Sciences of the Quran 5/16
Channel: Isam Rajab
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Santa Monica to live on a cattle. Thank you for joining us in the tafsir class. Today inshallah we will discuss an issue about the ayat of the Quran in general.
This issue is called the fundamental and allegorical
or in Arabic we could say alma mater, shabby. Scholars talk a lot about this issue and it was confusing to some people. So I will try today inshallah, to explain what do we mean by fundamental and allegorical I at this issue is important for us to understand because it will come and it will be repeated with us a lot during the GFC and especially when we reach tsereteli Emraan insha Allah, I want you first to read this ayah and think about the meaning try to read and reflect on this ayah it is in Surah Al Imran where Allah subhanaw taala says who will lead the ends and Allah Al Kitab amin who is C'mon kitabi Well, automata shall be hat for me la Vina ficolo bmz one faith aviana mata
Shabbat I mean hope to Al fitna to to really my alma mater Wheeler who in Allah, it is he who sent down to you the book in it are at that are entirely clear. They are the foundations of the book and others not entirely clear. So as far as for those in whose hearts there is a deviations, they follow that which is not entirely clear they're off seeking the fitness seeking and fitness. This is a sort of tally I'm wrong. I am number seven. So please do read the ayah again and try to see what does it tell you
how the Quran in this ayah in particular divided
the ayat to two categories.
And once you read once you find something you please tell me so we will move on inshallah.
What do you have?
Very clear. Okay.
mata shabbiha not clear. What do we mean by that?
So, do you understand from this ayah that there are two types of Yes. One type, declare ayat and one type I add that are unclear. So
why would Allah subhanaw taala send them I add that are unclear.
What do you mean I like the unseen
if he wanted a life philosophy that I wanted to keep something for himself, he would not send it down.
So what do you say?
he can test people.
So there are lessons even if you don't understand the idea completely, you may learn some lessons. Now here
read the second I
had a flam Ra kitan akima
facilite This is Surah number 11. I am number one.
And then Allah says in another Ayah alone is the last and the Kitab and mata shabbiha
this is Surah number 39. I am number 23.
Hear in these three if if you understood them then you understood the entire issue about mocha and mocha shabby. Remember we said mocha and mocha shall be in the first day of tsereteli Imran number seven Allah said who will lead the ends olalekan keytab amin Hayato gamma,
gamma of the ayat are some ayat which are mahkumat what bucaro mata shabby hat and other multi shabby hat. Remember the term mahkumat Mota shabbiha here, Allah says kita Kima
i a to Allah is telling you all the ayat are mahkumat when Allah is telling you alone is the last and Hadith the Kitab and mata shabbiha. The book which has similar ayat,
so this matter is confusing.
Look at the translation for the first Dyer
of Sora to hood, a book whose if at all.
Perfect and then presented in detail.
Then Allah says Allah has sent down the book statement.
The best statement in the book a consistent book.
The translation is helpful here, because it gave you what Allah meant by the same words in different places. Allah mentioned
in Surah tala imraan. In ayah. Number seven, there are if mahkumat and I admit the shabby hat. Then in Surah Hood, Allah said,
the ayat are mahkumat. Then in this ayah Allah said, The Iota Mata shall be had. So which one do we follow? In one ayah, Allah is saying some are mahkumat Some are Mata Shabbat, and another is Allah said all the ayat are mahkumat. In another ayah, Allah said of the is our motto shabby hat. So which one should we follow?
There is one method to reconcile between all these
according to the meaning, which means if you say all the ayat are mahkumat, that's correct.
And if you say all the data shall be heard, but still correct, and if you say some are mahkumat, and some tomatoes shall be hat, that's still correct, how you need to understand the meaning. That's why it's important to go to this is and understand the
Quran is divided into three types.
According to this aspect, what aspect mahakam and the shabby, similar and allegorical, fundamental and similar or fundamental and allegorical There are three types of
general kam means all the ads are mahkumat
and general similarity, all the ads are similar and partial and partial similarity or specific can and specific similarity. So we have three
divisions according to this aspect. We have general cam, we have general similarity and we have specific cam, partial cam and partial partial specific, specific.
First, which is the general camp.
When we say all the ayat of the Quran are fundamental, or all the ayat of the Quran are maka maka mean Arabic means strong, solid.
That's true about all the ayat how
that's how we say it is.
all the ayat of the Quran are eloquent all the iron.
So from that aspect, all the IPS are mahkumat.
Also, all the news in the Quran are true. You cannot come to one eye and say I will accept this ayah and to another I will say no, this news is not correct. All the is our most common means all the news are true. All the the ayat have eloquence in them. From this aspect we say all the ayat are mahkumat no lies no ill speech in the Quran. That's the outcome of the Quran. That's fundamentalism of the Quran. All the AI at our monument
Okay, what about the general similarity when we say all the eyes are similar? That's also true. Because someone would would ask you do you tell me that kohala had is the same as any Flan meme kulula had buffets or some said it equals one third of the Quran. But we can still say all the eyes are the same, how
all the eyes are same in the value
in the source, you cannot say this is from Allah and that is from the Prophet sallallahu wasallam. All the ayat came from one source from Allah subhanaw taala. So from that aspect, Aren't they the same? Yes, they are the same. All the ads are the same.
That's what we mean by similarity. All the ads are the same. All the ads
give give you truthfulness and perfection.
So now, if I asked you or someone because this is a tricky question, if someone asked and said are the ayat of the Quran similar, or are the ayat of the Quran fundamental, or are they partially similar
Some of them are similar, some of them are
fundamental. You could say all of this correct. All of them, all these answers are correct, if you mean by mother shall be similar that they are from the same source. Yes, all of them are similar, if you mean all the ayat are fundamental in the sense that there are no lines in the Quran
that's true, if you mean that some have clear meaning and some is have unclear meaning, that's also true. So,
this is the issue of fundamental and similar if the specific means the interpretation of the eye.
We have some if they are mahkumat, which means you can interpret them, you have the clear meaning
and this specific similarity which means that the meaning is unclear to many people, or to everybody.
There are some if maybe no one on earth could know the meaning for them.
this is the question will come if you say no one will know the meaning then why Allah subhanaw taala sent down the Quran, why he sent down this ayah? The answer is to test us
are we going to believe or not to encourage us to look for the meaning because some ayat are known for the scholars, some are not even known for the scholars, those who are known for the scholars, you are recommended to go and ask about them, you ask the scholars
those I add that even the scholars do not know you say we believe
so, it is important to understand the issue of Muslim and the Shabbat before we move on inshallah to the Tafseer because now we will start with the Tafseer of the Quran. And by the way tomorrow, for I forget tomorrow all of you are required to bring this book inshallah
the next session of the
or an offset of the Quran, whether it's tomorrow or after tomorrow. If it's tomorrow, then bring it tomorrow if it's after tomorrow then bring this book after tomorrow inshallah, you have to have this book with you next time because we will read from it inshallah and I encourage you to read before you come
you have assignment reading this book. So,
all the arms come out in a sense that they are
true they give true news
there is no ill speech are lies in them all the eyes are similar all of them came from one source from Allah subhanaw taala they are all similar imperfection they are all perfect they are some of them are Muslim in a sense that the meaning is clear. And some of them are shabby in the sense that they are unclear for some people or from for everybody
types of motor shabby now we mean by motor shabby, what do we mean by that?
The meaning is unclear. Now that's the meaning we will choose for this topic. from that aspect scholars divided mata shaba to two divisions are the two types real motor shabby,
what do we mean by real motor shabby, which means all people will never be able to understand the meaning all of them
this is what we mean by rail motor shabby and partial motor shabby.
So we have real and partial the partial motor shabby for some people it is difficult to understand
for some people, but for the rest everybody knows the meaning.
So, maybe you come and say this is unclear to me for you it is not too shabby, but for the scholar, he knows it. So for him it is not too shabby it is
But there are some if their meaning will not be clear to all people, no one will be able to know the meaning. Only Allah subhanaw taala will know the meaning.
So here's the question now What should we do? You have an idea that you do not know its meaning. What do you do?
What do you do?
You have an eye You don't know? You ask the people of knowledge. That's what Allah subhanaw taala said in the Quran. Allah Allah Vickery in quantum law, tell me, especially in the Quran,
You cannot say anything by your own desire,
your own inclusion, you cannot do that.
It is forbidden. It is a sin actually to say something in the Quran with your own opinion, with your mere opinion.
You have even if you found out that you are correct, you are still sinful blameworthy, you have to ask the people of knowledge. But if they themselves said, we don't know. So what do you do?
You don't say no, I have to find the answer you say, we believe that's what the law said in Alabama in the I
rasuna for those who are well established in knowledge, a coluna mnb we believe in it coolamon and there have been all from Allah. I'll give you an example.
Allah mentioned his attributes in the Quran
are rockin and rollin.
The Most Merciful rolls over his throne. How did he rose? How did he rise over his throne? Do you know?
Did you see Allah subhanaw taala?
Did you already didn't you? You did not. So can you interpret this ayah perfectly? Can you say that's how Allah subhanaw taala rose over his throne?
You cannot what do you do? You say I believe? That's why Mr. Malik Rahim, Allah when the one one man asked about how did he rise over his throne? He said the question itself is better, we believe.
But we don't know how Allah mentioned it in the Quran. So we believe in it.
Again, the purpose is to test us
to show us that we have to believe
so the evidence is in this is in Surah. Talia Moran
always when you find someone trying
to give the IRS to quote the IRS that are similar? And he says no, there is a contradiction. First of all, you have to believe that there is no contradiction in the Quran. If there is any possibility that there is a contradiction in the Quran. That means there is not from Allah, because there is something wrong. Always once something is correct, then there is no contradiction. So you have to believe that Quran is perfect because it is from Allah subhanaw taala. Then
you have to follow what is clear for you, and you ask about what's unclear. If you are not given the answer, then you believe in it. Once you find someone trying to take this I am trying to know the meaning and no one knows the meaning when he asks again, when you know that this man is troublemaker he is following
the similar ayat for the fitna to cause a fitna that's what Allah said in the eye of Sora telemon. So it is very important and the prophets Allah mentioned in the Hadith,
that whoever follows the Atma to Shiva then those are the ones that Allah cautioned against. So avoid them do not fall into this trap. This is fitna.
So we have general cam, and we have general similarity. And do you have partial and partial similarity? According to the meaning what do you mean by Mater shabby? Do you mean that they are all the same? Yes, all the ayat from Allah they are all the same. All the ideas are perfect. They mean clear or unclear? Yes, some ideas are clear. Some are unclear.
About first saw the lahoma he divided the Tafseer to four types, the fear of the ayat he divided into four types, that sort of an Ibis of the Allahumma did.
He said the fear of the ayat is a four types. He divided the deficit of the area to four types.
The deficit that they are up No, in their language.
They've said that they are up nor in their language.
They've seen that no one is excused of being ignorant of.
So we have the fear known by the language.
When I asked you,
what did Allah subhanaw taala mean by la
ley means night. Now it means morning, Salah prayer
it is from the language and there are things that no one is excused by saying I don't know like what what a masala Do you know what does it mean? What a masala Do you need someone to come to you and explain to you what does it mean? WOC a masala.
Establish the prayer performed. Do you need anyone to tell you what does it mean?
Do you need or you don't need you don't need
So if someone came and said, I'm sorry, I did not know that I have to prove I had to perform prayer. No one told me. He will be told. You're not excused. When Allah says, Allah, Allah, Allah, Allah, Allah, Allah made lawful, they
financial transactions and forbade interest. And someone took interest and they said, No one told me it is forbidden. There is no excuse. Everybody knows. Once Allah says it is forbidden, then it is forbidden.
The third type of seed that the scholars know.
Now, even if you are Arab, even if you know the language, you need to study further studies you need
time you need to ask until it becomes scholar, you will know the Tafseer.
And the last one Tafseer that only Allah knows.
Only Allah knows, no matter how much you advance in knowledge, you want to be able to know it.
So now how many types of seeds do we have? For according to our best of the law on the field that is known from the language of the Arab? Because again, the Quran was sent down in Arabic language, the fear that no one is excused of being ignorant whether he is Audubon Allah.
Forget Farah to Tamasha roti Misaki, the expiation or the compensation is to feed 10 people. Do you come and say, I'm not Arab? So I will not understand what do you mean by 10? People? Everybody knows that.
And tafsir scholars know, it needs knowledge to know the meaning. Which means not the lay man will not be able to know
how many people were in the cave.
And the story of the cave.
How many? Four?
don't you read surah Tikka?
Allah says they will say three
and therefore is their dog.
And they will say
five and their six is their dog
regimen below right? But the law said remember like they will say this
and they will say seven and their eighth? Is their dog.
knows best? their number.
So what do you think? What's their number?
How about I know the number
and it is known?
Because the law said copy Alamo editing my Alamo in Laughlin only few. No. So inshallah, when you know it, you are of the few that will know the number. There is a rule in tafsir. Yes.
So what's the number?
There is a rule in tafsir.
That once Allah mentions something wrong in the Quran, like a claim of the kuffaar, he will not approve it.
Just for just an example.
Now, when Allah sends a prophet, to his people, what do they say?
That's how we found our parents doing
is this true or not? They didn't they find their parents doing this or not? Yes, they found them. So Allah would not change that because that's true. They, they, they found their parents but that's not an excuse. Like insaaf
Allah said about the disbelievers why the Filofax certain kalu. Once they fornicate they do they commit a sin. They would say college Nally Habana we found our parents doing this will allow America and Allah commanded us to do this. fornication pull in Allah Allah mobile fashion say Allah does not command fornication command you to do something wrong. law did not say in this ayah No, you did not find your fathers. That means it's true. They found their fathers. So that's correct part, but the second part is not true. So let's go back to sort of the gaff, when Allah mentioned the two numbers, say coluna thalassa turabian kelburn. They will say three and their fourth is their dog. Were
coluna. I'm certain and they will say five and their sixth is the doc guessing Allah said guessing
But when he said seven and the eighth is their dog, he did not say anything. That means that's the correct number.
That's the correct number. Why Allah
does not approve anything wrong. He disapproved already the two. If the third is wrong, it should be disapproved as well. It should be set guessing as well. But Allah did not say that. That tells you they were seven, and their dog is their eighth.
That's the rule always. Now another example, in sort of the number
when there was deliberation between belkis and her followers, she told them Carlat inland maluca Indeed, the Kings when they enter a city,
they will spoil it they will destroy it in America Hello Korean
Avila and they will make the honor people the respected people in that city they will make them humiliate they will merely humiliate them. What did Allah say afterwards work very carefully when? He said That's correct. Because if it was not correct, the law would say that's not correct. It's not the last thing but kiss but since it's mentioned in the Quran, whether it should be approved by saying nothing or by this approving it, which means it's wrong. So, this is rule always in the Quran. Now, why I am mentioning all this to remind you that there are some meanings that they need further studying. They are a little bit accurate. Like the number is there, the number is there but
who knows it few people
when they apply the rules, and that's what we will learn inshallah how to what are the rules of Tafseer How can we implement these rules and they say when you start inshallah the tipsy
interpreters of the Quran at the time of the messenger sallallahu Sallam
who have the companions used to interpret the Quran
give me some names.
And the law of numbers drawn man Why? What's the evidence?
Yes, exactly. The prophet SAW Selim said a llama photography Denali Mota, we teach him the interpretation of the Quran. Who else olive oil for the law, Juan, Abdullah and muscled the long on lemon soda. Like I said, I don't know anyone who knows better than me in the book of Allah subhanaw taala.
I know no one who has more knowledge than me in the book of Allah. And if I know someone who has more knowledge, I would go to ask,
obey even come
to obey even God of the law one.
Again, he had lots of knowledge.
They didn't Sabbath.
So these are few companions who had lots of knowledge in the book of Allah subhanaw taala. Of course, we have abubaker as well, Omar are the law enforcement all now remember whoever memorized the Quran at the time of the messenger science lm, once you memorize the Quran, you don't only memorize it, but you understand the meanings as well. That's what they used to do. So whoever memorize the Quran, he had knowledge. But those companions they excelled in this knowledge.
After the death of the companions, or after the death of the messenger Salaam at the time of the companions, who took from those scholars, we will notice that in Mecca, who was in Mecca,
who was in Mecca teaching the people
at an Ibis, we mentioned that in the fact remember
he taught the tafsir to Mujahid crema, and
those are some of the students of urban habas odilon Hama, Mujahid he stopped me Not bad for the llama three times on every IRA on every IRA, and they asked him you could imagine how much knowledge which I had Ramallah got from a cannabis.
He stopped him at every IRA three times he recited the entire Quran. Once stopping at every I second time at FBI third time at every year is asking for the loan.
In El Kufa, we have
a bit Massoud are the last one who taught Qatada.
Alcala and a shabby. You see the line under outcome whose outcome?
Do you remember him outcome?
Yes, actually, it's not that we're hanafis teacher. It's the teacher of the teacher of Abu hanifa.
It is the teacher of the teacher of Abu hanifa when Massoud said everything I know I'll come and visit everything. So
Again you cannot belittle this knowledge you cannot underestimate it. They had lots of knowledge those successors. in Medina, we have Abdullah Alia zaban Aslam.
abahlali will be mentioned a lot in the book, if you read the book of kefir especially in Arabic in the translation also sometimes his mentioned I will Alya is the student of obeying the law one. So, those are
the followers of the successors.
Those are the successors of the companions of the messenger sallallahu sallam. Those are their students and from them, scholars took the knowledge of the Tafseer
how we should interpret the Quran, you hear an ayah from the book of Allah subhanaw taala. How you should interpret it, what do you do?
What do you do? You start thinking, let me think I like this meaning so that's the meaning of the I What do you do
when you interpret the Quran?
With other verses Exactly.
We interpret the Quran with the Quran itself. Sometimes Allah subhanaw taala mentions the meaning in general. And in another place, they mention the meaning is mentioned in details. Do you have an example? Could someone tell me an example for this?
The prophet SAW Selim himself taught the companions one example
levena Amano, well, Ameobi so a man on the phone, those who believed and they did not mix their belief with injustice. So the companions of the messenger science alum who, who did not do injustice, all of us do injustice. He said, That's not what the what the aim is, the aim is in a sheer color.
And he caught it the other day. So this ayah Allah Vina Manuel Ameobi, so a man I'm given the role, the injustice here, means not any injustice, it means the shirk because Allah said in the other eye, in a circle of woman as
very good. bezerra gave another example.
In a certain Mr. Team, Sarah Lavina, and I'm calling him
Guide us to the straight path, the path of those on whom you bested your favor or your blessing. Who are they? The ones that got the blessing from Allah subhanaw taala.
In surah, Nisa, actually there is another idea in Surah, adobo
whoever obeys one minute or Allah or whoever obeys Allah, and His Messenger. So like, those are with my Lavina and I'm allamani with the ones that Allah subhanaw taala had bested his favor upon of men, and maybe prophets was something truthful, or Shahada martyrs was Salah him the righteous. So Allah mentioned four types of
people that He gave His blessings to. Now Lavina naantali so Allah said in one ayah Surah Paladin and I'm telling Who are those mean unbeknownst to the Kenosha that was Sally, there are four types mentioned in another. Another example, Aleksandra Nakata, Tina masa, DISA, it may not. We have given masa, nine clear ayat Where are they? What are these ayat?
We know that his hand and the rod the stick? What else to find the flood
gerat grasshopper. But father frogs will come with them blood. These are the ayat that are given to masa on a Salah.
So, the Quran sometimes mentions the ayah in general and then the details are mentioned in another I.
What if you did not find the meaning in the Quran? Allah mentioned an ayah but the meaning was not there. What do you do?
What do you do
if the interpretation is not mentioned in the Quran, what they do
and the Hadith of the messenger sallallahu wasallam
Why, why do we go to the Hadith?
Why do we go to the Hadith of the Prophet? sallallahu? wasallam?
No, no answer.
Why should we go to the Hadith?
It clarifies what's the evidence it clarifies.
What's the job of the prophets Allah Salah.
What's his mission?
We sent down the vicar, the Quran, in order for you to make it clear for them. That's the job of the messengers are set up to interpret the Quran. So anything you don't find it in the Quran, where you will find it in the Sunnah of the messenger sallallahu sallam. That's the job of the prophet SAW Selim to clarify things to us. So if we did not find the interpretation of an ayah and the book of Allah, we move to the Sunnah of the messenger sys select what if we did not find it in this one? Where do we go?
Let's say we looked through the Hadith what we did not find the meaning where do we go?
companions? Exactly. companions, because you cannot ignore them the companions who took it from the messenger cell and why they witnessed the incidents, they know why this ayah was revealed. I'll give you an example.
When people misinterpret the ayah Well, I think Kobe de Camilla taluka do not cause destruction for yourselves.
There was a battle
and one of the people who jumped over to open the gate for the Muslims. And some Muslims said, God, this ayah they said do not cause destruction for yourself. While you're doing this doing this, about a Yuval Ansari of the Alon. He said it was revealed because of our desire, that's not the meaning of the eye. He said once we perform jihad, and we were Victor, we came back to Medina. We said now it's time for us to take care of our farms, our branches, we did not want to go for Jihad more. So Allah subhanaw taala sent down this ayah while at will Kobe documented taluka leaving Jihad causes destruction.
How would we know that this is the meaning without the companions. So the companions they witness the revelation, they know why this ayah was revealed. So if we did not find the answer in the book of Allah itself, we go to the son of the messenger Selim, if we did not find it in the sooner we go to
the companions, if it's not in the companions, we find it with their students, the successors like Mujahid
apart, I'll come and the agreement because they took it from Avila Alia they took it from the companions of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam. What if we did not find it there?
What if you did not find it? Neither in the book nor in the Sunnah, nor in the companions or with the successors? What do you do?
You go to the language. How did Allah subhanaw taala revealed the Quran in which language
Arabic, the Arabic language, so you will find it in the Arabic language. That's the correct method to interpret the Quran.
And actually, all this is mentioned in the book.
But what about our bass out of the Alon Omar is here in the book and the proper method of Tafseer. It's also mentioned here in the book.
And with this inshallah, we will conclude our session for today how the sallallahu Sallam and Muhammad Ali salaam aleikum wa Taala work at