Lives Of The Sahaba 16 – Umar b. al-Khattab – PT 05
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
File Size: 30.38MB
In this enlightening talk, Shaykh Dr. Yasir Qadhi attempts to unfold the conquest of the Persian (Sassanid) Empire which had reached the pinnacle of success during the time of the Prophet ﷺ and the battle of Qadisiyah that took place in Sha’ban 15 AH, 636.
The interesting details about the conquest are a direct premonition of sorts by the Prophet ﷺ much before the actual event occurred via various hadith which are elaborated in great detail in the talk by the Shaykh.
Start watching the video to acquaint yourself with this conquest of conquests which marked the almost unimaginable and unbelievable victory of the Muslims and also set a precedent for future battles to come.
Milan hamdu Lillah wa salatu salam ala rasulillah who Allah Allah, he was so happy when Rama bad, who can remember we did last week are we doing last week
the conquest of Egypt and,
and Jerusalem and the Damascus beloved a sham. So we did all of that last week. inshallah with Allah Today we will begin the story of the conquest of the conquest of the sassanid Empire or the Persian Empire. And, again, we get back to the issue of sources and the issue of details. And when you look at the Arab and Muslim side of the events, the historians, they of course, they have their important timeline, they have the details of quote unquote, our side. However, our sources don't have anything that was going on on the other side. And what we have now in our times is that actually a lot of modern scholarship has been done, trying to look at the events from the other side's perspective,
and what's going on from the side of the the Persians or the sassanids. And I think that's very fascinating that we're now able to see what's happening on the other side of things. Now, what is the sassanid Empire, the assassin Empire is the more proper name for the Persian Empire. And it is the last of the great pre Islamic Iranian empires. And the assassin is ruled from around 220 to around 651. c, and before the assassinated was the ancient parthian empire of Iran. So these are the two main empires that every world knowledgeable person should be familiar with the parthian, the ancient Egyptians, the ancient Iranians, and then you have the sassanids and the sassanids
controlled at their peak at their Zenith, they controlled pretty much most of the modern Middle East, the countries today would be Iran, Iraq, the entire strip of Eastern Arabia. So this includes beheading Qatar, Oman, Yemen, they actually the assassin Empire actually controlled the entire strip of Southern Arabia and Eastern Arabia. And the times they even conquered Villa de Sham, so multiple times in their history. The assassin is were ruling over Jerusalem and Damascus. And that also goes back to the issue that the hood were allowed to come back to the Holy Land to Jerusalem during the reign of the sassanids. Because the sassiness were of what religion we should all know. They were
there were fire worshippers or the Zoroastrians, okay. So they were Medusa, Zoroastrians. And so they, by and large, were very sympathetic to other faiths compared to the Christians, they didn't really have a major problem with the hood. And in fact, they were closer to the who than the Christians were. So this the, the Persians actually allowed the Yahoo to come and rebuild the temple, to come and be worshipping in the Holy Land again, and so the sassanids We're at war as we know with the Byzantine, we know this from the Quran Alif Lam Meem, holy battle room for a woman by the Halevy himself alone. So there was this constant struggle between the Byzantine or the Roman
Empire and the sassanid Empire. And the sassanids were absolute rivals in every sense of the term to the Roman Empire. They had an equally powerful civilization, with its own literature, its own religion, its own economy, its own coinage, its own art, its own poetry, it's completely rivaling, there's really no overlap. As we said, the language differs, the religion differs. So each one of them wants to be the one dominant force in the world. And one thing that we as Muslims don't quite appreciate or understand, the sassanid Empire reached its utmost Zenith, in the lifetime of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, it was its most powerful in around 620 BCE. Now, this is
absolutely amazing, because why?
Why is this amazing shows the ad, this stage when even the Byzantine Empire is defeated, and it appears that the sassanids are going to basically take over the world.
The prophecies from the Quran and the prophets Islam predict that the tide is going to change. Not just that, but in fact, the Persian Empire will no longer be and in the lifetime of the process of them, the Emperor hosts
The Emperor hospital actually achieved some of the greatest victories ever against the Byzantine empire that the sassanids had ever seen. And this is the reference in early mcca. So hospital rule for a don't quote me brown 3035 years was a long Emperor euro for a long time. And the sasanian Empire reached its Zenit under hospital, the same one whom Allah azza wa jal references indirectly, holy butter Rome, who defeated the Romans, this hospital guy, okay, so the Romans were defeated by the army and under the leadership of hospital and hospital was considered to be really the the the last of the great kings because after him helaas immediate decline immediately after his death, this
was completely unpredictable. And this is the whole point of the predictions of our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. And of course,
as we talked about in last week, as well, the in the quick change, the quick success, the quick demise of the sassanid Empire, and the success of the Muslims still remains an issue of great controversy and interest in modern historians. Because the fact of the matter is, it is inexplicable is very difficult to understand. Imagine a mighty Empire, literally within less than a decade. It is 500 years old, 450 years old, and it reaches its utmost power. In the time of the process of the conquered Damascus, can you believe the sassanids conquered Damascus, they're already now in Baghdad, the Sham, they're think they're going to take over the rest of the Byzantine Empire. And lo
and behold, in less than 10 years, call us the entire Empire is destroyed. So these are obviously very big questions for every historian. And as I mentioned last week, modern historians have a long list of why this happened. And all of these reasons, we don't have any problem believing them. But we say who caused these reasons to take place? Okay, we have no problem saying yes, this was also a key issue. This was also an issue. But it's not just coincidence that all of these instances happen to coincide, the very Eve that the process of the Sahaba are going to invade, and all of these issues come together. And the main reason that is very clear now, when we look at the other side,
what's happening inside, because our historians did not know what's happening inside that much. Okay, if you look at the poverty, you look at when you look at our historians, there's just vague references to what's happening. But now modern historians, they have access to Persian historians assassinated historians, they have access to historians of other civilizations that we can learn much more from about what's going on. So in a nutshell, I'm not going to go into that detail. Neither am I that interested. But in a nutshell, the primary cause that is blamed was that the extra power of Clozaril made his family and generals extra greedy.
And they all were plotting and planning to carve up or at least get the biggest share of the pie, even in his lifetime, and this is the problem of extra wealth and extra power. Okay. And we all are familiar with this, that if somebody becomes very, very rich and they were mediocre average who becomes his worst enemies, his friends and his cousins and his family because all of a sudden all of this wealth is coming in. So in essence This is what's happening with hospital is that all of this success is making his own and he had over a dozen children. By the way hospital, it is said that he had a harem of how many guests?
Masha Allah Mohammed had Mashallah, Mashallah, how many guests 118.
Close 3000 martial is watercolor.
So all right, come down to similar
3000 he had 3000, Mashallah to watercolor. All the guys need some time to let that sink in. Okay. So the point being that he was very wealthy, very powerful of the mightiest of all of the of the assassinated Emperor. So what's going to happen when he has all of these military conquests, and then he has all of these sons, what's going to happen? You tell me, the very sons that he's so proud of the very children, the very army generals that he's promoted, they're all salivating to get a piece of the pie. And political intrigues begin, even at this point in time, okay, they already start wondering what's going to happen, who's going to take charge, etc, etc. So already there was
disunity, tacos, civil war, and things got from bad to worse, basically, immediately after his death, and we'll talk a little bit about that. And remember, it was who threw himself whom the process and corresponded with the same this one, it was who threw himself whom the profits a little less
I'm corresponded with, and we all know that his role was the most. And you can tell his massage his character that you know, in any type of diplomacy, you just have to retain some dignity. Right? Doesn't matter. It's just what politicians do. It's what diplomats do, you retain some dignity, but horse roll you can see his his Jani, the type of Jabbar machaca type of personality, that when the letter of the processor comes, what does he do? He literally tears it up. And we all know the greatest sin in the eyes of Allah is killer. And when you have given against Allah and His Messenger, what's going to happen? And this is a big sign and a big lesson for us about the dangers
of Cuba, the dangers of arrogance, that also demonstrated his kibber against the messenger. And anybody who is arrogant against the messenger is arrogant against a lot. And so what did our process them say? And again, we do not it's so easy for us to read these ahaadeeth the sassanid Empire was at its most powerful when our processing them said this. Imagine the mighty civilization that you cannot see the end of and somebody comes and says hello, as the system is gonna go, nobody's gonna believe you. But what did our process that I'm saying?
He tore up my letter, Allah will tear his kingdom up, Kula mama Zack every single witch and every way, and will lie This is exactly what happened. After the death of the prophet SAW Selim, and during their Enterobacter, Omar, all of these governors and mini princes, they're all literally fighting in these mini provinces, like the processor predicted mazon kulambu Masak, literally into little pieces, like he toward the letter of the Prophet salallahu. It he was sent him up, and nobody could have ever understood or predicted, but this is the response. And this is the end result of kibin. And by the way, so little bit of rehash, we talked about this in the Sierra. And of course,
all of you must remember exactly what happened. But just because maybe there's one or two that weren't there that day, for their sake and shallow data we can repeat to the story. Even though of course, all of you know the story that when heraclius got the letter,
not directly this one, kiss Robin Hood, sort of history is his name, he starts his title. So whose role is the the the name, so when he got the letter, he then commanded his, his vessel, his governor, in Yemen, whose name was by then by then so there was a portion of Yemen, the eastern portion that was under Persian control, okay, the eastern portion of Yemen was under Persian control. So he ordered by van to go send two spies to Medina remember the story vaguely, he ordered by them to go send two spies to Medina with some fake letter, it is even rumored they might have been assassins, or, more likely that they were scouts to see how much of an army is needed to go and
bring. And so the goal was for the law, to bring the process in him as a prisoner to to holster himself just like the airman the utmost keeper of this man. So the point of these two spies was to scout out to see what would happen and they came under the guise of diplomats. Okay. To this day, the CIA works under diplomatic passports wherever they go, this is the reality they pretend to be diplomats and they go so as well here, these spies want under diplomats that we have a letter from Batman,
whose role was to arrogant even to respond close rows to arrogant even to respond to the letter. So he tell us by then send these two and see what you find out about this man. And who remembers this story? What happened to these two men?
Now I'm quizzing you.
Good. Exactly. So those two, those two emissaries came, and the process them did not even open the letter. He said, Come back tomorrow, dinner you open because he knew this is a fake letter. They're not it's not a serious letter is just a a ruse and a trick to get information. So he didn't even open letter. He said, Come back to them tomorrow. Come back to me tomorrow. So they came back tomorrow morning. And the profitsystem said, Go back to your master and tell him that my lord has killed his Lord.
And the two emissaries were shocked completely, because the reference is very clear here that the Lord of their master is kisara clear. Their master is done. And the Lord of Babylon is because the rock is rock khosrow so they're shocked. They come back to Batman. And of course by this time by then also knows that who's wrong
has been killed.
And the very same day that the process I've said to them that tell go back and tell you a lot was the day hospital died. And this resulted in the conversion of Batman to Islam. By then the governor became Muslim. And that whole region automatically entered under Islam SubhanAllah. Right, one simple statement, and by then cut off from Israel, and entered into Islam, and this is the beginning of mazon kulambu Masak. This is the beginning of cutting up the Empire into all of these different principalities, and
horizontal and his name was awkward with opera with and from this we bases that are part of his name, but it's opposite of his was his name. And it means to conquer. operatories means to conquer. Hospital, in fact, he died a very tragic death. And this is exactly what is expected of somebody who shows kibitz to Allah and His messenger is exactly what is expected that after one of these major battles and accomplishments, and he himself was guilty of trying to get rid of some of his own sons, I mean, will lie This is so evil, that this is the reality of Emperor's. Sadly, even some of our own emperors have done the same thing. Well, along with Stan it throughout history, especially during
the later times this was unfortunately also reality, but under time is much more common. So he has all of these sons and the wives that are the slave, the slave girls that he that have his ear, the ones that basically have control over him are whispering into his ear to kill the other sons. And in the end of the day, he has to make a decision. So he decided against one particular son, that this one's going to die. So happened long story short, make a long story short, that particular son did not die.
His name was covered, he did not die. And he managed to escape comfrey he comes back at the height of an army and he attacks his own father, the Emperor
and imprisons his own father hospital.
And then istockphoto law he tortures his own father to death, a cruel death. It is said that he ordered one of the his men to throw arrows one by one into his father who is tied up just literally like playing soccer, although this is the reality of so Allah punished him in this world before the law of punishment, this will be for 100 that was the same day that the processor said go back and tell your Lord that my lord has killed his Lord. Okay, this was the the end of
hospital. And then of course, I mean, after hospital, a series of Kings took over literally in the course of a year and a half. Around 12 emperors came one after the other or leaders or generals already you see the Civil War happening. Okay. Can you imagine after this mighty man who has ruled for three and a half or four decades, and he's conquered most of basically Iraq and Iran and and much of the Middle East and Damascus. Now as soon as he dies, what's happening within the span of a year or two, one after another some rule for 40 days some rule for three months some rule for a year, eventually, of course, that was the end of the sassanid Empire. And in the lifetime of the
Prophet salallahu idea he was setting them like the seventh or eighth one. So within the success this is all happening. While the process was in Medina, this all happened in the course of two years, as we said around 12 rulers, some of them from the royal family, and some of them were generals were trying to make coutaz and each one one another after another. So you already see the beginning of the end, okay? Allah azza wa jal cottard is taking place you already see the beginning of the end, until finally, all of the sons have been killed or died off. And so some bunch of generals come together, and they put on the throne, one of the doctors of hospital and her name was
put on Toronto. And of course, that means daughter, or girl, so put on was renamed put on, they put put on just on.
And this was the famous, or this was the cause of the famous Hadith, which is inside Bahati, which is the very controversial Hadith in our time, because of
the trends and changes in society. They find this hadith problematic land use Coleman, Coleman well, lo mo amerihome imra that never will a nation succeed, who place a woman under their care or who place their care basically in the hands of a woman who had his own body. Now, the Hadeeth is very much controversial in our times because it's deemed to be a headache that is not suitable for the massage of modern people. It isn't, it's a headache that we accept. But truth be told, and you know that I am not in the least sense of the term progressive. Nonetheless, truth be told there is an alternative there are two interpretations that headed after just comment you and it's not a detailed
explanation of this Howdy. There are two interpretation
To go back to early Islam so this isn't some modernist twist that you're trying to force the Hadees to conform to modern sensibilities, the first interpretation which is very clear that a woman should not be in charge. This is very explicit from the Hadith. Then you feel how common one low amerihome, Imola, okay? No nation, that places a woman at its head, as its leader shall ever be successful. So, this is one interpretation, but there is another interpretation, and it is also classical and it even has yet himself mentioned this. So, this is not some progressive interpretation, that that is trying to distort the body it is found in classical literature, and it is a possibility is
plausible. And that is that the Prophet system was not giving an AMA, he was stating a hover, he wasn't giving a command, he was making a prediction about that particular civilization.
And therefore, it should not be translated as any nation that places a woman at its head shall not be successful. But rather, this particular nation that has now placed a woman as its head shall not be successful ever.
Okay, you see the big difference between the two. So the one is the among the other is the hover and linguistically they're both allowed. It's not as if it's a stretch, and therefore it's just an interesting twist to add over here, because the Hadith does bring about some issues about women leadership and whatnot and we should be fair to our tradition and say that this Hadith, yes, it has been interpreted in manner a, but it has also been interpreted in manner B. And therefore it is something that is found in our tradition. In any case, this hadith was said when, when put on dope became the Emperor. And immediately after her, basically one or two other Emperor's came until
finally, the final one was one of the grandchildren of Cicero, he has the job, the third, he has the job, the third was the final emperor of the of the sassanid Empire. And of course, as already mentioned, the prophet system had already predicted the end of the sassanids in multiple ahaadeeth. In fact, it is pretty much Muto watches, that in his lifetime, he is predicting the end of the sassanid Empire. Of course, we already mentioned a number of these traditions of them, Allah will tear their kingdom up. The way that he tore my lecture up of them is the highlight of body if we take it as a harbor and not an armor, and in either circumstance, he is saying this nation is gone.
Then you flee home and welcome, Mr. O'Mara. This nation is gone. Have them one. What other occasion? Did you predict the end of the of the Persian Empire? Who else can tell me from this era?
not okay. Hoo, hoo, hoo hoo, ha Soraka, Eben Malik, the story of sudo, aka a bin Malik. Now, when our processing them said this howdy to Soraka This is at the pinnacle of horserace power, right? And the Profit System in the entire Sierra, one can say, one of the most dangerous times is right now, all alone for Sahara in the middle of the desert, he does not even have weapons to defend himself. And Soraka one of the chieftains and leaders of his tribe has spotted him. And all Soraka needs to do is to get some help. And hello as they are surrounded. Literally, this is one of the most tense situations in the serum. And we all know what happened three times so rockers horse trips, he falls
over three times falls over until finally he promises goes, Okay, I promise. Let me just speak to you. I'm not gonna I'm not going to harm you, and
so on. Soraka spoke to the processor and the processor said, What will your situation be? Oh, Soraka when you wear the bracelets of kisara?
How would you imagine yourself? What is the situation when you will wear the bracelets of kisser ah. Now literally imagine the Prophet system without any money, weaponry, nothing. He's alone, all alone. He is telling the one who was about to capture him. Don't worry, you're going to wear the symbols of power to the most powerful man alive today. Imagine the scenario. Okay?
What if somebody said that you're going to be sitting in the Oval Office and the chair?
Like is just what do you want? Are you crazy? You're going to have that seat. You're going to be sitting in that chair. What are you talking about? But this is in essence what the process of missing to Soraka you're going to wear the bracelets of kisser and even Soraka said kisser affair is. I mean, are you telling me I'm gonna wear this
bracelets have kisser of the Persians. And he said yes kisara faddis. And we all know what happened. Right now we're going to talk about today and next Wednesday, this is exactly what happened, that when the capital of the Persians was conquered, and that capital is called test sifan in English, and it is called muda in Arabic, and when medallion was captured, so all of the honeymoon was sent to Medina. And in that and it was literally a pile. Literally a pile of gold and jewels in the Prophet sisters Masjid, and or whatever the hot tub came, and he went through this pile, and he pulled out the two bracelets of kisara. And he said, Where is Scirocco? Go call him. And Soraka was
brought, and Omar himself put the bracelets on kisara on Soraka, just to fulfill exactly what the process would have said that one day will come when you will have the bracelets of kisara on your own hands. And this is what we're talking about, basically today. So this is another prediction. Another prediction. So we have right now already three predictions. And by the way, one could also say maybe in the Quran, there's an indirect reference with
indirect it's not explicit because Allah, Allah doesn't say the assassins will be destroyed. Allah says that they shall be overcome in one battle, or the whole kingdom. The Quran is not clear in this regard right? out of the womb being bad, the other by himself and a boon. The Romans after having been defeated shall now be the victors and cause defeat. Okay, so who are they going to cause defeat against the Persians? So one can say there's indirect but not explicit in the Quran. So we have right now free, right, you all counting? We have right now three ahaadeeth, the fourth one, a fourth Hadith that had eaten mustard Imam Ahmed, that our Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said
let after hoonah Latif tahona Arabic is Surah rosalba, two min amati, left under the kisara sobre, todo Mati a small group of my own a warriors of my alma will open up the land of kisara,
a small group of my oma and it was a small group, compared to the civilization of the sassanids, which must have numbered in the millions. Because the sassanids are an entire civilization. The number of Sahaba that came in is probably 30,000. And again, these numbers are simply astounding, even for modern historians, especially for modern historians. How could 30,000 people destroy the mighty civilization, and this is exactly what is mentioned in Muslim imams that a group of my Ummah, is going to conquer the land of kisara. And there's a hadith in Timothy, there's a hadith in Timothy that says,
when this kisara dies, there shall be no kisser after him. And when this Caesar dies, there shall be no Caesar after him.
By the one in whose hands is my soul, you shall spend of their wealth in the way of Allah meaning in jihad, the very money that is now being used against you, you will spend it against them, this hadith is in the middie. Now, this hadith is somewhat problematic, because the process of him said that when this kisara dies, there shall be no kisser after him. And when this place or die, there should be no Keiser after him. Why is that problematic?
There were more papers that came. And in fact, even case law as we just said, 14 came after his death. Okay, well, the kisser one can easily be interpreted that these 14 they're all they're not really in power. They're just end by title. Right? They have no actual. So one could say that, but in fact, what do we do about the case of there's no Caesar after that Caesar but the Caesar is lasted for for much longer. So in fact, Imam Shafi was asked this question, Mr. Misha fury was asked this question, how do we understand this Hadith, in light of the fact that there were, I asked Sarah there were Caesars after the Caesar of Rome, and Imam Shafi responded with a response that is
considered to be the standard response, and that is that the context of the Hadith needs to be understood that the Quraysh were worried that if they accepted Islam, their trade with Rome or with not Rome, with Damascus, with Sham, and with Persia would come to an end, that they would become boycotted by both civilizations because they have abandoned though they have joined the process and they have abandoned ways of their forefathers. So Mr. Michel ferry said that the Profit System is telling them that they no longer have to worry about the Caesar and the host
For their trading routes, that their lands that they're worried about, will become in the lands of Islam, ie, a sham, and forest and Iraq, they don't have to worry about kisara and Keiser after that, they will now be a part of one civilization. This is the moment shaffir is interpretation. And that is the standard interpretation that that people give. And then there's one final Hadeeth before we actually get to the history of the battles that we're gonna talk about today about the predictions. And there's one other famous incident that somebody should remember about the prediction of conquering Persia. One other famous incident, all of you know where to when I say it, you're gonna
say, Oh, I remember this one. Now. One other famous prediction.
The X, the x, the, the
the Battle of hunted up, what happened when the Sahaba were digging the trench, they came across a big boulder, right, and the big boulder could not be broken. They didn't know what to do. And so they call the prophets of Sodom, who went down himself into the trench. He took the axe from one of the Sahaba. And he said, Bismillah, Allahu Akbar, and he hit the rock, and there was a big Spark. And he said, Allahu Akbar. And he said, the first time that I have been given the keys to a sham, and I see its reddish forts, fortresses even now. So the Sahaba said, Allahu Akbar, and one part of the boulder broke away. Then the second time and this hadith is motivated by the Muslim, every book
of Sierra ventures in the second time, he does it and he says, Allahu Akbar, I have been given the keys to forest and even now I can see the white palaces of telephone medallion.
So he literally mentioned medallion by name. And by the way, obviously, we we believe this, but it is so interesting. The Romans, their fortresses were typically more towards the reddish and delish color. As I said, I see the reddish colors of their fortresses and the Persians, they love their their whitish marbles. And to this day,
test Soufan is I think 35 kilometres south of Baghdad. Because again, Baghdad back there was under assassinated rule, we divide both Iraq and Iran. But of course, those days, there's basically one large civilization, and tests if one was around 35 kilometres, it still is, it still is the remnants of some of those palaces, and they are the pictures there. These are World Heritage Sites, you can google them, their pictures about them, beautiful beams just coming out of the middle of the desert, and they are still white in color. And our processing has never been here. He's never been this far. But the headache clearly says, I am seeing the white pillars of telefone, or the white castles have
tested one of medallion, and they are white in color. And so the Sahaba said, Allahu Akbar, and then he hit the third time, and which landed, he promised the third time, Yemen, Yemen, and he said Allahu Akbar, I have been given the keys to Yemen. And even now I can see the gates of the city of Santa. So now I can see it now. And Santa was the jewel and the capital of Arabian Yemen. And of course, as well fell to the Muslims. So these are all predictions that we should be aware of, that the Prophet system explicitly said that kisara will be the final kisoro that Allah will break his kingdom up into all of these little mini dynasties. And that's it, and we'll finish up that the land
of the forest will be ruled by the Muslims. And that medallion in particular, he even mentioned it by name, that medallion will be ours. And he even said the wealth of kisara will be spent FISA beated law to finance other jihad. And that's exactly what happened when all of this wealth came. What did he do with it? Did he build palaces? Of course not. He financed other conquests. So the very money that was used by these mighty Emperor's was then used to spread the religion of Islam. So let us quickly recap things that we've already done, the beginning of the conquest of the sassanids began in the reign of obika. So when one of the chieftains who is now would now be considered to be
somewhere in the body and type of region, his name was and within the inheritor, he was one of the chieftains of that region, he accepted Islam. And without getting permission from obika, he started to raid some of the sassanid villages. And he then came back to Obamacare, and explained to him that I've done this and it's great success, but I need more people. I need more troops. So this is the time of oculus dip. And so Albuquerque
sent Khalid bin Walid, who had just come back from the battles of the Americas
Sorry he had just finished the battles of Yama, the battles of what are your battles? Remember who remind remind me was Salem Al Khattab so hard It has just finished Mozilla Malka devs battles. And so, the profitsystem sends him so another buck or sorry a bucket sends him to go towards the sassanids lands and start fighting the Persians. So I will bucker A Sudhir was the one who opened the doors to the conquest of the sassanid Empire. And in the lifetime of the Ababa Casa de holiday, Waleed achieved some amazing successes, he conquered the great city of head off, and also the city of which is still today lamber he conquered a number and most of what is basically almost half or
three quarters of modernity at all. Okay, so what we now call it Iraq, at least the first three quarters of it with the Arabian Peninsula that was conquered in the reign of a worker's deal. But hardly even Waleed could not get to testify. He could not get to medallion that was beyond his scope for now. And especially because what happened to Khalid
he was called on the other side, Damascus and Jerusalem, he was called on the other side, to go and fight in a sham. And so he dropped everything. And he took the bulk of the troops, and he made his way all the way across, and the conquest continued over there. So what do you think the Persians are going to do when Khalid has left,
recover. And that's exactly what they did. That's exactly what they did, when Khalid left and only one third, or one fourth of the troops are left in Persia. So the Persians respond back with vigor. And they reclaim much of what the Muslims had taken. So the Muslims ended up losing much of the land, not all of it, they still have small strip, but much of the land, they ended up losing. And there was in particular, one especially tragic battle, called the Battle of the bridge is called the Battle of the bridge, or the, the Battle of the gist of the gist of the bridge. And that is because quite literally, the Muslims were on one side of the Euphrates, Euphrates is the famous river of at
all. And the Persians were on the other side, and obviously, there was a bridge in between them, and negotiations began who's going to cross over. And most of the Muslims said, we should remain, so that we have the higher ground and morality, let them cross over, not morality, morality, let them cross over. And we should stay, but for some reason about obey the soccer field, their leader, he said, No, we don't want to show that we're weak, we should cross over. So that a lot they decided to cross over, which proved to be in hindsight and all of this audit of Allah, but it wasn't the way to win the war. And the Persians basically viciously attacked, and the Muslims did not have a escape
route, even because the bridge was broken. So somebody even broke the bridge, there was no escape route, and therefore over 4000 Muslims lost their lives, including a boy obeyed Sokka, who was the leader, and this was also when the Persians not for the first time, but they showed the Muslims the power of their elephants. So the Persians had mastered training elephants to be elephants of war. So the elephants would actually attack and they would use their tusks and they would use their, their, their, their,
their trunks to pick people up and throw them down. So the elephants had been trained to be weapons, and the Muslims had did not have that type of experience. And so this battle of the juicer, and it proved to be a bit of a disaster in this regard, but tell me Thunder made it out alive. Aveda was killed, in fact, tragically, abort obeyed. Abort VEDA was a board of eight sorry, a board of eight a subcommittee of obeyed was killed literally by an elephant, taking him off of his horse with the trunk and smashing him down and then trampling over him. Like quite literally, can you imagine the scenario and of course this is wreaking havoc in Muslim lions because they have never seen anything
like this. They tried to go back the bridge has been cut, and it took them a while to get the bridge back up. They had to somehow get the bridge back up. Then finally whoever is remaining retreated over 4000 Muslims died in this one battle, the Battle of the Jisub and within a barely made it out alive. He's gonna die in a few months because of the ones that before he dies. He sends a very passionate letter to now Omar is in charge. And he says we need help. Or else Carlos we are gone. Meaning iraq itself and everything is gone. And so within that sends a letter to our little hot top and Omar decided to go himself he put on his armor is famously narrated that he went outside he's
gonna go and the Sahaba said you can do this. You cannot leave us here without a head. We need you as the halifa you
cannot become a Shaheed your two pressures for the oma. So they insisted that he sent another person. And the decision was made to send sad event who costs one of the National wabasha. And again, the point is realizes we need quality, not quantity. One of national Russia is precious. Doesn't matter. He's one man, he is worth 1000 men. Okay, so he sends sided who costs and whatever they can muster, because at this time, there's wars going on everywhere. So 4000 majority of them are from the unsought because most of the Mahajan already in invalid a sham. So 4000 men are sent what's Adam who costs and he gives commands to sad to go to particular tribes on the way to Persia,
and get reinforcements from those tribes. So even though they leave Medina with only 4000, by the time they get to the Persian lands to assassinate lands, how many do they have? This is one of those big problems that we have. Now these numbers are always inflated. They're inflated on both sides, ie, depending on who you are and what you're seeing. nobody's doing a tally. Nobody has a registrar. Nobody has a you know, list. And a headcount is just to guesstimation. And this is one of the big problems that we have, and somebody will say stuff, what are you accusing him of lying? No, it's not lying. It's human nature. If you're sympathetic to anything, and you want the number to be more, if
I were to ask you estimate how many people in the room right now, let's say, Okay, if you want more people to be the room, psychologically, you will see more people.
And if you don't want too many people to be in the room, you will see less people. Okay? classic example. And they had the Million Man March recently, okay, if you're looking at Fox News, versus you're looking at BDT network, for example, right, the numbers differences was like three times difference three times, oh, there may be 100,000, or there's a 800,000. Like literally this type of difference, it all goes back to perception knows about two. So unfortunately, nothing, it's nothing about lying or something. But we cannot trust these numbers too much in any book,
the Muslims automatically will want to make the enemy much larger, because they want in the end, okay. And they might make their own little bit smaller, because they want to show that they so this is one of the problems that and the other side viceversa as well. The one of the problems that we have, in the Muslim books, it is said that the Persians were maybe 200,000. And this doesn't seem realistic, because many reasons beyond the scope of my lecture here. Maybe there were 60 70,000 of the Persian side, okay. And the Muslim books, it is said that the Muslims number around 30,000, okay, and maybe they were close to this, or a little bit less than this. So in but in essence,
without a doubt, the Muslims are less than one third or one half or something of the other side. Okay, one third or one half, clearly, the Muslims are much less than the other side. That's without a shadow of a doubt. Now, the armies are growing. And the Persians realize that these people mean business. And as the armies continue to grow, and their positions are getting larger and larger, so negotiations have to begin what's going on here, negotiations began. And in fact, these negotiations last three months, three months back and forth. And there are some interesting occasions and interesting incidents that take place out of them is the most famous conversation that we have all
heard growing up and whatnot. And that is the conversation between ribon Ahmed, and between Rustom. Who is, in essence, he is the one leading because by this time, the one on the throne is yes, the third, the third, and yes, the third, the third is a little kid. In fact, he comes to power when he's eight years old. He comes to power when he's eight years old. Again, you realize why is this kid on the throne? Because there are people behind him who want to really rule, but they need a token.
King and so there are factions within the family of khusro. Yes, the Joker is the grandson of Cousteau. And there are so many grandsons here. So one general and one person basically chooses your job and goes Hollis, you're going to be the Emperor. Okay. And roustan was one of the big guys that chose you as the job. So in essence rose stone is one of the main leaders not Yes, desert years. There's a he's not eight anymore, but he's still a little kid. He's not the actual if you like independent Emperor, so lucidum
asks for a delegation of the Muslims to come comment let's negotiate Why are you guys here with 30,000 40,000 troops What's going on? And this is the famous conversation that takes place with revelry of an army in which
poverty and others they mentioned in detail what happened and that is that bluestone commanded that his most finest tent and pavilion be laid out and all of the fancy rugs and
The the the wealth and opulence be displayed so that the emissaries see the lavish lifestyle they live in. So one can only imagine now Persian material to this day, we know that the Persian material is of the finest material to this day. Can you imagine the Sahaba seeing the best of the best, seeing the wealth and the grind, you're walking into this, this, this tent city is going to be now because this is not the palace right now. This is not testifying. We're going to get there next week. inshallah. This week, we're still we're talking about the Battle of Odyssey right now, which is going to begin and this year was a small village compared to testify, but it'll open the door to
testify. So this is taking place at Odyssey and they walk in Ruby, even Ahmed is the head of the delegation and revelry is wearing the same clothes that the Sahaba were tattered garments, patches here and there. He's riding an old horse, that's all he has, okay, his weaponry is sub sub sub class, nothing fancy, like the shiny armory that the rest of the the Persians have when he comes in. So these Persians are shocked like these are the people that are attacking us, because the first conversation so the guards demand that he come off with his horse and take off his armor and hand over the weapons. You can't come in front of the general, you know, armed and rebury says, You
called me, I didn't, I didn't want to come, you called me. I'm gonna come to the way I am. Or I'll go back. So they got permission. And so he walked in with his horse into the tent, and he walks in with the same tattered clothing and the same What? And he gets off the horse. He ties his horse to one of the carpet endings, because there is no pillar, you know, this is inside the 10th. Okay, so he ties the horse to one of the carpet picks up the carpet. This fancy carpet uses it for the horses, the horses rain, okay. And then littlestone famously asked him, Why did you guys come magic? Like, what are you guys doing here? called back where you came from? And we lose it? Let's forget
all this happen? Why are you bringing 30,000 men to attack us? You know, you're going to lose basically, what's going on? And this is of course, where he gave that famous lecture, that famous paragraph. And we've all heard the paragraph, but it opens for us the psychological perspective of why the Sahaba are leaving Mecca and Medina and hedges. Why are they going out and conquering these lands. It is not meant for wealth. It's not meant for inherent power. No. As rebury said, that Allah subhanho wa Taala has sent us linear, collegial rivers, the military budget in the river, the either above or below that famous statement, so that we can free the slaves of Allah. So he called the
rooster, a slave, which is an insult to him, because there are some things he's basically almost the Emperor, so we can take free the slaves from the worship of other slaves, to the worship of the lord of the slaves, and to free them from the strictness or the closeness of this world to the vastness of the ACA and to free them from the in Justices of all religions, to the justice of Islam.
So these are the three reasons he gave, stop worshiping other than a law worship Allah Subhana, WA, tada, okay, and
introduce you to the era rather than worrying about this world. And all other systems are other than the system of Islam. And so whoever accepts this from us, we accept it from him, and whoever refuses we fight him until the promise of a law comes true. So too soon said what is the promise of a law and he says, For those who die It is Jenna. For those who live it is victory one of the two
called hotter Abbas una buena Illa. Del hostname, we have one of two things, if we live victory, if we die genda And in both cases, it will be victory. So basically, as you know, he did not agree to this and he sent them back. And eventually they ended up fighting the Battle of Odyssey as we're going to come to it is also reported that during this time,
Bob sent a delegation directly to us desert
and use the jerseys in the capital. This is happening policy, he sends another delegation to us the job and yes, the job was an impetuous young kid. He's not a he's not a politician yet. And yes, digital was very rude to the Sahaba and the people who were there and all that is mentioned we don't have that much details about the back and forth. What we do know is that one of the Sahaba gave his name is awesome, awesome of an hour that he has the job commanded that as they're walking out, they should
they should have a
a basket of soil be put onto their heads as a sign of humiliation, basically. Okay, so they should just like when they're coming out, let people basically put
This basket on them, so they'd like a servant, you know, to carry to carry something. And awesome in armor, he took this basket with great pride. And he held it up until he came back to the camp of the Muslims. And he said Allahu Akbar, the Emperor has handed us his land on the platter, basically, he took it as a positive Omen, that this is a sign, and it turned out to be a sign. Okay, so what he wanted to be humiliation, awesome said Allahu Akbar, this is a sign from Allah, that the Emperor is willingly handing his soil over to us. And it is actually if you think about it, it can be interpreted exactly as a positive sign. And it goes back to the theological issue of reading in
positive omens. It is so nice to read in positive omens, we talked about this many times in the class and whatnot. So he took the side of humiliation, he flipped it around, and he said, this is an omen from Allah, it's a good sign from a law that the sassanid Empire is going to basically collapse and it will be handed over to us. So when all the negotiations failed, in chabang, of 15, ah, which is November of 66.
November of 636, Shabana 15, ah, this is when the Battle of Odyssey took place. And the Battle of Odyssey, it lasted for days, and the Muslim historians have named each day and we don't have to get into all of that. But an all the details are mentioned, I'm just gonna very quickly summarize that on the first day. So the Odyssey is now in Iraq, it's in modern Iraq. And it is basically a day away from telephone. So a telephone will be the next stop, which is we're going to do next week, so hard to see, in and of itself was not a major city. But the battle turned out to be the most important battle, because this was the major troops of the sassanids because this was the big battle. So it
was the stepping stone to the rest of the entire sassanid Empire. Okay, so, on the first day, the Muslims really suffered immense losses, and the Persians had around 50 war elephants, wreaking havoc in Muslim lines, as well, the Persian arrows were better and sharper and longer in their reach than the Muslim equivalent, because the technology is better on the side of the Persians. Okay, so the Muslim armor as well was not that sick compared to the Persian armor. And so the Muslims realized that they needed to basically think about tactics. On the second day.
They got some reinforcements to come from other places, because there's multiple media battles going on. So they decided to get some help from other places. So on the second day, reinforcements are coming in. And one of the commanders Akaka, decided to
use a ruse or a trick to demoralize the Persians. So what did he do the contingent that was coming in, maybe around 2000 or so he divided them into much smaller contingents, and spread them out, and told them to come at intervals throughout the day. So from the distance, it appeared, that one Calvary after another is coming, more and more reinforcements coming, it's never stopping, even though in reality, it was relatively small, but he spaced it out timewise and people wise, so that it looked as if more and more people are coming. So this is a trick of war, a deceit of war. That is, of course, what war is, is you have to basically deceive the enemy. And that's what the Hadees
is, that that's what war is, as well. They came up with the idea of scaring the animals of the Persians, by using camels, and putting some bizarre contraptions on the camels to make them look much bigger and like basically monster beasts, and charge into the ranks, so that the animals of the Persians had never seen anything like these animals. Okay. And it worked. That by putting these contraptions on the camels Now, imagine these these ideas coming from people that have never been trained in a college of war. These are the Sahaba these are not people. And these interesting ideas are just coming by and they're actually working. And on the second day, it appears that the Muslims
are beginning to have the upper hand. So the first day the Muslims did not have the upper hand. The second it looks like they're now changing, the tide is about to be changed. On the third day, it was an all out severe fighting breaks out on both sides, and the Persians decided to launch basically all 50 elephants at once all of their elephants come out, and in fact, they almost made it to the headquarters of Sadiq who cos Salim he will pass was his headquarters were in one of the palaces or that one of the houses of the nobleman had
converted to the to basically a war a room. They almost made it but the Muslims defended that house and pushed the Persian soldiers back and sad said that we need to get rid of these elephants. And he commanded the archers to target the eyes of the elephant and the men to get off their horses and run into the battle. And don't target the enemy. target the elephants because the elephants are wreaking complete havoc amongst the men and amongst the horses, and so hundreds of Muslims lost their lives. But eventually, the elephants were all gotten rid of the battlefield when the elephants were targeted directly. And the archers are aiming they're basically arrows directly out to the the
elephant's eyes the the swordsman are cutting off the trunk. So what you're going to do is war. You can't be polite and gentle here now. Okay, you are the swordsman are cutting off the drunks. The men are Dashing through and stabbing the elephants with javelins, you have to do this there is no other way out. And bit by bit as the day goes on. All elephants are basically dead or off the battlefield. And on the third day, the battle does not stop the previous two days it stopped at nightfall to come back to rest. On the third day, it does not stop. And the entire night it is said you could hear the clinking and clanking of the metal on one another the entire night. The battle continues going on
until after fudger non stop 24 hours the battle is going after 5g stands up. And he gives a rallying call especially to his tribe who meme and he says the the fighters don't have the energy that we have now. They all tired out after battle. If we all simultaneously attack, we will have the upper hand. And that is exactly what happened that after around 30 hours of non stop battle.
The Muslims mustered up that image that they need to have to win. And they all charged simultaneously at the Persian encampment and they launched a fallout offensive. And after the whole time, they reached finally the headquarters of bluestone himself. After the whole time they reached the tent of rooster. And here there's different accounts of how he died. According to one version, they basically found him dead with lots of wounds on him. So he died basically in the melee. Confusion according to another version of particular person of the Muslim army found him and killed him. In any case, the point is, according to both versions, bluestone died, gruesome died, and with
the death of Rustom, who was in effect a type of kisser. As we said yesterday was the child. It was in effect, he was one of the main leaders of the coup that had taken place a few years ago, with the death of Rustom. This was a huge demoralizing blow to the sassanids. And the Battle of Odyssey turned out to be a huge success and the first and the major Domino to open up the rest of the land of the Persians of the sassanids are multiple hop as soon as you heard of this, he told sad, do not rest do not stop, continue on to muda and continue on to testify. And sadly nebby will cause gathered the troops and made it straight from Odyssey he made his way to muda in and we will talk
about medine because that is a whole long story. We'll talk about Medina and the conquest of Medina in inshallah to Allah next next Wednesday between la he Tyler and with that shallow data with any questions
or we can
there's nothing from the Sunnah called Salatu Nasir, there is nothing narrated in the Hadith about Salatu nossal However, at any occasion, you are allowed to pray extra regard and ask Allah subhana wa Tada. Some have called this Salah to Hydra and there is some Hadith that they say the Hadith masala fucile hottie there is an F dilla for its authenticity, but the concept clearly is not problematic. And that is that you are allowed to stand and pray to the gods at any time and ask Allah for your needs. So if sad did something of this nature, which is mentioned, as you said in the books, there's no there's nothing just like when the Sahaba was about to be executed. in Mecca, he
prayed to the gods before he died. He didn't hear this from the Prophet system. But it's something good like you're going to meet Allah subhana wa Tada. So we don't need a specific evidence.
To justify praying and making.
So if you want to call this Salatu Nasir, not a problem as long as you realize it's not the promises of them who told you to do it? It's from the general text of the Quran and Sunnah that you're supposed to pray and make dua to Allah subhana wa Tada. Okay, yes.
Doesn't mean that
you have to ask controversial questions, right?
Learn your own world Lo, Amara home. It doesn't say forever, it says, never shall a nation any land. It's not going to happen. Okay. The question arises, and this is, this has always been,
Heidi that has brought a lot of discussion. So what do do to those nations that have had a female ruler, and they seem to be successful. So in the ancient times, you had many female rulers, even the Queen Sheba was a female. And even throughout history, there were always times where there were women rulers and the nation seems to be flourishing. Okay, it's happened in the mameluke time. It happened in the in India a number of times, this was one of Bhopal as well, was a female. Many times it has happened that there were, it's going to happen in our country. Unfortunately, it looks like the reality as well. Looks like this, the only other not that I'm liking it. But the reality is my
semi prediction at Shelby, this lady that is running, there doesn't seem to be any other viable candidate. Not that she herself as well. But my point is going to be happening. What is this mean? So one can interpret it in one of two ways. If we follow if we follow the first interpretation of the Hadith. The first is that,
as you said, that eventually this nation will perish that once they have chosen this, that they're not going to be successful, they will cease to exist. Another interpretation is that philosophy doesn't necessarily mean GDP.
It doesn't mean economic success. It doesn't mean civilizational success of science and technology, for that can also mean moral success and spiritual success. In which case,
one can say that many of the greatest civilizations are already failures, morally, you get my point here. So what does that mean? Then you flare, what does it mean? Any further
oslon in the Quran, that the greatest father has gender, okay, so one could also interpret it in that manner. And then you have the second interpretation of the Hadith, which is basically, there is no
more This isn't a command the process of saying, never have a lady in charge. Rather, this is a statement of fact, that this nation that has now appointed a lady shall not be successful. And as I said, the reason why I mentioned it is just so that we understand that this hadith has been interpreted in the other manner, from the beginning of times, and Allah azza wa jal knows best. This is one of those things that
when the situation arises, we have to talk about it otherwise, the less said the better it is and shall low data. shallow. Yes, good.
Yeah, Satya knows Yeah, Satya. Satya was his name. Yeah, Saudi algebra. So this is from the kurama Varma, we'll talk about this in shallow our section about the speciality of Omar and whatnot. We'll talk about this the karma and it is actually authentically narrated in the books of Musonda fat and the works that talk about the talk about what the Sahaba said and did. There seems to be an authentic evidence for this is an idea of Jebel Posada. Watch out the mountain behind you. So yes, this does seem to have taken place and we'll talk about this when we talk about the the blessings and the Fatah in the Quran and the Hadith about the lavon.
Shallow with this we conclude for today, and then we'll come back next year. It's not hard to see it's not hard to see, but it did happen in his lifetime, but it's not quite this year. Shalom Bismillah