Channel: Bilal Philips
Series: Bilal Philips - Soul of Hajj
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hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala rasulillah Karim. Allah Allah was Hobie woman is standing as soon as he Naomi Deen all praises due to align realize Peace and blessings beyond the last prophet muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and all those who follow the path of righteousness until the last day.
In our previous session,
we looked at the general concept
finding the goals of Hajj
which we call the soul of Hajj.
We stressed the importance of finding that
in order for the Hajj to become meaningful.
We looked at Hajj as it was prescribed by a law sponsor Allah
We said it was about change
the signs that the Hajj was accepted
the changes which take place in people's lives.
And we compare that to the ritualistic
common understanding of Hajj
in the cultural setting.
For the cultural Muslim, a person who is Muslim based on culture,
they were born in a particular land in a particular family.
Hajj is a ritual associated with Islam
as a Muslim is supposed to make Hajj
the goals of Hajj were not understood.
And those goals are replaced by focus on the rites and rituals.
the Hajj lost its original meaning the goals of Hajj The reason for which Allah had prescribed Hajj becomes lost.
And we said this was among the reasons why traditionally, in Muslim communities,
people are discouraged from making Hajj, if they're young.
They're encouraged to leave Hajj, till the end of their lives.
Because they're looking at Hajj, you know, as a vacuum cleaner,
which sucks up all of the bad, the sins, etc.
Get rid of it. Now you're ready to meet your Lord.
So you don't want to do that too soon. You want to do that when the time comes.
So this approach,
ritualized Hajj, turned it into
a focus on
the outward elements of the Hajj.
So we said that
if we're going to make Hajj, we should always keep in mind.
What really is the goal of this part of Hajj
each element that we are engaged in, we tried to find out what is the purpose? What am I supposed to get from this? What does this actually mean? Why do I do this? What's behind it?
We're moving on in this second workshop to the elements of Hajj. Actually, in this section, we will not complete the Hajj but we will look at the basic elements for omura because the Amara is incorporated into the Hajj you know when you go into the technicalities of the different types of houses.
And how it's done the most recommended Hajj is a mixture of Hajj and oma together. That was the one which the prophet SAW solemn, recommended, though he didn't do it himself
due to the fact that he had brought animals with him,
but that's the one he told everybody to do.
Anyway, it begins with ombre, but they are linked together and make up what we call Hodge tomato.
they share whether a person is doing Amara by itself.
Are they doing hygiene oma together, they will share this initial
set of rites and rituals.
And that's what we'll be looking at now as the early elements of Hajj
or the elements of ombre
and the first thing that we come across
is the issue of me caught
the boundaries of the outposts
which have been defined by Rasulullah sallallahu wasallam, he identified
points around Makkah, which created
the area within which
we would refer to as
This is your Inside you should have
gone into the state of a harem.
Once you enter that area, usually the Haram is using it the Hara McKee using it really more precisely with the area around the Kaaba itself you know, but once you have actually crossed these boundaries, then
you have entered in the to the sanctuary, where you are supposed to be wearing particular a particular dress we'll be looking at it there her arm
and we do so, having expressed the intention for Hajj, Umrah.
those boundaries or outposts or five, the prophet SAW asylum, he identified them.
is for those coming from the north.
For those coming from the north,
people coming from Syria in the old days
will be taking caravans wherever they will become coming down through Medina.
or close to it. Now, you will not find any place called El hanifa what you see there is beer alley, the well of alley
so that is the common name for that area now that that boundary from the north for those coming from the east.
that to air
and permanent managin.
below that, I mean what we what what that's called today
what that's called today is a sale. Al Kabir.
Then we have from the south.
People coming from Yemen.
The southern part of Arabia
Yeah, lamb lamb.
The Scots here
Yeah, lamb em, but it should be. Yeah lamb lamb,
to the west of Mecca going to Judah.
Judah is already
the boundaries, and that's why if you're coming to make Hajj or Umrah you need to have
have made your intention for Hajj or Umrah before you land in Jeddah
Judah is within these boundaries.
Jaffa that is on the way between Mecca and Medina.
Your fries now known as Robin, that's the town that's the closest to where
the designated place Jaffa was you can they? There is distances there that's 183 kilometers from Mecca. You can see them 450 kilometers. That's beer alley from Medina.
So the point is that
these are designated areas from which those are going to make hajer O'Meara should have made their intention and worn the garments of the pilgrim
if you're not coming for Hajj or Umrah then of course it doesn't affect you, you can come in
you're coming for some other reason you've gone to Judo or whatever
or any installations or other small towns in between in this area.
And then if you decide whilst you're there, you finished your job in
Jeddah or any of the other towns Robic, etc. and you decide okay, let me go make O'Meara then you make aamra from your house, you make your intention put on your garments, etc. Because you're already within the meat cart, you're inside of the McCarthy area. So you just use wherever you are, as your point for entering into the
consecrated state of the Haram.
As we said that these areas were set by inauthentic IDs from Rasulullah saw Salah
they are not
set by the Saudi government or anything like this. This was from ancient times from the time of the Prophet Moses Allah.
And he problems Assam had said that the miracles are for whoever comes to them intending hydro O'Meara other than those living within them.
So when the mid court is near, then the garments of her arm should be put on with the intention. But now
for example, you're going from here
Is it possible to put on the forearm from here?
Yes, putting on the garments
don't put you in a state of the harem
until you make the intention for Hajj, Umrah.
So the garments themselves, though they're called the Haram
they don't put you in that state until you make the intention. So you can wear these garments, the women will wear their own
dress whatever dress they decide to wear for the agenda Amara put on something
and it doesn't have to be white you know from some cultures people this is cultural understanding the women will wear white t jobs you know white jilbab and a white scarf like the men were the white
is our and reader.
But actually even these colors
they were not specified problems or solemn did not say that men should wear
white garments. We do it now
has just become a standard.
Because the prophet SAW Selim in general did prefer
white clothing because
of the fact that
if it's dirty, you know right away.
So it will cause people
To try to keep themselves
If you've got dark colored clothing, you all know when it's dirty or not, is wearing a lot longer.
So why'd you have to keep it clean, you have to wash it regularly. So this is the reason for preferring white, but to where I haram which is yellow,
or green, or blue? No problem.
It's just two pieces of cloth for men, just two piece of cloth. It could have stripes in it, it could be anything, actually.
But if you did that,
the whole judge around you, they will be bothering you throughout your average. See? So though it's something is permissible, it's not advisable. Because you'll just be annoyed by them, why are you wearing this, you're not wearing it around, go get your arm, you know.
They don't know.
Because they want to see in the pictures and everybody's wearing white. So that's what it has become, as become the standard. It's like the Kaaba. You know, the Kaaba is draped in black.
But that's not what it was in the time of the Prophet.
Nor for 100 years after the time of the Prophet.
It's not until they are Bassett that they put black.
Otherwise, before that it was striped, it was other colors.
But now if somebody were if the Saudi government were to change the
and make it yellow man, they would be accused of changing his law. They have all these people ready to attack them.
Even though it's perfectly legitimate, it doesn't have to be black. But in cultural Islam, we're focused on what we're used to what we have seen what's in the pictures, and you know, that's how it's got to be. Otherwise, it's not, right.
We don't understand. It's just traditional. So the point is that
the Haram garments,
don't put you in a harem, until you make the intention. So you can wear your garments, go to the airport, get on the plane,
you could change on the plane, but if you have to get into one of those bathrooms, and you have to go and try and put on Yeah, you know, my advice is wear it from your house.
And, you know, relieve yourself otherwise, you're going to have you know, a heck of a time trying to, to tie up your is our, you know, in the bathroom, because it's so narrow, you don't have very much space.
So you wear it, where it's convenient. And then when you're on the plane, or on the bus, or whatever vehicle you're traveling in, you know, you see the sign on the road, if you're on the road, you know, the boundaries of
may caught or you're on the plane and you hear the pilot announces. You're now coming to the court then you make your intention. And with that intention,
you now enter into the state of a harem and
the term is haram
and haram and haram
they're all related. You know the the issue that people commonly ask you know why why is this called mustard dill Haram is a is a Master's you go and do haram there.
Must you do haram? Why are we supposed to avoid haram? You know, and the Iranian invading Iran, isn't it because we have not understood what the term haram and her arm and her arm actually mean? Because the term
this verb and its derivatives referred to
something is being allowed. And something is not being allowed in some some lines have been set in this state, then
cut your fingernails,
shave your hair, wear perfume, there's things that are forbidden to you. The state is not the forbidden state. No, it's an obligatory state if you're going to make hydromorphone, but it's a state in which some things have become forbidden. Just like the masjid al Haram is, is a place where, where the Haram is where things are forbidden, it's forbidden for you to go and cut trees, kill animals, you know, it's a bunch of things which are hunting etc. Not allowed. So it's in when you're in this state, this consecrated state, you're not allowed to do certain things.
So that's where the concept of haram haram etc comes. Anyway.
If you wear these garments
outside of Hajin ombre, without the intention is nothing, it's just a towel, now we are wearing towels, it could be a sheet, you know, it doesn't have to be thick. Now people wear the towels is more absorbent for
sweat, etc. You know, if you're just wearing sheets, then if you start sweating, it will be all over it, right. So this is why they switched the towels now, they're like two towels. The lower one is called izhar. And the upper one is called creda is our which just means like langi
or the equivalent term Sarang depending on your culture, what they call it. And the upper part, it means like cloak, creda is a cloak, you're wearing it over your shoulders.
that those two pieces of cloth normally, when we leave this world,
we are wrapped up in a couple of pieces of cloth.
So, the wearing of this
is actually reducing us
is reducing us to the lowest common denominator.
When you came into this world, they just put a little piece of cloth around you, you know you when you entered into the world and wrapped you up.
When you're going out in the world, they wrap you up and send you out you buried
so this state is one in which you are
disconnecting yourself from the dunya
disengaging with the dunya
you're trying to minimize to make put yourself in as simple a state as possible.
And in our times, you know, for some people to put on the Haram it's, you know, for men who have been raised with the idea that you wear underwear
you know now for you to be walking around without underwear. It's like strange,
psychologically, you know, you feel uncomfortable.
But underwear is only something that came up in the last
100 years before that people didn't wear underwear.
Same thing for women. So, I mean this these are changes that have happened in our culture
which make a haram uncomfortable now.
But it's part of we that we have to overcome those attachments those
feelings of you know,
what is proper dress and all these kind of things and, and and just let it go. This is the idea is just letting go. The dunya
we usually spend so much time you know are you wearing pants it has to be ironed this way that way you know wearing so but that's to be I end up this way and that you know everything is
done in a particular way. You know you
perfumes, oils, underarm deodorant, all kinds of stuff now, which involves preparing oneself to go out into the world.
But here we are giving up all of those things, letting all of it going go.
These things are no longer important, but it does mean at the same time that we become unhygenic. Some people think, you know,
then you shouldn't do anything.
Now, you still made
the zombie world was even your baby, maybe some hairs might fall off your body because you're not supposed to remove hairs. No, no, no.
No, if you take a shower, you wash yourself.
In the process of washing yourself, a few hairs came off, it does nothing doesn't count as anything.
Islam stresses, hygiene.
You know, it brought high hygiene to most of the world. Most of the world, people were not involved in hygiene at all.
Without divine guidance, you know,
Just barely a few notches above the animals. So it's it's divine guidance, which now brought
hygiene into the world.
so low, we become simple, we don't become unhygenic.
And they are Haram, these garments that as I said, For women, it doesn't, they don't have to wear white, they wear a jilbab and outer garment.
People call it different names. But jilbab is the one mentioned in the Quran.
With a scarf, or it could be a one piece, scarf and
and black is not necessarily preferable, though,
you know, it has become common common practice to wear black, but it's not it could be any any color Technically,
the wearing and the entering into that state
has with it,
The state of a harem
has with it different levels, because we said there the goal had to do with
becoming humble and simple.
critical aspects of our lives.
first level of the forearm is the physical level.
And this is where we have given up
the regular dress.
We don't cut our hair, fingernails, etc.
that is bringing ourselves down a notch on the physical level. The second
is the psychological level. Because that physical act should have along with it a psychological impact.
Meaning that we should feel a sense of humility out of it.
simplicity, remembering how we came into this world and how we're going to leave this world.
That that's all that counts.
What's going to make the difference is going to be our deeds.
What good deeds have we done
and the spiritual level
of the harm
that has to do with the
consciousness of a law that we are able to realize
because ultimately the Hajj
is about increasing our content
consciousness of a law building, strengthening our relationship with the law.
in that state
as we pray and
do whatever other
that have been prescribed different times, different places, etc.
Reflecting on the purpose helps us to be more conscious of a law in that particular act, event or that particular
dress in the case of a harem,
giving more meaning to it. So, it has more of an impact on us.
So, we should be conscious of the physical level, make sure we fulfill the physical requirements, that's the outer,
psychologically it should have an impact on us the fact that we have given up made the change, and then we have to focus on the spiritual goals,
the spiritual goal of that state of the harem.
So, as we said, the physical level
we have given up so many of these
everyday physical acts,
but not hygiene, we said,
avoid argumentation fighting course, language, anger,
the patient level comes in here psychologically.
And it's also about
how we look at other people around us, because by having the same dress, you know, it's really taking us down to, as I said, the common denominator.
Really beyond this dress.
I mean, how do people distinguish themselves in the world, is how the type of dress that they were, you know, designer,
sunglasses or whatever, you know, these are the distinguishing things to put yourself above others and people look up to you and
see you in this special light and you'd like to see yourself in that special light.
Getting rid of that, that really,
we're not special. In that sense. We're all the same.
And as I said, the spiritual
is about building our relationship
with a law because in that state, we're giving up things which are helpful.
Giving up things doing certain things which are helpful
in order to strengthen our will
to give up things which are haram outside of Hajj
as a general principle, the state of a haram does not make halaal anything which was Haram.
It does make haram things which were halaal.
zap clear. If you think about all the things that you can't do, there, these are all halau things.
So we're giving up some of these halau things why? Because in doing so, doing so willingly doing so in order to please Allah, then our willpower
to be able to leave the things which are haram
which Allah has in fact forbidden at all times.
It becomes strengthened our willpower.
Our spiritual connection with the law will help us to give up those things.
That is the spirit of obedience. That was the essence of what happened in
the garden of Paradise, isn't it?
The whole trial for Adam and Eve what was it all about? obedience.
That's the common denominator.
That is the essence of worship
of Allah is obedience.
In order for us to
express our intention, we have this principle in hajj known as tell BIA
where we express that intention vocally,
normally, intention is in the heart.
But in the case of Hajj expressing that intention became a part of the rites of Hajj
they became a part of the rites of Hajj with outside of that, expressing intention
verbally allowed before doing acts of worship. This is in fact bidda innovation.
I know it is the practice of people coming from the Shafi school before praying, you know to stand there for a moment saying in Nina way too and solea albaraka tiene mucho de and Bill de Mamata jehanne lol carabao Oh big long story.
I intend to pray, facing the Kaaba
following the mom and this practice, which has become common amongst many who follow the Shafi school was never taught by Imam Shafi nor by his students. This is something which came up later.
Possibly It was just something used to teach kids.
The children who easily forget why they're standing in the masjid
so they need some reminder. Okay, why are you here? Okay, I'm supposed to be praying. I'm supposed to be behind the mom and you know, this was good for them. But somehow it ended up with adults. People who are not Arabic speaking you know, even making these statements of intention they don't even know what they're saying.
But that was not the dean brown sauce lm never thought that he never did it his companions never did it.
The intention is there in your heart.
When you go to the masjid you know why you're going to the masjid?
You know, it's not that you just your body carries it to the masses and stuff and thinking that why am I here in the masjid? No, we don't go to the bathroom like that.
You go and make Voodoo.
there then goes you go and make Voodoo. He doesn't know why I'm making with you.
Everybody knows you know why I'm making what do you get set to make this prayer you need to do before the prayer. So your intention is already there.
Right. So it is said it is not ready from the dean. And it affects the prayer also because people may come there and they still haven't finished saying and the amount goes into record and you know, you miss part of your prayer still trying to catch these
do eyes or expressions of intention before they act.
So in hajj, this is unique. This is the only time that we are required
to express our intention
Allah made it one of the rites of Hajj itself.
You all know it. You've heard it many times.
Love bake Aloma bake. This tells me that we're making actually it is
instruction which was given to Prophet Abraham actually.
When Prophet Abraham had completed building the Kaaba
ally instructed him to announce to the people that they should come and visit it from far and near on Camelback.
So when Prophet Abraham invited the people he was told to invite and there was nobody there to invite
our response, love bake a llama bake, we are responding to that invitation of Prophet Abraham. That's the link. We're linking with.
Ancient history, the beginning, from the time of Prophet Abraham. Right.
So in it,
we express in the beginning, the basic Allahumma ombra 10, or a 10. In a hedge. We express that intent of which one we're going to do, whether it's just O'Meara alone, or whether it's O'Brien Hodge together, we say that once we have made that statement, we're now in the State of Iraq, even if we're not wearing the garments,
even if we're not wearing the garments.
there are certain types of garments, which we were not allowed to use. The prophet SAW Selim did clarify, you know, garments which are stitched
people understand this to mean that there should be no stitches on the garment at all. Now when they talk about stitched garments for the Haram is for men really for women, it has to be stitched
but for the men, what it what they mean is that it's not stitched into a sleeve.
So you know, there's special stitching which gives it a shape and that's what it means. It doesn't mean that if the, the class that you you have has some stitches, even if you stitch the pocket in it
to keep your valuables It's okay.
And so people go to the point where they say you can't even have shoes with stitches you have to wear you know,
regular flip flops, you know, rubber sandals, that's what you have to wear through you know,
if you have a you have leather ones, which has got stitching, stitching stitching,
they have not understood what the issue of the stitching is, is not the issue of simply because it has a stitch makes it now not acceptable. No,
it is your clothing not
cut in such a way and then stitched to form standard normal clothing that you would wear
outside of your state. That's the whole point.
the intention that we have inside of ourselves is expressed in the
statement along with a big ombre 10
or Lubbock Hajin if you're just doing hedge alone, or Merton in a hedge if you're doing what they call hedge tamatar where it's combined and this is recommended to be said when one is
in one's seat and the journey that you're taking towards Mecca.
The meaning of the salvia love bake Aloma bake is here I am or law here I am labella Sheree Kala Kala bake here I am for you. Have for you have no partner here I am in the lamda indeed all praise when near matter. Grace while milk and dominion luck is yours luxury kulluk and you have no partner.
you are responding that's what you're saying here I am. You have called me here. I am
answering your call.
So when we are saying the idea is not to turn the tell BIA into a sing song
you know, everybody's singing the song together, we're all enjoying the sing song. We're supposed to be reflecting on what we are saying this is very important. Most people don't know what the Toby actually says. They know the tune.
They know the words, but what is it actually saying it or have any idea? So how then can you benefit from the television?
So it's just like a ritual that is done. It's a part of the Hajj thing that you do, but it has no impact on you.
There is no impact. How can it if you don't know what it is, what it means, what you actually even say.
So, this is like the general principle we spoke before where a law said in the Quran of Allah to the burden con will people not reflect on the meanings of the Quran
where we have gotten into the habit of just reading the Quran without understanding it.
Singing like a song.
No meaning has no impact is just a ritual. So the same principle applies with the Quran applies here with the Tobia, it is important for us to understand what it means to those of you that are going to make Hajj, then you should strive to understand what each of the words this is very small.
Each of the words mean, you're going to be repeating it over and over, throughout the hedge.
So when you think of it, you know as here I am, or law here I am you thinking, here I am.
I'm coming here.
Based on your call.
This should help us to be more conscious of what we're doing. And that's why we're encouraged to say it continually
to make sure we're focused on why we're here. We're coming answering the last call. We're not coming to see the Kaaba
because of the Cabo was torn down. And the brother saw Sam said in time, last days, among the signs, somebody's gonna come and tear down the Kaaba. There'll be no copper there.
So what then there's no Hodge no Amara No. has an ombre is not dependent on the Kaaba.
The Kaaba was knocked down before
the time of the Sahaba
Abdullah bin Zubair
when he was declared the halifa.
Kaaba he was based in Mecca,
has hagibis the use of others they came they attacked and broke down the Kaaba, they fired rocks on the on Mecca and the Kaaba was knocked down crumbled. The people stopped making tawaf did they stop making Salah.
And this is the this is the proof that we don't worship the Kaaba because he does a lot of people think that we worship the GABA
a lot of people non Muslims in the world. And maybe some Muslim even think that too, but a lot of non Muslims. They think that we worship the Kaabah
Oh, you tried to tell them? No, no, we don't worship the GABA symbol. You are prostrating before it
isn't it and we make it worse. By getting prayer mats with GABAs on it
is not the idea of permit the one with the Kaaba.
And we put it up on the wall. And the place in the house where we pray we put the picture the GABA there. So now as a non Muslim observing us, you say you're not worshiping it, but there you are bowing down when you they're in Mecca and in your home, you're praying or you got it on a mountain you're praying and prostrating on it and and you got to place in the on the wall where you have put the
kind of looks like it
kind of looks at it, but reality is that we're not
and really the prayer mat. The best prayer mat is a plain prayer mat.
Because if you're sitting
Wanting to pray.
Problems are Solomon he prayed and he was wearing a garment which had stripes in it. And his it caught his eye while he was praying after the prayer took it off and gave it away.
Because it distracted him.
He he didn't like things which would distract him in his prayer. Now you have these prayer mats with all these designs, and you know, and it's set up in front of you, you're standing there, and you're looking at the map, because you should really pray with your eyes open, right?
I know a lot of people pray with their eyes closed, but really, it shouldn't be.
So nice to pray with your eyes open.
So you're there looking at the mat. And all these designs, what happens is when you stare at these designs long enough, then they start to move.
I'm sure you've all experienced that.
You know, they start to move.
What's happening to your concentration, it's messing up your concentration.
That's why the best prayer mat when you go out, get a plain prayer mat, nothing one color,
nothing on it, no designs at all.
It will do wonders for your prayer.
we want to stay focused on why we're there. The tell BIA is supposed to be a reminder to us. We're expressing reminding ourselves we're here answering the call
And we reiterate our Shahada. You have no partner, la sharika luck.
And we praise the law as we should
throughout our lives.
And as I said the significance
of the tell BIA is answering the call, which our Lord commanded Prophet Abraham to make.
So the Tobia
we could say is the pilgrims acceptance of Prophet Abraham's invitation to visit our law's house of worship.
That's the Tobia in its essence.
But its purpose relative to ourselves is to remind ourselves of why we're coming.
That we're coming to answer the call of a law.
The Tobia begins at the meat cart.
And when you see the Kaaba, you stop.
That's if you have intended ombre.
If you are doing Hajj, then you stop after the casting of the stones Rami at the largest genre in Mena on the 10th of the ledger. This is when you stop the Tobia
and the Toby as I mentioned is repeated it should be repeated different points.
The prophet SAW sentiment his competitors is to do it when they're
traveling on camo. They're walking when they were going up hills, they would do it
when they're descending.
When they joined up with other groups of people, they set it after the various prayers, and in the morning, and in the evening, to be as recommended
to keep us in remembrance of the purpose
for which were there.
And the gel, they should be said in a loud voice.
People might be shy to do it. Now, unless they all do it together.
But it should be
as prophesied. Solomon stated jabril came to me to convey Ally's message that I should command my followers to say, Tell me in a loud voice. It doesn't mean shouting
a voice you're you're saying it aloud as opposed to just saying it under your breath lobby kolomela big
audibly love bake Allahumma bake, you can hear yourself. It doesn't have to be screaming, don't go to one extreme or to the other.
Well, having said that albia
entered into the state of a harem.
Reflecting on the purpose of our journey,
we come into Mecca,
in that humbled state
we should go as soon as possible,
to the Kaaba.
But it is permissible to go and drop your belongings off. You know, some people say you can't you just have to go straight to the garbage No, you're bringing a lot of, you know, bags and things like that with you. It's no point trying to take it into the harem. And of course, they're not gonna let you
they will stop you.
So it just creates problems for yourself. It's better to take your stuff to wherever you're staying, put it in your room, whatever and then freeing yourself of all of these responsibilities
becoming focused. You go now
to the Kaaba.
And it's interesting to note
in coming to the Kaaba Mecca
we're coming to a place which people would not normally go to
you know, when you go to place a vacation, you go to, you know, nice greenery streams and this type of thing. Mecca is the complete opposite.
hot, all the it's just it's not a place for vacation.
And this is a point that we can clarify to the non Muslims as well. Why Why don't you guys allow us to come to Mecca?
We allow you to come everywhere you want to go? Why don't you allow us to come to Makkah because why would you want to come to my
vacation. It's not a place of vacation.
It's not to enjoy. Mecca is strictly for worship.
And that is emphasized by the place that the Lord chose for this to take place. He could have chosen another place on the earth. Some countries where it's lush green, you know comfortable rains are coming and you know,
but he chose