer to 70 than they are to seven. Now this is attributed to him in some later books, Allahu Allah, if you actually said it or not. And even if he said it, firstly, it is one opinion compared to even muster than others. And secondly, there is this notion of, again, what is called the Waif or making the people scared of committing sins, and that's a healthy notion. So, in reality, there is a academic way to discuss this topic, and then there is a preaching way to discuss this topic, right? And this is the problem here. If you
want to be academic about it, it might appear as if you are trivializing and if you want to be preachy about it, well then go ahead and make every sin a major sin because you don't want people to commit sin. By the way even though claim has an interesting point here and one of his very, you know, academic books, very advanced books, talks about Hadith and masala had is called El Mirage, El Mirage and motif. He says that the majority of a hadith that talks about the dangers of riba they're actually fabricated by the preachers. This is what Immanuel Khayyam says, the majority of a hadith that we find about the dangers of riba whoever does Riba is as suffered Allah for even saying this,
but it's mentioned in the books and some people think is a sahih Hadith. I do not think it is this lady neither does have no claim. The least type of Riba is like doing Zina with Yanni you get the point it's just the process and could never have uttered this and as a broker him says, How can riba be equivalent to that sin that is mentioned in this fabricated Hadith? It's not even possible. My point is that why would preachers invent this? Why would preachers invent this genre? They actually have good Nia but good Nia doesn't justify the action, the good Nia, let me prevent people from doing Riba. Right, and so you just say, say everything you can, and then it spreads amongst the
masses, and then it becomes a Kabira. Middle Kava. Sorry, not Reba is a Kabira. But I'm saying the Quranic River is a Kabira. But I'm saying that a hadith about riba there's only a few that are authentic, the bulk of them as a yam says, are from the fabricated people that just wanted to preach my point is back to the issue of Kibera. So another point that is our scholars mentioned, and that is that there's something called the the sin itself, which is the genre of sin, and then the characteristics of the sin. What do I mean here? Not every sin is exactly the same, even if outwardly it is exactly the same. And this is common sense. Not every murder is exactly the same as
every other murder, not every Zina is exactly the same as every other Zina so even within Kabira you have door ajar between the Kabira. And we know this from our tradition, for example, the Prophet sallallahu, either he was seldom said one of the major sins is one to Zania highly Letta generic that you commit Zina with your neighbor's wife. Our scholars comment on this that the fact that he is mentioning Zina with the neighbor's wife indicates it is a category of Zina that is much worse than other categories, even though all might be bad, right? So the time of the sin has an impact on the sin, doing a sin in the daytime of Ramadan is not the same as doing it another time. Right? The
location of the sin has an impact on the severity of the sin. Stealing in a masjid, stealing in the harem of Makkah. Do people steal in the harem of Makkah, I'm not going to answer that question.
But you can ask me for details along with Stan pickpockets and whatnot. And anyway, yes, it does happen but
the sin of where it happens, the sin of where it happens is not the same. If you commit a sin in a location that is sacred is not the same as doing it in another location, right? The person who does it the circumstances so you have a whole but even even the marital status. So in our Shetty out, the punishment of Zina of the one who's married is not the same as the punishment who is not married. So the Sharia takes into account so many factors. Therefore, even a major sin can become higher or lower on the scale depending on the factors surrounding it right. Now the question also arises, what happens if a person commits a major sin? What are the what's the what's the big deal if you like?
What's the issue here? The issue is as follows The Quran is very clear. Number one surah najem.
You cannot be from the Saudi Hain and commit a major sin. So that the najem says this right? That if you want to be from the righteous people, then it cannot be kabbah era. This means by the way
If you cannot be committing Kedah continuously, if a person commits a Kabira and repents, he's no longer committing Kabaya you understand this point, committing a major sin and then repenting having a past major sin, then you are potentially slogging, but to commit it continuously and not repent. You are not of the Salah Hain do you become a Kaffir? Obviously not you become a faster and faster is somebody who is a sinful person, and there's the potential of Allah's punishment, right? Number two, when you commit a Khedira in this world, and it is known you're committing a Kabira, then your testimony is no longer accepted. In a court of law. Your testimony will be we don't accept this
person's testimony and other outcome of dunya are a put upon it. And number three, when you commit to Kabira, a major sin. It requires a special Toba for the major sin. Whereas this is the key point minor sins requires general Toba, generic Toba. So major sin, Zina or drinking alcohol or stealing somebody's property. This is a major sin stealing orphans property.
In order to be forgiven for major sin, you must enact a special Toba unique for that sin, your heart must feel guilty, you must turn to Allah subhanho wa taala. You must make this default you must make a sincere intention to not return to that sin you must return the rights of the person. This is specific Toba as for minor sin, what is a minor sin Ibn Abbas said Don't get angry at me this has been Abbas speaking it been Abbas said, I know no sin that is more symptomatic of a minor sin than a man gazing at a woman that is not his Muharram. So a man is sitting in the street a woman passes by right even Abbas said, I know of no sin that is more illustrative of what the lemma is. He commented
on this verse Alladhina yet and you're gonna carbide carbide ignore all flash in the limo. He goes, I know of no sin that is more demonstrative of what exemplifies lemon than a man seeing a non Muharram lady in the street and he has the look of lust. It's not good to do. It's not healthy to do it's definitely not something a man should do. But is it Allah's Lana? Is it automatically either boo Jahannam these sins, all of these sins? They are forgiven by generic Toba? Not necessarily specific What does generic Toba mean? After Salah we say a star for Allah stuff for a lot of stuff it Allah and our Prophet sallallahu sallam said between the five prayers are forgiven if you perfect
them and between the Ramadan are forgiven if you fast Ramadan and between the homeless are forgiven if you fast if you do the cameras and our prophets Allah wa sallam said the one who does will do his sins fall off of him and so many other Hadith all of these Hadith what type of sins
the minor ones the major ones will not be forgiven by doing well do you eat a clear Tama mallia Tama your will do is not going to forgive that a stop for Allah stop for Allah. You fast from Oban and you're stealing other people's money that is a separate category of sin. That's not going to be forgiven by just fasting Ramadan. So we have to be academically understand there is a big difference between Kabbalah and saw it when it comes to Tober and when it comes to Tober stick about it have a special repentance that needs to be done at an individual level two or three final points Inshallah, then we'll conclude of these points. When does a Solera become a Kabira? Again, so much discussion.
Some scholars said, every sin is a Kabira. And this is the preachy side it's impossible every sin is a Kabira. But this is the preachy side you want to frighten people away, and other scholars that there is no real Kabira other than should because Allah says in the Quran, in Allahu Allah yo, yo Shakopee wildfowling Duna daddy California SHA, every other sin can potentially be acellular. And what they meant by this is, Allah can forgive they didn't mean to trivialize but they said Allah can forgive any other sin. In reality, the middle ground is the best here. When does a Selena become a kibble, you find a lot of people saying this, that if a person habitually does a small sin, it
becomes a major sin. And you find this in a number of early books and
authors and whatnot. But on the academic side of things, I will politely disagree because we have evidences for this. We don't have time to get into them. Simply doing a minor sin doesn't make it a Kabira because we have authentic evidences. There's a hadith in Sahih Bukhari and others that the process that I'm said there's a man who committed his
And then he said, Oh Allah I committed a sin. And Allah forgive it, forgive me, ALLAH forgive him, then he committed it again, then he committed again. So he's saying he committed it again. In the end, Allah says, I have forgiven you because you're turning to me. So this shows a habitual sin doesn't necessarily become a Kabira. But it might. And to make a long story short, in my analysis, Allah knows best. There's obviously there's so many opinions, but in my humble opinion, a Solera becomes the Kabira. If the attitude becomes one of arrogance,
you don't care, you're committing the sin. You have a feeling of
habitual nonchalance as the term probably it becomes adda that has no guilt in you. In fact, you have a level of arrogance when you do it. So then in this case, it's not the habitual celerra that is the major sin. It is the arrogance of the heart that becomes the major sin right? When you have arrogance against Allah, this is the CHE atonic sin and then the final point here are the two fine two two points, two quick points Ibaka em has a nice categorization I like it. I am said all the sins can be divided into four categories. Number one, animalistic number two predatorial number three che phonic And number four, infringing on divinity.
He has four categories. So really nice categorization. If no pm says the lowest category is sins, animalistic sins, and he goes, the most obvious examples are the sins of the stomach and the sins of the private part. And that's the lowest category. You just act like animals, eat and drink without any haram and Khaled or take the shahada without any haram and Haddad, this is animalistic, higher than this, what was the second one?
predatorial predatorial like attacking animals, right? So predatorial is you take the rights of other people, you are attacking, hurting, you are lust, you know stealing whatnot, this is predatorial This is the second category higher than this shape, onyx sins. Shape. Onyx sins are. For example, what is the sin of Iblees?
Arrogance what else?
Jealousy, jealousy to feel jealousy. Right? What else called misleading misguiding calling people to deviancy right? That is shaytaan a category of sins, okay. And then the highest category of sins is trying to act as if you're competing with Allah for our Nick type sins under a bakoma Allah and this is acting tyrannical juggle route, acting as if you are the one in charge that arrogance that leads to a level of, of of tyranny that is the highest category of sin. So these are a good categorization. The final point we conclude with prophets Allah said I'm set in an authentic hadith my shefa is meant for the people who commit major sins in my ummah in Nisha it Leah lil kabbah at
min OMA T What does this hadith mean? This hadith isn't reported in Timothy and then mostly the My mama and others that authentic hadith what does this hadith mean, in Nashua it the al Qaeda at min Amati does this mean that we have open license to commit kabbah obviously not our prophets Allah that solicit them is saying that who needs the shofar, the righteous, the salah Hain they're getting to Jana anyway. My shefa is meant for the sinners of my Oma. It is meant to give hope to the sinners. That Hey, don't give up. Turn to Allah. Don't give up. If you've committed sins, don't give up turn to Allah subhanho wa Taala repent to Allah turn over and you leave and Allah azza wa jal
will forgive you through the shafa of the Prophet sallallahu sallam. It's not meant to justify committing major sins. It is meant to give hope to the sinners never lose hope of Allah's mercy. The Prophet SAW Selim shefa will be for the entire Ummah, including those who committed major sins if they are worthy of it, and when will they be worthy of it when they turn to Allah and ask for forgiveness? So to conclude, brothers and sisters, all sins major or minor? In the Lucha yo foo. But Jimmy, as one of the Senate have said, there is no Kabira which is still far there is no Kabira which is still far when you do is still far even the Kabira is wiped away. So you turn to Allah you
asked for forgiveness and you turn over a new leaf, but you have to also be academically aware when you commit a Khedira it is not the same as a Savera and Kabira is a different category of sin.
Is requires a special repentance. As for the Sahira Be careful nobody's trivializing them. But understand when you are righteous when you are doing will do praying five times a day fasting Ramadan in sha Allah you have hope. Don't don't become complacent but you have hope that your good deeds will absolve your mind or deeds may Allah subhana wa Tada forgive us all of any commuters who might have committed and allow our good deeds to consume our smaller sins will outgrow that I wanted hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salam ala who has said to them about a Calabrian Hamedan while he was on big marry
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