Channel: Adnan Rashid
(Birmingham City University – 20_03_2019).
© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.
Jesus over him,
Alam taka taka Allah,
Allah de la
what's a Moodle lovey,
lovely Java soccer our beloved book their own as an author.
I recited these verses from the Quran to remind you about the importance of history. Allah paradata uses history as a very powerful argument to remind you about the purpose of your lives. The purpose of life is to worship your Creator, because he's so powerful, he's so wise, you submit to Him, you submit to His power, and you submit to His wisdom, we are not more powerful, powerful than our Creator, we are not more wise than him, therefore we submit to Him. So Allah to make that very point gives us examples of those who can be worked before us, those who lived
and died before us. A lot talks about the achievements, the monuments, Allah subhanaw taala talks about how they used to count mountains, how strong they were, physically, how sophisticated they were.
And despite all that, they are gone.
What they took with them is what they did when they were alive.
And if people did good, the reward was and will be good. If they did bad, the reward will be bad.
For that very purpose to ever talk about the Mongol invasions. We learn from our history, history can never be ignored. Nations, people,
communities, societies that forget the histories are also forgotten. I request that you turn your phone's off, especially those kind of ringtone
a connection problem. Okay, then we'll leave it. Thank you for bombing, you know, you guys need to fix your materials.
Okay, so what we're going to do is,
instead, we're going to use your for to later on shop.
people who forget the history are forgotten by history.
Those who forget the history are condemned to relive it. Why? Because you don't learn anything, any lessons from your history. History teaches you what was done right.
And if it was done, right, it needs to be repeated. It needs to be upheld, it needs to be kept alive. And if something was done wrong, then we don't repeat it.
Because as Einstein said, anyone who continues to do the same thing to get different results is a coup. That's why we learn from my experience. That's why I love talks about history so much. Love talks about Vanessa Illallah talks about Ferrara talks about the people of modern mood and other nations for this very purpose to learn from the mistakes be wise, for that purpose, the Muslims more so today need to learn from the history. And we are a people unfortunately, who have completely forgotten our history. Generally speaking, when we speak to Muslim masses, Muslim youngsters, Muslim elders, you go to a mosque, you speak to any standard Muslim and ask them about the history, they
will have no idea
and I'm not exaggerating. I can demonstrate that to you right now in this very hole. If I ask you basic questions about your history, you will not have the answers. This is the catastrophe we are facing. Forget about all the other catastrophes you're facing Islamophobia, xenophobia,
hate against Muslims.
disasters, catastrophes. Okay, killings all Muslims around the world, whether it's African Central African Republic or whether it's Burma, Myanmar, or whether it's what happened in Christchurch a few days ago.
I believe these catastrophes are happening because Muslims have not learned from the history. Simple. If we had learned from our history, we would be on top of things. People wouldn't hate us. People hate us because they misunderstand us.
For that reason, we need to learn from history without
turning into turning this lecture into a lecture on the importance of history and learning from it. I think that's enough. For those who have those of you who are wise, who have
some intelligence, and I'm sure all of you do. And you know exactly what I'm talking about learning from a history of Mongol invasions. Why are they important? Because they are important because they were
one of the biggest catastrophes in the history of humanity. The Mongol Empire to date was the largest empire mankind has ever known.
the Mauryan Empire was the largest until the Mongol thing happened.
The minute the Muslims were governing from northern China to southern France. This was a promise made in the Koran. We as Muslims have a belief that God promised the believers, the leadership or the rulership of Earth. This is exactly what sutra 24 verse 55 states, although we live in a chatango regime is a liar Hannah Rahim. What are the lovely Lena mahnomen Kumamoto salejaw they will not come up. I mean, probably him it is a promise of a lot of those who believe among you that he will grant your succession in the land, so long as you believe and do write his deeds and do not commit check do not attribute or ascribe partners to a loss
of love and give you rulership in the land, which is exactly what happened. Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam dies in 632 z having overpowered the Arabian Peninsula, having brought the Arabian Peninsula under his leadership, he left his companions, his followers, who took the rest of the non word.
In some cases by force, no doubt, Muslims conquered lands by force, and never forced a population into Islam. This is a very important distinction which Muslims must make. Islam was never forced upon people by force.
The territory of Islam was definitely conquered by force, have no doubts about that, and do not be ashamed about that.
The territory of Islam was definitely taken by force. Why? Because Muslims wanted to do good. Muslims wanted to bring about justice. There were cases where Jews and Christians were inviting the Muslims into their lands to come in, liberate them from the oppressive powers that are governing them, such as the Persians, the Byzantines. In Spain, for example, when during during the day, there are Jewish historians who
testify to the fact that the Jews opened the gates of the cities to invite the Muslims in as liberated.
We cannot be ashamed of our history. Our history is great. It is amazing, it's magnetic. It is magnificent. We have to be proud of our history, because there is nothing to be ashamed of liberating people
And tyranny is great. It's a virtue and this is exactly what Muslims are to do. Why? Because the Quran in chapter 21 verse 107, told the Muslims that the Messenger of God Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam has not been sent, except as a mercy for the worlds. This was the mercy manifested by his followers throughout the world, throughout the globe.
So Muslims ended up governing land from northern China.
And as far as southern France, and this was known as the Muslim civilization,
where universities flourished, where Jews and Christians lived together, where people studied free of charge, in institutions, and under loose in Spain, there was a golden age for the Jews. There was a golden age for the Muslims, there was a golden age for peaceful Christians.
Muslims, Jews and Christians coexisted. Same thing was happening in the Middle East. Same thing happened in the Ottoman lands later on, and then the Mughals came to power, that history is very unique in itself. We can talk about that another time. So the point I'm making is Muslim
Empire if you recall that
our Muslim dominance of these lands brought about a civilization which lasted over 1000 years.
And within this civilization, scholars, points, scientists philosophers, were produced by this civilization.
Make no mistake when people jump from ISIS to Prophet Mohammed, they have an agenda. They ignore
14 centuries of history of Islam for a reason there is a deliberate when people equate ISIS with the prophet of Islam, they say what they do hammer equalizers that they make a jump like that hammer.
Have you seen a rainbow? Have you ever seen a rainbow? Is curvy, right? So what they do is they ignore anything that's between point A and point that
there is nothing between Mohammed and ISIS as far as these bigots. islamophobes Islam haters, politicians, journalists, people who cause the crisis in Christchurch attack, they are not concerned about what happened in the middle. It is your job now as Muslims to learn about what happened in between point A and point Zed to explain to people that no, no, no, no, what you tell us is a lie. The reality is that what happened in between they were universities. They were philosophers. There were points.
They were intellectuals. There were science experiments.
There was mercy. There was justice, there was coexistence. There were Jewish scholars produced in the 1000s under the Muslim rule, and the Jewish scholars call that the Golden Age. And this is not propaganda, by the way. But I'm telling you is not propaganda. It is history, which academics affirm.
This is exactly what took place throughout the Muslim history. So have no shame about your history and about your faith. What the prophets of Muslim did was great.
And his food is not ISIS. His fruit was the Islamic civilization, the Muslim civilization from China, to Spain.
And this was the largest empire the world had ever known. This Chuck, the promise made by the Quran was fulfilled to the letter, the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, and their followers eventually ended up governing land from China,
to southern France, and this produced a golden age for people who were living in these lands. There is a book I strongly recommend to understand what I'm talking about. Right, the name of the book.
The book is preaching of Islam, by Professor Thomas Arnold. The book is quite old. Academics don't like to use old books.
But this book has some fast you can learn from
the arguments are not necessarily very highly academic, but the facts still stand. Preaching of Islam makes this very point that Islam did a great job in bringing people together in creating a civilization that directly inspired the European civilization or Western civilization what we what we call the western civilization civilization today, it is it is directly in in debt towards Islam and Muslims.
This is another lecture Mongol invasions, please, coming back to Mongol invasions.
So Mongol Empire was the largest empire after the oma yet
the Mongols took land very rapidly.
And they created the largest empire the world has ever known. The Mongol record has not been broken yet. Even the British Empire was not larger than the Mongol Empire. The Mongols simply spread within a century they had created the largest empire world had ever known. So this was the territory Mongol Look how far they went. This is something you have to understand where they started from this region, Mongolia, despair into China. They were in Tibet, they went into pleasure.
But they were in Moscow. They went into Europe, they were in Poland and Hungary, Ukraine.
They went very far. They took the world by a shock. The whole world was shaken by the Mongols. And the Muslims suffer the most.
According to some
untrustworthy estimates, because many evil estimates are always untrustworthy. Unfortunately, they can never be 100%.
That's why there are there is such a vast variety of views or numbers when it comes to the Middle Ages. What happened during the Middle Ages, the number of armies, the number of men killed, the number of people who fell and the number of houses that were
Burn, we can never be sure about the numbers. But there are some estimates that close to 10 million Muslims were killed in all of these reasons.
All of this region, close to 10 million Muslims were killed
Ganga scar and his progeny.
This is a depiction of Ganga span.
And he goes on from 12 or six to 1227. He was born in the region today, known as Mongolia.
And his history in itself is quite vast. We can do a lecture on him alone, which I won't do today, I will continue talking about the invasions and what caused them
get his car into Park came to power in Mongolia, he united some of the Mongolian tribes. They're also known as tart Ares or tar in the Arabic language, okay, or moles in the Persian language. later on. The Mughals of India were called moguls
in a derogatory way, you know that word mogul meant the Mongols. But the moguls used to call themselves a Marines because they descended from Taymor who was a conqueror in the 14th century, in the same Central Asian region, which is another history herself. I will be trying a lot of things in the middle in this lecture. And if you want to research those things, you will have to go away and research research them I cannot possibly talk about all these things in this short
presentation. So I will try my best to fit in as much information
as possible information that is relevant.
So again, this car
is united is tribes in Mongolia.
These tribes were nomadic tribes, they lived on horse meat, and horse milk.
And even to this day, Central Asia, one of the best delicacies Like it or not, is horse meat. Do you watch Mark Wiens?
You watch his vlogs he was in Uzbekistan recently. By the way, do you know what meat is allowed?
I've never had it, I wouldn't have it.
But it is how
it is in Uzbekistan, which is a Muslim country, by population or demographically. So Muslim country, people love their Mark V has had plenty of those blogs. So these people were nomadic people. They are a very simple lifestyle. They are a very tough lifestyle. And that tough lifestyle helped them what they achieved later on.
They were battle hardened. The terrain was tough. The lives are tough. They were very immune to cold and warm weather.
And they battle tactics or war tactics are very simple. We will talk about them later. inshallah, if I don't, please do remind me during the q&a as to what made them so successful against the adversaries. Why were they so successful against the enemies? How did they come to power so quickly? Why weren't people made of wool?
or Muslim armies made of wool who are fighting them? No. They were strong armies, but why did not why did they not stand against the Mongol flood successfully? This is a question we will address later on. So he united his tribes and he had ambitions but he could not imagine
the achievements or military achievements he would achieve later on.
He was a very
References are given to him to this day, when people talk about cruelty and tyranny and barbarity and killing of innocent people. people refer to Ganga as calm. For example, a part of the Urdu poet Muhammad Akbar, very famous or do Persian and Arabic, quite a genius
who died in the early 20th century in 1938.
He said in one of his verses Judah, Dean's Yasser Theodora Raza T. Chang kz
to Tao Dean sellside, say to Raja T. Chung Daisy, who's going to translate that
impressed me with your
say again, I'm sorry, I don't know any poetry in body language. So
this Go ahead.
Thank you very much. Paul says something genius.
in one sentence, he summarized the fruit of modern secularism.
He said, If you separate fate,
in other words, ethics from politics, then what is left is the legacy of gagnez con.
Because if you don't have ethics in your politics, your politics is not ethical. This is a lesson you learn from a Polish teaching your lesson through history. Do thou Dean's they also say that
if you separate politics and religion, in other words, what you do with people
socially, politically, militarily, this is all politics, right? What you do with people socially, politically, military, if you do not do it ethically, then what you have is the legacy of Genghis Khan. And nowadays, Hitler has been added to the list.
Right? But Hitler was not as cruel as this man. He killed millions of people without remorse, as we will talk about it very quickly.
So this is the Mongol Empire when he came to power, he is uniting the tribes. He brought them together and he said, Let's make an empire and the Mongols united under him, because he was a strong leader. No doubt he was an evil leader. He was a genius in terms of military tactics and govern governing so he brought all these tribes together. As you can see, this is the Mongol Empire. He brought different continents, you don't find it is like
a rulership, you know, Han, the word Han, which the costumes nowadays use in Pakistan, Afghanistan and other regions as a surname or as a title chronically means the Amir, the leader, the king, okay, so Khan is a short
for Hong Kong. cron is an abbreviation of kakano hardon, which is a Mongol word, that means a leader so these are different candidates, which were united by a gang this con under his rule, he attacked them one after another, and he caused them to submit to His power so he united them
and after this unity, what happens next?
is an attack on the quasi might Empire was Russia.
Who was this person? I don't have a picture to show you. I have a coin. A gold dinar Of course I'm Sha hum. I've been partisan Sha
the second who govern from the year 1200 to 1220 he go into large Empire.
This is the cause you might Empire when so bad. mahama can call them Shah is governing whose name was allowed in Mohammed bin. Florencia unfortunately, forgot to bring his coins with me. I had his coins. I have a coin to lecture on Monday was purchased as well. And
I had the actual original coins from these dynasties, even the Mongol coins and I sold them, unfortunately, have a god.
But I have the images.
So this was the empire of course in Sha it spread to parts of Pakistan, currently Afghanistan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan,
Iran, and close to Iraq and Syria, large territory governed by one map.
And it will appear
to lay a 13th century historian, you're not getting bored, are you?
Are you sure?
I have ways to entertain you.
History should not bore you.
If history is making you sleep, then you get a slap to wake up.
I meant that metaphorically. Okay. Not literally.
Because history is so interesting. It's so fascinating. The problem is the way it's taught, especially to your children. When you look at GCSE books on history and a levels, I'm not surprised that kids don't want to study history anymore.
Why would you want to study the appeasement theory?
Right, or what happened in the second world war or what Hitler was doing? It's important to know that, but to force children to study that boring stuff. You know about the Second World War and other things like that. There is more interesting history. Take the Roman Empire. teach them about the Greeks. teach them about other empires that people can take interesting children.
Find. And when you teach people history, teach them history with substance with material evidence that people can touch them appreciate. So there is a reason why history is not taught the way it's taught, unfortunately. Anyway, coming back to that issue, so this was a large Empire governed by allow me Mohammad Shah,
and Gaius Khan, who was here in this region
and beyond, wanted a piece of his empire.
So he was looking for an excuse, he was looking for his Pearl Harbor.
Yes, you know what that is? Yeah, yeah, he was looking for his Pearl Harbor.
Or he was looking for other excuses to attack the Empire.
You know, this, these tactics to attack targets in modern day and age. To find excuses to attack other territories is not is not a new thing. Don't think CIA and KGB and these organizations have invented these tactics. These tactics were used in the ancient period and during the Middle Ages. So what happened to cut long story short, some mobile merchants were in the quasi my territory, doing business cut the long story short, they were killed for something we did. It is not clear why they were killed. And Ganga Khan sent emissaries to Gotham Shah asking for the culprits. Quantum Shah said, we will apply this knowledge justice, we will investigate, and those who are guilty will be
punished kangaskhan did not accept that solution. And he thought the party might Empire. And when he attacked the court, they might fire I'll cut the long story short, one by one, the attack took place in the fall 19. Remember the day 1219 is the time when Ganga is Khan decided to attack the Muslim territory governed by totana logged in Mohammed because of sharp
and at that time, Ganga Khan was already in his late 60s. He was already in his late 60s.
And one after another. All of these cities were taken. First
bokhara was attacked,
and the entire city was decimated. The details are far too grim
and lengthy for me to go over. Everything to cut the long story short, paid a tribute to the margins, to the Shahada on Mahara and he said, my tongue trembles and my hand shakes in telling the story of what occurred. I wish I was not born to tell the story. But I must, nevertheless tell the story so that people can take benefit.
And he called it the obituary of Islam, that you know, when you go, how would you translate the word material in Arabic janazah? Sorry.
Basically called the janazah of Islam.
What he meant was the Muslims had suffered daily bokhara was taken. First there was resistance. And then eventually people surrendered. People were tricked into surrendering the Mongols that surrender and you will be safe. And there was a laugh between the Muslims some Muslims saying no, we should we must fight we cannot trust these people. Other said no, they are ethnically the same people. The Mongols are Turkic. So are we we are Muslims. They are not Muslims. We are the same people. ethnically, they will not be you know, because even despite Mongols not being Muslims, there were certain
standards that Turkic tribes lived by. So the people of bokhara are under the impression that we will be treated differently by the Mongols, but they were wrong. As soon as the Mongols took over, they kept the population on the one side and there was a group of Muslims in Bukhara who resisted and they were besieged in the Citadel. Eventually, the Citadel Citadel fell. And it tells the story that women were raped in front of their relatives literally raped. And a lot of this has taken place in modern day and age. Unfortunately, when you read the stories of what's happening in places like Syria, you know, things that like that happened in the last time and other other parts of the world.
When wars happened, these ugly things do do take place. That's why wars are not a good thing.
That's why wars and awards are not a good thing. This is what happens. So a lot of these things took place and
Muslims are systematically killed. Many people were enslaved, and some people were able to make,
make away with their lives. And they took refuge in the city of Mosul were able to see personally witnessed the refugees he met the refugees. It is like someone, someone like you go to Turkey and you see the Syrian refugees coming, having been devastated and raped and killed and injured and all sorts of things. So you've never seen saw all of that and he was very disturbed by what he saw the treatment the Muslims had received, the Muslims of Bukhara had received at the hands of the Mongols was completely devastating for the for the minds of the Muslims who came across it. So it will see writes about it. He was alive at the time. He saw the very refugees and he was the one who was one
of the first people to comment on it. He was a contemporary of these events in the theater is a very interesting character.
He is a very important historian for us to remember as Muslims,
he outlived the Crusades.
It is thought that he actually met So Tom Saladino up as well.
And he lived long enough to see what the Mongols did later on to the Muslims.
And then, after bokhara Salman Khan was attacked, and same things happen there catastrophes of a grand scale. Absolute barbarity, even by the standards of the Middle Ages,
people were ripped apart in some cases, they were pulled, you know, mogul the type of people in horses and, and rip them apart, alive. Women's bellies were ripped open and kids were taken out and this is what he writes, and they were killed. So a lot of these things happen. And after within two to three years, all of this region was under Mongol control. One after another murder was destroyed the city of Merv we are told by policy that 700,000 Muslims are killed in this city alone.
over half a million people close to a million people according to ability and I don't believe the numbers they may be. I don't think that that's possible. But at the same time, a high number of Muslims because it was a very important city it was an ancient city Most of it was destroyed by the Mongols then Nisha port, it never recovered. It never recovered. nishapur was destroyed you know came from Russia.
Who came from Russia?
Mr. Muslim with a judge Nisha Puri, remember, so he Muslim Yes. You know about famously Yes, so nature was destroyed, never to recover Herat, which is an Afghanistan current devil. So, these are the modern boundaries, you can see that these more than more boundaries this is
this is Pakistan currently. Okay. So, so all of this was completely decimated is for on.
All of these cities were taken by the Mongols within two to three years, till 19 when Ganga Khan came in, and by 1220 to 23, all of this territory had been taken now causing sharp who was supposed to be fighting back
move from city to city to save his life and his family and his wealth. He kept moving with this project and eventually ended up dying soon after, and 1220 cars and showers dead.
When the Mongol invasion was still going on, he was on the run he died his son, Gerardo de bin Mohamad, for Lucia, please go back.
gelato the business is quite.
There are the calls in Sha two government for another 10 years, also tried to fight back against the Mongols, but he could not be successful because there was division within the Muslim ranks. Muslims are fighting each other cause in China the fighting is brother, one of his brothers, and that destroyed his power. He was not powerful enough to fight the Mongols. Okay, the dynamics were were very, very complicated at the time. The Muslim power was divided as soon as the Mongol attack people rolls and they're starting to claim power they were fighting against Mongo than they were fighting against their own people. If the Muslims had a united front militarily, Mongols could never achieve
what they did. It's not that the Mongols were invincible. They were humans. They were as humans as Muslims at the time. Because Muslims are divided. They kept fighting each other.
There was no united front and wherever the Mongols went, they decimated the cities. They burned
Down the kill the population. This is why there are estimates that close to 10 million Muslims lost their lives from Central Asia to Syria within these decades, so Geraldine Kazim Shah could not successfully continue. And he was on the run, found by a president told him his name. And the President found out that this is an auto dealer who had killed his brother and the president ended up killing him as well. So Muslims were left without any power in the States about his father that the reason why no one could help them is because when they were expanding the Empire, they were killing all the kings, they were conquering Muslim kings when they were expanding their empire,
every Muslim King or ruler, they came across the kingdom.
And that's why there was no effective leader left to join them to fight against the mobile. So once they will kill the Muslims who are left without leadership.
So this is ogundipe Khan, who was one of the sons of Genghis Khan, he succeeded his father, he governed from 1229 to 1241.
The Empire is still spreading.
The Mongols are still going on. There were breaks in the middle. The Mongols stopped at times, for few years, for example, to rest and to consolidate their power. And then they would reinitiate hostilities against the surrounding Muslims and Muslims kept coming back to power and kept losing territory. So back and forth, you know, this tennis match between the Mongols militarily speaking, and Muslims were going was going on for a few decades, right until the grand catastrophe took place.
Which was to go forward please.
So this was my take on who came to power after Olga died, who was one of the most powerful
Mongol fans. This is one of his coins. This coin was minted by a Georgian king named David, there was a Christian, this is a Christian coin, mentored by Christian, but this coin was minted in the Arabic language amazingly, and it was mentioned in the name of Monkey icon, okay.
it was in his time,
one of the greatest catastrophes in Muslim history took place when he was the con of the Mongols. Right? I cannot simply go into the details of each of these individuals, Olga monkey, each one of them Ganga Scott is a topic in itself. Do you all understand that brothers right, is a topic in itself kohrville Shah Delano before them share the details of the battles and what they went through, are far too many for me to cover in this short lecture. This is an introduction to Mongol invasions. You are what you are seeing right now are the main details or the main points you need to remember on this particular topic. If you want to read further, there is a book I recommend strongly
is by David Morgan. The book is titled Mongols. That's a good introduction. A slightly more detailed introduction on the Mongolian they rise and the you know, conquests and catastrophes and atrocities and what happened to them.
So it was in monkey calls rain, one of the grandsons of Genghis Khan, he was that the greatest catastrophe took place.
Who the who, who was another grandson of
Genghis Khan was a general who was at the time in Iraq. This is we're talking about 1215. Now, about 30 years removed from Genghis Khan, right. Gaviscon died, age 72 in 1220s, okay, and his children continued the onslaught because the father had created an empire and he had started initiated the hostilities and he had created an even bigger Empire. Having taken all these Muslim territory from Kazimierz right now his sons had to maintain it, they had to sustain it, and they had learned from the Father Well, they tried to expand. They had difficulties there were divisions among the Mongols as well. Mongols, Mongol Khans did fight each other for power, no doubt, but they continued taking
territory because the Muslims are not getting the message Even then, that they need a united
Front against the Mongols to survive to protect the remaining populations of the Muslims and the Mongols continued invading other territories. I'll talk about India
Do you know the Mongols invaded India, Pakistan, Mongols invaded Lahore.
The battle between the Mongols and the Muslims will towns of Lahore and Delhi to remind me if I don't cover it before I finish, remember to mention Pakistan Lahore and I'll talk about it very quickly. So this was the greatest catastrophe, one of the greatest catastrophes in the history of Islam, the seeds of that, because the Mongols have been expanding, expanding. And they knew that so long as Baghdad is standing, they cannot possibly claim complete victory over the Muslim Empire. Even though the Caleb was tributary, what do you call was the word.
He was just an honorary Katif he was, you know, I can't even name it was like a puppet. And people would acknowledge his sovereignty over their kingship for the he didn't have any power in the real sense of the word. Even photons in India, when they minted the coins, they would have the name was tossing on the coin. They did it acknowledges spiritual sovereignty is is, you know, eldership if you like, right, in governing the Muslims in spirit, but not physically, right. So he was simply confined to the city of Baghdad and its surrounding area, right. But that at the time was the largest city on the planet. It had the largest libraries in the world, it had the largest hospitals.
It was a civilization in itself.
There were many scholars there. There were many schools there. There were many,
you know, science labs there. There were observatories there. They were philosophers there, there were points there. There were squatters there, but that was such a huge civilization that the sophistication of Baghdad became
a liability for itself. They became so sophisticated,
that they became too weak.
How does that work?
How does that work?
They got involved with luxury too much.
They were in fashion too much.
You know, Louie Vuitton and
Gucci. And nowadays, like, you know, Muslims, Muslim men who wear these kind of things yet.
Because you know what I'm talking about. Nowadays, Muslim men
are very similarly doing fashion, you know, like they were very close to ladies. Very close to ladies. This is what happened in Baghdad at the time men were not ready those men, leaders, thinkers, intellectuals, policymakers, farsighted
rulers, they were not like that. They are lost their sight. They couldn't see what's happening around. I believe, as soon as the Khalifa is about dad heard that gang is gone is in they should have taken some important measures to protect their people, right. But they were not doing that. Unfortunately. They were still busy listening to their singing and dancing sessions. You know, drinking was rife. People were involved in romantic poetry. All these things are taking place. There's no doubt they were good scholars at the time as well. Right.
So this is the catastrophe that took place in 1258. Cut the long story short, hulagu, one of the grandsons of Genghis Khan, decided that Baghdad must be taken if the Muslim Empire at large is to be subdued. And he was seized about that. Before he did that, of course, he made many progressions. He
he carved the road between China and Iraq to make sure that the military the army, you know, can travel safely, comfortably. And he made sure there's plenty of pasture for animals. He you know, all the strategic measures he had to take in order to subdue Iraq. He did that. Right. And then he started to send out his spies to check what the military situation is in Baghdad. The military situation in Baghdad, unfortunately, was that there was a prime minister called internal alchemy. Okay.
And he was on the Shia background
and he was working with the Mongols.
How do we know this because he was appointed as the ruler after the Cave of data had been killed. April alchemy had advised the cave to cut down
The size of the military to save money. The Kaylee's, although he was a very pious man, even Cassia praises him in his history that he was a very pious man. But piety is not always
necessary for effective government government.
Does that make sense? Does that make sense?
A person who has a strong result, a person who is an effective leader is better than someone for Muslims. And their well being is better than someone who has a lot of taqwa who doesn't raise his eyes and he's always has has just been his hand.
You know what happens Nowadays, people choose leaders who are the most pious people in the in the cloud, but they might be the weakest in resolve. This is something we don't understand. And you may ignore someone who appears to be not as strong religiously.
As the other person you have chosen. Mr. Mohammed was asked this question, we have two options. One is a pious person is very pious, but
his resolve in making decision is weak. And the other option is someone who is personally weak. He has personal weaknesses, but when it comes to his resort, to lead his people, he's very strong. Who shall we choose? Mm hmm. Without hesitation responded, you choose the one who is strong in his resort is strong. Why? Because his strength will benefit the oma
and his weakness, personal weakness, it will only harm him. Yes, it will have a personal harm. Nada, but his strength will benefit the oma on the other hand, the pious man, his piety only benefits his person, but his weakness in resort will harm the ummah.
So the Kaylee's as pious as he was, because he will receive criticism for his piety was weak and resort.
He did not take the right measures, the army sizes reduced, the Mongols came in. And then Hulu or Hulu was a very superstitious man.
Some people came from Baghdad and advised him do not attack the city. This is a blessing city anyone who attacked the city was destroyed.
You will be destroyed. It was a very superstitious man said no, no, no.
I will not attack. Then there was another
astrologer and astronomer called Macedo, Dina Boosie
very famous man, also from the Shia background, advised
pelaku to attack the city of Baghdad and do not care about these superstitious ideas.
Cut the long story short, the attack was
done. Many people were killed. And people try to resist and the resistance was naturally limited because the KDF had reduced the size of the army. And there were many traders who had joined the Mongols, including Muslims who had joined the Mongols are dark. There were Christians and Mongol army Georgians, for example, Georgia mercenaries, there were
people from the Shia background smilie background who were supporting the Mongol army, this these are historic facts. By the way, I'm not trying to inflate some kind of dislike or hate against a particular community. These are historic facts. I'm only telling you history there my purpose is not to raise because there are Muslims. There are so many Muslims who are in the Mongol army.
There are so many Muslims traitors who were in the Mongol army who are fighting against the city of Bogota. So this is the point I'm making, right? It's very clear that there were a number of different people. So what happened? The Mongols eventually ended up entering the city and they can they started the massacre of the population for 40 days, non stop. Mongol army was killing Sunni Muslims in particular, the Shia quarter, and the Christian quarter was left alone, because a lot a large party, a large portion of the Mongol army was from the Shia background and from the Christian background, because Georgian Christians were there and the seals were there. So they were left
alone. But the rest of the population was slaughtered without mercy in Africa to the rates that Mongolia woman would count. This is how weak the Muslims have become at the time. A Mongol woman would come she would lie in the Muslims are men and one after another she would be killing them she would be executing them and they would be standing there in submission waiting for the Turner, a woman a Mongol woman would do that. Alone. Alone. able to see
also states that that a Mongol man would come. And he would find 100 men standing, and he would start killing them executing them. The Muslims of the city of La had become so weakened and so feminine, that they could not defend themselves because of the fashions they, you know, acquaintance with luxury and nice clothes, the nice curtains, the nice carpet, the nice chandeliers and fountains and all these things. These are civilized people, right fighting a barbaric, barbaric clan, right? This is what it was, then they had become so civilized, an industry that had become so accustomed to ease and luxury, that they could not anymore resist the executioner. Someone is executing them.
Right. This is how cowardly these people have become unfortunately, or another reason could be that they were completely terrified. They were terrorized what they are seeing with the Mongols. Mongols are scary creatures. And they would definitely make a point of
driving terror to the hearts of people by converting inhuman atrocities deliberately, they would advertise their atrocities. They would magnify the atrocities for people to know that if you resist, this will occur, this will happen to you. So they would deliberately do barbaric things to the cities they have taken
to the people they are killing. So close to a million people lost their lives, including many scholars.
And before this happened, who had asked all the dignitaries of the city of Dart to come out and meet him, Kaylee's came with almost 700 dignitaries from Baghdad, that included poets, scholars, intellectuals, businessman, leaders, military generals, important, you know, advisors and the Kalia.
All of them were killed except few. They were kept alive. All of them were killed immediately the Mongols got the hand and they can you imagine the cream of the crop
that destroyed in this one day? Can you imagine how many intellectual the nominee minds that destroyed in one day? No one can imagine that this was a great catastrophe. This was a huge catastrophe for the Muslims.
And scholars killed within
this particular group of people like the son of April, Josie, Josie.
Josie is one of the greatest scholars in the history of Islam who ever lived. This is not quite it is not integratable jovia. I'm not talking about him. I am talking about shift I will finish up the article Josie, the author of LBC. Please have you seen the book The Devil's deception?
Okay, he wrote the book. Even though Josie was one of the greatest scholars who lived in Baghdad, his very son was killed among the victims by the Mongols, and many more scholars like that were killed in Baghdad. So Camden was completely decimated. Now greater catastrophe, the library,
the library of Baghdad, which was second to none in the entire history of humanity, the books they're in were lost. You cannot imagine. I am talking about even Greek knowledge was lost in there. Because many manuscripts belong to the Greek legacy. Many Greek words were translated into Arabic during the early ambassade period, and they were still in this library. This library contained books going back to the time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, Masashi the Quran, books of Hades, possibly some handwritten copies of people like Mr. mcquarry, Mr. Muslim, some very important stuff. Muslims that accumulated accumulated over the past five centuries,
was destroyed systematically. All these books were thrown in the river tigress that runs through Baghdad, and the the water of the river became black. It was black and Mongol horses were riding riding on top of books. And they had no idea what's underneath there. They couldn't even save those books for their own development for their own civilization.
Same thing happened in 1492 when the Catholics, Catholic Monarchs.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took the city of Granada for Muslims, the last stronghold of Muslims in Spain in 1492. When they took the city, they destroyed over a million books from that library. You cannot imagine what was in that library.
simply cannot imagine over a million works of poetry, mathematics philosophy, from these three, point, you know, you name it, you name the sciences, they had all of it there.
So it is not the legacy of Muslims to burn libraries, rather, the legacy of Muslims is to build libraries. If you are not building libraries, you're not following your predecessors. Let me tell you that much. If you are not book lovers, Muslims were the most book lead people in human history. Did you know that Muslims were the most bookly people in human history? Today, Muslims have become the most booked less people
in human existence.
We have more interest in other things, cars,
collecting stupid things, right? We have no interest in history, we have no interest in literature, reading, book collecting.
We are more interested in other things. And that's why we are the way we are we do not have leadership in universities, we do not have leadership in political circles, we do not have leadership, effective leadership, I mean effective leadership on
the global stage when it comes to intellectual activity, we have all these problems.
And this is because we have completely become a book less people. We need to go back to books, we need to go back to libraries. Despite what happened in history, we must continue, we must continue working for the betterment of this planet, to make this world a better place you need books, because if the books get into the wrong hands, then you get people like so called intellectuals who are peddling hate against you using books in the wrong way. If you do not read books, you cannot defend yourselves, you have brought events.
Before physical defense comes intellectual defense. This is a battle of hearts and minds. You cannot wait it without books. It is a it is impossible.
So we need to learn from history. Mongols destroyed the entire library of data and we have no imagination. We do not know what was destroyed in that library. Unfortunately, besides going back to the time of the prophet or Solomon, the first entry in the second century in the third century in the fourth century, and this was the sixth century and the seventh century, never to be recovered. Again, you cannot imagine what that means.
I collect books, I collect manuscripts, I know what that means.
I know that means when you lose one manuscript when you lose one manuscript written by hand
by a Muslim scholar
or any scholar for that matter.
So about God was destroyed. This is a dinner of Katie for most of us in the last a basket case in Muslim history. You can see his name there, almost Aston Villa.
And this particular dinar
was actually minted during the siege of Baghdad
when Baghdad was besieged, this is a very expensive than Iran was sold in an auction for a lot of money recently, because it was actually mentored when the siege was still in place.
Because of the date, it is the last year of the case 656 is that the date is 656
in the last months
so what happened to the case, having seen the destruction with his own eyes, having seen the killing of his own children, his own sisters imprisoned, he was kicked to death he was rolled into a carpet. And according to some of the reports, he was thrown into a dungeon with his treasured very gold and silver. And he was asked by the Mongols to eat that gold, gold that you kept
and did not spend on military development. Gold that you kept and it was spent on army Egypt now.
I don't know how authentic These reports are. But there are reports that he was rolled into a carpet a Mongol way of killing dignitaries, or Mongol way of soft death. He was rolled into a carpet and he was trampled over by horses or kicked to death almost doesn't belong. The last clip of Baba died in this way.
Then Julius later came a very good news for the Muslims.
Again, cut the long story short, I think the lecture has already gone on for a very long time. We're gonna quickly talk about what happened afterwards.
Mongols are a test from Allah.
They were a trial from Allah taught it a punishment for Muslim negligence towards Islam call it a trial, a test. It may be anything. We don't know what to do Allah hikma, a lot of wisdom is with him.
Whether the law was trying to teach Muslims a lesson, whether it allows trying to change the course of history, whether it was trying to reshuffle
the because we believe in a lot, hikma, you know, we are not like ETS that Oh, bad things happen. Therefore, there is no God, actually, when something happens, you know, someone exists, right? If you are in a dark room, and you get a slap, what's the first conclusion? What's the first conclusion? There is someone else there.
You understand? If you are in a dark room alone, and then you get a chant.
In the Punjabi lobby, that means the hard Pakistanis love
the one you
with a hand. Yeah.
You know, in Pakistan, when people fight, they slap each other.
Before the punch is trying to promote this part, or this side of the culture because I grew up in Pakistan.
I used to see that very often when people fight, the first thing that happens is a slap. People think that's feminine, but that's actually not that's part of the culture, right. So,
if you get a slap in a darkroom, you know there is dominance there. This is what we say. That how we know that Allah exists is because of bhakti, Laffy layli when the heart
and lust parallel attempt challenges in the Quran. In the focus, some of it will Art Walk the laughing lelee one the heart, the IRS in Louisville, Alabama.
In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the changing of the night and the day, there are Signs for those who contemplate
so when things happen,
and your planet still carries on despite something like tsunami, like big earthquakes, big catastrophes, and your planet still continues, life is still going on. The sun is still shining, the moon still survives. There are earthquakes on the moon. People say why are they happening? I say they are happening because of life trying to show you that this happens. And despite this happening, you still live
it still lived.
The one who created you, it gives you a shake, you know every now and then wake up. I am the one who created you and Dawn sustaining you. Because any more of this
can cause your life to collapse.
You only get enough of a shake for you to realize for you to wake up. So
it dropped 60 the Mongols are making their way to Syria. And they are taking parts of Syria they are taken the city of Damascus and many Muslims have been kept captured. And what the Mongols will do very often is to use the captives to fight against the Muslim brothers. And if they did not fight against the Muslim Brothers, they would be killed. Sometimes Muslim captives were used as human shields in wars for when there's a war going on. There are arrows coming down that would hold a Muslim in front of them so that he shot so Mongols had these very barbaric tactics, what were the military tactics, they wore very light armor. And in their clothes, they would wear a silk shirt.
Right when when an arrow could penetrate the body, they will easily pull out the arrow with the silk shirt right it will bring it out. So they had very genius ideas, simple ideas, they use shorter horses. It were the Mongolian horses that enable them to do what they did. These are some of the military tactics there. They traveled very light. They rode very light.
Other armies against them would come in armor like with iron, big iron things hanging on them and they would find it find it find it very difficult to fight. But the Mongols had certain tactics, they had charging horses with archers. Something with the Mughals used later on and they conquered India by doing the barber, the first Mughal Emperor. A lot of these tactics are borrowed later on by other military establishments in trawl 16th. To cut the long story short, the Muslims of Egypt who are governed by a people later on called the men Luke's literally the only ones the possessed ones because they were slaves who had become king. Right? There were two slave dynasties in the history
of Islam, whereby whereby slaves became kings, right? These slaves came from Turkic background. They were very similar ethnically to the Mongols. Right?
They were bought specifically for one purpose. They were trained in military arts, so that they can become helpers to their masters. So Barnes kings would buy slaves and train them in military arms so that they can have their loyalty. So towns in the Middle Ages in the Middle East, in particular, couldn't always rely on the loyalty of their own. They have their own tribes and the cousins and the uncles. So for that reason to avoid that trouble, they would buy 1000 slaves, 2000 slaves from Central Asian markets, and train them in military odds. And some of these slaves become would become so good that they will come become generals, and from generals, eventually they became photons. This
happened in two places. One was Egypt, where the Mamelukes governed and the other place was, who knows, go on impressed me.
impressed me with your history.
a place very far from Egypt and Syria, Pakistan,
Delhi, the days of
the dailies ultimate, the dailies ultimate, which consisted of entirely
of slaves governing as kings, very powerful monarchs governed from the year 1200 onwards, and they remained in power in some shape or another until 1526 when the moguls came in, and moguls came in and removed the slave dynasty from power. So the last slave dynasty in India was the law, the dynasty and
the first powerful king of the slave dynasty in India was a man called Porter would be either
a very Turkish name with a Turkic slave, also bought from Central Asian markets and trained in military arts, who after the death of his master who was Shabaab Dean Khalid Mohammed bin Salman shahabi, Rory, who had fought many major battles in northern India against some Hindu kings when he died
and you know where he's buried.
Who is from Gujarat Han here
midfoot with apart from Buddha con hero Shahabuddin Gauri is actually buried in your city. When you go back next time, ask them, where is the vorys tomb, they will take you there, he was killed there, he was buried there, he was assassinated in his tent. He was one of the major invaders of North India, okay. And then when he died is very slave named kotoba. Being a book came to power. This happened in 2006. And a book governed for four years, and he fell from his heart horse playing something like Polo, different from his office in Lahore. And then he died and he's buried in a place called Anarkali. in Lahore, okay, then came to powerful Don Johnson deep into the mesh, who
was also a Turkic slave belongs to the same clan. He goes on for the next almost 26 years until 1236. Then his daughter, or the Apostle Paul, or the Assam, Donna came to power for four years with a woman, her first woman and ruler in the history of Islam in India, okay. She was very effective, very famous, very well known. There are dramas and movies made on her her finds a very expensive, very rare coins, okay, and then came to power, another man after her one of the most powerful figures in Indian history in those times. And now when these people are governing when his daughter and the co founder came after we also been bourbon, when these guys are governing, the Mongols are
invading India, nonstop. They're invading India. And these photons are fighting against the Mongols, protecting India, you know, when you hear this narrative on the Indian news, in the mouths of hindutva activists and extremist right wing Hindu, you know, in some cases, terrorists, you know, when you hear them on the news on Indian channels, that Muslims, you know, they've brought nothing but suffering to India that decimated the population, that if the Muslims did not defend India against Mongol invasions, just one favor of Muslims forget about everything else. Forget about all the Muslim libraries, all the Muslim scholars, all the poetry in Persian, all the books written in
Sanskrit during the Muslim rule. Audrey Trask is a scholar who has written a book to prove this very point.
That under the Muslim Muslim rules when the Mughals of governing India, the Hindus and the culture and the language flourished, there was a Sanskrit Renaissance due to the Mughal rule, right. So, all of this, put it aside, one favor alone of the Muslim photons towards India is enough for Indians to appreciate.
And what is that resisting against Mongolian valence at a cost, which was very, very heavy.
To cite one case, in particular, Mongols invaded Lahore, when soltana they also did Barban also a Turkic Sultan, belonging to the slave class who had become the king of India, North India. And these are very strong, observant Muslims. They were very strong Muslims, these people, they had weaknesses, no doubt. They are personal weaknesses. They probably did drink. They probably did have their dance dance sessions and all that that was part of ruling at the time, right, but they had very strong attachment to Islam at the same time.
had a son called Prince Mohammed who was the governor of Milan,
who was the governor of volta.
photon was a major center of Muslim civilization in the Indian subcontinent. So the governor of Bhutan was the very son of the Sultan, he also been Baba and Prince Mohammed was the value ladder, he was the heir apparent after his father. So he was given a message that the Mongols are very close to Lahore, they are attacking the city a lot. So the prince decided to confront them. And the information or the intelligence he was given was that there are there are 3000 a zero was unfortunately missed.
Okay, he had no idea 3000 baby job, let's go. So he went to fight the mumbles. Lord, this battle took place. When he got there, he realized a zero was missing from intelligence. It will 30,000 Mongols, and that means a heavy force. Looking at the Mongols, he went with a small force to subdue this. He was besieged, he fought and he was killed in battle. So Tom, he also been bourbon never recovered from this loss. He loved his son dearly, and he gave his own son to protect India against Mongols. If the Mongols are allowed to come to India, the history of India would have been completely different, who knows they would have destroyed every single temple mosque place of
worship standing like they did everywhere else. But Muslims defended India against the Mongols. And in this very battle, there was a very famous point present name, Amir khusro, a very well known Persian poet who lived in Delhi. And he documents what he saw. He even explains and describes the mumbles how smelly and disgusting they were. The hygiene was bad, the manners are bad, and they were like not humans are like creatures from somewhere else. And, of course, Muslims are very civilized, very clean, very civilized in the manners and the behavior and the way they did things.
They're so long goes against their own prejudice, you know, Muslims, because they saw themselves.
So this is what happened in India, coming back to the Battle of angel, Angel. Similarly, they were Mamelukes from the same background, governing Egypt. They had come to power, coincidentally at the same time in Egypt, so they were two members of dynasties, because this phenomenon
intensified which phenomenon buying of slaves and training them in military art, it intensified in the 13th century. And this was the outcome the outcome was slave kings who became so powerful that they became kings, they became the Sultan's right. So in this case, the Sultan was safer dealer, say would been output or
who knows autos was actually sold into slavery, but he was not Turkic, but the man who supported him in the battle.
Strongly was a man called Davis, I'm finishing very soon. In the next three to four minutes I'll finish until I don't have a watch.
Okay, so I'm finished very soon that I think we can go to q&a inshallah, because the information is so much that I cannot possibly cover everything. So for those
he decided that he will confront the Mongols cut the long story short, he asked for the Muslims are supportive. Many refused to support him because they feared the Mongols or they had joined the Mongols against the
Mongols were definitely making their way towards Egypt. Egypt was
Very rich and the Mongols had their eyes on Egypt and stood strategically Egypt is standing between the East and the West. The Western civilization of Islam was completely in what North Africa and Spain and the Mongols are the eyes on that as well. They had no idea as to what's there and they were looking to go into North Africa and Spain. So who was standing in the middle Egypt, governed by Mamelukes cut the long story short, POTUS decides that he will fight a battle outside, he goes outside fight a battle near Palestine, there a place called iron john. This battle field was about 65 kilometers away from the very famous battlefield of 18 vessel towns alladhina. UB had, some years
ago, some decades ago, defeated the Crusaders and the 60 kilometers away from the very famous battlefield called Yarmouk, where does hava for the Romans, so this place was very strategically chosen by photos he got there first. So he got the advantage of choosing the battlefield. And he had strategically placed his people he deliberately sent a very small portion of his army to fight the Mongols first led by none other none other than Sultan baybars later on, who came to power after quarters had been killed. A kudos by the way was killed immediately after this battle. Unfortunately, by his own generals, this this is a dilemma This is a you know, problem we had faced
throughout in Muslim history. This internal fighting and killing of effective leaders to come to power, so go to those killed soon after and Weber's came to power beavers was the man who eventually got rid of the Crusaders from the Holy Land in 1291, he received the city of acre and eventually took the city from the Crusaders. So in this battle, he sent papers forward. So the Mongols thought is a very small army. So they came into the battlefield and entirely cat Buddha, who was a moral general at the time, he wanted to wipe out the Muslim army once and for all, and completely decimate the entire but gotos had a different plan, he had hidden the bulk of the army behind the mountains,
waiting for the Mongols to come into the valley completely, and then to shock them. And amazingly, when this was happening, photos, dismounted his own horse, and he went forward fighting with his men on foot. And when his soldiers saw the king fighting in person on foot, they were completely inspired and you know, influenced by this very action, and they fought hard, and the Mongols war for the first time in the history was shocked, and Mongols were not known for leaving the battlefield. They were not known for running from the battlefield. They were very very difficult.
Opponents and kudos had then shocked the modern world. In this battle, Muslim armies came down from the mountains, and the Mongol army was completely uprooted and decimated and they were on the run. And then another battle took place 20 kilometers away, where the Muslims were able to overpower the rest of the Mongol army. So or such was the Battle of Ranger route. After the destruction of dat 1252 years later, this battle took place in Palestine, and that stopped the Mongol advance eastwards for Mongols are not able to take Egypt ever. They were not able to take any more land in North Africa, and by extension, Spain, but they continue taking land
in the east. And then later on, a lot of these Mongols and their children became Muslims. the very people who came to destroy Islam got conquered by Islam, and they realized that the day ways are not better than Islam and Muslims. They became Muslims. Many powerful mungo leaders embraced Islam and having come as destroyers that turned into defenders of Islam in the very next century, and they became very powerful rulers.
scheffel Islam in potamia, Portola a was born three years after this very battle in 1263 ebru Tamia was born and when he grew up, he saw the Mongols invading his territory as a child, he saw what's happening. His father and his family migrated to the city of Damascus due to Mongol invasions from Huron which is encouraged in Turkey. So April, Tamia had migrated to Damascus, and he grew up seeing the Mongol invasions and the cruelty and the barbarity and later on, he himself was found on the battlefield, fighting some sort of Mongols who have become Muslims. One of the problems with Mongols was was the Mongols was that because they were militarily and politically dominant, they
Even though had come to Islam had still allegiance to the ways of ganglions con, they still refer to his book, or the USA or yaczik as an authority over them, right. And this is why some of the scholars of Islam, they said they're not truly Muslim, because they haven't actually submitted to Sheree a completely, they don't really believe that Sharia is superior to a yasak they still refer back to the ways of gagis Khan, for inspiration and authority, therefore, even taymiyah and scholars like him, fought the Mongols in the coming decades, and later on mangoes slowly, gradually lost the power. And many of the, you know, cities and the territories that they were governing were either
taken over by other Muslim kings or other Muslim tribes or other Central Asian Muslim powers, like the morals and the you know, the subtle veto came to power in Iran, and they applied Shia Islam in the country of Iran.
So, I will stop here for now. This is
Mongol invasions. In a nutshell, this was still a brief history and introduction. The details are far too much for me to cover in a short lecture like this, and we will go straight to q&a. Thank you so much.