Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 26
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 38.01MB
This Moroccan rocking
enemy smells was slapped on a shotgun MBIA Oman saline the vino was named Mohammed Ali Salam was the Sneem Allahumma Alinea we may have found now in fact that'd be my island 10 hours even their home and garden behind me. So money coming off slightly would occur to everybody welcome Saturday morning to begin in classical Arabic.
Inshallah, we're going to try to finish this lesson today
on feminine noun so let's get right to it. The first exercise that we have
is we have two columns.
The first column on the right, has a simple gym that is Tamiya. With a Muqtada and a hub.
The hover is going to be some sort of description of the mug today, we have here Mohamed Mohamed Juan balibo and Mohammed is a student, Jaime doon Bobby bone, Hamid is a doctor and so on and so forth. What we're going to do is we're going to
see how those descriptive
terms can be turned into a feminine form with simply adding time oguta. So all of the nouns that happen in the cover in the right column are going to be the same nouns that you use as the hover in the left column, except you're going to be adding time or Ghouta to the end, in order to match the gender of the move to the right we have the example here Mohammedan barley bone mean to bore ly bad turn. Right and make sure it's pronounced the bottom button on the end. Okay, away we go. So first serve Mr. Ross, could you please do number two?
I mean to slowly better.
Alright, good. Excellent. And we know what that means. So but okay, just for practice. Could you please translate that for us?
Hamid is a student and Amina is
a student. Very good. Exactly. And we run into an issue that we said about translation. Last time. In English. Some nouns have a masculine and feminine form like waiter, waitress, actor, actress, but many don't. So like student for example, we don't have a student tests or something like that. However, in Arabic, this is exactly what's going on. And it's going on for almost all nouns. So that's if you're looking for a way to translate in your head and think about it. This is the way to think about it.
Next up, Mohammed was tested number two.
It didn't be born
the B button, translate that for us.
I met this doctor.
But my doctor, doctor. Very good. Excellent. Okay, well, that's me number three
who are Muslim on here mostly Mattoon
and translate. He is a Muslim and she has a Muslim
so are you
Alibaba mobile icon. And naff is to
mobile have gotten more
mobile? Very good. And what does that mean?
I don't know.
Honestly, I don't know is half of knowledge. So mobile app was one of our more recent work. It was and it means lock or close.
abilities lock and the window is locked. Yes, very good.
Excellent. Okay, next up we have
someone from the same family
Okay, I'll try.
I'll mean the loo wasI. One.
Yeah, do mercy
who don't? Yes, very good once you have two very good and what does that mean?
Hank? No, that's the handkerchief or cloth.
Dirty and then
I don't know what the next one
what is it? And if you hand Yes, and the hand is dirty
you know those of us with children this is a very useful incentive. The West
was safer to get your hands dirty. You need to watch it.
Brother lesson number six a shy you ha
ha Hi. Hi, Ron, I guess Hi Ron shy? Hi, Ron. I'll talk to
her tone. Very good. And what does that mean? A tea is hot. Coffee is hard. But to use hot coffee is probably the most important example we have today. Very good.
Okay, where are we?
Let's hear someone from the shahada family number seven
people been al Masjid done by Eden
Madras to say that
yes, very Exactly. Yeah.
We can say that for us. What does that mean? The measure thus far the school is far Exactly. Even Alma rasa to their E that's one
and someone else from the Sikh family do number eight. Sister Samira.
Liberal Marie's Marine, Maria
Marie Maria Latin already good enough for Libra to marry. And what does that mean?
The student is sick. And then the student Female Student
Participant there insha Allah Our youngest Arabic students.
So yes, muddy meant sick or ill. Right. And so Maria Watson it has to agree with the feminine hope to that very, very good.
Sister same Could you do number nine for us?
please scroll down
or down a little bit. I can see.
The horse is fast.
I say yeah to study the current past
in order to match the gender of the subjects and city Yeah, as we said means basket good. I'm someone from the shake family could you do number 10?
Either hamara, Jeremy lon, a sham. So Jamila, good. And you can translate that for us and make us beautiful the sun is beautiful. Poetry to my ears. Thank you very much for that. and Sr Asmat video number 11 A few there abou jelly soon. I'm all jelly satin.
Yes. Sitting the mother is sitting. Excellent. So even if now this is good. The last two examples are important because they are nouns that have gender, but the gender is not represented by a simple template. Right. So we have an EB which obviously l EB is father and so it is I should say it's obviously masculine because of what it means. Okay, the father Jellison and
the mother feminine by what it means. And then we have a more confounding example than that El Pomona and a shrimps, which is similar to Tinder,
which we were talking about last class. Why is the moon masculine and the sun feminine? I have no idea. I would like to know that myself. I did a little bit of digging yesterday and some of the classical books of grammar but I couldn't find any sort of satisfactory explanation. So right now we're just gonna take it on faith that the palm of the moon is masculine, and the chef's is feminine. Very good. Anybody have any questions about that?
Exercise before we move on to the next one.
I have a question.
Go to the first example. Yeah.
like Muhammadan Taliban, right? And I'm going to dial a button. Maybe you explain it, but can you just explain it again? Thank you for that. Thank you for that. First of all, I have to give props to what I assume what I hope was Brother Xia with his comment in the in the comments in the chat. He proposes a theory for why the sun is feminine, because the sun is warm and lights up the sky. So obvious is female, and all of us mentioned, memorize that answer, and deploy it as necessary, because that's a fantastic answer.
Good. So this was covered in an earlier lesson that I don't think you were present for them. So when it comes to masculine, proper names or proper nouns, they by rule have a 10 week, well, how am I doing? How am I doing? I Li Yuan, right. Whereas feminine,
proper nouns, right, or names Amina to allow FEMA to Khadija to by rule do not accept 10 When they are a special category of words, called I'm not going to solve, which we'll talk about later, when it becomes more important. Right now all you need to know is that it does not by default habits. Can we are there? Are there exceptions? Yes, there are. But this is a good rule that will get you pretty far.
Okay, anything else? Before we move on? Yes. If I can ask a quick question. Are the are all jobs all? Sorry, I use them? Are all jobs, all everything? Do they all have a masculine and feminine? Or are there some that you could use universally? Oh, this is good. This is good. Some of them?
Okay, the one that jumps out to my mind is handle, which means pregnant. Okay, so how male is only feminine, even though it has a masculine
obviously, pregnancy is only something that applies to a male at least for the time being hungry Allah.
So when it comes to that sort of thing, there are sort of exceptions, but for pretty much everything else. Yes, you can just slap the tempo boots on the end of it, and it becomes and it becomes feminine. And that pretty much applies to any sort of job. The only exception to that would be some phonetic exceptions that we have when it comes to
when it comes to Ozanne. So this is a concept that you guys haven't learned yet that we will learn soon enough. The concept of a wasn't is like a phonetic pattern. So in Arabic
you learn certain phonetic patterns, and you place words on that pattern. Actually, we saw a little bit of that with some farrier. If you take any sort of three letter root and you put it on the wasn't the pattern of farrier, you get barley, and you get jellies and you get right all these sorts of things. So the wasn't the phonetic pattern is very, very important in Arabic. And there are certain phonetic patterns that have rules such as they don't take time to buta or they're gendered in a different way.
So for example, Asheville, right, read, which isn't a job like what you said, but the, the,
the feminine would be hung raw. Okay, because of the particular phonetic pattern that it's on, but we'll get we'll get to that later. For now. Pretty much Yes, pretty much yes, you can take any job or sort of loss, any sort of description and slap a tablet of boots on the end of it.
And it is human. And it is feminine. Question, what about a load bearing animal? Is it a different word? No, it is the same word. So that would be part of what would would help us identify the context. If I say that an animal is,
is pregnant, versus I'm saying that an animal is carrying a load, right? So that sort of thing would would help us identify context.
So it would be different depending on what your meaning
yes, so even though in the Quran, Allah uses Xhosa, not xojo
for for Hawa, or Eve, right.
And sort of the the buckler and and other students. I'm forgetting off the top of my head right now, but Allah doesn't use the feminine form. He uses them. Technically the masculine form
Xochi, because the context already tells you that he's talking about Adam's wife, which is, obviously Eve. So it's redundant and Arabic abhors redundancy and seeks to eliminate it. So if something is clear from the context, then a lot of times you can get rid of the
you can get rid of certain markers and things like that. Somebody else had a question. Yes. I mean, maybe I've explained it before. So the word before Tom or Buddha always would have Fatah or
good question. And the answer is, yes. As far as I know, I racked my brain very hard. And I could not think of a single exception that I have the penultimate that's, that's before the tablet.
But that's thank you for bringing that up again. That's your question.
Yes, it is common. And not
Okay, so the next exercise is to correct we're now going to correct these exercises, they're writing incorrect words and sentences, you're going to have to use your knowledge of what we've learned gendered nouns in order to correct the mistakes. So everything has been oh brother side, you haven't done anything yet. Number one,
read the sentence as is identify the mistake and then read the sentence as it should be. So Allah
a happy veteran men have
I think it should be happy but when men happy Yes, exactly. Fantastic. Happy but to is a feminine noun, it means bag or a purse. Right? And it has only one Bulma not to because it's part of a possessive construction with men whose back
and so yes, the correct form will be happy but two men happy and we had a nice long discussion about that. And how you know, whether you can know that ahead of time or not last but good. Going back to the top of the list, which has been scrambled some of them to say a family can you do number two?
I love word for too much.
I need the
number but I think at the end so what would the correct sentences read a word for two months? To one month to have?
Excellent. room is open. Very good. And brother say it could you please do number three?
Sure. How to say yes. To the BV.
Hardy he's a year probably Hardy he's a Yara to the B, the B but to the vibrato No, or just the Wii Wii. good this is good. Okay, so let's let's think about this one.
Well, the most it is it had to he refers to what in this sentence? Does it refer to the car or does it refer to the doctor? Car? Yes. So is it necessary that we change the gender of the doctor? Oh no, that's you just said that you don't have to change it. If we wanted to. We could be correct we could say how did he say auditor Bobby but that would be correct but it's not necessary. How did he say all lovey dovey is completely correct because how the he refers to the car and not the doctor? Very good. That's a very very good
Okay, excellent. Thank you moving on to the shahada family number four
who say yes say yes to say
heavy is feminine with deathless feminine
part of the vessel construction, we
have to have access to the customers by whose car it is.
But I would question your second your second statement, which was that mactac is feminine is miftah feminine or masculine
don't know what is a
mistake and the mistake is that
your mistakes would have to be had had.
Now go ahead and read the correct version
move there who say yeah to say Additi.
complete opposite of the previous one that brother must send it. Whereas with Brother lessons, changing the
we saw that the seeming that demonstrative pronoun refers to the car, okay. And so we had to change the demonstrative pronoun in order to match the gender of the car. Whereas who owns a car, it doesn't matter whether a male doctor or a female doctor owns the car, that's not our concern, because the demonstrative pronoun is pointing out the thing being possessed the car itself. Here, it's the same thing, but the problem is the opposite. We have miftah, which is actually masculine, and Sayana, which is feminine. And this case, what they did was they made be demonstrative pronoun, agree with the wrong thing. They made it agree with the thing that's possessing, and not the thing
being possessive, but how to he's not referring to the car, it's referring to the key, which means that it has to agree with the gender of the key, which is masculine. So that's tricky, but that's a good exercise to kind of point out these sorts of things. And number five,
let's go back to the shadow family so you can finish off and reply.
So, so say Yara would be correct if he just say, say Yara rather than sejati. Oh, that's a good question. Thank you for saying that. There is no say yup. Right. So, so No, but that's, that's good. The logic is completely correct. If if there was such a word as say, Yup. And we could just drop that time on buta. Then this would be Yeah, completely correct. But car is not a word in Arabic, but any sort of car which now we use it for car it used to be any sort of say it is like travel. So any sort of vehicle vehicles like a more literal translation, any sort of vehicle, it has a timer buta attached to it say auto, which is different. Good, good, good. Thank you for bringing us up, which
is different than say an occupation or a description, such as Bobby job, or Jalis or MEF tool, which we can just slap a timer buta and manipulate the gender like that. Ah, this is good. So some nouns, okay, if we, if we look at there's, there's adjectives, right descriptions, like meth tour, open
this type of word, we can slap a timer on boots on the end and play with it, either it's masculine or feminine, and we can, you know, change it to what we need. Or some certain occupations or descriptions like Jellystone why off the phone barleywine. Bobby, when we can add a time on Bucha and manipulate it and change the gender how we want. But there are some nouns that actually are referring to just the thing itself.
Not the description of the thing, not,
anything like this, that we can't do that sort of manipulation, we can't add and subtract terminal routers like that. Right? Just like names Amina, if we have the name Pamela or Khadija can we make college? Can we make em in? I mean, in some of them, we might be able to, but in others, it doesn't work like that. So that's very good. So say Allah, we can't we can't manipulate say Otto like that. Just like we can't make manipulate and attack. We can't make this sentence correct by saying hatoon. Right. There is no word in Arabic From left. To write a key is simply an attack. And a car or a vehicle is simply say yoga. And it's not a negotiable. But that's a very, very
Very good point. And a good way to look at it.
If you don't mind me asking a quick question outside of the box, right? I don't understand. So, all of you, Michelle was very meticulous, everything's very thought out and thorough and I get it. When you're talking about a profession. When you're talking about a masculine name, effeminate, feminine name, it makes sense. What's the relevance to giving? inanimate objects like a key, a masculine or feminine? Did anybody ever? Like really break that and boil it down? of why? Why does it make a difference in a sentence? That's my homework and your home? I haven't found that. Like I said, I tried to look in shock, even appeals, explanation on alphanumeric yesterday? To try to find an
answer to that question. I didn't find it. But as the medic is one text among many classical grammatical texts, and so I would be interested, I might be looking in the wrong place, I might be better off looking in a book of soft, which is about morphology, instead. But I'm really interested to know the answer to that question.
And so if maybe as a group research project, we can dig and see what we can we can find in the comments. Many languages have that concept, sometimes masculine, feminine, as well as neutral, right and out of context? It's not me, you need to
know that's 100% Correct system is not about what the brothers question is specifically trying to identify the criteria upon which
objects were sorted into masculine and feminine. Is there a method to the madness, so to speak, which is an interesting question. With some words, it's obvious, you know, and with other words, it's not so we're trying to see if
we're trying to see if this is PSE or somatic, we're trying to see if this is something that there was reason behind it. And this reason can be ascertained or whether this is something that just goes back to habits and patterns of usage. It's more of a historical thing and maybe so much time has passed that we don't even know and we can't figure it out. So, that is a an interesting question to ask and
I would be satisfied if we found the answer someday Java.
Good. In the meantime, complete for us exercise.
Anaa al bakr Dotto here feel Sherif Ali
Pokhara to automatically you didn't even realize you corrected it. You said
yes, he or not he?
Yeah. So you say here, there's no mistake in the question. The question is a buck or two, where is the heifer? Where's the female cow. And he just said automatically because his ear is attuned to Arabic already said he is a sciatic. She is in the street shot is a street or a road. They have written here Hua, which is incorrect. Bucha is feminine, which is represented by that someone. And so
it needs to be here. Very good.
Okay, we are very close to completing the lesson. All we have is these four remaining exercises. Now this is a very good they say in the instructions about what to mount above the LSVT to Kenny Matic read them, which is what we're going to do now and writes and I really recommend that you do this at home in between lessons, right, these exercises out with putting all of the Hello Cat especially on the final words, I should say the last how to count on each word. So what they've done is they've deleted or removed the How to cats from key words here. And they want you to practice reading without those how to cats, which is going to demonstrate or improve your understanding of the
grammar and what's going on in the sentence. So I think we reached the shape family. Someone in the shape family do number one.
The home knocking was Alika Lee Hamilton, excellent work here how he knew to rule because of the we sent me was one devices for possession. Okay, something maybe we could say similar to an apostrophe. But he also knows that Mohammed and Hameed are masculine names, proper names, and so they have 10 wheat. So it has to be li Mohamed Dean and Danica Lee hammy Dean, very good sister Asmat. Could you do number two.
Lehman has a he
hasn't he? Yes, he had in. Excellent and it's the same thing. Lee Yeah, serene, masculine proper name. It's not only majeure, but it has to have two customers. Good. Moving on to Brother Mohammed was tested number 300 in Lehi excellent good as my fellow
brothers say number four
brothers I always get the hard ones
Lynn Lynn Hill and maturity was my was my baby.
Masha Allah that's not correct
either because it's incidence of Bukhara it sounded like something from the Quran.
Okay, who can help them out? Let's let's open up the lifeline who can help them out?
According to what he had said Lilla Hill must be at well, Mel Ruby, then that leaves the sentence with everything Metro,
which is not okay. Okay.
as your help, right that
Villa he must be oh, well, not rebou. Ah, now we're going to see a little thing about word order. And remember, way back in the day, you started talking about synthetic languages. And how one of the advantages of a synthetic language like Arabic is you can switch around the order. You can switch around the order and it it, it's not going to change the meaning. It might change emphasis, but it's not going to change meaning because we have things that are on the word that tell us what's going on. Right here the previous one. That's right, Tom ball bat hit. Exactly.
So we have Al hamdu lillahi affliction number three, because number three is an easier example to prove the point, what would change in the meaning if we switch the order of those words Lilla Hill handle.
Nothing changes. The meaning doesn't change. It gives a slightly different emphasis we emphasize to Allah
belongs all praise, right? Instead of All praise belongs to Allah, but the meaning of the sentence doesn't change. So let's break it down. Here we have Al hamdu is Moqtada Lilla. He covered? Okay, because of the Lamb, which is a hungry job. It makes a law measurable with a customer. If we change the order just to emphasize something a little bit different.
It's still the same.
Lila he is still the hub
and Al hamdu Estelle them up to that.
But and this is something we haven't learned yet there are certain situations in which it is not only possible or permissible to change the order of the Malta and the Hummer, but it is even eloquence. Right? If you're trying to get a certain point across in this case, if we say Lila Hill hand is saying, for example, this is a common response if somebody praises you.
Say oh Imam, you did such a good job yesterday with this and that Lilla Hill hump. Say, it's almost the response that says no, the praise is not for me, it's for Allah, for Allah is the praise. Right? The actual original sentence is Alhamdulillah moved to the cover, like you've learned, but when we switch the order, the meaning remains the same, but the emphasis shifts to focus on the fact that is possessed or belongs or deserves by Allah, Allah to Allah. So this is exactly what's going on here. In this ayah, which is similar to the Dakota the original sentence is a mesh the hippo which means the outside without
mentioning is the east.
Was a Maverick is the West.
Al mesh, the Oh well, never Rebo Lilla he, that's the original sentence with the order that you're used to move to the cover. The move to that is more for the mock to that in this case is got two different parts to it, because it's a conjunction, as I mentioned before, while Mel Rebo and the harbor is relaxing. But Allah wants to emphasize not the east and the west, but he wants to emphasize his control and possession over the eastern West. Which is why and this idea he puts first Lilla he'll eventually well no worry
Is that clear and does that make sense to everybody
literally translate Translate is the place of rising in the place of setting Yes 100% We haven't gotten into just like system masala just like we explained that there is some there is a weapon it's a pattern you can take a three letter root and put it on that pattern and make a certain type of word. There's another weapon a different pattern for making places right? Mezrich, madlib mess masjid, all these sorts of things and we will learn that inshallah but yes, you are right, it is the form or the wasn't the phonetic pattern that communicates the place that something happens.
Chatter by me says are covered and multiple switched off it or is that an exception? It is switched often for purposes of rhetoric and eloquence, but there are rules to it. There are rules to when you can and can't
put the move to the after the public and we will go over those rules inshallah. But right now, I think it would be getting a little bit ahead of ourselves.
There are even certain important there are even certain times when you have to put the move to the after the public. But again, we'll get into that. Yes, exactly. If you learn anything about Arabic, you really have to pay attention to the haircut.
Good shape probably means east and west is along Yes. Yes. The east and west belong to Allah or our Allah's or allows possession
Excellent. Any other questions?
We have simply here a collection of the of the vocab words for this lesson. A brief brief rundown if anybody missed it, I think they should be on your vocab sheet. I didn't make where two is an iron
at the Roger to is a bicycle. The Milaca to is a stone LK the rule? Is a pot or a pan about or who is a heifer a female cow AlFalah who is a farmer and full is a nose a thermal is mouth and although no. Are your ears are technically one ear and the yard is your hand. A ridge Lou is your leg and that's actually where the term for man comes from Raju, Raju and original because the man is supposed to walk and go out in the world and you know secure provision and things like that. So it's a little interesting linguistic connection there. A che U T. N o UMO mother has the ledger to
literally the ICER that is ice but the refrigerator
what to coffee study on this is a adjective which is faster quick and feeder to window and gin den which is our first adverb which means very, we're really
so we say study your own gin done very fast.
And we will get more and we'll learn why the general rule is that adverbs are in the case of min sube with a better word or two pets has in this case, but we'll learn that later. This is called had
adverbs are kind of fun in Arabic they're easier than they aren't English.
Good. Anybody have any questions? That concludes the lesson while in law Hill Valley law Hill handle.
Anybody have any questions
before we dismiss?
She back is a
is a common word for window. The classical Arabic term is Nafisa. You can even say to judge right for window as well, which literally means glass. So that comes down to usage, right. Just like we might say, Hey, can you Xerox me a copy of that, right? Xerox is actually a brand name, but it's become through usage. It's become a verb. Right? So she back
I would need to go into the root to find what's the root of the word but it's come to me window just like as a judge. You know, you go into different parts of the Arab world and they don't say she back they say they say Judge, which literally means glass, but by glass. They're talking about the
so that's good. I'll look into Shiva. See what we can find?
Yes. Very good. Yeah, and all of these, like none of these are necessarily
their uses is change, but they're actually classical Arabic words. But how we use those words might change just like say Yaga you find say Allah in the Quran, but it doesn't mean an automobile, it means a different type of vehicle, like a riding animal. But now, it means an automobile. So So usage even if the words are
classical, the usage of those words can morph and change over time.
All right, fantastic work, everybody.
Thank you for your participation
and your effort, and I will see you next time. Shala