Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 47
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 42.57MB
salatu salam MBI almost saline maybe never forgotten that Muhammad it
is good to steam Allah home island WA and found Allen found the man and analogy
yeah I mean
to beginning classical Arabic
once the evening
hope you all are well inshallah.
Here we go
Okay, so last time
finished the previous lesson, the last exercise that we had was a perfect segue and jumping point off to what we're going to see more of remember that Arabic favors the Joomla fair Lea, it favors the verbal sentence actually over the nominal sentence. But up until now, we've mostly been dealing with nominal sentences, right?
What's the difference between the two?
Why would you use one as opposed to the other?
We notice in the Quran very, very often, that lost power to other uses Joomla ischemia to talk about things that are kind of essential nature's things that don't necessarily change.
things that are with Joomla philia are generally things that require
things that might be true at a particular time, but are understood to perhaps not be true at other times. Yeah, you had ladina Ave
is the refrain? Not? Yeah, you mean?
And there's a significance behind that, right? A lot is referring to
faith as something that requires renewal, constant commitment. And it's not something that
is simply okay. Once you do it, then you're good, right? And so, the default meaning of the Joomla ischemia is something that is essential, something that is unchanging, whereas the default meaning of some something that is Joomla failure is something that is changing or needs renewal or might not always be in that that case.
So, we started getting our feet wet with the Joomla theme earlier,
which is the predominant form. Last time, we talked about the three essential parts of the Joomla philia. Could somebody either unmute themselves or put in the chat box, what are the essential parts or the general in general the parts of a Joomla fairly
How'd you take that while I go ahead system? My plug on my computer?
So it'd be fair, which is the word file and my phone.
Yes, that's correct. That's the fair, which is the verb, the file, which is the one who is doing the verb, and then the school, which is the object of the verb. And there's under file can be built in or it can be also separate. Correct. Exactly. Exactly. So it'll either be implied or explicit, either an implicit or an explicit, fair. And we'll see plenty of that as we go forth. And we saw a little bit of that last class. So now exciting. We're on to a new lesson at Dr. Su. Then yeah, Asha.
let's see how long is this about two pages? Okay, we'll go through it. We'll give everybody the opportunity in sha Allah Tala to read the dialogue and so our first pair star one and start two
the say it's
one of you be star one and the other be star two.
It's only me today Oh, it's all easily okay. No problem that why don't you pair up with Sister Masada. So it's just a Syrah you'd be Star number one and sister masala to be number two.
key yeah been too
men in undie
and I'm in Saudia Ma was
it's me Amina
IV, who knows Phil Madina Munawwara.
Dish. Phil metros settle infill mother artists. Sorry, Phil. Mother assertive
Yeti. Very good. Stop there. Very good. Excellent. Okay, so let's
get we'll just correct a couple of things. And then we'll go through and translate and then we will point out some things as well. Okay, so one of the things just make sure we're looking for the Doom assuming either do not be on on the philosophy, right remember that?
We do not pronounce it
if it's in the middle
or at the end, we only pronounce it if it's at the middle so this would be pronounced is me Amina to. Yep. And then this would be mess smokey. Right. We're gonna basically act like this doesn't even exist mess smokey. Very good.
That was one thing I heard and Oh, yeah. Abul key. Remember that? Bu or EB? is the default word. Right? EB meaning father. And it's going it is one of the quote unquote, five nouns. A smart all firms. And what are the five nouns? Well, Matt, as it all come from Sir, they are nouns that
are declined, meaning they manifest grammatical case with a letter instead of a Huracan with a long letter, okay. So instead of epoka, it's BU
and instead of Evo Ki, it's boo Ki, and that is done for some good reasons. You can probably tell it sounds a little bit
hard to hear and hard to stay with.
It. We're just short vowels
are rearranging things. There we go. Okay.
So instead of abaca or ebookee, in this case, and we're gonna talk about in a minute, it is a boo key, so don't be thrown off. Just because now you have a long Well, this is the same EB that you know and love, my dear father, but since it is possessed, then it's going to be
It's going to demonstrate its grip this grammatical position with a well and Elif or a Yeah. And not with a ADAMA, a customer or a Fattah. Okay. Um, the other thing to notice is that we have a conversation between two females, okay? Everything in this conversation is using key, which is the possessive pronoun for feminine. Right? So Keita has two key.
Mean Aina and t, right the subject pronoun for second person feminine
a in a blue key. Okay, so that's the main point here is that now we're going to add a another concern of ours, which is gender. Previously, all of the nouns that we've been dealing with have been assuming all of the verbs that we have been dealing with have been masculine, that have a cottager, et cetera, et cetera. We're going to be looking at feminine forms of both nouns and verbs in this lesson.
So if we go to the first line, let's translate that Dr. Syrah what's what's this translate to?
How are you?
Girl? Yeah, hey, girl. That's exactly it. That's what it is. Right? Like, we would say, you know, in English, we would flip it, we'd say, hey, yeah, beans, how? Hey, girl, how you doing? Right? Because that's exactly what it is.
Have means state or condition of something. Right? How to state or condition. So if that's the, the noun, and we're adding to it, the possessive pronoun in this case, second person singular, feminine key. Okay, but how to key what literally, how is your state? Or how is your status? How is your you know, whatever. And the response, and it'd be firing, while hamdulillah and that probably doesn't even need translation. We've been seeing that a lot.
Notice how NLB higher is Joomla. Izmir? Alhamdulillah is Joomla is me. Okay, we're still in Joomla. Is Mia here, because we're talking about how are we doing? Right?
Mein Aina NT. What's that translate to Dr. Site?
Where are you from? Yes, exactly. If it were Aina empty? It would be where are you mean a an empty literally, from where are you? Or as we would say, with English syntax, where are you from? And the response again, probably doesn't need to be translated. And I mean, Soria. I am from Syria.
Yes, question. This was before and Hamdulillah. Is that optional? Or is that compulsory?
And to be fair, at Hamdulillah, if you did not have the well, you would have a period.
Right? Are two separate sentences. And I'd be saying, well move to that harbor, but Hamdulillah.
Right. However, if you have ever read anything in Arabic, before you know that in Arabic, they are not shy of the run on sentence. They love them to run on sentences. And so the predominant usage is just wow, well, well, well, well, instead of period new sentence period, new sentence period new sound. It's not strange, nor is it considered is not considered a
what would we say in English, it's not considered
an academic or it's not considered any deficiency at all. To have an entire paragraph be one sentence. And just clause after clause after clause connected with wah wah, wah wah.
It makes translation actually very difficult. Probably one of the things that you'll notice once you start translating and inshallah with our enrichment class, those of you who are interested, we will soon start that up, inshallah working out some things with the people over in Medina. But as you will soon notice,
your first job as a translator is to decide where to break up the sentences, because you're going to get either a huge
run on sentences and audio clip or you're going to get a run on what we would consider a run on sentence in text.
Notice that Surya is Magne. Right? Normally, it would have to be Medrol. Right, but it is money on the LS and so it doesn't demonstrate grammar, even though it has been the hell injure. It is in the genitive case, even though it doesn't show it.
That's in the Emina. All of that is
beyond translation. I think, Hey, Boo Ki, Where is your father? Let's have sister Mossad about translate the response to that, because that's where it starts.
you want me to talk to the question? translate the response of you who know? Yeah, my father is, I think who now means they're gonna means here who means that's a good thing to point out. Thank you for that. Well, my father's here in
Medina in ailment in Madina, Munawwara
He is, let's see
you something in the secondary school. Good, good, good. So that's gonna be a perfect segue for me to give you a brief introduction to morphology. But first, we're gonna Huneck Okay, so Hona would translate as here.
street talk in both the rave in most of the Arabian Peninsula, they say henna, instead of Hoonah. The classical Arabic is gonna, so on the street, you'll hear henna and Huneck is there.
Okay, this is something that recurs throughout Arabic, this calf
is not the sort of calf that indicates you or yours, it's not a pronoun. However, it does indicate something that's far, right. Like how the and Lika right you'll find that calf often pops up when we move from something that's nearby or something that's far away. Hula II and hula Iike, which we have not learned yet. These and those those are far these aren't near
have Delica Mona Huneck it's a sort of kind of a
phonetic principle that KEF if it's not a pronoun, it's something else often
is evidence of something that's far away and that holds true in the state.
So the response is EBI my father Mona Bill Medina Titi Mona what Artie and Medina right. And will de el Medina till Mona what are the Enlightened city or the illuminated city? What will fit Titian will madrasa teeth then are we okay, good. So we'll do the easy part. Then we'll do the hard part. The easy part is Bill madrasa T. We know that's a school as then we T is a secondary school is is a literal translation from Arabic to English, it works. We say Secondary School to mean high school and English. This literally and we have not learned this yet. So don't panic. We'll learn the cardinal and ordinal numbers later. But this is an ordinal number, which is then we secondary from
its main, which is to a Sani is the second ascent we see here is secondary. Don't worry about it. We'll get to it later. We'll madrasa Tifton Are we at he is
such and such a thing in secondaries.
Now, let's do any questions about that before my fetish. I'm going to we're going to go into the ocean with no fetish. So any questions about anything else before we talk about more fetish?
Okay, let's, let's take a little bit of a dive here. So
one of the most
enjoyable and vexing things about Arabic language is its morphology. Okay. What is morphology? What does it cover?
Okay, morphology in language or in linguistics is a field of study that's different from syntax, right? Syntax is the order of words. Right? Or grammar, which is well we can say that the syntax is part of grammar, but let's say like grammatical case, which talks about the relationships between words how do you know what's doing what in the sentence? Right. And it's different from phonetics, which we've talked about a little bit to phonetics has to do with the sounds right. So the study of morphology morphology as a field of study is how words change on predictable patterns.
To convey meaning.
How words change on predictable patterns to convey meaning? For example, I'll give you an example in English, okay? If we have the verb to bake,
okay, that is a verb
We have a different type of word a past participle it is bake.
And then if we have the person who does that baking, they're called a baker. Right? Do you see how the same root word is undergoing systematic change on fixed patterns to convey different meanings? Okay, so let's just imagine, for example, that this is kind of like this is what we know it's a verb. Let's say that this is kind of like your base form. And by base form, I mean that it's not going to be reduced to any smaller parts. Okay? Whereas baked equals the, that's called the past participle. Not necessary for you to know it. But what's the sign of it? Is that we oh, we're adding a D in this case, or an IDI in other cases.
Okay, what about the,
the doer, as we say, in English, it is a different formula, we're adding an R, or in other cases, and er. Right. So now what we've we figured out is that these different suffixes or prefixes have meanings. And words can change with the suffixes and prefixes.
In order to establish different types of meanings. We know now that,
you know, a plus d means that that action has been done to something, right, we know that plus r or plus E R, means that oh, that's the person who does that thing or, or is known for doing that thing, or does that thing repeatedly? Right? So this is all morphology. Now in English, in English, it's
fairly straightforward and familiar to us.
Because these changes tend to happen on the ends of the words, right? They can occasionally happen on the beginnings of the words, but they mostly happen on the ends of the words. Let's imagine remember, way back our first lesson, we had our language called angle BIC, right? Remember, angle veck, we had a Tom who hit the ball, right? We're gonna go back to our angle book for just a second. Let's imagine for a second that an angle book, we're not just restricted to adding suffixes on the ends of words, we can actually change something in the middle of the word itself, to convey that meaning.
Okay, so let's imagine that. Okay, we have bake,
and we have baked, but let's imagine for a second that adding an AR Yes, does make the doer but
It's not changed on or it's not added on to the end. Rather,
it's added on in the middle of the word, Barca.
Now, as English speakers, that doesn't make sense, we know that's not English, but an English book. That's acceptable. Okay, as if you recognize that this is what's going on. You can take any verb and do the same pattern. So let's take, you know, hit. Okay, now it's hurt is the one who does the hitting, right? What we would say the hitter in English and engelberg gets hurt,
right, and so on, and so forth. So in English, we only add these things to the end in Arabic and Arabic and Arabic.
It's not so it's not so restricted. It's not restricted to the end, there are regular changes and regular patterns that can be done, either at the end of the word or the beginning of the word or the middle of the word, not communicate a or convey a different meaning. Okay, that's the your, your intro to morphology. All right. Now, if we're clear with that, and we're on board for that, let's see where we can go with this.
Um, let's take a
we're only going to be talking about right right now in this instance, we're only going to talk well, no, that's not true. We're not gonna be talking about we're going to be talking about verbs first. Okay? Because in Arabic, everything is based off of the verb. So if we take a verb
jealousy. We had that in our last lesson. Jealous means to sit. Jealous, literally means he sat past tense.
Okay. This is a verb.
we can manipulate this verb
and change it according to regular
patterns in order to achieve different meanings
with this with the same verb or we can give it different shades or different colors,
maybe not something as dramatic as an entirely different meaning. So if Julissa
means, he sat
very very straightforward.
What happens if we double them in a letter
with a Shabda that gel Alyssa
In Arabic this is a morphological pattern
doubling the middle letter of any past tense verb
does work and that work is predictable. What it does is it makes a verb transitive or it makes a transitive verb doubly. So, what does that mean? It means that if it if the verb had an object before now it has two objects if it didn't have an object before now, it has an object in practice what that means instead of he sat, he made
so, whereas before he sat is what's called an intransitive verb, it doesn't have an object he sat. Now, Julissa, we doubled the middle letter it means he made something else sit down
Now this this exists for
one of you every single with a vast majority of verbs you can take this and you can put it on this form and it will mean something very very similar. It can also result in something that has to do with
let's say violence or
what I'm gonna say like something that is kind of extreme. I'll show you by an example let's say Kisara
from which we get the
word cassava cassava means to break
or literally he broke
let's put it on this pattern here
let's double the middle letter
cast Sarah indicates
right he did the thing either repeatedly or violently it has this other sort of quality to it that's not that's not there in casts out all
right, if you say cast that somebody might have fallen out of their hands, it might have been an accident. He's like cast cetera
that means that this person took the thing and shattered it on purpose.
Right. So this is just a demonstration of what we're talking about this is morphology. These are morphological patterns Okay. In Arabic and Arabic. These morphological patterns are represented or I should say in the English language, we represent these patterns of the verb
with Roman numerals Yes, we do. We say like so this is form one or form i Alright, which means one and Roman numerals have the verb he sat for either jealous or razza. Kitzhaber
that it's all on the same sort of pattern you can get in the rhythm of it, okay.
This Julissa is known as form two, I,
how many forms are there in Arabic, there are 10
that are used commonly
10 that are used commonly.
And they achieve very, very important meanings. We find them everywhere.
I can't even resist giving one to you so early in your studies. But actually understanding Arabic morphology is extremely useful from an early stage of Arabic language learning, because it multiplies the amount of words that you learn with each root word. So, if I know Jelsa, and I understand the forms, let's say I understand all 10 forms
of the verb
then that means that I've learned 10 words at once.
If I learned the patterns, the other morphological patterns within these forms, how do I make the doer? How do I make the object? How do I make this and that and the other? Now, we might be learning 2030 words every time we learn just one word.
Right? So, let's get down to our example here, mu fetish. Okay? I'll give you an example. Let's just stick to form one and form two.
That will keep it nice and easy.
If I want to make the doer
of the verb in form one,
I need a certain pattern.
And that pattern is fair.
So if I want to make
the feral the doer of the verb in form one, I have to subordinate or put, you know, conform this verb to that pattern.
So now I make someone who's a sitter, who can figure it out who can tell me take this verb Julissa, put it on this pert form that I don't. And tell me how to say a sitter. Janice, Jolly soon. Yes, we have this very early on, I think
Very good. follows the pattern. Exactly. Okay. That's how we make the doer and form one.
But we don't make the doer the same way informed to
we have to make it a different way. So the way that we make it informed to
is we add
not like the cow, just a meme with a dome over it.
And we changed the middle letter to have a kestra the middle letter which is doubled. So let's put it on the using fat Allah it would be
that's how you do the doer in the second form.
So what does that do to our verb Julissa to make someone sit down
So muda lists is somebody who forces other people to sit down.
Something that could be said in jest probably.
You're teasing somebody.
Well, jellis Magellan listen.
well fed Titian is exactly this form of word.
So we can trace back this word to its roots in the first form. And we can recognize that this is Oh, it's on the second form. It's the second form the doer of that verb. So fat Tasha fat Asha is the form one, which means something to be revealed.
double that middle letter it means to reveal something, someone who forces someone something else to be revealed.
And a move at Tisch
is someone who does that work, which is an inspector, right? Someone who forces something to be revealed or fetishize an inspector
that is your first swim in the deep end
with Arabic morphology, which is known as sort of this whole thing morphology in Arabic is known as sort of
so what about
but touche? That's something slightly different. Okay. Okay, let me explain after it and write this down. Okay.
So my fat Titian is an inspiring man to have the same letters. So I just wondered how, how does that go to a salad
that's very good. Now, how where people get things from I don't know, especially with food. Sometimes you find things like an Italian cuisine. You find things that are named all sorts of crazy different things. Like there's something called like, you know, a Cardinals hat and Italian because it resembles like this piece of clothing that this certain clergymen wares, right? And so, you'll find all sorts of interesting connections and a lot of times it has to do with history. But there are other forms. That's what's called see it on mobile. Ah, okay, see it on
Bala has to do with, let's say, Okay, this is good. Well, it ties back to our Jellison. Okay, let's go for one. Julissa, he sat jolly soon, he is a sitter, or he is sitting.
What if we want to? Like maybe we're teasing somebody that we love. And we want to say that this person is always sitting down.
Right? He is just constantly sitting and sitting and sitting, we hardly ever see him get up. Okay, there's different forms in the our Arabic language called sealable bellava that are that
convey these sorts of meanings? Right? So one of them would be jealous.
And you don't need to know this but this is just for whoever wants to know like jealous or jealous.
Right, and where we find these patterns the most is with Allah's names. Right we find these patterns all over with Allah's 99 names.
is on the wasn't or on the pattern of thought. So we have Jabbar kaha of faff right all these different Yes, so this is called Siva MOBA. Alright that for you too, it means it this is kind of like the pinnacle of something
See, wha see if that means a form it's like the something to communicate when something has reached its pinnacle
see have a mobile ever
run out of space here.
See them see a mobile Avati
mobile ah means like, extreme or over the top. Not in a bad way but just you know, intensity.
So there are several patterns. I think there's five of them if off top my head, some of them are more used than others. So some of them ketene right for you.
And then others farrowed off all right Sialkot Allah is shackled.
Jealous on the on the pattern of five. So there there are these sorts of devices which we see all over the place. So Bella means convey. So it means
to reach or to convey, right? Yes. Yeah. So magala homins Like I guess most eloquent or something? Yes. Or reaches the heights or reaches though. Right? Okay, very good. Excellent. Good connection. Okay, so we have dug we have we took a dive, okay, if this is all Greek to you, don't worry about it. We're going to work on it slowly, slowly, slowly, I tried to make this a very very minor introduction. We only focused on the to form one and form two.
Just the verb form Jenessa Julissa, and the is some farrier or the doer jadie Son, Mugello. Listen, because that's directly what's giving us more fat tissue in here, which is an inspector of fat tissue is an inspector, somebody who causes things to be revealed.
Any questions about that? At all?
It's very interesting. You see, you see what you've gotten yourself into now? Right? You thought you were just going to learn, you know, enter the hiring right now. It's like, whoa, wait a second. Yeah, it's a different way. I mean, languages are beautiful. And languages are interesting. And all language is is about conveying meaning and communicating me meaning. And if you look at it like that, then you learn Okay? Languages convey meaning with all different types of ways. Right? English, Germanic languages, Romance languages, you know, they are analytic languages, they much more rely on word order, but they do have morphology as well. But if we can name it, say, hey, this
whole thing that we do even without thinking Baker hitters hitter quitter, right? It's morphology, and what we consider morphology in English, it might happen differently in another language, or slightly differently, right? This is exactly what's going on here in Arabic, same principles, its morphology, it's changed. It's using predictable patterns to convey different types of meaning.
But where those patterns can pop up, is more flexible than in English. They can be in the middle. They can be in the beginning, they can be on the end.
This file is is a singular male, right? Correct. Yep. Exactly. Which is good. Because that exactly what she's anticipating that. This is just the base base base base base form. That means that okay, it's like spinning plates. Okay. You
Spend one plate then you add a second then you add a third then you add a fourth okay. So, this is the base form, but jet Assa is a verb that can be conjugated for feminine singular for second person for first person right. And so
that you have to carry that with you throughout all these sorts of things. If you want to you can also conjugate verbs in the second form jealous to Julissa jealous now, etc. And if the doer is feminine, yes, instead of more fat tissue in it will be more fat Teesha tune, right we add a Tamil buta or Jan Lisa to the shot. Yeah, and then we Pluraleyes it and then so we have, so
I don't know, we'll get
Okay, we will get there. But that's the long term goal. Okay, so the short term goal is to introduce this thing is a thing. morphology is a thing. It's part of the study of language, all languages do it. And Arabic is different from English and romance languages in some ways. But it's easier than others, like tonal languages, right, that communicate meaning with tones, right? So it's just about getting familiar with what are the tools that Arabic uses at his disposal to communicate meaning?
It's, it seems easier than English actually. Honestly, it is, you'll find it might be overwhelming at first. But you'll find that once you understand the forms, it's very logical, yes, the forms of the verb, and all of the different types of words that you can make from them, you'll be like, Wow, Arabic is so organized, all I have to do is learn the three letter root word. And I have 40 words, I can just make them I just have to figure out kind of how to, you know, plug in the inputs and get the equation, whereas English is much more irregular, right? Because it's a hybrid of Germanic and romance languages. And so it has some rules and vocab from Germanic languages and some rules and
vocab from Romance languages. And so, you know, it's very, very irregular, how those things are applied. Right? So at the end of it, you'll say, Wow, this is extremely, extremely organized, and actually makes the language very predictable. Once you have kind of ground your face against learning these, these morphological rules.
Okay, we've run over time. Anybody have any other questions?
Will you be doing this all again, at any point? During what again?
This whole thing? Yeah, with with morphology, yes, this is just first time, you're gonna have to hear this multiple times in order for it to stick. Obviously, there's 10 forms, I only just introduced the second one. There's also other different types of words you can make, we just looked at the doer, there's the objects, there's ways to make words that indicate that it's cool. There's ways to make words that indicate the place where something is done, right, or the time where something is done all these sorts of things. That's going to come later. And we're going to go back over and over and over this concept, I find it beneficial to introduce to you now so that it's on
your radar, and you kind of start to get it in your head.
I think we've already done quite a few but we just haven't. Like for example. Muda is like we've done a few of these words, but we just haven't
connected them to
start out on did you have something?
Because we have the same words, but we have different meanings of the same word for them to lose. In our language you lose means a procession.
And so that's why sometimes we get confused. Maybe it meaning is because in Arabic, the meaning is different. Just
like we have word the fish, the fish mean, interrogation.
Tactics is interrogation is the same in Arabic and it comes from this route. So what that teaches is an inspection to make the master which is like the gerund is I will go into that later. And when we pray, it's called to lose right when we sit when we pray. I mean,
correct. Yeah, you're this this is what's named the position in prayer. So not everything. So there's some patterns that do double double duty. Okay? I'm patterns are seeing a MOBA. But they're also they're also a normal muscle which is a Jaren right. So sitting, right sitting is Judith, normal sitting by
But in the context it can also be if you intend by it see the MOBA that means someone who sits a lot. So it will depend on context. So we'll see that some patterns do double duty that that's not the norm. The norm is that the norm is that everything kind of has its own pattern
Any other questions?
No, this is so interesting. I'm gonna, it's recorded so if you need to go back and refresh yourself, you know, please avail yourself of YouTube.
And we will meet again Saturday Inshallah, stay tuned for updates on the enrichment aspect of things to insha Allah to Allah. And we ask Allah to accept our worship and increase our beneficial knowledge and make it easier for us not against this mean. So download eco Murata Hebrew Academy.