Channel: Jamal Badawi
Series: Jamal Badawi - Muhammad
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You once again to stem focus, today's program inshallah will be our 30th in our series Muhammad peace be upon him, the last messenger of Allah. And our second segment of sources of sera. I'm your host his admonition here once again from St. Mary's University is Dr. Jamal better.
Could you hear a summary of last week's program please? Sure. The focus of last week's program was on the sources of Sierra. And we began first by indicating that there are three major sources of Sierra are the biography of the Prophet, the Quran, the habeas, which means the same deeds and approvals of the prophets. And certainly, the history histories or biographies written about him. We spoke briefly about the authenticity and dependability are the first to me indicated that the Quran is the highest in both authority and authenticity. And we spoke briefly also about Hadith, which is an important topic by itself. We indicated that the saying of the Prophet, which has already passed,
the most rigorous tests of verification and authenticity, are also to be regarded as authentic, the so called cya the sound of this. And then we focused on the third source of biography to find out what were the sources and what degree of authenticity we can assign to them, when will the erection and by whom,
we indicated that the scholars tend to classify the earliest writings, the very earliest sources into three groups. The first group by authors who died and talking about the date of death only died between the English 92 and the 135. of Hydra or migration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina.
And we showed that not not much of their original writing had survived in written form. We indicated some of the exceptions to that. But we said however, that the second group, whose authors died anywhere between 141 and 152, of the migration of the Prophet, many of them obviously, were contemporaries or very close to this group, the first group and as such, they must have benefited or use this earlier sources in writing their biographies. We indicated that the writings in that second group had also perished, except for one very important volume by goodness half which even though we don't have it now, in writing, it was transmitted to us through a very important scholars who belong
to the third group.
We mentioned that the third group are also those who died between 183 to 310 of the migration, and their writing, in fact, did survive, the most important of which is ignition, who conveyed to us or transmitted to us the writing of Ignis half with some editing and commentary. And that is why sometimes it is known as C sharp or C that is half in other words, it's Sierra admits half and the Sierra of ignition sometimes it's given both news crews explain to us how and why did given those two names like ignition and aviation? Well, some people for example, when they say that this is the writing or Sierra of hackers, they refer to the original writers who belong to the second group or a
second year. And as such, they refer to the original writers really before his work was edited.
Exactly, but when we speak about evolution, also we find that his own was quite important also, not only as a transmitter of what is hearts throat before him, but also he verified many of the stories that were mentioned he added some commentary. So he really added a great deal also by way of clarification or explanation of what it must have been. So in appreciation of his effort also, it is sometimes known as the Sierra of ignition since the original writing, in a book form now, for example, is not an existence of Agnes Hartford, sometimes it's referred to
This I must add, however, that not only is it a sham or ethnics half is the only earnest biography that has come down to us. But in fact, some very important differences, especially in that third group, like NYPD, who wrote the book club and morality, and Eben Assad, who wrote a book called pocket and he wrote a terrific book. These are also extremely important to works, which had survived and as such, we don't only have just one biography has actually more than one biography from the very earliest days are based on the very earliest writing, but of course, in terms of
the earliest and most important sources, and the most verified also an authentic, there is no question in the mind of many scholars that are most scholars, they should say that it is actually in its hacker ignition.
Now, since ignition is an important, a very important link, kids has a bit more about him and about his role in preserving the biography by Ebner.
Okay, it might be useful, perhaps maybe to shed some light on igneous rock first, so that we can at least clarify
since admission, actually was basing his work on settlers half. So let me just talk a little bit first about mishap here. Maybe if you can give us a background history of Riverside might be at least his name, first of all, was Muhammad in his heart and he was born in Medina in the year 800.
Sorry, in the 150.
of hedra. That's of the migration of the profits. No, I'm sorry, let me correct myself again. In the US 85. He died actually 125 years.
He was born in the year 85 and died in the year 152.
He was from an Iraqi descent. And he spent most of his years in Medina, which is now in Saudi Arabia. That's the place to which Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him migrated. He also traveled to some of the Muslim countries, especially Egypt and Iraq and died in Iraq in the years 152 of migration.
Israel initially, igneous hacker wrote a very big volume in history, which includes almost like the history of the world, all the way from Adam, up to the message or mission of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. But later on, he wrote a, you might say a summarized version in which he focused me was actually on the life and biography of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him.
Now, there have been some differences. I'm not getting into those details some differences among scholars as to whether
he wrote his history on the basis of requests made by the careless human source in Baghdad, or wrote it on his own.
In fact, some scholars like Mustafa Sokka and his colleagues in the introduction of the our introductory remarks about the volume written by ignition, say that they think that ignites havoc, in all likelihood, wrote his works in Medina, not in Iraq, because many of the people he derived his reports from were either from Egypt or from Medina. So it's quite likely that he wrote his book before even he went and designed it in Baghdad.
But in any case, this work of admins have reached us through infinity Sham, about 50 years or so later.
As a person he is commonly highly praised, especially by some of the early scholars, some of whom, of course, were his own contemporaries even and some of the towering figures who praised him include people like ignition, wizardry and shaba Adnan had judged, and Sophia nfld. These are very well known scholars in some early Islamic history.
He was so trustworthy to the point that the connectors of Hadees the sayings and deeds of the Prophet the famous ones, on six writers or connectors of the six major books of hobbyists
have referred to
as shark and that include Bukhari Muslim tirmidhi. In other words,
it is true, however, for the sake of clarity and completeness that there have been reports that were critical of him by some other known scholars like Manik, and he Shannon and her wife, Elizabeth, these two individuals, but some scholars actually
examine their critique of evidence have they found that it was basically because of certain personal problems between them not necessarily something that really should reflect negatively on the characters of the individual. So the great majority of scholars really consider him to be a very trustworthy
narrators that one can really trust, his honesty and narration.
And definitely from the historical standpoint, it is the oldest and the most authentic source about the biography of the Prophet. We can only talk about the exact nature going to Shanna, maybe you can comment on my previous question about his role in preserving the biography of ignition. Okay. Ignition, the successor
so many of those who are not familiar might get confused. The successor of Agnes Hart
was raised in Basra, which is now in Iraq. He went to Egypt and it is said that he also made an Egypt the famous Imam Shafi, one of the great jurist for leaders of the forest are one of the four screws of the standard jurisprudence. And it is said that he died in Egypt they differ about the date of his death, some say 213, others say 218 of the migration of the prophets.
It must be said that when he Shan when he wrote, the zero is not really lost or communicated or transmitted to us the writing of urbanists have was helped in this work by a man by the name of Zayed, jihad, and Becker, who was himself a student of urbanists hack. In other words, one of the students are in his heart was also helping and collaborating with ignition in his collection, or transmission of the work of Agnes happened, the editing, of course, that he did to that three fortunate and helpfully, exactly once he gets a student who was an eyewitness and was a contemporary of the original writer, definitely, it's very useful. But I must say, however, that putting his hand
on the success of playing two important roles in one role, he was like generators,
communicating exactly what it is how votes are said earlier.
But secondly, also he acted in his role as a commentator, let me explain further this toroids.
In his role as an editor, it was very honest, very meticulous. So whenever I actually have the copy here,
ignition, which is basically spiritedness hacking into volumes.
So, and if you look at it, if you read through it, you'll notice, for example, that whenever he quotes
it's hard, because it word for word doesn't change. And if you wanted to add a comment, which is the second role,
he says, Allah ignoramuses, ignition said, referring to himself to distinguish exactly what it must have said from what he is saying, by way of commentary or explanation. Now, what kind of comments did he make or what editing you might say, hit it? First of all,
if he felt that his Hawk years integration, which is not very accurate, is not very authentic. He correct that and indicate why that this should not be, you know, and authenticated or regarded as an integrated report.
Secondly, whenever he felt that admin is hacked into into unnecessary details, you might have abbreviated that without affecting the meaning example, is halfway exempt and wrote a lot about
from the creation to smile, the fathers or the grandfather of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. He didn't feel that this
historic history before the birth of the prophet or before close to that is particularly relevant if you're really focused on the biography of the Prophet. He found, for example, that it must have included in his writing a lot of poems of direct foreign origin and meaning it's not the best and he said that this was not necessarily a necessary or useful.
He also added something else to this, that whenever he found that there is another report or story which corroborates what it must have said earlier, he added that he said, it must have said this. And I also found another report which is consistent with that sort of just to give it some sort of confirmation.
But in every case, he distinguished
is on connection from what Agnes Hart has written originally. And because of that meticulous methodology that
Abraham used, like I said it was known now, or it's known actually now still by both names, admits hopper ignition, because both of them had a very, very important role
that they played in the preservation of this right now, other writings of ignition available, intact, or only in the edited form, there's a big difference between the original writing or evidence, half and ignition, because in the case of inukshuk, we don't have the original no claims that it exists, at least so far with any library as far as ignition. That's it. It has been yes preserved. In fact, this is actually just study production, exactly what he has written before, just with some comments made by writers, but the text is separate. I mean, the commentators add the comments in the margin, like translators, editors, or commentators, editors, edit
comments, but not really changing anyway, in the text. So yes, it is extend.
However, there have been writers who came after ignition who did not really change what you wrote. But they focused on certain aspects. For example, some writers basically wrote to explain, or to add additional commentary explanation of the era of urbanization.
But again, keeping the text intact, just explaining and that include people like so Haley, who died in 581 of migration. Abu Rivera's question is, would I even six or four, that's one group. Another group took the same writing of Agni Sham, and abbreviated that, but the original is still available. And this includes, for example, in people like Abdullah bass and varsity who completed that around 711, of the migration of the Prophet.
And some of them
in recent times, even and they don't have that book at home actually, is making a summary also of urbanization, like the volume by up to Sam Harun, he called the deep sea recognition for the, again, removal of some details that he felt that some non specialists might not be interested in. And he gives an example he said, for example, I did not delete much, except when there are many detailed means about the people who have taken work prisoners in the Battle of badges, the names of the horses of Muslims in the battle,
the detailed names of people who were martyred in that confrontation with the with the pagans, the names of people who attended the battle, and of course, the dead like 300 people, more in some cases, of course, that he felt was not for the non specialists, very relevant, some of the poems that were mentioned about certain events and so on, detailed genealogies, and so on. So those again, reflect the attitude that they wanted to keep the original as is but to make some words out of that for the sake of benefiting one group of readers or the other. It's not not simply a paraphrasing of that. They have been also some writers, I must add, in conclusion to this question, who have written
on certain aspects on this specialized aspect of the biography of the Prophet.
dinner in a noble world, it's in by undress behind a Shema in mohammedia by a tirmidhi, Zevon mahad, written by the famous scholar, it will call him a shifter for the judge
ma he believed in the duniya for a writer by the name of castolin all of these writers did not really write with the purpose of having a comprehensive coverage of the biography but dealing with some aspects or other specialized studies, but above all, the original work is available Yes. Now, let you know that given the result was the basic approach of the early biographies of the Prophet. Now, for example, how did they report their histories? Okay, as some scholars like Dr. l bootsy. In his book soccer Syrah, which he cited for North's that their approach is what we can also have some objective approach and they try to follow very strict rules, some of which influenced first, that
they would not accept any narration,
any narration unless there is a very strong evidence of its authenticity, both from the standpoint of the chain of
narration as well as the criticism of the text itself, known in Islamic terminology, as a Latin was centered chain of narration as well as the text, they were very strict on that.
Now, once they realize that they put in particular reports about what happened
in the lifetime of the prophets, what he did what he said, had already been verified very strictly, they wrote it as it is the narration, they did not try to mix it up with their own impressions with their own understanding or feeling
or try to super impose on that narration, the sort of customs which are common in their environment or their own imagination. That's what they call it actually an objective approach of reporting, putting the story as they had it.
It must be added here that as we mentioned before, Dr. energien Kalyan in his book also called the Russia to the Shira study, Shira,
has already indicated that many of the writings of the orientalist, the non Muslim orientalist, shows that they colored that presentation of the biography of the Prophet with their own understanding their own biases, cultural, religious, and otherwise, which in fact, gives a very distorted pictures about the lifetime of the Prophet. In fact, you send them find any book written by a non Muslim, whether missionary Orientals that reflect the true picture of the life of the Prophet because they just keep putting in their own biases rather than using the so called objective reporting. They think that this is the duty of the, you know, the historian to analyze, but in that
attempt to analyze, in fact, they colored it totally, in a way that distorted is from the original.
And the reason, as Dr. alberty indicates, in page 52, of his book, The reason for the early report has been very meticulous, reporting the events as they are, is that they felt it would be betrayal for the readers especially that they knew that they have the earliest strikers, that it would be material,
as historians to impose or project their own analysis and understanding which might reflect a given environment
which might also affect them intelligence or the conclusion that NATO generation may arrive and they will very meticulous about that. So they say right, we will be very objective will present the facts as we examine them. People who want to study or analyze let them do it. But our duty is to report what we have authenticated through a chain of narration and text or textual criticism.
This is very good, because I'm sure some historians, of course, might say no, but the historian should do more than that. But given the circumstances, given the fact that they are the earliest reporters, that objective approach was very good, very fruitful, because it laid down the foundation for any further analysis or study. So that if you differ with interpretation piece, you don't have the original data you can refer to and verify any particular issue. Now, how about the more recent studies, what are the sources of major? So what are some of the major sources today? What there are a number of studies available? Unfortunately, not too many are available in English. But perhaps the
by Martin Lin's was a British artist who embraced this term, actually.
Martin Ling's, it's called Muhammad his life based on the earliest sources. I haven't had the chance to read it all but it sounds
quite reasonable. There might be some narrations. There are studies that might be slightly less authentic. But he tried to do an honest job and there is little
prediction on his part. it's it's it's reasonably good source at least compared with the other non Muslim orientalist writings. But in Arabic, they have been fortunately a good number of
studies. One is normally a Korean CC, let's say that we're selling by
Sheikh Mohammed Abu Zahra, the famous Egyptian scholar wrote a three volume work called cotton in the in the seal of profits. Dr. Rogers and Cody wrote a book recently called shutdown Minnesota in Abuja, arranged from the prophetic biography there were two books under the title of Fukushima our understanding Sierra the life time of the Prophet one by somebody rajani the other by Mohammed Ramadan and booty homicides Ramadan in 40 days because it before there's an excellent work by Muhammad Ali
There was a called sera Rasool and the famous Indian scholars abroad Hassan Neto, he also wrote an excellent book called Shira another way.
We mentioned also before, and we'll be using in this program, perhaps more, or focusing more on Ramadan and booty. And I might have Jim Collins, and we will be using also others, as the circumstances may justify
bikeability through a general approach, which may be common among these riders.
In fact, there's there seem to be some common theme in this study is, first of all, all of these authors are very competent scholars, they are familiar with the methodology of research. So they might have some distinction over other writers. But in the meantime, I would say
they seem to adopt the idea that we need not either be too dogmatic, that is to fail in, for example, to examine objectively the reports in the most authentic sources and examine them and sort out the most authentic from the lesser, authentic. But on the other hand, they refused also to subjugate their methods to that particular school represented by Hakan that we mentioned before that you have to really keep rejecting or denying any aspect of metaphysical element in the spirit of the Prophet. So in that sense, it comes as reasonable balance. Just to give you a sample of this, I refer to three
of those studies and what they wrote about their methodology. For example, Dr. Amanda, Jean falleen, says that, first of all, he will not depend much on later writings, which might have incorporated stories which were not authentic, like abdulfatah and mcritchie and ignacia, which might like I said, not be in the same authenticity as the earliest and more authentic sources. Secondly, he says that in terms of coverage of the events of the lifetime of the property will not necessarily follow just month by month or year by year because he said sometimes, a given event cannot be cut into pieces. So it will take a general framework of chronology, but not strictly chronology in order to
make the points clearer. Dr. alberty, for example, indicated that
the most important thing to remember in any approach to study of Sierra, to which all of them seem to agree, because another we imagined infinity said something to the effect, that Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, did not present himself as a political leaders, nationalistic leader or social reformer, but as a prophet sent by God. And as such, his life much must be studied in terms of that particular identity which he introduced himself with. I might add on my own here that in the absence of any evidence that he was not truthful and that claim that that must be really weighted very heavily. And we have discussed in the series and again, the question is the truthfulness of the
claim of the Prophet. And that is quite different from the approach of some orientalist who begin actually, by doubting and begin their own research by certain preconceived ideas in which they tried to squeeze anything that's support their views even. It may be perhaps, least authentic. Well, thank you very much doctor for them. And thank you all for joining us here this time and focus your questions comments will be most appreciated. Our phone number and address will be on your screen from all of us. Assalamu alaykum. Hope to see you next weekend.