Principles Of Fiqh Part 7

Jamal Zarabozo

Channel: Jamal Zarabozo

Series:

Topics: Fiqh

Episode Notes

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Episode Transcript

© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.


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Last time when we discussed the different

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or different readings of a Quran

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since some

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some brothers were not that familiar with the seven Quran. So, to begin, here, the handout here

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to give you some examples of what's the difference.

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The citations look like.

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They have English and

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English notes.

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Some people asked me last time after class, whether it was when we're talking about the different clause that we actually talked about, for example, every verse is read differently or, or such.

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So, this will give you an example of what the different cameras look like.

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And this is, of course, from the seven, not from the 10. But from the seven that we discussed that time

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should be two sheets.

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If you look on the one sheet of paper, which is sort of

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page 786,

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look on the piece of paper, which is page number 786.

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You see, for example,

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the three verses which are read differently.

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Now these these are not, there's always differences in reading, for example, how to make how to pronounce the Hamza, how to make

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those differences do not affect

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from a social point of view, those differences are not important.

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Okay. But these differences here, since there are differences in developed points, and sometimes in the lettering, they do make a difference. Because if you have an example of how different how different or how similar the difference, cross are.

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Among the seven, with this book is just concerning the seven Besides, as I pointed out last time,

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sort of the drama, there is no difference

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in any of the verses and how they how they recycle

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sort of the softer three, as I mentioned, sort of the monasticon, there's four places.

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On the other on the other page also, there's the sort of the opposite,

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which is the differences in sort of query, which is for differences. And as I mentioned last time,

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actually the different

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parts of the miraculous nature of the Quran. For example, if you look at verse number 24, or the last example from sort of queer,

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which is read this word in the in the in the verses read differently.

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The meaning changes, of course, depending on which way you read it.

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And one case, it means that the prophecy film has not changed anything that he he received a copy accused of changing anything that he received. While on the second case, it means that the promises and is not stingy in conveying

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the meaning of what he or conveying what he received. Both readings are correct. And what was in both of them are on both of them are are consistent was the most top of mine, for the Messiah Hoffman. This is again evidence that the different cultural hub were different, they were not the same. Because obviously here in this verse is talking about a change in one of the letters.

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So any questions about

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the different chorus? Again, this is based on the seven and after each verse, he mentions who reads it that way. And in the footnotes, the the author, or the editor of the work gives some other relevant information.

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That is in the book called lipnicki.

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Which is, which is

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which is by someone named Alan Sati. Who, who had he died in around 540. So, but this particular sheet is taken from a PhD dissertation and in other words, the footnotes are part of his dissertation from Cornell University.

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If you weren't here last time, so I'm going to judge whether

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Not I should answer this question.

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You may ask,

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can we apply the seven

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to seven to one.

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As you see here, as you see here, the verses that are different, most of them are different. There's basically to read to really not the case that every one of the seven recited has a different way of reading.

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sort of the opposite.

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To see the fourth verse, all of them read at the same except the

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domain will go for you. And this is, from those from the seven, I think three or four of them are from cuca. And the list that I gave you last time in the handout they gave you last time.

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So it's not the case that you will find, for example, seven different readings, the one we're

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looking through this book, I didn't find any example of that. Usually, there's two readings, some people read it one way, and other people read it another way. And again, as I mentioned, this is not this is not including the differences in the volume. And these types of things that affect the reading only and don't affect the mean,

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there is a different topic, this part of his book, he discusses that in the first part of the book. And the second part of the book, as you see at the top of the of each page, this is just changes in the letters or in development.

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Any questions?

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No.

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With these, as you see the the meanings are different.

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The point the important point is that both those both readings, and both meanings are on an arpeggio are

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complimentary to each other.

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And sometimes they give different shades of the same. But the point is that both of them are, both of them are because both of them are

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they need the three conditions that we did lay down. I think also you weren't

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you were here.

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You just look confused.

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Any questions about this?

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Okay, we left off last time

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discussing the shadow

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reading.

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Okay.

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And we didn't really make any conclusion about them.

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Basically, we're talking about

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Northwestern.

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What's next?

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What else

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talking consistent with Arabic language.

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You'd like to come assuming

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it was paused.

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Well, they can still hear, they're not gonna miss anything. What's the third condition?

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So what is the condition when you see it, you'll say this condition

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may

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or may not be

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okay. Number two,

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may or may not be consistent

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with what?

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With the massage.

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And if you remember last time in the handout,

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in the handout Last time, we had some examples.

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And in those examples, there were words added.

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For example, about making a fight or Association for a note the past three days, some of them put the word conflict about those in the suit as well word consecutive obviously the word consecutive is not in memory of offline.

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So we talked about cross ashadha

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for

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The regular reading and is not necessarily the case that they are consistent with the mythos of man

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she told me less than this is not a good translation You said it yourself

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remember this from less than nothing

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Okay. Now what did we say? What did we say about them

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whether that hurt you or not.

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Now by this by this definition they are not

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they are not to be treated as on the 10 readings the 10 watts worth of readings that I talked about last time and I gave you the handout about those are all put on okay they all have equal rights these by virtue of this

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condition

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and possibly by this condition these are not considered

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Now if you remember the I think the third example in the handout from from that time if you still have that handout

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the handout from the third day example

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was the case that making up the fat

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This is a reading from a raven tab

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and it says that the making of the past should be consecutively

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Okay, what did we say about this reading in particular

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this one from obey even can

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we say about this reading that when you first of all we said that these brothers don't accept

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this don't accept this.

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This reading

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Okay, not sure what else

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we know specifically about this particular reading that it used to be part of the Quran

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and then it was no longer part of the Quran. Remember, I said that the Putney related? recorded from Ayesha. She said that it used to be read this way and then it was no longer read this.

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Okay, so that points out one problem with the shadow reading

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is that if we if we look at the

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the subject of nuts for abrogation.

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Now we're going to be discussing this in more detail.

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The topic as a whole in more detail later.

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We find that there's three, three times

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the relation you'll see.

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Sometimes the reading,

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or the ruling

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is abrogated.

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But the reading stay,

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but the word is the Quran.

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Okay, in other words, the verse is still part of the Quran, but the ruling from the verse is no longer to be applied.

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Can anyone think of an example of that?

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Okay.

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This one is

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fine.

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Okay, the verse of of giving, leaving, will but leaving a will or bequest leaving a bequest to heirs has been advocated abrogate even though it's still part of the Quran when abrogated by what

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it's been abrogated by the verses in the Quran concerning inheritance, sort of.

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Okay, the

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the verse about the woman who commits data, that they're supposed to stay at home, and there are lots of henwick Allah and it revealed something later and then Allah subhanho wa Taala revealed the ruling of the unit.

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And so that verse was, was revealed but the reading is still read.

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But the ruling only

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a double opposite of that is the reading

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is abrogated.

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But

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the ruling remains

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abrogated.

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What does ever get in English?

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What is good? capital? Okay? capital, how does this work? The Rolling is canceled, okay? It's no longer being read. No longer the rulings no longer applied. But the reading. Okay.

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Think of it as

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in English the word actually is abrogation.

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Okay, the second case the reading is canceled. Okay. No longer part of the Quran, but the ruling remain.

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What's an example of that?

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Okay.

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An example of this is the ruling concerning the married person, male or female who commits adultery.

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Okay, what is the ruling? What is the punishment for someone who's married who commit adultery?

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Okay, to be stoned.

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Doesn't sound like glowstone.

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But anyway,

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don't do that.

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Don't do that you have to say the whole phrase

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which also could be the other way around. Anyway, now that that ruling concerning the married

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person who commits adultery, used to be a person in the Quran and it's no longer a personal problem, but the ruling remains

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as Bob mentioned, and as a recording

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okay.

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The last case is what?

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rolling and reading

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abrogates

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Okay.

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Who can give an example of that?

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Okay. An example of that, as I actually reported, is that for the for the foster mother, or the mother actually a breastfeeding RDA. It was the verse in the Quran that if the if the child has 10 Golden English saplings, or 10 feet 10 times from the mother

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then he becomes

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it becomes like a brother or sisters with other people who have also been breastfed from the same woman and becomes like her son. In other words, if a woman breastfed a boy

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and also a girl and the two are actually not related to blood, they cannot be made to each other because they are related through breastfeed. Okay, everyone familiar with those laws that

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used to be read as 10?

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Okay, so 10 seconds and then the the, the person becomes

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let's say a relative

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sibling through foster which

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then after that, just an example of

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after that it was revealed just fine. But siblings were

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worried.

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And then the final revelation is what both of those are avenues to reading. But obligation is what

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the final Quran is what

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the final question is without numbers, it just says from raw from breastfeed, okay. So we went from 10 five to

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five. Now there are some people who who still applied the the second revolution by

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some they say only one or two makes it

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Okay, one or two is based on it.

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Okay, now the third element

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What's the relationship between that and this

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relationship?

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The relationship has in the third example I give those people who say this is these readings, the problem is that these readings could be from those readings that are abrogated.

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And if they're from those readings that are abrogated, we have two cases. Either the ruling also has been abrogated, or the rulings to the place.

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Okay, definitely not put on. But we have the problem is that we don't know whether we're talking about this case.

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For this case,

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and in fact, with respect to these readings, this is my own female.

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And according to the Hatfields and others who have kept this as hajah, they are saying that these people who read it read it this way, like a delivery method must have heard it directly from the promises.

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But if they heard it directly from the province system as part of the Quran,

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and it's not in the muscle for both men, and it no longer exists today, then it must be the case that it's reading as Africans. Okay, these are regular readings that meet these conditions, because they are truly from the public that it must be the case that they are these from these fabricated.

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Okay with

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no people who do say, like,

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no.

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Hey, Johnny, and in their case, they apply a condition to it. Okay, and we're going to discuss this later. doesn't really fit in right now, but they treat it as a solitary

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solitary force.

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Okay.

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So for the enemies, and again, this is something we'll discuss later for the Hanafi. In order for a solitary report

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to any to make sausage or to particularize the Quran, it has to be an ending.

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Okay, so that is built on something else.

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And it's just to them but it is salt.

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Okay.

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Any questions about these are these fairly familiar to everyone?

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As you know, the Quran was revealed over 23 years,

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over those 23 years actually went through some changes.

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Some verses that used to be part of the Quran are no longer part of the Quran

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is when the prophets that sent him read the Quran to gibreel

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during the month of Ramadan in the last year of his life when he was present, and he did not include those verses. And when he used to read the Quran in the prayer, he also did not include those

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those verses used to exist.

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But they are no longer now part of the Quran.

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wisdom behind that, I assume so.

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Why would have been obligated

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off the top of my head, I cannot think of any right now. But I will do some research. And so let's see what the template

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can now given all of this.

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What we're trying to figure out now what our goal is, you might have been confused along the way.

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Our goal is to determine whether we should consider any irregular reading pajama

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should we consider it part of the Sharia or not? This is our goal.

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In order to get to that goal, we have to discuss what are some of the problems with these readings.

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Okay.

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So as I said, one of the problems with these readings is that it could have been a reading which is abrogated.

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But just because of abrogated we still have to determine whether or not the ruling remains or the ruling also has been abrogated.

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Okay, so let's just

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summarize what we can say well, the

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shadow.

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Okay. First of all, this is again the definition of what we're talking about and meet these conditions.

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Let me continue over here.

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First conclusion

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Are they are actually

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definitely

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not

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part of the forum

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definitely not part of the Quran. So, this means that we want to listen for example

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making our own making own. So,

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we wanted to list our sources we have grown and

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we

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will be adding to these Okay

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the first one is that we know for sure this is something that is below this level

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does not have the same status as the Quran

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as an aside from from the from this point because of this point now we have to decide whether or not

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the medikidz

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spell for for your information

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as if you know the whole course of information

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medically sound is a one report from

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a journal

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Okay, they say it is not

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okay.

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Yes, of course

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to satisfy the head believer going into a little bit more detail with respect to the handling and have a bit

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but just as proof

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there's not a proof

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isn't Kodama

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and according to

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according to

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the strongest opinion among the head of Is it is it is.

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It is the HUD your proof of Islamic law

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430 concludes

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Okay,

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if you're not familiar with

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is not strange to have to report contradictory reports from another. Okay. That's why people have to study as much as to say what does the stronger

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ability conclude and these two companies conclude that the stronger opinion is that

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because it's quite easy to meet these conditions.

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He doesn't have the same

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doesn't have the same condition with respect to particularizing or making proxies for the Quran.

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Have you

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ever been Kodama even more

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and according to Abdullah Turkey is a stronger opinion in the handling is it is 102 of the leading ambling

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Manichaean one record for madness. Faith is not.

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Okay.

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The problems with it found with these readings is number one.

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That's also number one. Number two

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is that

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what did we just say?

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It might be a reading.

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Okay,

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who's rolling and reciting has been abrogated again

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abrogated

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This is the case,

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should they be a journal? Should they be a proof or not?

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If this is the case, then they are not approved.

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Okay.

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Three, it might be the case, I'm not going to rewrite everything, there might be a case where the reading has been abrogated.

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Okay,

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might be a case where the reading has been abrogated, but the ruling

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ruling still exists.

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This case, should it be hucha?

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Okay.

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The problem with this

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is that or the problem with both of these?

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is you need external evidence.

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Okay, need external evidence to say which is correct?

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So the words for example, you need at least on the cylinder showed that at the end of his life, he still applied this rule. Or you need statement from some of the Sahaba who said that this ruling is still to be applied. So what this means is that these

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irregular readings are not independent sources.

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They need to be supported in order to be

00:31:42--> 00:31:50

number two is I just was too lazy to revise all of number three. What I'm saying is the reading the retiree has been abrogated, but the ruling

00:31:51--> 00:31:52

in this case is,

00:31:53--> 00:31:54

by definition, the ruling

00:31:55--> 00:31:56

there's actually a trick question.

00:32:01--> 00:32:02

The first

00:32:07--> 00:32:08

go on any note,

00:32:13--> 00:32:14

hey,

00:32:16--> 00:32:19

well, if the reading is abrogated, then obviously the ruling is not part of the Quran.

00:32:25--> 00:32:29

The thing the reading has been abrogated, the reading isn't as good as the reading.

00:32:31--> 00:32:40

But here we're saying that in the first case, now we're going to get the number actually does a really nice number one, okay. The fourth case and this is the biggest

00:32:43--> 00:32:45

The biggest problem with these is that the source

00:32:49--> 00:32:50

may not be the puppet all

00:32:57--> 00:33:00

what I mean by that is that in fact, they were never part of the Quran.

00:33:02--> 00:33:05

But it was a mistake where he had from a

00:33:17--> 00:33:21

from a hobby was someone who came up to me, one of his students.

00:33:27--> 00:33:28

Okay.

00:33:29--> 00:33:35

What I mean, what I mean by that, for example is that could have been the case that is the hobby Reddit

00:33:36--> 00:33:41

while he was reading the Quran, who was teaching the Quran, he read these words as an explanation of the verse

00:33:43--> 00:33:48

not as being part of the Quran, for the people who heard it from him understood it to be part of the Quran.

00:33:49--> 00:33:54

Obviously, that wouldn't be the case. Now, if you read it during prayer, for example, that's a different situation.

00:33:59--> 00:34:00

Okay.

00:34:07--> 00:34:25

So, in that particular example, it is a reading who's according to the reading, who's who's ruling everything and both of the navigate guys, it clearly says that this used to be part of the plan, and then there was dropped and it's no longer obligatory, to make it up consistently.

00:34:27--> 00:34:28

Okay, so that's an example of this.

00:34:29--> 00:34:30

And that's part of the problem

00:34:34--> 00:34:36

as next door to their consecutive

00:34:38--> 00:34:39

days

00:34:45--> 00:34:47

was in bracket and bracket

00:34:48--> 00:34:53

array. So this is this is what's going on now with respect to

00:34:54--> 00:34:54

shares.

00:34:58--> 00:34:59

Those who conclude

00:35:00--> 00:35:01

It must be from the promises.

00:35:02--> 00:35:05

And it must be a reading, they are the ones who say it is.

00:35:09--> 00:35:12

Those who conclude like him, I'm happy that there's too many problems with it,

00:35:15--> 00:35:17

then they do not consider it.

00:35:18--> 00:35:20

Now, there's one more thing working here.

00:35:21--> 00:35:24

And that is that the Hanafi is they accept, and also the hanbali.

00:35:26--> 00:35:29

Hana fees except the statements of the Sahaba, as approved.

00:35:30--> 00:35:35

Back, for example, the head of Heaven is, for example, which was statements of the Sahaba here,

00:35:42--> 00:35:42

even before

00:35:47--> 00:36:01

and in fact, this is where the whole thing revolves around. If you accept the statements of the Sahaba as a proof, then these are no problems or phrases, no problem, because you take me from the Sahaba, it's a deal, he had already got it from the provinces.

00:36:03--> 00:36:10

So in either case, to them, it doesn't matter. So those people who would accept the statements of the Sahaba, they will accept these

00:36:12--> 00:36:13

irregular, who say,

00:36:15--> 00:36:18

those who rejects the statements of habit as approved,

00:36:19--> 00:36:22

and particularly luxury, they will reject these

00:36:24--> 00:36:26

readings, because to them, it is basically

00:36:33--> 00:36:34

he doesn't consider it that

00:36:38--> 00:36:45

the medical, especially after time, it's really lost its position.

00:36:47--> 00:36:49

Remember, when we discussed the history of

00:36:50--> 00:37:02

basically the hand, the hand believes the Sharpies in America are all from the theologians or the theorists and the hippies are basically at different schools. So these three schools are more influenced by

00:37:04--> 00:37:14

Imam Shafi was one of the points that he was trying to make is that the only thing that is really adjust are the things coming from Allah subhanho wa Taala, which is the Quran and Sunnah. And then he gave arguments for is now being

00:37:23--> 00:37:26

humble is on this point, they didn't follow

00:37:27--> 00:37:44

me on this point, they consider a statement of the Sahaba to be, for example, stronger than peers because they consider it is the Sahaba, who are best qualified actually can make the US and because they understand the whole of Islam, and they learned directly from the product to sell them. So there has to be preferred to us.

00:37:52--> 00:37:54

So does it hurt you or not?

00:37:59--> 00:38:02

Because if we're going to make as a pajama

00:38:05--> 00:38:05

authority,

00:38:07--> 00:38:09

no, the chef,

00:38:11--> 00:38:11

should we consider it as

00:38:17--> 00:38:35

it could be considered a type of project, because there is some possibility for come from the positive system. But if we're going to put it in order, also it would come and it's not equivalent to the Quran cannot be considered equivalent to confirm some confirm statements as opposed to them.

00:38:37--> 00:38:40

It cannot be considered as definitive as

00:38:41--> 00:38:50

so if we're gonna put it anywhere, we would put it around here, which is basically where the humble is and have it put it

00:38:53--> 00:38:56

because, for example, he had all the power.

00:38:57--> 00:38:57

Well,

00:38:58--> 00:39:01

the other probably better than our own instead or clear.

00:39:02--> 00:39:04

Therefore, we could be any we could put it before

00:39:06--> 00:39:06

or before.

00:39:14--> 00:39:16

You weren't here. Last question. I refuse to

00:39:21--> 00:39:22

save any questions about

00:39:29--> 00:39:30

which one

00:39:31--> 00:39:31

of

00:39:35--> 00:39:36

the recent ones

00:39:37--> 00:39:39

some of the reasons don't even discuss.

00:39:40--> 00:39:41

For example, I think,

00:39:42--> 00:39:43

if anyone read the text,

00:39:45--> 00:39:47

as you read it, collapse doesn't discuss

00:39:50--> 00:39:54

was that I think he just hated the page and so on. Basically all they do is give these opinions.

00:39:58--> 00:39:59

So with respect to FDA, we have

00:40:00--> 00:40:00

Three types

00:40:01--> 00:40:06

of crude oil which meet the three conditions that we've put down last time and there are 10 of them

00:40:07--> 00:40:08

and they're all projects

00:40:10--> 00:40:28

and then we have flour such as that which meet these three conditions okay and they might be considered a wheat type of function in other words low and then as the course goes along we'll be adding more to this to this and then there's one more which is the rejected type of cross which we don't really need to discuss

00:40:29--> 00:40:32

the rejected comes to us getting

00:40:33--> 00:40:36

rejected does not have the highest net first of all

00:40:37--> 00:40:39

or it's inconsistent with the other claims

00:40:40--> 00:40:47

so we have a call which does not have to head back to the province assylum or it's inconsistent with the Arabic language that is rejected

00:40:49--> 00:40:52

okay rejected reading is obviously not

00:40:54--> 00:40:55

we don't consider at all

00:40:58--> 00:41:04

yes that was the the points about about it could be a reading was ruling also

00:41:05--> 00:41:06

none of these people none of

00:41:08--> 00:41:09

this possible

00:41:12--> 00:41:12

none of those

00:41:14--> 00:41:16

that's the end of the section on any question

00:41:21--> 00:41:24

and the questions before we move on to another topic

00:41:25--> 00:41:26

topic we're going to be moving on to

00:41:28--> 00:41:33

obviously know that this this reading contradicts

00:41:36--> 00:41:44

any of these regular readings contradicts something stronger than it then this is what we're saying here is that it will not be applied in the stronger ruling

00:41:46--> 00:41:46

that's good.

00:41:58--> 00:42:00

Maybe the first five lectures

00:42:01--> 00:42:02

must have a you know as math

00:42:06--> 00:42:09

you should be the same right? Now just assuming everything in Turkey says.

00:42:13--> 00:42:13

Any questions?

00:42:16--> 00:42:18

Okay, let's move on to the next topic then.

00:42:38--> 00:42:41

The next topic inshallah is not going to take very long

00:42:43--> 00:42:46

and that is when we come to the verses in the Quran.

00:42:47--> 00:42:53

The Quranic verses can be divided into two categories, they are related them to solve them

00:42:58--> 00:43:07

and the basic reading is the basic reason I'm discussing this as to clear up the confusion that seems to be ceramics

00:43:26--> 00:43:26

Okay,

00:43:27--> 00:43:29

the the purest there

00:43:33--> 00:43:33

is

00:43:35--> 00:43:36

no one

00:43:37--> 00:43:38

we have to change into

00:43:44--> 00:43:47

English meaning for these words before say this man

00:43:56--> 00:43:58

No, no

00:44:04--> 00:44:05

Okay, that's good.

00:44:10--> 00:44:12

For another word, which is

00:44:13--> 00:44:15

maybe unequivocal

00:44:17--> 00:44:20

hating What? We have to define the terms as we defined it.

00:44:22--> 00:44:22

Maybe

00:44:23--> 00:44:27

as Matt said at the beginning, as many as good

00:44:34--> 00:44:35

Okay.

00:44:37--> 00:44:38

How do we translate this?

00:44:41--> 00:44:42

ambiguous okay.

00:44:49--> 00:44:50

Okay, what's a shout that

00:44:51--> 00:44:54

does not mean how it

00:44:55--> 00:44:56

does not mean

00:44:59--> 00:44:59

but that was

00:45:00--> 00:45:00

Vocal

00:45:09--> 00:45:10

allegorical means

00:45:13--> 00:45:15

the words are, for example parts of

00:45:17--> 00:45:29

their images, they don't mean the actual mean okay? Some translations of the Quran they translate this as allegorical, this is not the mean allegorical means you should make that we'll put

00:45:31--> 00:45:33

okay? This is not

00:45:34--> 00:45:35

this is not

00:45:37--> 00:45:37

no

00:45:39--> 00:45:43

more than that just because they're talking about the whole thing the whole statement

00:45:44--> 00:45:50

for example, yet the law they would say this is not meaning to handle the law. This is an allegorical statement of meaning somebody else.

00:45:53--> 00:45:56

So, this means ambiguous, ambiguous

00:46:00--> 00:46:02

similar to much direct

00:46:03--> 00:46:05

meaning is not directly clear.

00:46:08--> 00:46:09

Meaning

00:46:10--> 00:46:11

not

00:46:12--> 00:46:14

directly clear.

00:46:17--> 00:46:18

Okay.

00:46:20--> 00:46:20

Now,

00:46:22--> 00:46:25

Allah subhana wa tada describes the entire Quran as being Welcome.

00:46:30--> 00:46:31

Welcome

00:46:33--> 00:46:34

versus

00:46:35--> 00:46:36

what to sell the verses of the Quran.

00:46:40--> 00:46:45

Basically, the only reason that I'm going over this is to clear up the confusion

00:46:47--> 00:46:48

that is related to

00:46:49--> 00:46:49

Okay,

00:46:50--> 00:46:52

let's have a handle went down to describe

00:46:55--> 00:46:56

what's the verse

00:46:59--> 00:46:59

now?

00:47:01--> 00:47:02

Louder so everyone can hear.

00:47:08--> 00:47:10

know there's a book guy who whose verses are

00:47:12--> 00:47:17

also Allah subhanho wa Taala described as what the Shabbat

00:47:19--> 00:47:19

was the verse

00:47:24--> 00:47:25

the entire

00:47:28--> 00:47:29

with all those who can

00:47:33--> 00:47:35

there's one word that I have co pronouncing, so that's why I'm

00:47:43--> 00:47:43

there.

00:47:56--> 00:48:06

Okay, the two vs. One is the source code. Could the first verse and the other one sort of resemble the 23rd verse.

00:48:07--> 00:48:08

Okay.

00:48:13--> 00:48:16

The 20 23rd verse.

00:48:17--> 00:48:27

Okay. And that, in that, in that verse of the Quran, Allah subhanho wa Taala describes all of the Quran as Mashallah, what does it mean? That verse

00:48:30--> 00:48:35

doesn't mean obviously ambiguous meaning is not clear. This is not a good translation

00:48:37--> 00:48:38

means they are similar to each other.

00:48:40--> 00:48:43

They are similar to each other, all the verses in the Quran are similar.

00:48:44--> 00:48:46

And then there's the third verse,

00:48:47--> 00:48:52

which Allah subhanho wa Taala says some of the verses of honor or some of the verses are moved to show

00:48:54--> 00:48:55

that versus

00:49:00--> 00:49:01

number one

00:49:03--> 00:49:06

that's very urgent sort of setting alerts to kind of what

00:49:07--> 00:49:15

some person would come up come. And those are normally those are the mother of the book. And there's another person which I'm with the seventh

00:49:18--> 00:49:21

and later in the same verse, Allah subhana wa tada says

00:49:22--> 00:49:28

that they don't know the meaning. Or no one knows the meaning of the Mousavi except Allah subhanho wa Taala.

00:49:31--> 00:49:33

And the people have knowledge.

00:49:35--> 00:49:37

Now, from my point of view,

00:49:39--> 00:49:41

if you're gonna say that there's two versus

00:49:42--> 00:49:45

two sides, the first one is welcome, and one is not too shabby.

00:49:46--> 00:49:52

If you understand it the way some people understand it. That means that some verses in the Quran whose meaning is not really known to us.

00:49:54--> 00:49:55

Okay.

00:49:56--> 00:49:59

That's what that's saying. The thing that there's some verses in the Quran was meaningless

00:50:00--> 00:50:03

Not really notice is that correct? To say that

00:50:04--> 00:50:09

I must not know what that and many times in the plan describes the fly as a clear book.

00:50:10--> 00:50:13

Table movie? Is it is it?

00:50:15--> 00:50:22

Do we expect it to be the case that almost gala was then this revelation? concerning verses for our guidance was meaning we do not know.

00:50:29--> 00:50:30

Okay.

00:50:31--> 00:50:41

It seems from the time the prophets I send them at this time, the purpose of those words were clear. Because I mean, these things, these were things even from the time

00:50:42--> 00:50:48

they used to begin some poetry, with taking letters out to bring the people's attention to what is coming after

00:50:53--> 00:50:54

was no one knows how much I love poetry.

00:51:01--> 00:51:08

And people try to argue about it. But it is clear. That's why there was no real debate about this until later.

00:51:12--> 00:51:14

than it really is, isn't good.

00:51:19--> 00:51:20

What

00:51:22--> 00:51:33

I'm just saying, isn't the case, that I'll listen, I know what that is revealing versus whose meanings we don't know from this point of view what we're saying. If you say that, I don't say that you said that.

00:51:35--> 00:51:36

I'm attributing this statement to

00:51:37--> 00:51:44

what you're saying from my point of view is defined as the first source of law. But at the same time, the verse in the Quran that we don't know the meaning of.

00:51:47--> 00:51:50

Okay, it depends when you when you read

00:51:52--> 00:51:53

the law.

00:51:54--> 00:52:00

And if you stop there, some people do they say that that wheel is only known to Allah. And that is correct.

00:52:01--> 00:52:03

Or if you continue, what

00:52:06--> 00:52:14

it means the media is not only to align the people or not, that's also correct. Now get to at the end, remind me to say why they're both great.

00:52:15--> 00:52:20

Okay, now, this points out the importance of governance.

00:52:28--> 00:52:34

If you know the governance or the reason for the event behind the revelation of this purse,

00:52:36--> 00:52:37

I like that.

00:52:38--> 00:52:41

The events behind the revelation of this verse

00:52:44--> 00:52:48

when what was the event behind the revelation of this person sort of dilemma?

00:52:54--> 00:52:58

This person sort of telemon which describes them versus them in someone's motion?

00:53:11--> 00:53:14

Okay, the Christian from Iran when they came to the policy,

00:53:15--> 00:53:18

they debated with him about Trinity.

00:53:21--> 00:53:21

Trinity.

00:53:24--> 00:53:28

Okay, and they said that there's proof in the Koran for Trinity.

00:53:30--> 00:53:30

What was approved?

00:53:34--> 00:53:37

This is the guy who debated humans.

00:53:39--> 00:53:41

What's the proof in the portrait?

00:53:45--> 00:53:46

Yes, that's what they're saying.

00:53:48--> 00:53:50

And this verse was many,

00:53:51--> 00:53:51

many,

00:53:54--> 00:54:04

many, many, what Allah subhana wa tada describes, or calls or uses the say the word in that referring to Allah subhana wa Tada.

00:54:06--> 00:54:06

Okay.

00:54:08--> 00:54:11

And that means Oui, oui.

00:54:12--> 00:54:13

Oui, okay.

00:54:15--> 00:54:38

Okay. They took this verse, which whose meaning is not directly clear, because I know what that is in oneself. Now as as a footnote here, even taymiyah said in his spiritual career, he said that unless an animal can only use it in know the floor, when the action describes something that are less man with data and the angels do

00:54:40--> 00:54:47

what is it something very difficult to handle with data for example, having fear of almost man with data, then all of a sudden without and never use it?

00:54:49--> 00:54:59

Okay, that's the footnote. But the point is that they were using this and he this word in which you could say is, is referring to almost anywhere.

00:55:00--> 00:55:06

data, what does it mean? But the Quran is telling us that these verses are explained by these verses.

00:55:09--> 00:55:14

And if these verses are being explained by these verses, obviously, this is from the stuff

00:55:15--> 00:55:27

that they are saying that in the Christians of our thing means that there's more than one gun. But if you take these verses to say internet, which has them, you could say there's a door open for these

00:55:28--> 00:55:36

strange interpretations, and interpret them interpret into for example, with respect to close, low, low, low, some of them the other one of you.

00:55:39--> 00:55:40

There's no way you can interpret it any other way.

00:55:43--> 00:55:46

Okay, so these verses are explained by them.

00:55:51--> 00:55:57

So it's not the case when they say when they when we say that they're meant to serve as a means that the versus the media not known to us.

00:55:58--> 00:56:03

What it means that the person buys and stuff, we're not clear, but they are explained by the mafia.

00:56:05--> 00:56:07

So the conclusion is,

00:56:08--> 00:56:11

okay, the conclusion actually is militia is the relative term.

00:56:13--> 00:56:23

Okay, the shelf is a relative term to some people. In other words, if you take a verse of meaning is not clear. And you know, the verses that explain it, then it is no longer with the ship.

00:56:25--> 00:56:26

Okay, because

00:56:27--> 00:56:36

that's what it is. And it's similar to the verse is the heaviest of the promises didn't when he said that the hell out are the legal things are clear.

00:56:37--> 00:56:40

And the legal things are clear. And what did he say?

00:56:42--> 00:56:47

Between them or documents? And what else? Did he say?

00:56:48--> 00:56:50

Continue? No, no.

00:56:51--> 00:56:53

Not many people know them.

00:56:54--> 00:57:02

In other words, again, delta is a relative thing, if you know them, if you understand them, and you can interpret them properly, properly, they all become

00:57:05--> 00:57:06

so from the point of view of

00:57:07--> 00:57:18

theirs, there's no verses in the Quran, whose meaning is, as some people understand today, and all verses are explained in the Quran, so that oh versus the meaning of all verses are clear.

00:57:20--> 00:57:23

So from Yes, of course, not for us.

00:57:24--> 00:57:27

We didn't even though the US government's offer this verse, how can we know?

00:57:37--> 00:57:39

Also, that the promise meaning is

00:57:40--> 00:57:45

to glorify the speaker, for example, even in English, the king would say we

00:57:47--> 00:57:48

we ate breakfast today.

00:57:49--> 00:57:50

There are

00:57:51--> 00:58:09

so it could mean more or coming singular with a more glorification. So that's the problem with it. And if you take them by themselves, their meaning is not clear. But when you look at them in the light of the Muslim versus the meaning is clear. It can be no doubt. So from my point of view,

00:58:10--> 00:58:15

all of the verses in the Quran are actually Muslim, but they can be Muslim.

00:58:17--> 00:58:21

If we, if we have a verse with this, which is not the Shabbat, we

00:58:22--> 00:58:27

have, we have tried to understand it. In terms of the Muslim verses, they'll be clear.

00:58:28--> 00:58:45

Now the confusion or what why I brought up this point again, is because some people think that what the Shabbat means something like that allegorical and its meaning is not what is said. Or it means that its meaning is not known to us. That isn't the case.

00:58:54--> 00:58:56

What are the depends on your on your

00:59:00--> 00:59:11

English words. There are there are famous in the Quran, in the students of everything in the room, we're not like we don't want to say there are statements in the Quran with German, but their meaning is clearly evident.

00:59:14--> 00:59:16

The students of leukemia in this room are not lazy.

00:59:17--> 00:59:22

Okay, for example, Allah subhanho wa Taala when versus going after the town.

00:59:25--> 00:59:30

Obviously, that is the meaning is not going to town. But the meaning is go and ask the people of the town.

00:59:32--> 00:59:38

Okay, these type of images are clearly the meaning is clear. So they're not really something like

00:59:47--> 00:59:47

this.

00:59:54--> 00:59:57

There's no such thing as matcha they know that that we

00:59:58--> 00:59:59

Okay,

01:00:00--> 01:00:11

I said earlier there's two ways to read the first one you say that the the meaning of it is only known to Allah subhanho wa Taala and the other one is the meaning of it is known to all of us and data and the people.

01:00:12--> 01:00:14

That's the one that we explain

01:00:20--> 01:00:21

was a bit

01:00:23--> 01:00:25

jumpy, but the other meaning

01:00:26--> 01:00:34

is that when you say that the wheel is only known to us man without and this is also correct because what you mean by that we're

01:00:37--> 01:01:02

gonna be the actual fulfillment of the verse okay. For example, when Allah subhanaw taala talks about what happens on the Day of Judgment, what happens, when we do not we cannot say what is the actual fulfillment of that verse, because these are things that human mind human beings have never seen. And therefore, we cannot describe them objective. So, that we are the real meaning of those is not only for us,

01:01:04--> 01:01:07

but, but the meaning and the general sense of known to

01:01:08--> 01:01:11

everyone and who has to understand

01:01:13--> 01:01:15

sim as a piece of the process element,

01:01:16--> 01:01:21

Ghanian when she said that most people do not know, or not many people know.

01:01:39--> 01:01:39

Yeah.

01:01:45--> 01:01:48

Sure, sure. Other members in which he will

01:01:49--> 01:01:51

say things which don't make any sense.

01:02:06--> 01:02:08

So, when we get something accomplished in this class?

01:02:09--> 01:02:09

I like

01:02:14--> 01:02:15

any question, that was the

01:02:19--> 01:02:19

question.

01:02:21--> 01:02:25

So let's move on to the next topic, which also will not discuss very long.

01:02:29--> 01:02:32

you all understand why I discussed that point.

01:02:33--> 01:02:39

Because its meaning and it was not clear to many people, including some of the modern writers, right?

01:02:46--> 01:02:47

No, no.

01:02:50--> 01:02:56

For example, this example I gave the in, you don't have to know what was the stuff in the zoo for these rights versus the citizen.

01:02:57--> 01:03:01

But you just take that verse and compare it to low lay low.

01:03:07--> 01:03:08

About

01:03:20--> 01:03:29

now, give me this when Allah subhanho wa Taala uses, talking about things that he and and angels do, not just himself.

01:03:35--> 01:03:38

He has, anyway, let's not get into philosophical.

01:03:40--> 01:03:46

Now, also, this is something discussed in the books that inshallah won't take as long to cover in

01:03:47--> 01:03:48

generality.

01:03:50--> 01:03:53

This time, we're going to go from English and see if we can get the corresponding evergreen

01:03:59--> 01:03:59

and brevity,

01:04:10--> 01:04:12

I told you we're gonna discuss those things after this.

01:04:14--> 01:04:14

What do we mean by this?

01:04:20--> 01:04:22

No, nothing.

01:04:26--> 01:04:27

Yeah, how about

01:04:28--> 01:04:29

now,

01:04:30--> 01:04:32

this is okay. generalities like

01:04:35--> 01:04:36

and this one,

01:04:38--> 01:04:38

brevity.

01:04:41--> 01:04:41

Okay.

01:04:49--> 01:04:52

brevity in stating the law to the point.

01:04:55--> 01:04:56

That's not a good

01:04:58--> 01:04:59

generality and brevity is that clear for the

01:05:00--> 01:05:01

The other brothers

01:05:03--> 01:05:06

okay most most of the rulings in the Quran

01:05:07--> 01:05:09

most of the rulings are of this

01:05:11--> 01:05:11

nature.

01:05:12--> 01:05:20

Okay. But the important thing is that the Quran supplied evidence for every almost every topic.

01:05:22--> 01:05:23

Everyone has him said

01:05:25--> 01:05:26

every single chapter

01:05:28--> 01:05:29

finds its origin in the Quran,

01:05:31--> 01:05:34

which is then explained in the lead elaborated by the summoner.

01:05:35--> 01:05:39

every chapter has its origin in one way or another.

01:05:40--> 01:05:44

Well as I mentioned before the shell to be said that if any scholar

01:05:47--> 01:05:57

or every scholar has resorted to the Quran in search of a solution to a problem has found in the Quran a principle that is provided him with some guidance on this.

01:05:58--> 01:06:12

If you remember Hoffman's question a few days ago, and as I said, if you're good, if you go to the Quran, you'll find some guidance for every every talk. And we mentioned one, for example, sort of, and he said,

01:06:14--> 01:06:17

We gave an example of the verse that says,

01:06:20--> 01:06:21

Our hero suit

01:06:25--> 01:06:35

and we give an example of this verse that says, Oh, you believe obey Allah and the messenger and those in authority among you. And if you differ in any matter, refer to the Quran refers to Allah and

01:06:37--> 01:06:44

and we said that this verse, this one verse, pretty much covers before basic evidences of focus.

01:06:46--> 01:06:52

That's why some scholars say, that is basically a commentary on that verse.

01:06:54--> 01:06:54

Okay.

01:06:55--> 01:07:00

So, in general, let's dive in, Ron lays out some specific laws.

01:07:08--> 01:07:11

But number of specific laws are not actually that great.

01:07:15--> 01:07:17

There are quite a few, for example, with respect to punishment,

01:07:22--> 01:07:25

and how we're doing what we find in the Quran punishment for what?

01:07:38--> 01:07:38

Killing

01:07:40--> 01:07:42

or murder, homicide, Homicide.

01:07:45--> 01:07:45

So

01:07:58--> 01:07:58

let's go

01:08:07--> 01:08:08

now, which is what

01:08:18--> 01:08:20

the actual translation of

01:08:21--> 01:08:23

this is a little bit old English.

01:08:26--> 01:08:27

highway robbery.

01:08:30--> 01:08:32

That's a little bit old English, but that's what it is.

01:08:33--> 01:08:36

People hanging out on the roads waiting for people to pass by NBA

01:08:44--> 01:08:47

in general, okay, this is yes, it's more general.

01:08:53--> 01:08:55

Those are the only punishments

01:08:56--> 01:08:58

right, is there any other Anything else?

01:09:07--> 01:09:12

Okay, it gives specific laws for punishment specific punishment, and at the same time,

01:09:13--> 01:09:16

it was it doesn't cover gives you general rules.

01:09:25--> 01:09:26

It gives you general rules.

01:09:28--> 01:09:29

For example,

01:09:31--> 01:09:34

it says that the punishment of something should be what

01:09:37--> 01:09:39

should be not

01:09:40--> 01:09:46

should be correct. That should be similar in in, in

01:09:47--> 01:09:48

in greatness

01:09:49--> 01:09:59

to the crime itself. Okay. So although it was fine without it doesn't give us as many punishments does lay down general rules. The one who commits a crime

01:10:00--> 01:10:02

should be punished to the extent of this crime.

01:10:05--> 01:10:07

These rules obviously are fixed,

01:10:08--> 01:10:10

they can never be changed, this is fine.

01:10:12--> 01:10:23

Here there is some flexibility unless it's been defined or restricted by the sooner and that has been restricted by the sooner. Here there's some flexibility for changes over time.

01:10:25--> 01:10:32

Depending on the muster house or the, the, the, the welfare of the people are different.

01:10:33--> 01:10:34

This is one of the

01:10:35--> 01:10:38

this is one of the flexibilities of Islamic law

01:10:43--> 01:10:45

that special peace exchanges.

01:10:51--> 01:10:55

However, the only time you can drop this however,

01:11:00--> 01:11:02

it is a matter of applying

01:11:05--> 01:11:06

what what

01:11:07--> 01:11:15

he said or what he did is not that the law is not to be applied at the time. But he's saying is that there are certain conditions that should be met first.

01:11:18--> 01:11:19

What about

01:11:24--> 01:11:33

in the case of killing there is no you cannot argue by the robot to kill someone else. Because if someone threatens my life, and tells me

01:11:34--> 01:11:40

he's going to kill me, I don't have the right to kill him. Because our lives are equal. I cannot say My life is more important than that.

01:11:42--> 01:11:44

So in that case, you cannot use Aurora or necessity

01:11:45--> 01:11:46

in the case of homicide

01:11:57--> 01:12:01

but I didn't understand what you're saying. I'm saying unintentional

01:12:05--> 01:12:07

unintentional homicide or manslaughter

01:12:13--> 01:12:14

but basically

01:12:16--> 01:12:19

what you're complaining about what I said about homestead

01:12:33--> 01:12:34

okay

01:12:37--> 01:12:38

what's the punishment for alcohol

01:12:42--> 01:12:43

once you here before

01:12:44--> 01:12:45

we went over that

01:12:47--> 01:12:56

the way the way the foreign applies was twofold. One is specific specific laws and the second one is general rules.

01:12:57--> 01:13:02

specific laws in general are fixed there can be applied the general rules are what we use

01:13:03--> 01:13:06

to apply in cases not specifically covered by the promises

01:13:19--> 01:13:21

covered by Cigna right now we're just talking about

01:13:23--> 01:13:25

but even it wasn't fixed in the sooner

01:13:27--> 01:13:28

Yeah, but it wasn't

01:13:30--> 01:13:32

paid. Okay.

01:13:33--> 01:13:39

Okay. Now there's one. There's one point to get also that I don't want to

01:13:41--> 01:13:44

and it is some specially the modern many of the modern writers okay.

01:13:46--> 01:13:49

They say that the Quran contains very few laws.

01:13:50--> 01:14:00

For example of color, as the story says, for example, the Quran includes 70 laws regarding Family Law

01:14:02--> 01:14:04

70 laws concerning civil law,

01:14:05--> 01:14:11

and 70 verses excuse me concerning civil law 30 verses concerning Penal Law,

01:14:12--> 01:14:13

which is punishment and that kind of

01:14:16--> 01:14:19

13 verses concerning jurisdiction and procedure

01:14:20--> 01:14:22

10 verses concerning constitutional law

01:14:23--> 01:14:26

25 verses concerning international relations

01:14:29--> 01:14:31

and 10 verses concerning economics and finance.

01:14:33--> 01:14:37

So his conclusion is there's a total of 228 verses

01:14:38--> 01:14:41

in the Quran concerning legal ethics.

01:14:42--> 01:14:57

Now, we have to understand where this idea came from. That wasn't the first one. But it came up from modern writers. And what it is basically why they why they trying to say there's only 228 verses in the Quran to deal with legal matters.

01:14:58--> 01:14:59

Penny they say it's a very small

01:15:00--> 01:15:17

percent. And it seems to me a lot of the reason they're doing this, if you trace it back to the first one who did it is that they're trying to respond to the missionary and the orientalist who came in turn of the century and accuse them of basically or the Quran of being basically above.

01:15:19--> 01:15:23

In other words, this thing is a dino religion without any, any real spiritual

01:15:24--> 01:15:30

laws. So these people try to answer by saying, look, actually, there's very few laws.

01:15:31--> 01:15:36

But I believe this was the goal of the of the machine.

01:15:38--> 01:15:46

And if they want, they want Muslims to look to the Quran, yani as the quote, I think, last Thursday, accorded for the last man,

01:15:47--> 01:15:56

they want people to look to the Quran, not as a source of law, but basically, as a source of faith know, something General, and you don't really have to apply what.

01:15:58--> 01:16:21

And this Unfortunately, many of the modern writers, when they talk about the Quran, they also bring up this point, that is very few of us. Number one, any these verses in, in general, they're much larger than other verses of the Quran. And in the verses dealing with legal matters, much larger than others. Some of these verses are longer than many of the shorter suitors at the end of the Quran.

01:16:23--> 01:16:26

Secondly, there's many other verses that give us general rules,

01:16:28--> 01:16:36

as many other verses that give a general rules that are directly applicable as law, and when we apply them, like that word, the punishment should be

01:16:38--> 01:16:41

similar to the crime committed,

01:16:42--> 01:16:46

certainly also that sometimes we get lost from what they're known as non legal.

01:16:47--> 01:16:53

And in other words, we can derive principles even from the stories of earlier prophets or other

01:16:56--> 01:16:57

parables, you know, parables.

01:16:59--> 01:17:01

And from the answers that we find in the Quran,

01:17:02--> 01:17:09

these are not necessarily legal texts, but we can derive a lot from it. And finally, as a, as I mentioned, earlier,

01:17:11--> 01:17:21

mentioned earlier, and as if it hasn't been the Sultan, who pointed out and if almost a point of view in the Quran is the number one authority and it is the

01:17:23--> 01:17:35

it is in fact, the source of Islamic law any any topic in Islamic law, you'll find some clue to it, in the Quran itself. So that argument that they that they made

01:17:36--> 01:17:58

some of the modern sort of agenda for something you won't find, and all the words that they're very few verses in the Quran related to law, and what they're actually doing without realizing and downplaying the Quran, as the first sources as the first source of law in Islam. But we have to realize that what was the goal of the people who made that claim? And we have to put back to the Quran

01:18:00--> 01:18:01

in its proper place.

01:18:02--> 01:18:03

Now,

01:18:05--> 01:18:11

what should I do now, the last five minutes. last five minutes, I'm going to tell you three topics that I'm not going to cover.

01:18:13--> 01:18:16

And it is three topics are usually covered in books.

01:18:17--> 01:18:22

But I'm not going to cover them because I don't think they are very important from my point of view.

01:18:28--> 01:18:30

Okay, the first one

01:18:31--> 01:18:32

is the Arabic

01:18:33--> 01:18:34

non Arabic nature.

01:18:38--> 01:18:42

And in other words, the debate over whether or not there are not Arabic words in the Quran.

01:18:43--> 01:18:45

This was something they debated.

01:18:47--> 01:18:55

I don't really think it has much importance. And he there are words in the Koran that have not Arabic origin. But there are parts of the Arabic language by the time the prophets

01:18:57--> 01:19:00

received his first revelation.

01:19:03--> 01:19:06

Second, is Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim part of the Quran or not?

01:19:14--> 01:19:15

Okay, this is

01:19:17--> 01:19:20

this is a big debate in many of the books. So

01:19:21--> 01:19:28

it's important not that great, except from a theoretical point of view. Because as I as I alluded to,

01:19:29--> 01:19:43

just last time, the one day when they wrote the must have the different muscles of man, they're very careful not to include anything that doesn't belong in the Quran. For example, the name of the surah does not put them

01:19:44--> 01:19:59

even both points or other things. As I said, the some of the the dots were available, but they will not include they're very careful not to include anything that doesn't belong to the Quran, but at the beginning very thorough they

01:20:00--> 01:20:00

included,

01:20:02--> 01:20:09

which gives the clue or is assigned that, in fact, it is part of the soul of every soldier. But some people say, say no.

01:20:10--> 01:20:16

And the third topic which we're not going to cover, which is covered in now, these are cut this last one is covered in the modern book.

01:20:19--> 01:20:20

And that is the

01:20:21--> 01:20:23

Quran or the miraculous nature.

01:20:31--> 01:20:33

miraculous nature as as the Quran

01:20:34--> 01:20:37

says, I think about seven pages or five pages on it.

01:20:38--> 01:20:42

And if almost certain sub point of view, how do we treat this topic

01:20:43--> 01:20:44

from a social point of view,

01:20:46--> 01:20:48

based on three sciences

01:20:49--> 01:21:01

and it basically from a clinical point of view, you should be you should treat this topic as something given. And it could not relate to something given and athlete or and then whatever you want to call it.

01:21:02--> 01:21:06

The only interesting thing about this, the only interesting question that came across

01:21:07--> 01:21:15

is the miraculous nature of the Quran. Is that proof that the Quran is from Allah? Or is that proof that the problem hamster syndrome was truthful?

01:21:16--> 01:21:17

Which one is?

01:21:20--> 01:21:43

Anyway, that's something needs to be addressed. That is the only interesting thing I found and it is a separate topic. I think it doesn't belong and so I'm not going to discuss, but these three topics, I'm not going to discuss them. You'll find them in the book. I'm just mentioning them now. So that if you should ever go on and read a book on the subject, that you're not reading the required reading you might come across

01:21:44--> 01:21:46

when I asked him you know and no one can