Fiqh of Worship #2 – Preface and Keys
Channel: Hatem al-Haj
Series: Hatem al-Haj - Fiqh of Worship
File Size: 34.77MB
So the system, as we said before, would be on
this commentary on an arm for worship.
Worship is the book that we will start with and then transactions become family
to the to the searcher traditions
and penalties, judiciary and penalties. So, inshallah, we are still studying the introduction. So we're still going over the introduction.
Last time, we talked about, you know, the meaning of tech, right.
In, in language and terminology, we talked about the definition of the sciences. And we will not repeat so that we can move ahead. We talked about
we did not talk about the proofs, or we talked about the proofs, we talked about the proofs, right, we talked about operands, and prs and so on. And we talked about the fact that perhaps one is
disputable. But there is controversy over some of the
details, the details of the authority of
the, you know, the secondary force, or certainly, there's a lot of controversy over the details of it man, what would
count as it may not count as its reporting of a demand versus the verification of
controversy, but we will not talk about this because this is, you know, this pertains to sort of not
itself. So, inshallah we will not address those issues, and we said that PS one PS is clear,
then it comes close to those three indisputable sources of proofs for answering and email.
And then there are considered Muslim or Salah juristic reference documents, Allah considers consideration of public interest,
blocking the means of learner legislations before us how other sources of proves that are controversial. Some of these colors, accepted them as proof, some not accepted them. Like I said, all of this stuff pertains to sort of factor, but you need to have some idea,
before we embark on studying
is usually divided into two large categories, because purpose is basically to guide your to guide, all of your behavior has mckaela mckaela means who is in Canada means one who is
liable and authorized here, like an agent who's liable, who is who has been addressed by, you know, the commands and prohibitions of a law, a child who was not addressed here by the commands of preconditions. So that hasn't been addressed. So he has now the tech lead to searches, basically the burden of compliance, that's typically the burden of compliance and the burden of choosing between right and wrong, and between Canada and Canada.
And not only that, he's liable. But he's also authorized to some extent, but liable gallop is mainly about liability. Being authorized meaning that essentially you are addressed by technology, if you are also authorized
your actions will be valid, your transactions will be valid, like as an adult, you know, the word adult itself, versus tech leaf, we will get into those details at some point. But we will use the word loosely here as an adult, you're liable and you're authorized to conduct transactions. So if it is the divine that because our interactions, our behavior, as human beings and our interactions, our interactions with the Creator, and interactions with the creation and when it comes to your interactions with the Creator.
This is called the rebounder and that is why it's called a beta
worship service part that we will be studying is basically half of
you know your interactions with recreation is called Mr. Mehta and that is
basically, interpersonal dealings a PSA transactions usually refers to financial transactions you could you could say transactions and then you could qualify financial transactions provide financial transactions right in English teachers
so, the there is So, your your baby you could say
that her mama interpersonal dealings
but that will cause a little bit of a problem because he you know you are one of those persons.
So, dealing with yourself should also be included here. So, he the translation into interpersonal dealings may exclude you. So, he can just say muamalat transactions and then we can
or interactions transactions and then we can qualify them. So, that is basically transactions. So, this is the have the the this is the buy that in this way because you either deal with superior pour you deal with equals here this is dealing with superior, three superior as
you don't ask why this was legislated and why voters for records and why is prayed? Allah told you this pleases me for the star hero. Why do we sleep fast in this particular Why do we make hot in this particular way and
it is slpp and it is based on has bad NACA.
If you distinguish between a seven based on causes that are incomprehensible, not either which are causes that are comprehensible, comprehensible causes are added. So why did Allah forbid usury, you will not stop he will not refrain from user yesterday to figure out what but to embark on the inquiry itself is valid, is valid. So you'll stop you're afraid, you say
you're afraid and then you inquire but why did Allah forbid usury and then you figure out the either the effective causes the comprehensible causes, because you could extrapolate from them, extrapolate from them, how do you extrapolate, you say anything that will steer by the effective cause will be also prohibited cocaine shares effective cause shares with Ryan and being in intoxicants therefore, is prohibited.
So here so that is why this is a big division. This is a big division because it's like different the are of different nature, these two groups side groups, or two divisions affect their different nature. And then when it comes to that you're either dealing with yourself
or you're dealing with other people. So how to
have branch springs out which is called
that which is basically customs and habits and religious advocates. So how do you walk into the bathroom? Is there any interpersonal dealings here? Any interpersonal leaving? No, there is just how you walk into the bathroom. So you're not interacting with anyone here. You're just it's your own conduct. So that's called
specically advocates and
permissions advocates. So you get this so we have this x included here religious advocates,
then mama proper, which is interpersonal dealings.
So this is transactions This is flippin mama proper is interpersonal dealings.
And pepper which is interpersonal readings will be divided into three big groups.
Which is financial transactions.
Sometimes they call it the heart of success, which is like a family.
And family includes a lot of things, by the way it is because the family and not just marriage includes other things like lose custody and cause mainconcept relatives. And you could have a family inheritance, or you could have it added to the financial transactions, somewhere in the middle between the two between family and separate financial transaction. So you could include it in the book of transactions, inheritance laws of inheritance, or you could include the laws of inheritance and the family because for things, because it's your family that would inherit from you. So interpersonal dealings would be financial transactions, family laws for colostrum.
And then the third one, the third one, which has a peculiar nature also is the federal judiciary, because it is dealing, you know, with your equal that is, in a way your superior, because it's the law, and the law is based on, you know, the command, the commands of Allah subhanaw taala, and the objectives of training and so on. So you're, you're in a way, dealing with your equal the judges, you know, creature, you know, but in the sense that he is the agent of the law, you're dealing with a superior in the sense. So that's judiciary.
And that includes, you know, the laws of Shahada witnessing and then
you know, acknowledgement, and many many pieces to this
type of panel will include on the red penalties due to sauce, retribution produced would be, you know, fixed penalties, and divinely fixed penalties and kasasa would be equal retribution. And then you will have the other punishments, the ICF, which are the discretionary punishments, all of this will be under judiciary.
Okay, so clear. So for that, and then you have
to either deal with yourself, that's religious etiquette adoption,
or you're dealing with others interpersonal dealings, and interpersonal dealings will include financial transactions, family laws, and the judiciary.
So that's the division.
And we said, Hey, Ben, in particular, have a different, you know, the different taste to it, because you don't ask too much about the,
for the comprehensible, effective, consequential, cause. consequential is a good word, because these causes are consequential.
Like intoxication is consequential it makes hunger. But you know,
when we say that he waited, citing the moon, it's not consequential. It's coincidental.
Like Ramadan was, you know, the obligation of fasting starts here, when you cite the moon, it does not start because of the sighting of the moon, it starts act upon the sighting of the moon coincidental, not necessarily consequential.
So, these are the visions. And in Islam, all actions have rulings which belong to one of the five categories, right? or seven. There are, those categories are called vegan values.
So are the five or seven
according to the majority, the archive and then we will talk about the hanafy position. So according to the three three Imams, or according to the majority, everything has an end and keep in mind this is the nature that is particularly important it does exist them dictate every move in your life.
What do we say that Islam is a way of life? Does that mean that basically how you brush your teeth will be dictated by Islam?
Does that mean like you know that how you
whatever you like your job, whatever job that you do.
If someone says yes, the here's the issue that was the sort of answers the short answers are
And they are usually right.
They are wrong and right at the same time. And if someone says yes, you just want to ask them what do you mean by yours? Like, because you could never have done that is what creates like a lot of arguments are because of short answers, because you're not really making yourself feel what is it that you exactly mean? Because if you say that this map is a way of life, people who blame the scholars for wanting to have authority over every, you know, action or move or like breath, that the people take in or out, that they blame in this as a political they call this a political position of some of the scholars who want to be in control,
you know, because Islam dictates everything that you do in high will tell you the ruling, just like keeping
from like short leash on on you base let's understand what this means. So, when this color say yes, it does because every action, every action
every human behavior action has to fall under one of those five categories. It has to either be
preferable preferred or liked or
makuu detested the slide
which will be prohibited forbidden to say prohibited?
Well, is there anything else?
Okay, like is there let's just finish up the address the hanafy position before we move on in the MRP position that there is like a layer here which is called product which is above where
they have the layer here which is called fog, which is above where
you cannot have different translations for web and fog, because according to the HANA fees, if you want to translate this to English, you will have to speak one word compulsory, obligatory mandatory.
So at the end of the day, you will just have to say
Okay, because what do they mean by by Why do these, you know, fogged is an obligation that was established through a definitive proof.
And I think you have an A and Dr. Hansen, something like this.
For members who
are our audience. So you have to have some definitive proof, definitive proof to call it. So the hammer is called with wet because according to the Hanafi school, you must pray, which he didn't tell you You must pray with. Right? You don't have an option, you must pray which
path and so you know, some of the happy brothers will figure out that you actually like it, according to the majority, you don't actually have to pray with, like, you know, they celebrate the fact, which is a bad idea.
If you don't basically diminish your worship because of your, like,
sort of knowledge that you've heard, or knowledge that you gain, to make you have to with not diminished. So, like if you grew up happy thinking that you must pray, and you came to know that the position of the majority is that it is preferable, it is an emphasized sin, but it is not an obligation. You just don't give up which everybody agrees that is a great thing. You know, and it's the way of the Prophet and this is what the prophet consistently did. And everybody agrees in all of this. But anyway, it's
it's a different issue.
So that's why the court went through it because which was not mentioned. The other parameter is nice to know that the way of establishing the obligation of waiter is through speculative proofs, not definitive proofs. And that is why the scholars this agreement, because the proofs are speculative, not definitive.
So some may understand obligation, some may understand preference. Because of this, they created those, you know, two distinct levels. But at the end of the day, practically speaking, so you say, so what's the practice of difference between father and mother? Why do I have to learn about this as an individual, not a family, you know, you as a 14 year you're trying to figure out what has been established to definitive proofs or, or speculative proofs. That's nice for you. But why do I have to learn about this as an individual, at the end of the day, practically speaking, there is not much difference, because what if I'm proud of you will get punished for you get punished for
abandoning the word or the
and rewarded for performing it. So there is not that much practical difference, the practical difference may be long the you know, may or may have to do with the judiciary, who will make the clear and the person who basically rejects the Father. So if someone who rejects
Soviet prayer, he rejects the obligation of the soul, or rejects the obligation of the five daily prayers.
Cooper imen are not our business, they're, you know, the, certainly you have to understand the difference between a man but in terms of, you know, the people that
it belongs to the judges who or the the move T's who will be, who will have the burden, the heavy burden of, you know, making that judgment, saying that this person committed that this person has cancer, sometimes this is necessary, for the religious legal purposes, you have to figure out who's who, like, who's who's still in the faith, and who is out. So, the judges will have the burden of making that the distinction and will have the burden of pronouncing that judgment, therefore, they have to distinguish between mandatory and foreign, because then the rest of the scholars would agree with them, by the way. So, it is basically a different difference in classification. But at the end
of the day, the rest of the scholars are agreeing with them. That yes, these are speculative proves the sort of definitive proves and so on.
And the rest of the scholars will say that the faculty, the judge, at the end of the day, who will be presented with this case, and someone will tell it, this person denies the obligation of the family prayers, he will say this is quote, Catholic, halfway establishment of the agenda, so on and so forth. And then someone would come to him and say, this person, that is the obligation of The Witcher prayer, and he will say, Well, you know, pretty easy if he's happy, he'll say, this is pretty like of the past. But we will not say that he's
right, okay. So, it is an important distinction, but from our practical purposes, it is not very consequential, when you have the same thing you need to do the harm.
so, you know, this is the split this is not the split this this split this one into two different players, which is prohibited. So, the same group
and this way, they will say this truth and Z and then they will say this freedom here and this will be hard on what is the distinction between microfactory this like
how do you translate this prohibitively dislike, or this this like to the point of prohibition?
other the dislike, so, it is microfactory men and this is Hara. And this is the distinction between these two, it's just like the distinction between these two. So, when something is is proven definitively to be hard on the Kotara, if something is proven through speculative proves to be hard on the product, macro agreement, at the end of the day, you need to refrain from harm and macro.
So what would be the example of
anything that was proven by speculative proofs like, let's say,
no record of this in the hanafy position, in particular, this macro topic.
should go up for someone or like drinking while standing for someone who believes that this, you know, is not what I believe in. So let me try and figure something else out.
Let us say,
bringing in drinking in gold utensils
for eating and gold utensils.
Let's be more specific about
eating shell foods, anything that, you know, lobsters, shrimps and stuff like that.
This would be hard to recruit and even
Because the it's speculative, it's not definitive precision.
You know, once again, that's not the position of the majority. If you eat if you eat, you know, lobsters and shrimps and stuff.
I believe it is
just to give an example.
So, now that we have classified everything into those five or seven groups, five or seven groups,
when they say that everything falls under one of those five or seven groups,
every everything falls under one of those five or seven groups. That means yes, Islam dictates every act move, you know, even abstention.
But at the end of the day, there is one group in the middle, which is called the mob.
And that's pretty much
everything except when they you know, proven otherwise proven otherwise, because they established a burden on someone and this is why you have to prove it go out of your way to prove it, to establish the burden on someone to refrain from something and say to him, this is my Mahara has to be proven. So everything in life until proven otherwise falls under the category of MOBA. So does Islam dictate every
Yes or no? If you say yes, you will have you will be able to defend your Yes. And if you say no, you will be able to defend your no because the mobile has everything until proven otherwise. So it gives you so much room.
And when the prophets of Allah Selim says entomol and the Mauritania and tamale and the Morrigan Yeah, it's a very strong statement, that and this is reported from heavy rock on eyeshadows and many of the Sahaba collected in by in the authentic books in so, you know, that fears of your donia better you are, you know, the first of your donia better than me, he says, hand to mouth and the Morricone echo. So, basically agriculture, engineering, medicine and all of that stuff, you know, the inference of your money
and this is very liberating, right and that is why the Muslim scholars excelled in you know, they established the experimental method and so on and the acceptance sciences because they were liberated, intellectually liberated, mentally liberated, this is a very liberating statement. Because he is saying, you go about your business, you go figure out this world, you go figure out this universe, it is your business, I will not tell you about it, you know, you will figure it out. So, so some people who think that, you know, it is the scholars political position, to think that Islam dictates everything in life and Islam is a way of life, not just a religion.
Well, Islam is a religion, you know,
is a way of life to some extent, yes, it is a way of, should that religion not be a way of life? Should the religion not guide you in life? So what is the religion for the religion so that it will just teach you about rituals? Or should it not also guide you in life? Tell you out what is best for you in life, tell you don't transgress, don't do this, don't do that, and tell you what is transgression. Because usury is not an obvious, transgression, or an obvious act of oppression. Not only in transactions, excessive speculation, excessive risk taking in third transactions is not an obvious
transgressor and you as a human being may not figure this out on your own. So that Dean will tell you a lot that God will tell you that this leads to transgression, user, you will lead to transgression, excessive risk taking or speculation, transactions will lead to transgressions and so on and so forth.
So, it is not a political position,
but it has to be understood. Well, when we say religion is Islam as a way of life, it has, it has to be understood with
and when we say Islam dictates everything that you do, it has to be understood with Islam gives you a lot of room for flexibility, a lot of great creativity of our room for, you know, like the sort of to pursue science and experiment with this universe and figure it out on your own, but still had to be more economical, means that I told you, that you
because it just makes perfect sense that the human will comply with the divine, because
a lie created this makes perfect sense that will comply. So, have the divine told us, I will tell you about this or that I will tell you about engineering, then we will, we shall comply, but to define the natural as he left this first hazard.
So that is why people argue about those issues. And if you have a good understanding for them, you will understand where everyone is coming from. And you will just say to them,
and certainly at the end of the day, some people will disagree over the content.
You know, it's not just like a stylistic disagreement or it's not just a disagree, some people will disagree over the conference, some people will disagree over, you know, like, who, you know, the prohibition of usury for instance, like should or should usury be prohibited.
Okay, so the next point here, the jurists word, you know, having said that, Islam is the you know, divides everything into one of those categories that every human behavior had every human abstention also will fall under one of those categories, then the jurist work is to deduce from the proofs are ruling for every action.
And Okay, so, we talked about the jurist ruling and how he will deduce from it musala but Salas obligatory and how that this is not always as straightforward as you may think. Okay, masala is more obvious, Salah is obligatory coming out from a pee masala is very easy.
But there are certain things that may not be as easy and they need some degree of
understanding to deduce them. The last point about that they wanted to bring up is the trip is studied either according to one method, or comparative, usually traditionally, has been studied according to one method until you have mastered this method, and then you could go on and study, according to Amazon, is that true or not? That was completely unfamiliar about about hanifa. Never heard of Abu hanifa never heard of it physicians. doesn't make any sense. So each one of those collars after the master their, their own method, they had some exposure, they learned the other seven they had exposure had not been so you have not been able to write a movie to offer a movie,
which is a comparative book.
So a You don't have to be limited, but they start out with one, they wanted you to start out with one.
Nowadays, they start out with many in colleges, universities throughout the Muslim world, they teach comparative, they start out with not just one, we wanted to just like walk the middle path between the two. So we are focusing on the one very method, which is the text of the book that we are studying
the code, the text of the book that we're studying, and we're having some comparative commentary. Why? Why is the advice of the earlier scholars to master one before you move on and learn about the others? If you really follow the advice of the scholars?
And when we say are the scholars What do we mean by that? We mean from fifth fifth century on because prior to this during the time of the great Emacs how many men that were there.
During the time of the great multitudes in my lab, numerous mother had kids
counter, because there was no such concept of like, every there were teachers and students and every teacher had his own way school. And he had seen students. And certain one were more established. Like when we say the seven heavens, we added later, there is a piano 30 nfld, we're talking about the ones that were more established and lived for some time after their founders until they died out or faded out because of some reason, political reasons. Otherwise, they just faded out.
So we're talking about, like fifth century on where the mother have were established that we now have form as admin, these are the forms I have,
the scholars started to recommend that you study according to one until you have mastered that, and then you move on to others. But nowadays,
there are very few people that master one to begin with extremely few people that master any one of them. You know, in terms of real mastery, there are very, very few people that master any one of them. And if you go to any of the masters, and ask them,
they may, you know, and I'm not talking to Mr. Trying to belittle the contemporary scholars, because that's the habit that is usually that comes from arrogance, he only sort of surrender to the authority of the ancient scholars and old scholars because they are not your contemporaries. B so you don't feel that envy and you don't feel that competitiveness against. But when it comes to contemporary scholars, you always try to belittle them, so that we're all equal. And we're all, you know, looking up to the dead scholars, so no one who's alive is an authority over me, it's like a, like an arrogant position. So contemporary scholars are, they're a great contemporary scholars, but
in terms of mastery, like the great scholars of the lab before, who knew everything, all of the intricacies of the meth lab and the ins and outs of the meth lab, there are very few ones that have this mastery. And they are also they may not be as masterful as the ASIC, for instance, has carried in the medical method. For instance, as in abdeen, Hana females know they may not be have that level of
mastery. Okay, so, so if we wait until we master one, we may fall into the problem that the defendant sought to be mentioned the metal shop, he said, that we would
do so who tasks when walhampton disappeared?
How can that you know, given that the students used or familiar with only one method will
cause him to have a zeal and conceit for his own method and content of the others. Because if he if certain proofs have a certain amount of are always been driven in your mind, and you're not exposed to other positions you're not exposed to other proves, you will come to a point where you feel that, that so when, what what were they doing, like if you're a surfer, and you think of the Hanafi, for instance, you will develop contempt because you always you're always familiarizing yourself with the proofs of your method. So you'll start to think less of the other method. And that is a problem. So if we wait until you master before any exposure to the other mazahub, when will you master one of
Honestly speaking, this, you know, people in this room, including the speaker, when when we master one of them, as I have to the point of let's move on to whatever had it, it will cause this problem. And it caused a few few times disputation between us and not understanding where other people are coming from and items and the beauty of intricacies of the mechanics of beautiful, just like amazing intellectual strengths of our legacy. Our legacy is amazing, and people who just memorize and memorize and stick to one position, they are deprived of seeing this beauty of experiencing this intellectual grenzer and, and, you know, stress.
Okay, so that is why we're adding a flavor of comparative fat in the commentary so that we know where other scholars are coming from and we have a
This, we experienced like a little taste of the mechanics of the workings of not the final product. You get to see how the ships, you know cooks the food you enjoy, not just enjoy,
you know the meal at the end of the work.
So about the Hanbury method. So this was about Khadija the points that we wanted to discuss about the Ambani method. He
was born in the year 164, after his era, and died in the year 241, after hedger. And in this way, he would have been the fourth and the last of the four great emails. And when we say the four great emails, we're not saying I was, it was not a great email for not saying their teachers are not great at math, like they would have, you know, been shocked, you know, Abu hanifa would have been shocked if you are limiting greatness. And they have to him and his own teacher of math, for instance, you know, you don't really value him that much. This is his own teacher, he refused to speak in the presence of a man and tell him that he was not teaching because he just wanted to learn from him.
And he would not stretch out his hand legs in his own home,
in the direction of a man's house, which we'll use to be several blocks away from his home, but out of respect to the mile stretch of his legs in the direction of a man's house. So it is, you know, it is important that we understand that it was not just you know, our heritage is not limited to for a man so that those happen. Those were four of the greatest Abraham's four of the greatest singers who happen to have dedicated students that built up their mazahub after them and we're committed to their mother have served them, maintain them and build them up hafter, the great founders. So any amount of hanifa was from here to there. So from 80 to 150, that is the amount of money for
preferred theater, ah, is for a nominee fan this book in my commentary, so you will have 92 here
this would be the mathematic
and you have 150
this would be the amount of salary
and I didn't give him a you know, just it's not a matter of favoritism. I gave him a day because he took days
at his age hanafy his age and convenience age, so I favor the canopy so he
was born in the year 164. hafter hedra and died in the year 241
to 41 after his
Okay, so let's say that he was,
you know, from 164 to 241, after his and he was a you know, COVID the amount of time is the amount of magnesium around the sun.
And the membership I said, I left about that and there was no one more scholarly more pious
greater than Lima Muhammad Rahim Allah Tada. And certainly, they have a lot of praise for even Mohammed and even Mohammed also have a lot of praise for Mr. Mohammed was considered by some of the chef I used to be of the Safa his
mother, that's a different story.
The student wrote a book just called the philosophy chef IE to basically say no, we're not we are different by RC like idiomatic proto mancherial automatic,
the student of land
who is the student of Maruti who is a student development at Humber wrote a book to say no, we are really a method by ourselves.
for mathematic, there are certain sources of proofs that we will address inshallah. Next time, I will just
mention them this time, and then we will address them in a little bit more detail next time.
And if you want me to go a little bit faster, maybe we should survey the people and see if we should go a little bit faster. Because I intended to finish this in one session and this is the second session we are not finished and we may take a third session. Just to finish those points, introductory points, we didn't even start the book yet. These are just introductory points. So a mathematics sources approved which we will address next time when we when we talk about other issues next time as well will be the core as number one the soon as number two.
And the Quran and Sunnah would be the texts of Revelation. And then it
and with ej Mayer, you can talk about the positions of the Sahaba. And then after it man the positions of the Sahaba, you will see that there is the week Hadees weekend Merson Hadith which
used to consider an authority and we'll talk about what was meant by a week during the event of a mathematic, because it may not be exactly what we mean by week during our times,
and then PS, and then PS.
And these are the ones that are agreed upon in terms of the you know, the services approved for exam, if not, these are the ones that are agreed upon or answered
with it. Now, they did talk about the positions of power, because the Mmm, the smell of the Sahaba but it's not conceivable after the Sahaba and it's the smell of the Sahaba.
So when they disagreed, they talk about their individual positions within this category and then the weaker Hadees and then
keep in mind that he used to prefer the authentic reports from the Sahaba over the weekend Hadees from the Prophet Solomon, he used to prefer prefer the weaker Hadith of the Prophet over his own opinion. So, the position of the Sahaba comes above the weak Hadees and then the we had these from then his own opinion
and his own PS. Having said that, that, you know, the verifying scholars of the hemani method, they also say that, although not just clear, the in theory mentioned that he did act upon other sources such as a Muslim or seller, which has consideration of interest public interest,
which is the blocking the means the evil hand also has this hub, which is a presumption of continuity, presumption of continuity, which is basically the status quo presumption of the
proof for even as well, I think we are
one or two minutes away from 10 o'clock and I did promise you that we will be punctual and we'll start at eight and finish at 10. So, inshallah we will finish here, because we will need more time to talk about those points to recall the other statistical idea that comes from the Shadowlands the critical to work.
Just one last thing in this in this book, I consider or maybe I could I could mention this when I talk about my work in the book, but in this book,
A is not in reference to the dominant position of the kamberi method is a reference to a man of no podemos choice in this book and work and work I changed my mind about this. So I will change it where a the documents that you will receive will be a little bit different from this book, because the document that you will receive a will symbolize the dominant position within the map according to the verifying scholars of the latter generations in another in this book, capital A meant ethno kodamas own choices in this book.
That is the change that will becoming a no that's the change between the document that you'll be receiving. And this book that's basically the only change