Channel: Navaid Aziz
In this 3rd Episode of the series Sh. Nazaid discusses The Principles Of Fiqh of Imam Shafi.
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Bismillahirrahmanirrahim in Hamden honesty You know, when the stock fiddle when a human surely unforeseen a woman say Dr. Medina, Mayor de la foto de la la la, la, la La, La La La La La Hola, Chica shadow Ana Mohammed Abdullah Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa early he was happy he was seldom at the Sleeman kathira and my bad. My dear brothers and sisters Salaam Alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuhu.
So there was a famous scholar of Hadith by the name of Abdullah Abdul Mahdi, and he lived during the time of Imam Shafi Rahim Allah, and he tells the mammoth Shafi that look, there's a lot of discrepancy in the oma right now, in terms of how we derive our city our how do we understand what is halal and haram? How do you understand what is legit, but not wajib? And how do we understand these things? So he wrote this as a letter to a man with Sheffield mo LA, email me Sheffield him, Allah wrote back a letter to him. And that letter that he wrote back was like, in the English translation of it is like 400 pages long. The Arabic You know, version of it is probably like 150
pages or so. And that was a response to a single question that, you know, document, the post. This letter eventually came on to be known as ERISA the letter meaning the letter of all letters. This was the sort of text that Amanda Shafi wrote in response to that question. Mm hmm. I didn't call his letter, the letter. It was eventually named that. And Mr. Sheffield, I have no law. He compiled or composed or went through a reseller twice in his life. One was in Iraq and then once was in Egypt. So as the mama Chavez might have progressed, Imam Shafi also changed or explained why his mother have changed, like what was it that caused him to change his opinions? It just wasn't you know, hey,
today I feel like this and tomorrow I feel like that he actually explained the method behind his filk so now and I must I thought I was the only man himself that actually wrote a book on soulful as you mentioned him more Malika d'amato Amanda honey for him alights and books of Akita attributed to him but even that there's contention with Mr. Mohammed, he has the most net his competition of Hadith. But Mr. Sheffield mo was the only one that wrote something in ossola. Imagine Sheffield Rahim, Allah also wrote another book called an arm, and an own is the practical application of his social work. So what is a practical application? We'll sort of look then what is the subject matter
what is the subject matter of
which is what what is the application that was fulfilled called filk. Exactly. So it is a book on Shafi filk. So he was also the first individual to compile a book on his method, right? For the rest of them, who their opinions are collected, and, you know, their principles are gathered. And that is how their mazahub came about. Whereas the mama chef mala, not only did he put the principles together, but he also put the application of it in.
Now, this leads us to two other introductions, number one, the difference between the fuqaha and the Mr. kelemen, in our solar shock, so when you study with solar filk, you'll find that there's an approach called dorico fuqaha, or the methodology of the scholars of filk. And then you have a second approach called political tone with a condemning. The main difference between these two approaches in Social Work is which one comes first, the chicken or the egg, right? The flock, or the social? According to the Torah, cotton fuqaha. They said that kale came first. And from there we can extract useful principles. The tareekh automata kelemen. They said, No, it is the exact opposite,
but rather, it is the principles that come first, and therefore we're able to extract the fuck from it. Now, where did the various Medina fall in terms of application? Well, again, it was like a three to one battle. The Shafi might have the medic, he might have been the humble, he might have generally took the approach of the motor kelemen they say that a solo proceeds filk whereas in the Hanafi method, it is the opposite. They said that filk proceeds solo filk. So that is why you will see that in terms of establishment of legal principles of the latter three mazahub. Their principles were established a lot earlier, whereas in the Hanafi madhhab. They got established later on,
because they waited for the fatawa of the amount of hanifa Muhammad Abdul has said and abuse of and waited for the fourth hour. And then from there, they extracted the principles of solar shock. Number two were introduced to a second distinction, and that is the difference between 100 Hadith and the people of tradition versus the people of opinion. And Amanda shutaura Allah, He is known as the individual that was able to bring both of these schools together. So remember how I got him Allah was clearly for us.
100 Heidi's Amanda honey for him her law was clearly from Laura. And then the person that was directly in the middle was the mama Shafi. And the person between Imam Shafi and Emmanuel hanifa was Imam Malik. So this is a spectrum of Hadith. And now what is the difference between these two terms? And why are they significant? Well, the key distinction between these two groups or these two schools of thought, is when it comes to deriving a fatwa, when it comes to deriving religious ruling. How much of intellect can we actually incorporate? How much intellect can we actually incorporate? So if there are the opinion that you and can't incorporate any form of the intellect,
it was either called on Santa edgemarc? The US? And then that's it. So there is no concept of is the sun or anything like that. Whereas with an array, they said, No, that's not the case at all. In fact, we have the primary sources. And then we have secondary sources. And the secondary sources are there so that when we don't find something explicit in the primary sources, we can use them at that time. And that is where things like it's the sun that we've been speaking about for the past couple of weeks, came into play. Now in Arma, Chatelet mo LA, even though he came to bring both of these schools together, or at least this is what my mother in law said about him, he said that we were two
schools that were constantly fighting with one another. And then a chef came and brought us together, then the chef, he came and brought us together. But even then he Mama, Chef, what if you were to, you know, if you have to place him somewhere? Where do you place him in these two camps? You place him in the diff camp, because you'll see that when it comes to talk about his son, he didn't like using SSN at all. He said our shady AI is sufficed with the Quran, Sunnah h Ma, and the statements of the companions, and so on and so forth. Now, here's a very important understanding about labels. Why do human beings use labels? Who can tell me? Right? It's a common question. Are
you Salafi? Are you Sufi? Are you shocked? Were you humbly? What are you? Why do human beings use labels?
Easy to categorize people? But why do we want that nice?
Getting a general understanding of what they believe in and who they are.
So we can see who you relate to easier? Is that really the question? Like when I asked you are you will humbly or Shafi is that really my intention to see if we can relate or not?
Divide and Conquer? And I think generally, that's what it comes down to. And that is why as a general usage, I would say stay away as far as possible from labels altogether, any sort of label that you can get away from it, I believe it stems from two very bad places. I mean, this DNA I'm not talking about, you know, our tradition, our tradition has a very healthy scope of discussion and difference of opinion. But in this day and age, I think if someone asks you, you know, what are you? It stems from one of two places. Number one is laziness, I don't want to get to know you on a personal level. So just save me that hassle. And let me know what you are. So I can categorize you
and judge you and decide where you fit in. Right? And then number two, is that whole divide and conquer mentality, that, you know, I want to know if I can accept you as a friend, or a as a foe, you know, where are the lines and boundaries going to be drawn? So I think it's a very problematic approach when we ask for these labels. And as a general rule, stay away from them. As far as much as possible, you will see that a third issue that comes to arise is that regardless of what people identify themselves as Sunni, Shia, Salafi Sufi, or any of them are that the vast majority of people have no clue what they're talking about. They're completely ignorant. So even when they use these
terms, they use them without knowledge, meaning that they have no relevance. They don't, they don't have any substance behind them. Right. It's like saying, I am Superman self claimed profession, which I might believe it wouldn't the reality at the end of the day, the reality is completely different. So that's like a third reason to stay away from it. So those are the two introductions to the book. Now for what we're going to be doing for the moment shadow law. His book, or rusada, is actually translated into the English language. And what I would suggest is you can download the PDF for free, just go into Google and type in RSR, that PDF, and multiple websites actually hosted some
of the problems with the translation. It is a very academic translation, extremely academics, their language is very, very difficult. Number two, is that one of the problems of translating classical Arabic into you know, nuanced English, is that unless you have the original script in Arabic, and you're reading it simultaneously, you'll be like, What on earth is this guy talking about? And you see this in the very first chapter of the translation, where a man was talking about him, Allah talks about Albion and the different types of speech and the different types of clarification. The translator he tried his best and this is like in the 1950s 1960s, he's like by number one by a
number two by a number three, and he breaks it down in numerical order, because he can
I'd even attempt to translate and explain what these terms are as a title heading. So you just give us a baryon number one, and that's how it is. So those are some of the problems you'll find in the translation. But I still believe we're true students of knowledge, when you want to see you know, the development of a solid, and how far we've come as an oma and appreciate our scholarship, pick something like that up, and then compare it to you know, Muhammad Hassan come in his book on the soul filk. Those are like the two major English translations that will soon look, and you'll get to see how tradition has developed that is just compare similar chapters, and you'll see how far we've
come inshallah. And this will help you in your own journey of understanding that hey, where you are right now, there's still so much for me to go and so much for me to learn. So with that, having been said,
the first discussion that Imam Shafi Rahim Allah brings into RB sada, and this is going to be the way we frame our discussion for tonight is what are the different types of knowledge? What are the different types of knowledge in Sheffield himolla, he says that there's two types of knowledge, knowledge of the layman and knowledge of the elite. Now, when you shuffle him, I'll use the term elite, he doesn't use so in a condescending manner, right? When you hear the term elite, you think of like, no, the tale of two cities, the bourgeois, that's not what he's talking about. He's talking about laymen. And he's talking about scholars, but the reason why he uses the term elite, because of
this frame of mind or this background, and he comes with the aid of Allah has blessed you with knowledge, you are from the elite, you know, based upon the Hadith of the Prophet salallahu alaihe. Salam, when you read the law, when you forget COVID Deen that whoever Allah subhana wa Taala, which is good for he gives them understanding of their religion. So when we use the term elite don't understand the condescending term, but you understand the term that Allah has blessed these people with knowledge and his made them elite from the layman. So when he talks about or solid folk, he clearly goes on right from the beginning thing that was solid fuck is not a discussion for the
layman, but rather it is a discussion for the elite. It is a discussion for the elite. And he wrote this book, again, not for the layman, but for the elite. And this is why when you study with solar, it's so important to understand that if you remember the very first halaqa we had over here, we said in terms of our practical application, you're you're performing some form of tech lead, either your student of knowledge and you're learning it might have been studying method, or you're not even at that level, and you're just a layman and then you have a Mufti that you're getting your fatwa from, right. So now Imam Shafi. His book is directed to those teachers, it is directed towards those
scholars. So that's what needs to be understood. And that is why mama shadowed him Allah, he was so comfortable in using this technical language, because he knew he wasn't speaking to the layman. Now, what's become problematic is that the Sculpey mama chef is discussion, what was considered at time of scholarship back then, you will find amongst the layman today, and that is, you know, huge problem. Again, you know, last week, I felt very bad using the this language, but I'll use it again, just for the sake of emphasis. The layman has a simple role to shut up and sit down, be quiet. And listen, that is what the role of the layman is that the scholars have the discussions, let them
argue and debate things out. And you're just there to follow it. And Mr. Chef clearly emphasizes that, and again, you'll see that again, that a lot of the responses that he mama chef is bringing is towards the scholars and not towards the limit. But we live in the unfortunate reality where people no longer respect scholars, so therefore they have claimed scholarship for themselves. And they think they have the right to speak about the deen of Allah subhanho wa Taala when in reality that couldn't be further from the truth. So Imam Shafi, I just want to read a paragraph of what he says. He says that knowledge of the elite is a subject of the investigation of the fuqaha. And it is that
which the woodstain strive to deduce it is that about which there is dispute, it is that for which rules are formulated, so the deduction can be sound, and so that those rules become criteria by which the difference between an error and a court judgment or a certainty, and a decision is reached between two opponents who disagree. So his description of solid filk is like when two scholars are debating one another, how are you going to decipher between who is right and who is wrong? It's not going to be by the opinion, they push forth, it is going to be based upon the principles that they use to reach that opinion. So understand that difference right and wrong in Islam is not about the
opinion that you hold, right. We learned that from the statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam that the scholar that is correct the which say That is correct. He has two awards, one for being correct. And one for trike, the Mr. Head That is incorrect. He has one reward one for trying, and that's where he gets his reward for. So it's not about being correct or incorrect. It is about what principles did you use to get to that conclusion, and that's what the mama shuffler mama is emphasizing over here making an effort.
So now a mama Sheffield
himolla he breaks it down into five ranks of a solo, and I'll explain them briefly to you inshallah, number one, he says, the book and the sooner and this is the highest rank of a solo book. He says the sun and the book occupy the same rank, because as soon as expounded upon the book in many cases, so he says the Quran and the Sunnah, this is the highest rank of a soldier. And it's important to understand that he Mammon Sheffield himolla, considered the book of Allah Subhana Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, at the same level of the Sharia, at the same level of legislation. Maybe when you find legislation in the Quran, and you find legislation and the
sooner it is at the exact same level. Number two, is that which is consensus consensus on what is in the book or in the center. So consensus on what is in the book and in the center. This is the second rank oversold book. The third rank is the statement of one of the companions of the Prophet, a statement of one of the companions of the Prophet, and I'll explain something over here. So he goes on to say this is when one of the companions of the Prophet voiced an opinion about a matter. And when it is known that no other companion opposed him in it, the opinion of a companion is better than better for us than our own opinion. Now, here comes some revision, how did he manage money can
email money for approach the opinion of a companion?
And I'm looking at you three guys over here. Howdy, Manuel hanifa and Mr. Malik approach the opinion of the companion
Imam Malik, the only other two imams who studied
Okay, so any opinion within the spectrum of the companions, you can choose anyone you like perfect, any mathematic.
Excellent, so my medical hemella said in that spectrum, whoever is on the side of the majority, then that is the opinion you take. Now Mr. Scheffer, Rahim Allah, what he is stating over here is that the only time the opinion of a companion will become proof is if you know no difference of opinion amongst it means that there is no companion that voiced opposition to that companions opinion. That's number one. Okay, so that's Scenario number one, that the position of the statement of a companion becomes a proof when there's no opposition to it. Now, are there many scenarios like that? Are there many scenarios like that? No. So what do you do now? If you have two opposing opinions of
companions? What do you think about Sheffield MLS want to say?
So number one, remember, hanifa said you can choose anyone in my mind that said you always go with the sight of the majority. What is it? I'm a chef, you're going to say?
Go with the majority Nope.
Easiest, the one that's easy step a very good guests. But that's not that.
I sort of gave you a hint in the introduction.
So which school was the mama Shafi from?
What did we say if he was closer to one, which one was ecosystem, and Hadith? So what do you think his approach is going to be? Now think about a very literal understanding of
fact based exactly, but how is he going to decipher that
which is closest to the court? And the sooner right, that statement of you know, follow the Quran and the Sunnah. Imam Shafi Rahim, Allah is like almost the grandfather of this, that that statement. So you said in the difference of opinion, amongst the companions, we will find the one that we deem closest to the Quran and the Sunnah. And then that is the opinion, we will end up taking that as opinion undertaking we'll discuss this in detail. So he goes on to say, a question on which the companions of the messenger of a loss of a loved one you somehow differing opinions, in that case perfectly, I should adapt whichever opinion he considers closest to the book, and to the sender,
their opinions should not be overridden in favor of votes of any other people. So this is his fourth rank, he said in the case. So his fourth rank is in the case of difference opinions. Amongst the companions, you take the four clear takes the one that is closest to the Koran in the center. And the opinion of anyone other than companions should not be given precedence or preference over the opinion of the companion. So there's two things happening over here. Number one, how to decipher between the companions and number two, is that they're still the ultimate authority of opinions between men, they have a special rank amongst themselves, the therapy and the advertising, they will
never be considered at the same rank of the Sahaba. Which brings us to the next thing is we also saw how among hanifa Himalayan how Mr. Medic treated the statements of the time being right in Abu hanifa in mohalla, he said they are men we are men average The height is equal. In my medical him Allah, he actually considered some of the Tai beans opinions very, very closely. As we mentioned last week, now I'm a chef Yoda himolla. He doesn't even call it a source of legislation. He does not even discuss it. He's an
It's not even the scope of our discussion. Then his fifth rank oversold book. He says analogy made on the basis of what is known from the other categories. The book The Sunland consensus, and analogy should be made on the basis of a textual matter which has a ruling in the book or sooner or whose judgment is known by consensus. And this is like a lot of legal jargon, which I'm not going to get into. But his fifth rank is that of classes that have analogy. And this is where a mama chef is spectrum of rural folk pretty much halts, it stops over there. The concept of is the sun and masala masala and all these things that we discussed last week or Armando Medina, he doesn't discuss them
at all. He goes, this is our scope of discussion right over there. So now, it is very important to contextualize what a mama chef Kamala is trying to do again,
he writes his letter is that he or she were in confusion were lost. Dilma is going astray. How do we understand our sources of revelation? Well, you know, what, where do we derive our effect from? So understand, that is what email Michelle Obama was trying to do, for the vast majority of his book giving guiding principles and responding to the mistakes people are making, right? And they want you to look at how the mistakes of that time are literally repeating themselves in our time, particularly when talking about the the sooner and how it should be accepted and not rejected. You will see that it's history repeating itself all over again.
So then, Mr. Sheffield, himolla. He goes on to say he goes on to discuss the Koran. And when he Mama sheffler him Allah always discusses the Quran, he discusses the Sunnah at the same time, so he's actually asked why do you keep repeating the Quran and the Sunnah together, and he Mama schefflera him Allah He quotes the ayah in certain najem surah number 53, verses three and four. Well, now young tieguanyin Hawa in 111 uuugh, that Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam when it comes to religious matters, he doesn't speak of his own accord, but rather he speaks that which was revealed to him, meaning that the Quran and the Sunnah are both revolution are both revolution. And you will
notice that I'm going to just stop very, very briefly over here to comment on something. The concept of Quran, Sunnah and intellect. It is like, you know, the, what's the I don't want to call it the trinity of love, you know, deduction, or of legislation, but literally that's what it is like when you think about the sources of legislation and our religion. You have Quran, Sunnah, and intellect. But why are all three of them sources of legislation? Mm hmm. Allah is highlighting this right here in the statement. He says this iomairt quantinova in our UI helps us understand this, that the Quran and the Sunnah came from the same sources, they are both revelation, and therefore they're there to
complement one another, and will not oppose one another or contradict one another. Now, when you understand this argument, you will understand the argument that his his services in subsidiary of this argument which is human intellect, when used to its potential, and in its perfect form, without perversion, is also a form of Revelation, meaning that the source of all three of these is Allah subhanho, wa Taala. And when all three of them are left on perverted, and taken in their purest form, they will be in complete harmony, and they will complement and supplement one another, and they will never be in opposition or never be contradiction. And that is why you have famous scholars
like him, the Jose mata himolla, the famous color of Hadith. He said, Bring me any Hadith that you find either contradicts intellectual contradicts the Quran, and I will explain it to you, because in its purest form, they're not meant to be any contradiction. So many times we find opposition or contradiction. It's not because of the legislation itself. It is because of our approach to that matter, it is our approach that matter. So rather than questioning the revelation itself, we should question our approach to it question our approach to it.
And then he goes on to talk about how
when we see that the Quran and the Sunnah are equal in legislation. He's saying that it should not be understood that all of the Sunnah is equivalent to all of the Quran. That's not what he's talking about. He's talking about the authority of each is the same. So meaning that you will find a hadith that is a head which is hurried, and then you have an eye of the Quran which is much awatea Are we going to say that they're exactly the same in their strength? No, they're not. But when you look at them holistically, look at the Quran holistically. Look at the Sunnah holistically, then both of them are equal in their authority. So that is what the mama Shakira himolla is trying to say. Now
let me shadow him Allah, he actually introduces a type of bad meaning when we talk about types of speech and
On one of the most common types of speech is that which is an and that which is hos that which is general, and that which is specific. And even mushara himolla. He actually breaks this down for us. He says when you look at the Quran, this is a reoccurring theme that you will find and costs. Now, how do you define arm? And how do you define costs? Well, it's very easy. And he said, Is anything that can be broken down into a different subsection? And once you have reached something that can no longer be broken down into a sub section, then amakhala anything that cannot be broken down into sub section, then that is hos okay. So I will give you an example. Mankind, is this general or is this
specific? Why is it general because you can break it down, you can talk about, you know, man or woman, you can break it down into black or white, you can break it down to Arab non Arab, you can break it down into many different categories. But when you talk about specifically male, this is something that can be broken down into if any further you can add adjectives to it. brave man, tall man short man. But in terms of breaking it down further, there's no sub section that you can break it down to even further. So that is hos now that is the general introduction to it. And as I mentioned him, I myself got him a lot was a scholar of the highest caliber not only in you know
matters of our religion, but even the Arabic language. So I will apologize in advance on behalf of the nama Sheffield I am Allah but you're about to get lost in the sauce. So in our shalom Allah He says, when a generality is mentioned in the Quran, there are three possible meanings to it.
General for the sake of being general that's number one, then general where a specific is intended, but is not mentioned. So general very specific is intended, but not mentioned. And then general word is the specific that is mentioned that is intended general where the specific is intended. So understand try to understand these three categories. So general for the sake of being General, then General, where the specific is intended but not specified. And then number three general where the specific is intended. And is there a specific as intended, okay. So now Mr. Scheffer, Allah gives examples of this, and I'll share examples with you. So example of number one were general for the
sake of being general. He says, Allah is the Creator of everything. And here's the Guardian over everything. So what number 39 463. So Azuma, verse 63, Allah subhana wa, tada is the creator of everything, and he is the Guardian over everything, a very general statement. So this will be category number one, this would be category number one. Category number two, is Surah. Number 18. Verse number 76. So the story of sorts of calf. So when Moses came to the people, when they reach the inhabitants of a town, they asked them for food, but they refuse them hospitality. So 18, verse 76. So who says that they come to a people, they ask them for hospitality, ask them for food, but
they refuse. Now, did moosend
come to the whole entire town and ask them for his hospitality? Or did he just speak to a specific group of people at that time? They spoke to just a specific group of people. So we are let's find out are they saying that they came to a town and asked for hospitality. But this is a general term, being intended for an undefined specific. So they're a specific group of people, we just don't know who those specific group of people are. This is category number two, of course, or the second gen second level of arms, rather than number three, is the verse in sort of total algebra, algebra surah, number three, verse 173,
where Allah subhana wa tada in this verse, he says, people have gathered together against you, so fear them, but it increased them in belief, and they said, Allah is enough for us and the best of Guardians. So this scenario is happening in one of the battles, I think it's the Battle of blood. And if I'm not mistaken, it could be the Battle of our heart, actually might have been battle avoided. Again, it's one of the battles where the modern African they're coming to, actually is the Battle of whether it is available with them when African came to the believers. And they said, Look, all of the Quraysh are coming together actually might have been the beloved. I'm confused either of
the battles. So he said, Look, the correlation coming together against you. So it's probably the battle hood, but the glacier gathering against you, and you need to fear them. Look, don't bother going into this war, you guys are gonna get destroyed and annihilated.
But this statement when the Sahaba de la home heard this, it increased them in their email. This is like a foretold prophecy to them that this would happen. So this photo prophecy, increase them in the man and increase the reliance on Allah subhanho wa Taala. So now even though Allah subhanaw taala is saying that people have against you, right, he didn't specify that it was the courage that I've gathered, and he didn't specify that it is the Sahaba de la gnome that is being spoken to. So even though it's a general term that is being used, it is very specific that this is the koresh and this is the Sahaba. So it is a very specific meaning, even though a general wording of usage. So
now, what you will notice over here is that remember Sheffield himolla, is taking a very analytical approach to our revolution. And that is why, again, I'll emphasize this again, that the scholars of the past emphasized the knowledge of the Quran, in terms of its memorization, and its understanding, due to this very reason that right now, you know, I'm depending on reading these verses and their translations, because I don't have the translations, or in fact, even the verses perfectly at the forefront of my head, and remind myself about him a lot. He's writing this as a response to someone so you can imagine he receives this letter, he's like, Okay, let me respond to this. And he's just
writing. It's not as if he's writing a book or envelope libraries in front of him. But a lot of these scholars, they wrote this on their journeys to places like when you look at even Tamia is wasa Thea, he's sitting under the shade of a tree between Austin and Moab. And you can lead me right here. Same thing over here, they had all this knowledge at the forefront of their head. And it's a very deep analysis. So remember, Sheffield Himalaya is showing us the appreciation of those things, showing us the appreciation of those things. Now let's move on to the Sunnah of the Prophet. So allow yourself most of you can, you know continue on with the Koran, but I'm just showing you
glimpses because we have already said in English, you guys can continue your discussion over there. So now, the sooner he talks about who are the people in his time who have denied the center, and let's look at this understanding, he says that from those who oppose the consensus, followed three different schools and oppose consensus over here, he's talking about oppose the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So here's a question for you. Why would he mama Shahada him Allah use Sunnah and consensus almost interchangeably over here? He says the people that oppose consensus, why would he use it almost interchangeably here?
That's one way of looking at it. That consensus is based upon the Sahaba. But we need to look at something deeper. What is the similarity in terms of the way that the consensus reached us? And the way the Hadith reached us? How did they reach us? chain of narration? Exactly. So when the mama chef mo was talking about consensus over here, he's like, the approach to these two things is exactly the same. We can't claim consensus until we have a chain of narration from it. Same thing with Sudan Hadith, we can't claim that hadith of or do we have a chain of narration. So when he's talking about opposition to consensus, he's talking about the methodology of the Sunnah, and consensus have
reached us. She said, there's three different schools. One denied the authority of the Sunnah altogether, that the Shona is not an authority at all. The second denied its authority, unless the Quran upheld it, meaning that the sun is only an authority in those matters the Quran has spoken about, in those matters that the Quran has not spoken about, the sooner is not an authority. Then he says the third are those who deny the authority of single Hadith, and only consider motivated or well known Hadith, meaning that he did not accept 100 Hadith, but only accepted motor water, or that which was commonly known amongst the people that which was commonly known amongst the people. Now,
you'll notice in this day and age, you have the exact same discussions happening, you have a group, the qurani own that we call them, are the rejecters of the Hadith, that they say the Quran is sufficient enough for us. Then category number two, this is a category that sort of disappeared, but it's almost included in category number one, they say that the sooner is not an individual authority within of itself, but it is in authority because of the Quran. It is an authority because of the Quran. So those things the Quran is spoken about. We will accept it as a Collaboratory or a collaborative evidence, but not as an individual evidence of itself on those matters that the Quran
stayed silent about. And then number three is more technical, where those individuals that rejected a hadith or Hadith, he discusses them. So now, you know a chef, his general response he goes in general, such people argued that the book contains the clarification
Of every matter, the language of the book was Arabic and required no other explanation for those with knowledge of the Arabic of Arabic and the Arabic style of the Quran, no further exposition being required. Hadith are reported by men who cannot be completely exonerated from lying around or forgetting the transmission of such things cannot be late with a definitive book in affirmation and evidence in any way. So he now he's helping us understand what is the argument that they're making? Why are they rejecting the sooner? So he gives this general introduction? He says, Well, number one, the Quran was revealed in the Arabic language. And if it is clear, like the Koran says it is, then
it is in no need of further explanation. That is the first source of their argument. Number two, they say that Hadith reported by men who cannot be completely exonerated from lying around and forgetting. So now while they're not talking about the Sahaba, specifically, some of this is directed at the Sahaba. Right, like I mentioned last time, while we are at the lavon and Abu Bakar, rhodiola. They were criticised because of individual incidents, right? So these are indirect jabs at them. But this is definitely a jab at the level of the tabulation and the advertising, they said these are human beings, they cannot be exonerated from like ordering or forgetting. And then
therefore, the conclusion of it is if this is indefinite, then how can you tie it in with something that is definite? Right, so now this is Mr. Sheffield himolla. responding to these allegations responding to these allegations? And remember Sheffield ambala responded to these allegations on five levels, he responded to these allegations on five levels. Number one, he says that Allah subhanho wa Taala connected belief in himself with belief to His Messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Therefore belief in his messenger entails follow his words and actions. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as the source of the
Sharia. And this is confirmed in the last words, so believe in the line His Messenger, the unlettered prophet who believes in align his words and follow Him so that you may be guided sort of out of verse 158. So number seven, verse 58 158. Let's look at his argument over here. belief in Allah, sorry, belief in the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is equated to belief in Allah. And once that belief has been equated, then obedience has also been equated in these matters, and if obedience is equated, then you are not allowed to disobey them. And that is why Allah subhanaw taala sends in this ayah believe in the Messenger of Allah and in Allah subhanho wa Taala
and obey Him. So that is his first argument, then installed in terms of belief and obedience, they have been equated the number two. He goes on to say that Allah subhanaw taala mentions in his book that the messenger teaches the people the book and the Wisdom he says, Our Lord, raise up amongst them a messenger from them to recite your science to them and teach them the book and wisdom and purify them. You are the mighty and the wise. Surah number two, verse 129, Soto buckler, verse 129, the fact that Allah subhanaw taala talks about book and wisdom, Allah subhanaw taala is talking about two different things. So the role of the messenger is not only to teach just the book, but is
to teach the wisdom. Now let's stop over here. Number two, the second you know, logical argument that emerged after him allies making who is it specifically addressing right now, out of the three categories, which group of people is specifically addressing?
Why number one,
is that what group number one said? So group number one, the end like, without distinction denied this and all together like we don't need this and now all together, right?
Explain why number two,
Meaning that there are two distinct things right, the Quran is one thing and then the wisdom is another thing. exactly perfect. So this particular point is addressing category number two as well that the student has an individual authority within of itself. That is not just linked to the Quran, but there is a wisdom outside of the Quran, known as the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, the number three, he says if it is obligatory to a bass, someone, then his words must be obeyed. And anyone who obeys them is a rebel. And then he mentioned surah, number 33, verse number 36 and surah number four, verse number 59.
Summary of these verses Allah subhanaw taala says, obey Allah obey the messenger and those in authority amongst you. unconditioned obedience has been mentioned for Allah subhanho wa Taala and His Messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, but for all those after them it is conditional obedience based upon these two based upon these two. So if you're required to obey them, then you have to listen to what they say. And if you have to obey them, then therefore by default Allah subhanho wa Taala would have preserved the deen as a whole and not just the Quran. So the Quran and the Sunnah, if they're both required to be obeyed, it's not possible that Allah subhanho wa Taala would allow
sorry, would protect one from distortion and not protect the other and not protect the other number for that Allah subhanho wa Taala did not make the calling of a messenger to judge between people the same as their calling of themselves, nor is opposing him like opposing the other people. Anyone who opposes His judgment is not Muslim. This is confirmed by the words of Allah subhanho wa Taala then surah number 24 verse number 63 and this here the prophets of Allah or here in my mission for him Allah think that the oil was fine with Allah is addressing the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is that you cannot make the opinion of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
like the opinion of other men, because disobedience to ally and complete denial of Allah's Messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam His judgment is a form of Kufa it is a form of disbelief. Whereas disbelieving and denying someone's judgment other than the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would not be considered that would not be considered that. Then the fifth and last proof that Imam Shafi Rahim Allah uses is that Allah subhanho wa Taala commanded the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam to convey his message to elucidate the Sharia and to follow His revelation. And this is achieved by reciting and expounding the Koran. So this last one, it's like a summary of the previous
points, basically, the metadata Mm hmm. I see that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is commanded to convey his message and to elucidate the Sharia. So it's like a summary of it, that again, the role of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to live revelation. Right, you still live revelation. So you will not understand what revelation is like without the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. So now, as I was speaking about earlier, Imam Shafi Allah, he's talking about the scholarly differences at the time of his people. Who were the people that rejected the sound of the processor. They were the scholars nowadays, every like, I don't know
what the words were uses. I don't like using the middle one but every Tom and Harry, you know, they're like, let's reject the sun. Now all we can open up the Quran interpreted ourselves, everything we need is found in the Quran. Imam Shafi Rahim Allah is talking about the scholars at that time. were applying it to the layman at our time, right at least the lay people of his time knew their place the lay people of our time, don't know their place. Now Mmm, I shadowed him. Allah goes on to talk about what is the position of the Sunnah in relation to the book of Allah subhanaw taala what is the position of the Sunnah in relation to the book of Allah? subhanaw taala. So we
talked about this in Imam, Abu hanifa. Like, how did he approach the Sunnah and what did he understand the role of the student was when the nama shadowed him Allah has his own understanding. So number one, the student elucidates what is undefined in the Quran, such as obligations right so the sooner expands upon or defines what is undefined. then number two, it shows when the general is meant to be general. And when Allah subhanho wa Taala uses the general to be specific. So the general to understand general and when it is used to understand specific, so this one that helps us with that, the number three, the sooner adds by divine inspiration, rulings to obligations confirmed
by the text in the Quran, the sooner which are consequences or which are a consequence of them are connected to them. So it is further obligations related to obligations that are already there. So we are mentioned to pray, then five times a day at these times, those are further obligations upon the original obligations, the sooner conveys rulings, which are not in the Koran, and not additions to Quranic texts. So the sooner it expands upon things which are not found in the Quran and brings about further obligations. And then the fifth and last one is that the Sunnah is an aggregator and it explains or shows abrogation either when the Quran abrogates the Koran or when the Sunnah,
abrogates the Quran as well. And he mentioned some very beautiful statements. You know, prior to him, he says Machado bin Abdullah,
one people one person said to Matata with Abdullah, only relate to the Quran to me without have said we do not mean to replace the Quran. Our intention is to follow Him who knows the Quran better than us. Meaning that when we talk about the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, we're not doing so because we're neglecting the Quran. But rather we're quoting the sinner because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam knows the Quran better than
We do right so that's his response. Then he continues on to say that allows a related Hasina Bhatia said the revelation came down to the Messenger of Allah and gibreel supplied him with the Sunnah, which explains it. Nonetheless, a man claimed that the Quran contains the clarification and details of everything. So there is no need for the center in Milan of the Hossein told him, You are a stupid man. Do you find in the book of Allah that var is forecast and recitation is not allowed? And the number of prayers or the amount of the cat Do you find is explained in the Quran? Right. So this is how even priority mama Shaka mala, this discussion was taking place. Now in Sheffield, Emma
concludes this discussion with an important question that Allah subhanho wa Taala tells us in the Koran that it is clear, right? It is beyond for everything.
If that is truly the case, how do we understand the verse? If the Quran is a clarification of everything? How do we understand that verse?
And the floor is open to you guys.
You have a question, answer your mind and inshallah I will answer yours.
If the Quran is a clarification of everything, how do you just reconcile everything that we just took?
So now give me a principle.
I'll come to you in a second inshallah.
as if you gave me like,
a part of an answer, give me like a principle that I can use. Like you gave me a specific Give me something more general than that.
Like fasting. So
So my question is, the Quran tells us that it is a clarification that everything if it is a clarification, everything Why do we need this sooner? Right? That's the argument that's being posed. So either the Quran is truly a clarification of everything, or it isn't. It's one of the two.
So then the Quran isn't the clarification everything because you need the center. So I'm going to come to you and they'll help us out.
So it is a something general which which something specific is intended. Well, that's wonderful to it. So when we say that the Koran is, you know,
a clarification for everything, meaning that the Quran has given you the tools to attain clarification for everything. And that's what you need to understand is that in the statement, it should not be understood that the Quran is a clarification for everything. Clearly, it isn't ready did not teach us how to pray does not teach us how to tell the side of us were intended to tell us the details of how to give us the cut. Right? those details came from the specific it's very similar to you know, the, I can't remember which one of the self answered this question. But he was asked the same question that if the Quran is a clarification of everything, then why didn't Allah subhanaw
taala tell us x, y and Zed and it came from the example he used. But then the scholar responded by saying, let's find out that gave us a clear commandment for Salah holistically in Guatemala gentleman that asked the people of knowledge if you don't know. So that is how the Quran approach is something very specific gives you a general answer or the tool in terms of how to do it. So he goes on to say, How can it be said that the Quran is clear when it needs to be elucidated by the sooner? The answer is that the clarity of the Quran is universal, and not partial, General and not detailed. And the sooner flushes out the detail of the generality of the Quran, the knowledge of the
particular is only achieved through the messenger, Allah subhana wa tada has said, It is we who have sent down the reminder and it is We Who shall preserve it. So now when you understand this specific cost, Mr. Mustapha him Allah is expanding on several points. Number one is understanding our question of why does the Quran need clarification and and and an understanding this ayah but then he concludes with this ayah as a very powerful conclusion that those individuals are talking about, you know, the preservation of the sun and how we, you know, can't trust it? Well, the amount of shuffling Allah saying when you understand this ayah that we are the ones who have sent down the
reminder and we are the ones that shall preserve it. Meaning that it just like Allah subhanho wa Taala preserved the Quran everything that is a part of this religion from the Sunnah will be preserved as well. It's not going to be lost. This is part of the cohesive or you know, complete version of the reminder the reminder will never completely be lost. How are you guys doing? Everyone's okay. Noise Yes.
So we're talking about the role of the Cerner, is that what you're talking about?
Right. So he said number one, they assume that elucidates what is undefined by the court. And then number two, the sooner shows when the general is meant to be general in the Koran. So the show shows when the general is meant to be general in the Koran and not specific. The number three. The Sunnah is divine inspiration, adding obligations, confirmed by texts in the Koran. Then number four is that the sinner conveys rulings which are not in the Koran. And in number five, the sender further explains what is abrogating and what is abrogated in the Quran. Now Imam Shafi Rahim Allah goes on to talk about consensus and inshallah we have 15 minutes left. I know some of you might be getting
fidgety and tired, but we don't have a lot left inshallah. So he goes on to talk about consensus, and he managed after him, Allah states in his receta judgment is made by the book and the Sunnah, and what is agreed upon about which there is no dispute. So we say that we judged by the truth in the appearance, and implicit and we judged by a sinner, which is reported by a single chain, and which not everyone agrees. So we say that we judge by the truth and the apparent because there might be error in the one who released the Hadith. We judge by consensus and then by analogy, which is weaker, because analogy is not lawful, where a sound tradition exists. So now, I've gotten a lot
goes on to talk about HTML and how do we understand each man what is the role of HTML? So understanding the role of each man he says This comes after the Quran and the Sunnah, but it comes before
PRC it comes before chaos, because when there is sound tradition, then chaos cannot take place. The number two
is Imam Shafi Rahim Allah goes on to explain later on the levels of each bar, and he says the first level of Iijima is that which is the smell of the companions, right? So when he explains the smell of the companions, he says, each of the companions is not them hearing the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and they agreed upon what the prophet sallallahu Sallam said, that is not each of the companions, but he's one of the companions is when the sooner Actually, let me just read off the horse. This did not refer to them having heard the sooner from the Messenger of Allah, which they all agreed on, in which case it is a sin that which constitutes the proof, and not their
agreement. But when it is a question of their own HD head, so each of the companions is not on what they heard from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam. But he ma is when they exercise their HD head, and they agreed upon that he had the agreed upon that he had this was what the first type of consensus is, then Mm hmm. A lot goes on to talk about why is agema a proof? Why is ismar a proof and he brings two things. One is the statement of homearama photogra damato. To stick to community. It's a long statement, I'm not going to get into that. But number two, he uses a proof from the Quran, which is sort of number four, verse 115. So in number four, verse 115, where Allah
subhanho wa Taala, he says that word falls away of other than the believers will yet be our greatest ability, meaning over here, Allah subhanaw taala is talking about a path of other than the believers. When you do that, then the final destination is the Hellfire, that is what the is say. Therefore, when all of the believers have agreed upon something, then that constitutes a proof with love itself, that constitutes a proof within of itself. Now, who are the people, that the term believers is referring to unbelievers? Is it a general term? Or is it a specific term?
believers is a both it can be general and specific. Right? It is general in the sense that you can have, you know, different types of believers or different categories of believers. But it is also specific in the sense when you're talking about humanity as a whole, you have believers and non believers. So now, this is specifically it is referring to the companions we have to be very similar in what meaning he follows the path of other than the companions. But in Allah Shahada him Allah, he takes it to the next level. He says, This is referring to the disbelievers at the time of the companions. They follow the way of other than the companions, then their destination is the
hellfire. So now, how do you make it relevant to our times? Well, we can't look at the companions of the law No, for specific cases that are related to us. So who do we look to? He says, you look to the scholars. So he says that even the term believers are here specifically for the companions of that time. Specifically, in our time, it is referring to the scholars, and this is where he says that all of the scholars have to be in consensus and he actually specified very specifically, Muslim scholars in all of the cities in all the regions of Islam in all the cities
In all the regions of Islam, so meaning no mas hub is excluded, no 100, Hadith eflora exclusion, no ethnicity exclusion, no language exclusion. If he is a scholar, then we will accept his opinion. So his understanding of each month, the second level now is that it has to be all of the scholars from all of the regions of Islam from all of the regions of Islam.
Then point number three, a Shafi put single Hadith, before consensus and opinion. Now, his understanding of ajumma is again, in the realm of HD HUD, when there's HD HUD, and you have unanimous agreement, then this is his understanding of HTML. But he says on those matters, where you have a text, you have a tradition that has preceded the Jima, then that tradition is more important than the GMR. And what he's saying over here is that if we have an authentic tradition, where the matter is stated, We accept that unit, you know, a tradition by itself even if it's not it has agreed upon it or not. Whereas you will see later on when scholars talk about each ma h ma is upon
matters which were matters that which they had which were all were and also matters which are you know, clearly explicit in the Koran. So when we talk about you know, Salah being mandatory, Salah is mandatory because Allah subhanaw taala said, okay, masala and it's mandatory because there is HMR, the praying Salah is mandatory. So now for a moment, schefflera Rahim Allah, He says if you have a verse or a hadith that is already there, we don't really need these at that time, these Mize, you know, secondary, it's like a supporting evidence, it's not the primary evidence. So same thing over here. If you have reliable Hadeeth even if it's 100 then that is stronger than the one that is you
know, an independent evidence that is given preference before each month before each month. Now concluding points on each month, in each month, we have something called is masuku t which is when someone states and opinion, but no opposition is known to it. In Ama shafia Rahim Allah did not consider this a GMR. So remember, don't get this confused with his statement of the companions. He said when it comes to statements of the companions will only accept the ones that have no opposition to it. What he's talking about is ma is that you will get times where a scholar will see something, but you don't know of any difference of opinion. With that opinion. Does this constitute agema or
not? Imam Shafi says no does not constitute a schema. In order for HR to take place. We need multiple scholars to state the exact same thing. We need multiple scholars to state the exact same thing.
And then the second point is
the practical application of HTML that will come to see that Imam Ahmed Mohammed Al Rahim Allah when he talks about each map, beyond your understanding, which ma he had was is one of the companions Imam Shafi rahimullah in on a theoretical level, he talks about how each ma exists at the time of the Sahaba and outside of the time of the Sahaba. But in terms of when you look at his debates with people,
if you look at those debates, the practical approach to the amount of Sharia law takes is that of management, that true agema was only existed during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam and did not exist later on did not exist later on. But these are the words of Sheikh Mohammed Abu Salah. These are the words of Sheikh Mohammed Abu Salah, whom we are reading from right now. So that concludes HTML.
We have consensus, so we have a PS, then is the sun. And, you know, that's pretty much the conclusion after that, so we're almost done inshallah. So now talking about analogy, what is important to understand is that, you know, how we've explained PST, that you have two objects, one has the reasoning behind it, and it has the ruling and an object number two, we don't know the ruling on it, but we know it has the shared component of you know, of interaction as reasoning number one, again, Alcohol, Marijuana, alcohol intoxicates ruling is hot on marijuana, new matter not mentioned the quarter understand, but it has the same property of intoxication. Therefore, it'll
take its same ruling. This formula criterion scholars at that time are using it, but no one has defined parameters. No one has given the scope of chaos. What is valid chaos, what is invalid? pS, right. No one has talked about that. So now Michelle Rahim Allah, he's done multiple things in the realm of chaos, and I'll just explain it very quickly. Number one, is that they did not have a set criteria by which to distinguish between sound and unsound opinions. So now he's come up with a criterion to
What is a sound opinion and what is an unsound opinion? Number two, he puts preconditions upon which he must have to make theists mean that not everyone is eligible to make prs. Imam Shafi Rahim Allah now tells us who is eligible to make the US what are the prerequisites of making theists. It is evident that in his time logical methods were not prevalent in sciences. That is why he did not to try to explain analogy in terms of a logical definition, but rather he gave many examples of it, rather, he gave many examples of it. And then the concluding part of it is one of the major premises of our Shafi in the discussion of analogy is that all events and occurrences must be subject to a
ruling in Islam. And this is something
that every interaction, every action, every belief, every thought we have, is subject to a ruling in Islam, and protein, Mama Shafi this hasn't really been oriented, meaning that when you are eating, a lot of times people are you know, nowadays, we just appreciate something which is mobile. But the nama Shafi is that imma last argument is the reason why this is such a strong source of legislation is at once you come to believe that everything has a ruling behind it. And every ruling has its reasoning behind it, then therefore, you can extrapolate from that, that even matters that did not have opinions in the past, we can now start to pinions upon because everything at the time of the
Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam had the ruling on it. And every ruling has a reasoning behind it. Going back to that argument of the trinity of legislation, you know, intellect, Quran and Sunnah, they all go hand in hand. And this is what mama shalom Allah is basing this upon. Now is the sun. He includes it as a form of analytical deduction, but I'll just summarize what he says here. He says that all that is described, as I've mentioned regarding the ruling of Allah than the ruling of the Messenger of Allah than the judgment of the community of Muslims is evidence. No judge or Mufti is permitted to judge the fatwa unless it is based upon a binding report. And that is the book the
Sunnah, or what the people of knowledge have said, and is not disputed, or analogy based on one or more of these. There is no fatwa by Sun, since it's the sun is not mandatory, nor does it fall in one of these categories. So when we're talking about the distinguish between
he completely says that our religion is completely sufficed by these matters. And once a person understands how to make chaos, he can make chaos and all these matters. And there's not a look at need to look at individual cases of benefit and harm. Like we talked about the incident of the valley, you have permission to go through, are you allowed to drink water from that valley or not? And we're talking about how we can use class and how we can use this data set in our shot was clearly the argument that all situations class is applicable and therefore you don't need to come up with individual morality and ethics and values and harms in order to substantiate your opinion.
Because if you are a true fucker, you will know how to use clears so it's the sun has no place in our religion.
And then the last point we'll conclude with inshallah, Ashraf is reliance on outward rather than inward meaning. So, from the time of Imam Shafi Rahim, Allah and onwards, like, starts, it will not from his time, but rather much later on, Sharia starts to take a completely different twist, where there is an open meaning to the text. And there is an internal meaning to the text. And depending on who is using this sort of tournament terminology, you avoid, and Barton is going to have two completely different understandings. So wonderful clear will use Vahid and Barton, what he means by this is that there is the letter of the law, and there's the spirit of the law mean that all those
commandments have reasonings behind them. And sometimes you will need to leave the letter in order to protect the spirit of the law. Sure, the fuck his approach to this is very valid.
Then you move later on, and you have, in simplest terms, we'll call heretical people of innovation, who when they talked about the literal meaning of the law, and the spirit of the law, or the void, and the button, indirectly, this was to eliminate this D aspects of the Sharia, which they didn't like, or they found too difficult. So they would use things like you know, what is important in Islam is to have a good heart. And whether I pray or not, is irrelevant, because I have a good heart and that is the intended meaning behind the Quran having a good heart. So this is like a botany understanding of the Quran. So now
Mama chef Rahim Allah, he's as if he's foreseeing this problem taking place, that as soon as he starts talking about different levels of interpretation, different levels of understanding, he's if I don't close this door of interpretation and understanding, people are going to take it too far. And it goes on to say, or he goes or goes on to explain, he took a more literal and objective approach to texts, in his view of the legal rulings and judgments of the Sharia concerned, outward matters only the function of the kadhi is not to delve into people's inner secrets, that is between them and their Creator. So how do we understand this? Yes, brother, Yes, sister, you might have a
pure heart, but I cannot see the purity of your heart. What I can see is how in line are your actions with the statements of Allah? Allah says praying gives the cat are you doing those things? If yes, then Alhamdulillah If not, I'm not able to look at your heart. And this is how Imam Shafi Rahim Allah close that door of even interpretation is very restricted. Right. So when we talk about levels of interpretation, that either it is the shutter usage of things, or is the linguistic usage of things, or it is the usage of things. Imam Shafi Rahim Allah sort of set those principles of sort of set those principles up. Now, as a concluding remark to this, as I mentioned, a chef is the
seller is available in the English language, and you only get a true appreciation of what we've discussed. When you open up the book yourself. Just look at the table of contents. That's all I want you guys to do. If you don't have time to read it, just download it tonight. Look at the table of contents. And you'll see a chef is approach that this man was a, you know, I don't even know how to describe him. He was a computer. The man was literally a computer, like his ability to categorize things, the ability to bring evidence, the ability to speak at people's level. And the most amazing thing is the way he would use people's arguments against them. Right even say no to him, Allah. You
know, one of the things that he became renowned for is the ability to use the pre approval of the people of innovation against them in Sheffield him a lot. He was like the founder of that movement, the ability to use people's evidences against them. Mm hmm. A lot uses that. So when you look at you know, a chef is a decider, you'll come to appreciate many things, number one, who he was as an individual, number two, his foresight into the problems of the Muslim ummah. Number three, his ability to address the current problems of his time, you know, as you if you remember the very first Friday Hanukkah, we talked about the reasons why these Medina blasted was because they stood up to
the challenges of their types. They became very, very relevant. And Mr. Scheffer himolla. You'll notice that again, he's doing just that he stood up to the challenges of his time, he's addressing those problems straight ahead. He's not shying away from anyone or from anything. You truly get an appreciation for that by looking into our reseller Mullah hotel. The item will conclude with that and we'll open up the door for questions we'll open it up with some Allah who sent him a medical in the Vienna Mohammed wider and he was