Quran Gateway Series Part 5: Compilation During The Khilafa Of Uthman (RA)
Channel: Habib Bobat
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Salam Alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh welcome to visit me on radio Islam International. My name is Javi Baba and inshallah we'll be keeping accompany this morning. And we continue with our Quran gateway series. Today it's part five and today we are discussing the compilation of the Quran during the era of our Smirnoff a lovely aloha Thailand. But before that, let's do a quick recap of the previous program. In the previous episode, we discussed the historical perspective in terms of the Quranic compilation, and we made mentioned that the Quran was preserved in two ways
through the memories of the Sahaba of the alota number one, number two, through the keytab through writing it down in the time of Rasulullah sallallahu sallam, we made mention that in the time of Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam the Quran was written down however, it was not gathered into a book form. Then came the era of say you did a Abubakar acidic rhodiola on who in his time of avacado de lo tada and who compiled the Quran into a book form.
Then came the era of
the low tide, and no work took place. In that regard. Then came the era of othmer of law firm or the low tide on who and which we are about to discuss today. And this is the third phase of the Quran, the first phase was during the time of Rasulullah, sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Then the second phase was during the time of Abu Bakr, Siddiq, or the alota line, and the third phase is during the healer for wassmer law firm or the alota anon. Now, we must first of all clear the commerce conception that's out there, we must clear the misunderstanding that's out there. Many people believe, and many people think that ultimate law firm or the law to align who is the compiler of the Quran, this is an
Iranian notion. The truth of the matter is that Abu Bakar, or the low tide on who is the compiler of the Quran,
and or Smirnoff, the low tide on who is the one who brought the people upon a unified mode of recitation, and a unified mode of writing on the Quran. And I'll explain to you this as we go into the program in sha Allah. But you need to make the clear distinction between the two areas, the time of work or the law know that the Quran was brought into a book form. During the time of othmer Law Firm, a different piece of work was done. And that's what we are discussing today. So to understand this, people, we need to first go into history. When Islam started spreading fine wide, lot of non Arab tribes started coming into the fall of Islam.
And so they would learn Quran from the people who brought them Islam and the Sahaba of the low tide on whom themselves learn the Quran from Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam
and the Prophet of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam them toward the Sahaba how to recite the Quran.
And there are various ways of reciting the Quran from the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam.
I'll give you a simple example.
So you're all for leadin a nom de la him is the general way of reading the Quran that you and I have heard over the years and wherever we go. But there is another way of reciting Quran surah por la Vina and nom de you whom is a different mode of reciting the Quran.
So as far as the Sahaba were concerned, they were aware of the different modes of recitation, they knew that there was different ways of reciting the Quran because that's how they learnt it from Rasulullah sallallahu sallam. So there was no problem as far as I have a concern. But the minute Islam spread far and wide,
and the minute new people came into the fall of Islam,
and the minute they started reciting the Quran, according to how their teacher taught them how to recite the Quran, they thought the debt is the only way of reciting the Quran is no other way. I'll give you the account of how they fell Emily, a man out of the alota lon who, who was on an expedition, and he was in the area of Armenia and Azerbaijan.
And whilst he was there, he noticed that people were reciting the Quran differently from others. And it became so difficult for the oma that they started calling each other Garfield
And they started calling each other apostates. He came back to Medina and he said to the halifa, we need to do something about the Quran and his recitation because people are calling each other coffee, just one, the different recitals. So Osman often said What do you mean? So they finally a man explained that I was in. I was in Armenia and Azerbaijan, and I noticed that people were reciting Quran differently. He said that the people in Sham were reciting the Quran of obey, you know, carb, rodeo low tide
and the people in Iraq. on that front, people were reciting on the era of Abdullah ignoramus or old or the low tide on now, both Sahaba very great.
Abdullah Massoud also learn Quran from Rasulullah sallallahu sallam, and he was highly praised for that, and obey. Unicom also learned how to recite Quran from Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam and he was also highly regarded within the Sahaba. Also,
as far as the haobo concern, there weren't any issues. The issues came about when new people started reading Quran. So those people who had heard others reciting the Quran differently, they said a really wrong man you really and wrong, your coffee, and they started calling each other apostates. So this became serious
because both ways of reciting the Quran was authentic. It came from Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. I still remember when I just joined the double o in Indonesia. The rooms are Korea, and it was arratia salah and my honorable orsted Korea USA was reciting their salah and he read a different variant of the Kira was reciting the Quran. So he did Serato Latina and Anjali home and I was like How can a person make a mistake like this and nobody's even correcting the the curry and the Salah is continuing like that first record same mistake. Second look at sim stick. And as soon as something is not right here all my life I've been hearing Serato Ludhiana and I'm Tara, you him. Now
a nom de la whom,
huh? That's really interesting. It's strange. It's odd. And afterwards, you're after getting understanding into the metal, you realize that there's not only one way of reciting the Quran, there are different ways of reciting the Quran. We're all one and we're all one. So like I said, as far as the Sahaba are concerned, there was no problem they all knew about it was well known it was a given fact within the Sahaba. But as Islam spread far and wide, because those people learn Quran from those people who brought them a man. They thought that that's the only way of reciting Quran. And when they heard anyone else reciting Quran differently, they started calling them coffee. They
started calling them apostates. So in North man, our friend of the alota line who was alerted with regards to this, he called up a meeting of Sahaba of the low tide on senior Saba. And he said, Look, this is the method hand, people are calling each other calculus because of not understanding how the Quran was revealed and how it was recited by Rasulullah sallallahu sallam, I think that we should prepare a standard copy of the Quran, which can accommodate the different ways of reciting the Quran.
Allow me to reiterate that we need to prepare a copy that can accommodate the different ways of reciting the Quran. So that the remains no dispute in the oma after this.
And so forth. Madam Na Fern once again called upon Zaid bin saboteur, the lowdown on who, who was the initial compiler during the time of abubaker. The low tide I know, I hope you remember that. So a committee was set up again. And our firm law firm asked the beloved daughter of honorable hottub have settled the lowdown on her who had the copy of the Quran to to allow him to use that copy to prepare the new copy of the Quran. Now we're going to be allowed to add on who passed away the Quran was then passed on to him Are we talking about that first compilation, and when nahata passed away, he gave it over to his daughter, because when he passed away, the next halifa was not decided upon.
Basically there was no halifa elected when he passed away, only on the third day the new halifa was chosen. So in that absence, the Quran was by half side of the law.
On her. So when northmet Law Firm wanted to do some work on the Quran, he called for that same copy that was in the possession of have sort of a low tide on her. And once again, they started the process of seeing that they could prepare a copy that was comprehensive, and that would accommodate for the different recitals. When this task was completed, of merit of law, third are the lowdown on who gathered all other copies available in the country.
And he asked for those copies to be burned.
Now understand the metro area, there was only one standard copy available during the time of abubaker, the law title, which was done under his supervision and through a committee. Other than that, whichever other copy was available, was done through the individual himself. He would write down the Quran, or he would get somebody else to write down the Quran, but it wasn't done under supervision. People had the Quran written down, according to their mode of recital, you see slowly, slowly starting to make sense to you. So there were different scripts available in the Muslim Empire, but all written differently, because it was done on an individual basis. So earthmen Law
Firm, prepared a standard copy and tentative tiama. Whoever is to print the Quran will follow the rest malchut or the manuscript of horseman law, thunder, the law to Orlando, whether it's printed in China, whether it's printed in Egypt, whether it's printed in Saudi, or whether it's printed in South Africa, they will all follow the Ross malchut or the way of writing as adopted in the error of earthmen law firm or rather, your lowdown on
so essentially says in our third law firms will be allowed to call for all other copies that were available, and he said these copies will be burned.
And the copies that were prepared by him, he prepared a few copies. And he sent it to the major parts of the Muslim Empire. He sent one to Morocco, Morocco, Rama, one to Basra and one to other parts like sham. And so after the day onwards, that issue of college other coffee started to wither away because of the knowledge now coming into the people. Now people got to understand understand that okay, there's not only one way of reciting the Quran, there's also other ways of reciting the Quran. And yours. It's covered in almost half of us, man probably a lot I know.
So yeah, once again, I need to remind you, automatically our fan is not the compiler of the Quran. He brought the oma on one standard version of writing the Quran, which would accommodate for the different recitals that we're out there. If you do get a chance, go on to the net, and type in the different ways of reciting the Quran and you'll see some Hannelore Beautiful, beautiful recitals popping up. But it must be authentic a, it must be authentic. And this you have to go through a authentic chain, you can't just learn the different variants on your own, you must go through a tutor, you must go through a start, he will give you each other he will give you the permission and
the right to then transfer this rewire and this version of reciting the Quran to your students if you have to have a teacher. So that's very important to highlight here. So serapion Latina and tala him and Serato Latina and I'm Talia whom both are correct. But it's different requires. There are many ways of reciting the Quran, many many ways of reciting the Quran. I'm not going to go into the technical discussion of own Zilla or ohana, subharti muscato by that's not in our discussion today. So that's one aspect. Now moving on further, now comes the fourth stage of the Quran. We are now into the fourth stage.
When the copies that were prepared under the supervision of Earth murder law firm, they were prepared without any thoughts and diacritical marks there were no Fatah, Bama Casa zabur, their parish, as you would call it, there was no markings in the Quran. And there were no dots also in the Quran. The Arabs was so proficient and they were so well versed in their own language, that they would not place any diacritical marks number one and number two, they would find no difficulty. no difficulty in reading the text without any dots and referring to the dots, you know, and
On the letter file, you have a.on top. On the letter, you have two dots at the bottom, the letter bar at the bottom has a.so. These dots are not there, but they had no difficulty in reading the text. In fact, it's written that in a cassata, no cut Phil keytab su bonnyville Mk two ballet, if a person would write a letter, and if you would use dots in that letter,
then the person to whom you was writing, that person would take strong offense to it. Are you trying to insinuate that I can't read? Are you trying to say I'm dumb? Are you trying to say I'm less educated in this regard that you are helping me by putting those dots? So the Arabs actually thought of it as an insult to have dots in your writings when you would write to each other? But now the problem came that non Arab tribes started coming into the fall of Islam, and non Arab people found it difficult. They found it difficult to recite the Quran, do you say Alhamdulillah Alhamdulillah Alhamdulillah? How do you say it. So to facilitate this process, they brought in the concept of
dots. And they after they brought in the process of Fatah, dama kisara, who actually invented that that's not important, because there's so many opinions in this regard, the important thing to understand is that, that this was brought in to facilitate a certain process. And that was to make it easy for people to recite the Quran in the proper manner, and not say all hamdulillah Al Hamdulillah, but rather to get people to read, and hamdu Lillahi Rabbil aalameen me Even today, and Hamdulillah, those who go through the idemia cause, the seven year cause or whatever it may be in the middle of Sir, they are able to read the texts without Fatah Mikasa even today, not just the
Koran, but I'm talking about general texts like Hadees. Not every book of Hadith has the diacritical marks on it, but hadn't Mikasa they are not to be found in those books. So you go through grammar, Arabic grammar, to learn how to read the text without any photographer, mind camera, handle hamdulillah even in a time of the Arabs, they did not use Fatah, Obama and cassara because it would naturally come on to the tongue, they would have no difficulty in reading the text. But moving on further, as more people came into the fall of Islam, who are not highly educated also in terms of the Arabic language, they find it difficult to recite the Quran. And so Fatah dhamaka surah. And the
dots were introduced to the Quran, there's a changes made to the text of the Quran. These are processes brought in to facilitate a certain process
that as far as diacritical marks are concerned that harakat are concerned, there's another piece of work that was done on the Quran. And you'll find this on the side of the Quran, all different kinds of writings. One very common one is you will see our eye in sign and that's called a Roku or sign to put in simple words, we are reciting a lot of Quran in the Salah. Now to draw a balance when you don't read very little note you read too much. So in order to moderate the recital in Sala way it is balanced, the orlimar have broken and the scholars have brought in a concept called ruku. That if you stop here, you've read the right amount inside, you haven't read very little, no are you reading
too much by stopping at this place. And that is to make it easy for the reciter when he's reading Sala or when he's trying to learn and memorize the Quran. In one of those that'll tell you, I want one ruku sabak every day. So that's another piece of work that was done on the Quran, the Roku, the signs are brought in the Roku signs. Then there's another sign that you find in the Quran Menzel
now the Sahaba of the alota lon whom would complete the Quran on a weekly basis, seven days in a week. The Quran was then divided into seven sections that if you read according to this pattern, by the end of the seventh day, you will complete the Quran. That's why it's called Menzel. Manziel means a place where you stop. So I've explained Roku, I've explained Manziel there's many other things that I'm only touching on the important ones. Then there's a third one I want to explain to you very quickly. It's called a geezer or it's called Jews. Jews means apara in our terms, the Quran
was not divided into 30 pairs. It used to continue it used to flow one page into the other, one page into the other. But later on to make it easier for people to facilitate this process. They brought in the concept of 50 Jews and 30 Parra's that okay. If you want to complete the Quran in the month of Ramadan without any difficulty, how are you going to do it? You divided into 30 following the 39 Quran, then apara is about 30 pages. So 30 3030 that's how they broke it up also. So these are some of the works that have been done on the Quran. But let me remind you, no work has been done in terms of changing the text of the Quran. All these are outside elements to help you recite the actual text
itself. So Hannelore time is against me, I'm going to round up very quickly explained to you today, how the compilation took place in the time of what might have been fun, are they allowed to add on who and what was the purpose behind that? I explained to you what is dots and diacritical marks and I also explained to you what is Menzel Riku and Jews? We will continue inshallah in the next program until then a salaam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato.