Aurangzeb – The Misrepresented Mughal
Channel: Adnan Rashid
File Size: 59.08MB
Bismillah R Rahman Al Rahim Al Hamdulillah al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil alameen wa salatu salam O Allah Hata Milan BRC mursalin wa de voz hobby oral my Ameen Forman tabia home Bay San Angelo Medina I'm about to be Lai Samia alumina shaytani r rajim Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem, Amara sanaka Allah, Allah Allah Allah Ameen, or Kala Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. buldhana voila Ayah
respected brothers and sisters in Islam. Thank you very much for attending this important lecture, I will be talking about orange Zeb alum gear.
And he was a Mughal emperor who governed from the year 17 1658 to 17, our seven, almost 49 years.
And he is a very controversial figure in this current day and age, in particular in India, and in general within the western academia. And there's a reason for that.
The reason is in India is controversial because the right Hindu, right, the Hindu right wing parties,
specifically the one in power right now, BJP has made it a business for itself to tarnish orangevale on gear, because he is seen as a very Muslim King.
And because of his strong attachment to Islam, which we find in historical sources, he has been demonized beyond
And some modern historians have challenged that narrative. In fact, recently
a historian from the US called Audra truck.
And she is a lady she has written this very important book titled orange
the life and legacy of India's most controversial King, this was published in 2017. It is the most recent work on the life of orange zevalin gear and it is very brief, you will not find details in this book. The book is about 108 pages long if we minus the notes and bibliography of the book. It is a very good narrative. It gives you a summary of the life of a volunteer and some of the controversies have been discussed in this book. So what are the controversies about orangevale onkey? Why is he so important in today's India and internationally? Why is he so important? He's important because he is seen as a bigot, a religious bigot, who was demolishing temples Hindu temple
who was persecuting
him Hindus, he has he had any anti Hindu policy and this is these are the claims these are the charges against him. I'm repeating the charges.
And we will see whether these charges are actually historically tenable or they can be sustained in the light of historical narrative available to us today. So orangevale of gear is controversial. For these reasons. He's accused of persecuting Sikhs. In fact, there is no doubt one of the Sikh gurus
the ninth guru, or sorry, the eighth guru, he guru was
no sorry, it was the ninth guru, the Guru tegh Bahadur was killed in 1675
by the orders of orangevale and so even seeks to unlike him.
So, why is this King so important?
Despite the fact that India was the most powerful country in the world, during his reign
24% of the world's GDP. In other words, world economy or money was in India at the time and are examples governing this was the peak of the Indian civilization when the Indians had become the richest and the most powerful people in the world.
Although India had little influence outside, but within the Indian subcontinent, the mobiles were very, very powerful.
So, we will look into these charges, whether orangette was actually a religious bigot, or whether he was actually out to destroy all the temples
in India, whether he was a persecutor of the Sikhs, whether he was someone who deliberately murdered marginalized Hindus from power, or from the state of protests, we will look into all these charges very quickly. First about the man himself. Who was he? He was a Mughal Emperor Born in 1618
to Sharjah Han and
His favorite way of Mumtaz Mahal, have you all heard about Taj Mahal? Right? One of the most famous
visited site in India, India when it is advertised globally, you have to see one image that comes to screens very often. And that image is the image of the Taj Mahal, the famous Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal is a tomb made by the Emperor shahjahan for his beloved wife,
Mumtaz Mahal, who was the mother of our exam. So, together, they had nearly 14 children shahjahan and that shows the relationship they had they had a very strong relationship, and they were in love deeply in charge Johan. I was devastated when his wife died and he was so devastated that he was hardly seen in public for many months after the death of his beloved wife. And then he paid a lavish tribute to his wife by building this monument called the Taj Mahal, which is visited by many people to this day. To orange he was the son of that very woman. He was the third son born to Sharjah Han. And there were other sons born Of course, in total, they were four. Dara Shaku was the eldest. Then
there was cha cha cha, who was the second son or an zevalin he was a third son, and then there was a fourth son called mirage. But these are four sons of the mobile Emperor shahjahan. shahjahan was the son of john D. Jiang. He was the son of gelato. D, Muhammad Akbar and Akbar was the son of homayoun. And oma Yun was the son of Baba, who was the first Mughal Emperor barber came from Central Asia. I don't want to go into the history of the Mongol
invasions into India or how the Mughal started in the first place and who the Mongols were and where they came from and lay the background history because that will be a lecture in itself I'm talking about are observed today. So I will give you a very brief background history on the Mughals
So the moguls
originated from Central Asia.
And barber was the ruler of summer cannon bahara.
he was driven into Afghanistan by other ozbek tribes. And then he thought of invading India, he invaded India in 1526. Cut the long story short, and he defeated the Muslim king of India at the time called Ibrahim lodhi. Abraham law he was defeated. Even though he outnumbered bombers army by far barbers archers and his guns out guns. Abraham loves his army and he came to power in 1526. He only lived for four years after that. And in 1530, he died having left India and he didn't like India much he was from Central Asia. He liked the weather of Central Asia, I like the people of Central Asia, when he came to India, I found it to be very hot, dusty, and he specifically writes
that the people of India are not as good looking as the people or Central Asia. So he had this prejudice against the Indian people. So Baba was definitely an outsider, no doubt. But then, after he died, his son came to power homayoun, who was an opium addict, to say the least, and was not a very strong king. He governed for 10 years and then
an Afghan general called share Han, also known as share shark, The Lion King literally translated, and his name was Fareed Khan. He's not the Lion King of Disneyland, by the way, okay. So
but he was the Mufasa of India.
For at least five years, he governed India with an iron fist. He was a very strong administrator, I'm talking about shellshock sorry. And
he built many monuments, he built roads, he established the postal system, he established many Samurai sariah, where the resting places for travelers across the Empire. So he was a very, very effective leader. And if he had not been killed by an accident
in one of the campaigns in India, then he would have ruled for a very long time and he would have been a very powerful leader indeed, but within five years, Shahs reign was over, and then his sons came to power, Islam, julius malema and others, and these people they all fought each other for another 10 years, and having ruled for 15 years, almost 16 years. The series were ousted by homayoun, because of my youth who had taken refuge in Iran, when he had to leave India, when this general called share Shah had rebelled against the Mughals. So by the help of
The Persian Emperor at the time homayoun was able to come back and take the land of India back from the series. So he was re established in India. And the year was 1555. So he only governed for few months when he fell from the stairs of his library and died. So there was an accident in the library, he slipped from the stairs. And he died. And Akbar, his son, Muhammad Akbar was 13 at the time, so he had to take the burden of the Empire and he became the mobile Emperor. And because he was a child, he was very fragile, other people governed on his behalf until he was an adult, or until he was actually able to rule India. And when he became
an adult, or when he became
of age, he removed all the other people who are governing on his behalf. And he took direct control. In the beginning, he was a very religious man, he was praying five times a day he was actually cleaning the mosques. And he was a very humble man, he would pick up the slippers of Allah and put them in front of the LMR, so that they can wear them he This is the kind of kind of person he was initially. But he was illiterate. Unfortunately, because of the turmoil in his early life, the political turmoil he faced, because of the fugitive
years of his father. And because he was also also he was born in exile.
He couldn't be educated properly, like a proper mobile King, or Prince. So because of this illiteracy, he always relied on others to give him information, cut the long story short,
he kind of drifted away from Islam because he saw the character and the behavior of the allama at the time to be very repulsive.
He found someone that Allah Of course, Allah masuku, they will not allow, you know, Allah, my hug, as we say, they were obviously after money and power and influence, and they were misbehaving. Akbar had made a center for debates. It was called about the corner in his palace, and he would get the allama and people from other religions to come and have debates in the center. So when he saw these debates, all of these people were misbehaving. They were cursing each other. They were insulting each other like a lot of people do nowadays.
I don't know if you remember this program that used to come on Pakistani channels, especially in Ramadan, this guy called Ahmed Liaqat, he has five or six
balama sitting next to each other, and they are debating each other and they are using very foul language at times and they are swearing at each other. And you know, when I was watching this program, even last Ramadan, what came to my mind was UC Berkeley balance corner, where a bar would have these Olimar debate each other and they would misbehave. They would use foul language. And because of that Akbar was put off Islam And likewise, there are people with little knowledge of Islam with weak hearts with weak inclined inclination towards Islam. They could be easily influenced in places like Pakistan when watching these programs or llamar bickering with each other in that
foul manner. so awkward had eventually abandoned Islam. I'm not giving you the details. These are very, very brief, scanty.
You know, anecdotal things I'm sharing with you from the life of these Mughal emperors. For the details, chunky volumes have been written on them, you can go and look at the details. So Albert had initiated his own religion. In other words, he had apostatize from Islam, his religion was called DNA lie. He said, if if this is the best Islam has to offer, I don't want it. Okay, so he said, I will initiate my own religion because he had arrogance. And he had some funny advisers who made him think that he was somehow divine. One of them was a man called Fazal, who had brainwashed him to an extent that he started to think that he had divine powers. So he initiated his own religion. Then he
died in 1605.
And then his son, Jahangir came to power, who had to reassert his Islamic identity, he had to disown his father, at least in religious ideology, and he insisted that his father repented on deathbed, and there's no evidence for that. But john D had to reassert his Islamic identity, but he was also a drunkard, john, he was mostly drunk. And he was, of course, the Mughal Emperor inherited problems, rebellions, wars and financial issues. So he administers taking care of all of that, and he
died very young. A lot of these Mughal emperors would die very young because they would consume opium as an aphrodisiac. And they had
they had large harems filled with women from all parts of the world and the major pastime would be living with these women and spending time with them and they would take opium excessively and many of them died for this reason, very young in the 40s
50s Oh, hardly any any of the mid May made it to 60.
But orange there was an exception as we will see.
john, he died in 1627 and his son
shahjahan came to power and charged on government for nearly 30 years. Again, this is not a history of shutdown, you can go to books to study about shajahan, whose reign was a very powerful rain that was the peak of the Mughal Empire, the Mughal Empire had reached its peak financially, civilization aliy educationally in terms of culture and literature, this was a very rich
error during the Indian history. In fact, India never existed
as a nation until the Mughals made it one. This is something the Indian nationalists, those who hate the moguls out of the Mughals. Those Hindu nationalists today are fundamentalists or extremists, who are
very uneducated people in most cases. And that includes the Prime Minister of India, currently, the one who was Prime Minister, Narendra Modi is actually an illiterate man
and his voters, so he's the Trump of India. And now you can imagine what I mean by that. Okay. Look at the Trump voters in the US and look at Modi voters in India, there will be a lot of similarities there. So these people, they hate the Mughals with a passion just because moguls are Muslims. And they don't know much about mobile history. And anyone who wants to put the record straight and clarify the history they start hating those people with the passion. So Indian nationalists or the identity to the Mughals, because moguls made India as a united entity for the first time previous to the Mughal organization of Indian states into one body. India was
made up of a number of different dynasties, different states, different ethnicities, for example, right foods, they had their own region, and they had their own governments. Then we had the mulatos in the south, before the mulatos, they were cholas and vidyanagar. And there were other empires that governed and then in the Deccan region, there were two other Muslim dynasties although Shia, they were beija poor and golkonda. They were so Mughal India was scattered. It was the Mughals and in particular orange zabe that united India as one entity as one nation. So there was no India before the Mughals
there was a land called hynd no doubt, the outsiders refer to India as Hynde, but hynd had no set boundaries, no set definition. It could mean it could easily mean northern India.
It could mean northern India. So coming back to Sharjah on so shahjahan in 15.
Sorry, 1657. I became ill. And there was a mobile tradition of the Emperor when he would be in the capital, he would show himself on the on the balcony of the palace for the people to see him. So when people would see him they would know the Emperor is well and they would pray for his well being. So in 1550, ssae 1657, September, in the month of September shahjahan got ill, and he did not appear on the jurak. I was called Europcar the balcony. And people assumed that
the Emperor is dead. And he didn't appear for the next 10 days. So that strengthen strengthen the rumor, the rumor spread to the sons. Now, the Mughal emperors
would definitely at times, recommend or have
someone to succeed them. Right, they would have the favorites for example, in this case, the favorite of Sharjah Han was his eldest son called Dara shikoh. Doris yaku was
free thinker in the sense that he did not really see Islam as other orlimar saw it, right. So he was more like a cabal of people, the allama at the time in India, they feared the Arusha coup because he was a free thinker, not in the sense as we know the term today, because today free thinker means something different free thinker that that time meant that this person could be a Muslim. He could be a non Muslim.
Or he could be convinced by any other alien philosophy, for example, the Hindu philosophy. So he would mix with the Sufi he would mix with the Hindu,
Yogi's and the pundits and the Brahmins and they would be learning their philosophies, and he would try to mix them up. So he actually wrote a text call model Bahrain, model Bahrain, literally translated translated means, the meeting of the two seas. In this book, he argued that Hinduism and Islam are exactly the same, they come from the same source. So, they are pretty much the same religions, because they teach very similar things. So, when he wrote this book, The the allama of India became very vigilant, and they were against the idea of him succeeding his father,
as the Emperor, because if he if he succeeded, then India would become another India of Akbar, when awkward government, when he initiated his own religion, DNA lie, as I mentioned earlier, he started to persecute the Allah Ma, who opposed him, in fact, some of the allama they called him de la la bien,
Oxford, you know, his name was gelada been hammered October, the name that was given to him at birth. But some of the allama they started to call him de la Dean, the guidance services misguidance, the misc guidance of the dean, Accra, and for me is the biggest disbeliever in India. So some of the allamah actually declared him to be a disbeliever. So they were worried if the Russia coup came to power, after his father, he would possibly do the same thing, he would start to persecute the allama who would not agree with him? And, and a lot of the Indian nationalists nowadays, or a lot of the Western academics, they think that Dara shikoh was a liberal, you know, as
you know, the term liberal today. Okay, as you know, the term liberal today, let me clarify something, no one was liberal before the rise of liberalism in the world. No one was truly liberal. If we were to apply current liberal values to pre modern kings, or early modern kings, anywhere in the world, whether they were in Europe, whether they were in Asia, whether they were in Africa, wherever they may be, they were not liberal, they were simply kings, trying to live their lives by their own standards. They were trying to be kings, and likewise, moguls were kings, in their own times, they fulfill the requirements of the times, there was no liberalism, then there was there
were no human rights then. And there were no human rights organizations like Amnesty International, and there was no one or no organization to overlook
laws and rules for nations like the United Nations and things like that, oh, Geneva Geneva Convention. Of course, we they had Islam. There were some who adhere to Islam. They followed Islam and Islamic principles, Islamic rights of humans and animals and others, right. There were others who did not follow those rules. So that ushiku was no not a liberal by any stretch of imagination. He was a mobile Prince, who would have done exactly the same what orange Zeb did later on.
So, now that ushiku being the eldest son and the favorite, and for that reason shajahan kept him very close to himself in,
within the court, in Agra and Delhi, that was the main Delhi was the capital, Agra was
also very important center of the Mughals close to daily. So Dora who was not a general he was not trained as a general. He was a man of books. He was a man of philosophy. He was a thinker. He would spend a lot of time with thinkers of different persuasions, and he would be writing books. But on the other hand, orange Zeb, who was disliked by his father shahjahan
was thrown away into the Empire at a very young age. So he was sent to Deccan when he was 18. Or and Zeb was born in 1618. And in 1636,
he was sent away to Declan to fight the Wars of his father. So at a very young age organza was thrown in too thick of the battle. And because of that, he became a trained general he knew the ins and outs of war. He was a military man. He was on the battlefield nonstop. And he was a very diligent military man.
very astute. He learned the military skills and the arts of diplomacy.
That was required in India at the time, he knew who was who
and where he needs to do what he had all these ideas. So when Dara Shaku had realized that orange zebra has become a very powerful military general who
And at the same time remember, orangey was a religious man, unlike naraku religious man in the sense that he was very close to the allama. And he demonstrated the ability to uphold and support orthodoxy in India rather than some kind of heretical ideas like Dr. Shaka was seen by the allama
to be supporting. So that's why the alama they've put their weight behind orange there, they wanted oranges to come to power after shahjahan dies, that ushiku did not like his younger brother and continued to conspire against him, in many ways. When orange they would be close to victory. He would simply pull away the army he would get his father to basically send orders to withdraw. When orange they would be very close to victory. So orange and orange knew who was pulling the strings. It was his elder brother who was influencing the father to set policies against orange, orange, they've had corresponded with his father extensively, and he had complained to his father about his
impossible situations, but shahjahan simply didn't like his son Aurangzeb and always found reasons to dislike him. Even though orange is a was a very obedient son. There is this book I recommend strongly to everyone. The title of the book is organization is times and it is written by as a human being Farooqi, an Indian scholar. And it is it is full of information information that you may not find an order book, because this book is very brief. It's short and straight to the point and it deals with major controversies about orange saves lives, or exempt life. But this one is a lot more extensive, has more, a lot more details are unsaved and his times the hero Dean Faruqi, who has
penned this book and he has a lot of these letters orange, he wrote to his father to convince him
to be to
to be just to him cut the long story short, when shajahan had become ill, and people thought he had died. Orange
was told that the king is dead. So was more odd. So was Joshua
shujaa was the governor of Bengal Mirage was in Gujarat,
Indian Gujarat, and Doris who was at the court and Aurangzeb was inducted. So these four sons were in different places, staged differently. Now amazingly, some people when they read history of the moguls, they look at these brothers at each other's throat. They think that these moguls had no morality.
They had no love for the blood. For this reason, you will find the Mughals killing the relatives very often. The Ottomans were doing the same thing.
Right? Sometimes we have these perceptions of inject angelic beings governing these states, and we turn them into saints, like arbitrage talks about it that there are two extremes about Mughal emperors in particular about orange zip, that the Muslims of India see him as a saint. Right. And the Hindus of India, see him as the devil incarnate, they see him as the sinner. Right. So
and the truth is in the middle, he was neither a saint nor a sinner. He was just a king trying to govern his state, to the best of his ability. Of course, he had his own views on religion, he was a very religious man as we will see in due course, he implemented these policies, which he saw as Justice in India, and personally he was a very pious man. This is why we are talking about Aurangzeb not any other Mughal Emperor because he was the most Islamic king or the Muslim King out of all the Mughal emperors. He was responsible for a lot of Islamic projects as I will talk about in due course inshallah Tada.
So, when shajahan was ill Orings ever heard about this? So he knew that ushiku if he comes to power, who wasn't the capital, he would not only execute merata and shujaa his two other brothers, he would happily execute on them, because he is the one who was
sabotaging all the activities of orange, Zeb and causing him problems and troubles. So what happened? Dr. shikou he started to conspire. He started to build an army so that he can face his brothers. He knew his brothers will come, they will come and contest the throne. Now shahjahan
had not died, he was still alive, and he recovered from his illness, but the damage was done. The armies were already on the move, orange
left from Deccan Mirage left from Gujarat, and shujaa started to prepare also. So orange ribbon Mirage kinda long story short met each other and they decided that Mirage will become the king, orange they were simply fighting to protect his life and his family. And the point I was going to make earlier that these brothers some someone thinks How can they fight wars with each other, and kill each other like that and be so so ruthless and declined our moral principles not only decline or one man, it was the decline of his entire entourage that consisted of 1000s of people, if not hundreds of 1000s of people. If a mobile Prince was moving with his army, it would be a moving City.
In fact, one of the European observers called Thomas row, observed the entourage of Jahangir, when he was moving with his army. So it would take 24 hours
from one point on one point for the entire mobile army to pass that point. Does that make sense? For the Mughal army to pass one point? It would take 24 hours, the caravan would be as long as 10 miles.
It would consist of shops, markets,
people selling meat, cloth, pots, spices, food, you know all the necessities, weapons, you name it, it would be a moving city. It would be a moving New York, put it this way or moving London Imagine that. Right? It would be a city on the move. So
these princes, they had
states they were governing these provinces, they were they ran into hundreds of 1000s of square miles. And they were very powerful. They had a lot of money. So demise of one Prince would mean the demise of his entire entourage. So that's why his party wide children, generals, soldiers, supporters would support them till the end.
So these armies were on the move.
So, Moran, orange said they met each other and they decided that Mirage would become king and orange they would take some governorship, but they have to confront Dara shikoh Dara shikoh is the problem he is the is the common enemy of us all the other the eldest brother, who was seen as a heretic, they actually called him a Kaffir they actually refer to him as the as the Kaffir. Okay, in correspondence with each other, and there are there is a historical record available where the princes history princes referred to him as, as the, as the Mossad basically, because he had expressed such ideas in his writings and his books. So no one wanted him in power, at least not
these princes. So cut the long story short, there was a battle that took place between dokuz armies and these two brothers, who was defeated, you went back to Agra. And then another battle took place between orange river and dollar school
at a place called sama guard, and orange zabe was victorious and that ushiku was on the run. And he was on the run for nearly two years. He
was running through the jungles of Punjab, Gujarat, and places like Rajasthan cut the long story short, he was betrayed by one of the people he had saved in the past one of the Chiefs at the border of Afghanistan. He was trying to cross into Persia because the Persian Emperor had offered him refuge. So he was caught at the border and sent back to Delhi and orange, they've gotten paraded on top of an elephant and humiliated him publicly and executed him for apostasy or for heresy. So Don ushiku was out of the way. Now he turned to his other brothers Morales and shujaa Mirage was cut the long story short, short rip, arrested by orange zips.
strategy, orange new until so long as these two brothers are live,
they will not let him govern in peace. There was a principle among the Mughal princes. There was a principal and it was stated in Farsi in the Persian line language, it was your tongue yabut. Who would like to translate that for me? Does anyone understand?
The drone or the coffin? This is how the Mughal princes thought. When the father died, everyone would try his luck, whether it was a grandson or a son of the Emperor, and these men could be in the 60s or 70s at the time and the father died like it happened with orange xav. When he died, three of his sons fought each other. So moguls didn't have a system in place to appoint
A successor, they would let the Mughal princes fight out the differences, right, and the one who was to be victorious would take the throne. And this is how it happened with Jahangir and this is how shahjahan came to power shajahan had to execute one of his brothers powerbox Jang Yi, likewise poisoned, allegedly one of his brothers called Danielle to come to power. And now it was orange leaves turn Roku was out of the way. Now, he arrested Murata by
deceiving him into
a meeting, he was deceived, to come and meet and discuss differences and then he was arrested. And he was executed in due course, later on, and shujaa found
safety in running away. So shujaa actually made his way to Burma, current day Burma, Myanmar, and it is thought that he was killed off by local chiefs there. So orange zip in 1658 became the king.
He became the king. So who is this man organza
why these are important? Why are the Hindu nationalists in India so against him?
Why is he so controversial?
As I said, one of the reasons is that he was a very dedicated Muslim, or is a was a very strong Muslim. And when he came to power over the 10, for the first 10 years of his power, he kept things as they were in the time of Sharjah when there was music at the court, wine drinking was allowed. And other things were happening. But 10 years after he came to power, he started to ban all these things. And he removed many of the moral traditions that were there, for example, mogul dignitaries, when they would come to the court, they would actually bow in front of the king. And it was called Cornish, they would actually say Salaam you know, they would make a gesture with the hand three
times bow to to acknowledge the superiority of the king, the Emperor, he removed that practices that is haram to bow to another man. He removed it, he was supported by Allah, they were Allah advising him, he had the company of the Allah. In fact, he memorized the Quran after he became the Emperor. Amazingly, he memorized the entire Quran after he became the Emperor, can you imagine
person becoming the Emperor, you know, when you become generally usually what happened with the mogul when someone became the Emperor, all hell was, you know,
broke broken loose, they would just go and attack the women, you know, in the harem, and they would start drinking and they would start having parties and they wouldn't hardly care for the state of health. But in this case, it reversed when he came to power previously or um, there was just a standard Mughal Prince he possibly was involved in, you know, he never used to drink By the way, but he had his singing parties and all of that and you know, that was that went with the mole. But when he became king, he realized he has a responsibility. Now, this empire is upon his shoulders. So he has to be a good Muslim
and he has to be a good king. And thirdly, he has to be a good Muslim King.
So, these were his
motives, initially, which was clearly stated in his letters, and he would often rebuke his generals and his sons, who would be governing on his behalf in different regions, to do justice, even with the Hindus do not harass Brahmins, do not push them around, facilitate things for them. Okay, if Hindu pilgrims are coming to the temples, let them do it. He removed all the taxes imposed on the Hindus and the pilgrim sites imposed by previous employers, he removed them, if anything orange they've actually was more pro Hindu than all the Mughal emperors put together. Ironically, the hindutva movement in India, for some reason hates this man.
They are actually doing injustice to him if they study his history carefully as older trash has shown in this book, that orange said, if anything, he was more lenient towards the Hindus, then all the Mughal emperors put together before him. Because before him, the average of Hindu months of dogmatism is basically governorship or a position in the state. So 23%
dignitaries within the Mughal state were Hindus, they had powerful positions. They were generals, they were governors induced. They were finance ministers. They had ministries, because they were effective ministers, right. So
orange time, the number
Crude grew to 31%, more than more than half of what he inherited. So he had supported
Hindus because of their abilities in fact, now he remembered one of his finance ministers until he died. His name was Renata. Renata was his finance minister only for five years, but autosave remembered him until the day he died until 1707 organs they would mention him and he would, he would say, I wish I had him today with me because he was such an effective
finance minister. He took care of finances effectively. So all these accusations against him that he was an anti Hindu King, because he was a strong Muslim are false. So this is the easiest target the Hindus extremist or Hindu right wing parties in India, budget amdahl, BJP and shifts in AI and all these people they have made a narrative You must have heard now in India, that Muslims can be attacked anywhere in the rural areas, not in the cities, specifically speak in the rural areas, Muslims will be persecuted. So many videos have come out. I've seen them myself where Muslims are being beaten by Hindu mobs and the police is doing nothing. mosques are being attacked.
Right? And if someone's caught trading in cows,
selling cows or buying cows slaughtering is out of the question. They would kill him.
reports have come out people have been killed for trading in cows. And amazingly, under this current government of India, which is a Hindu right wing Nationalist government.
Just like the Nazis, right, under this current government, India is one of the largest beef exporters in the world. Ironically
It doesn't make sense. You only have Muslim slaughter a cow is a crime death penalty on the spot
mob justice but if the government does it to bring in money billions of dollars then it's okay. This is the point one of the Muslim leaders in India known as a sort of vino away see from he's a leader, upcoming leader from Hyderabad in ism is a very vocal leader of the Muslims and he had he has raised these points on media as well Indian media and he's he's seen as a bogeyman as well, he is a villain to the hindutva movement or the right wing Hindu nationalist extremist movement. Because he speaks the Huq. He speaks the truth he tells them he shows in the mirror. And this is the point he raised that you kill people for owning cows if they are Muslim, but your government is one of the largest
exporters of beef in the world. Why are you selling so if people eat cows outside of India, it is not blasphemy. You cannot eat cows inside India. That's the point he was making. So these are the people who hate anyone who had a strong attachment with Islam in Indian history. There are two individuals in particular that are hated by right wing Hindu extremists in India one is orangevale MP for his strong attachment to Islam and Muslims. I do apologize for the time because we started late so we will pray inshallah very soon. I will take few more minutes to end and then we pray change Allah tala after that.
Yes, I know. We are. Sorry, What's the time now? Plenty of time. Sorry. I thought there was 742 Okay, the 1742 Okay.
So we have plenty of time. Okay. Sorry. So I can continue I can tell you about Baba my own awkward and shajahan Yeah. Okay. So are you getting bored brothers and sisters, maybe this is too much information to take in one day, but you can go and watch this lecture again. It will be edited it will be professionally uploaded and you can inshallah find it online after a few days. And you can listen to the dates and the facts and the names again and Charlotte Allah. So
these people hate these two kings in particular, for the attachment to Islam, there is no other reason. I'll tell you why There's no other reason, because they were no different to other kings in India.
In the wards, in the appointment or dismissal of Hindus, depending on what the reasons were, in their policies, on temples and mosques, in the policies on Islam and Hinduism, in the policy in crushing rebellions, orange wave, and tippu Sultan, who is the second figure are no different to other kings in India. The other person, the Hindu right wing extremist elements. Hate is a man called tippu Sultan, who was also a very strong Muslim had a very strong attachment to Islam and wanted the rise
of Islam in India once again, he wanted the rise of Muslim civilization in India once again. And remember this brothers and sisters every time Muslims governed India, it wasn't perfect. It wasn't perfect, never do we claim a utopia in India we don't. But we do claim that when the Muslim is governed India from the period that dates back to the 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate period when the Turkic rulers came into India and the government
and up to the Mughal period,
Hindus, Muslims jaynes Christians when they came about,
and even Sikhs live together in peace, so long as all people wanted peace, Muslims governed all these people, and gave them positions in the state important positions and govern them despite all the differences. But every time Hindus came to power, I'm not talking about industry in India, because Hindu into Hindu can mean anything. In fact, order trashed, she raises a very interesting point that the term Hindu doesn't even appear in the Mughal Chronicles, it is either baratas rajputs, or other nations they are referred to not as Hindus, but by the nations or by their tribes or by the by the regions. Because even Hindus were divided, there was no
homogeneous, homogeneous, it was the word.
Hindus are not homogeneous. They were not monolithic, rather, they were diverse people with diverse beliefs, diverse ethnicities, diverse ideas. So for that reason, this new idea called the Hindu nationalism, again, is a new thing. It's a modern thing. It's a modern phenomenon, which is full of Islamophobia, xenophobia, and extremism. And people talk about the Taliban and people talk about ISIS, in some cases, rightly so. Because because these people were persecuting others. But what's happening in India, in some cases is far worse than what ISIS and Taliban were doing.
In fact, some of the Hindu extremists are doing worse things to Muslims than ISIS were doing to others. I'm making this claim boldly, there is no difference between them. If anything,
there's no difference.
why not call them to account?
If the world media was crying, you know, for example, if people were talking about ISIS, rightly so, and condemning their atrocities, rightly so, which we all condemn what they were doing wrong.
And when they were persecuting people, rightly so, why isn't the global media crying similarly about what the Hindu extremists doing? And you know, what the Buddhist extremists are doing in Burma?
So, there is some double standard, you know, and this double standard is actually global is widespread. It is found in academia. It is found in political circles, it is found in economic circles. It is found in literary circles, don't make a mistake, don't make any mistakes. It is there. It is real. Okay. And that's why it finds support. Islamophobia is a multi billion dollar industry. Islamophobia industry spends millions of dollars on spreading Islamophobia. Right. So, for this reason, some people were attacking this woman, this lady for doing her job. He's a historian. She's a trained historian, Audrey trashed. She wrote this book, and she made her life difficult.
She's being attacked daily on Twitter, on social media, and islamophobes. In the US. People like Robert Spencer,
who runs a website called the Jihad watch, is attacking her on Twitter for doing history. She's a historian. She's a trained historian who knows PR and Sanskrit, she has written history as as she sees it. And she was yesterday or the day before yesterday, she delivered a lecture in India, in Chennai. And she was heckled from the crowd. Of course, a lot of people supported her, they applauded her as well. There are many
liberal, sane minded, moderate Hindus in India, who don't want this to happen, what's happening to Muslims, there are many good Hindus, I would say in India who don't want Muslims to be killed and persecuted. So they support people like Audra trust and scholars who are doing objective work, but there are others. Now, she also tweeted today, that outside
a venue where she was due to speak, there is police and people are being searched and she
This shouldn't be happening. This shouldn't be happening with scholars, we are scholars, we have opinions, and we should be free to express our opinions. We shouldn't be threatened
with death and all that. So coming back to the issue of brothers. So Mughal princes, they were brothers, of course. And there was a reason why they were so cold towards each other. And let me explain why. Because when they were born, they were put under training. They were given military training, they were given basic education. And when they had reached the teenage, they were sent to the battlefield to prove their worth. So these brothers had no attachment, you know, like nowadays you people live in your houses. And you may have siblings, right? Yes, brothers sisters, yes, you may have siblings and you have very strong relationship with them. You You know your sister, you
know your brother, you see them every day, right? You You have a laugh with them, you go out eating with them, you enjoy your time with them, right? You know them. But these Mughal princes, poor souls, as soon as they hit teenage, they will be sent to withdraw, one is going to be drawn one is going to bank all one is going to Deccan. And they wouldn't see each other for years. So they had no attachment with each other. And they had this assumption, it was already there, that once the Father, the Emperor dies, we will be at each other's throats because all of them will have to fight it out.
And it wasn't only about becoming an emperor, it was actually about saving your life. Because once you have lost the battle, you will die anyway.
Because your brother who may come to power will pursue you until you're dead.
So this was a battle for princes. As far as the princes were concerned, this was a battle of life and death.
So it wasn't as simple as these killers, these murderers killing each other. You know, they were so selfish, so bad, so evil, they were just killing each other. No.
It was a time they were living in. It were the traditions they had inherited. They had no other choice. They had to fight it out to protect their families and their lives. So it wasn't only about becoming an emperor, it was fighting for your life. This is why you're
yabut booth, either it is the throne, or it is the coffin. One of these two, there is no third option for a Mughal Prince once the father is dead, and this is exactly what happened with these four princes. So when Oren xav was about to execute the Roku, when he was brought to his court in Delhi or exam asked him,
What would you do if you were in my place?
he asked his elder brother who had lost the battle lost the war because, as I said that Russia was a man of books, he was not a man of the field. orang zaev was the battle hardened man of the field, who had fought major battles in Indian history. In fact, he was so dedicated to his Deen and to his work, that during one of the campaigns in Afghanistan,
within the battlefield,
the time for Salah came, and he dismounted his horse. And he started to pray in the thick of the battle in the middle of the battle. When arrows, cannonballs and swords and shields and spears of flying around, he is dedicated, praying his Salah, and his soldiers are all looking at him. This is how he actually modeled himself in front of his army. That's why they loved him very much because he had high regard for Islam and Islamic values.
So naraku said, in response to all exams question that I would kill you. And I would split you into pieces and hand you body parts and different parts of the Empire. Very honestly, he said that to him, even though he was a prisoner, because he knew that orange he knows he would exactly he would do exactly that. And then orange tape, of course, followed suit and executed him and buried him next to his great grandfather homayoun in the tomb of homayoun. So the other brother Morales was killed and crusherjaw was lost. He went to orange and became the Emperor in 1658 to govern India, as
the sole Emperor. Now his task was to maintain order and he did his best I cannot give you the details in this short lecture. But he became the most powerful thing India ever experienced or witnessed. Okay. He had conquered by the end of his life.
95% of India, the largest chunk of land ever governed by one Muslim King in the entire history, or by any King in the entire Muslim history, sorry, the entire history of India
95% of India he had conquered land as far as Tamilnadu by the time he died, and this stretch of the Empire actually became a detriment,
because his resources and his forces was stretched to the farthest end of the Indian peninsula. He was weakened because of that, there was only the matter of time, someone was to hit a weak point, and the Empire will start to crumble without a strong leader. So orange a was a very strong leader, of course, no doubt he lived
for 88 years. He died in 17 or seven, actually 89 years.
And he governed with iron fist. He was a soft man, no doubt, but he did not forgive rebellions from his family. He did not forgive his family, he forgive his generals, occasionally, his dignitaries or his months of darts, but he did not forgive his family. For example, one of his sons called Akbar, who was sent to crush a rebellion
or Rajput rebellion.
When he went there, he crushed the rebellion. But then he declared himself to be the king on top of his father. So orange, was furious. He sent an army after him. And then Akbar was hounded within India for a very long time. And then he escaped to Persia per year would be a very, you know, convenient refuge for mobile princes and mobile fugitives because Persians would happily being Shia, at the time would happily receive dissenters from Mughal India in case they can be used as puppets, like the British Empire did for a very long time. And the British are doing to this day, a lot of the dissenters from different countries, they find political asylum where in
Well, in Britain, you know, within,
yes, you know, 1000, who knows him?
Who knows the guide?
is very close to me, by the way.
Although sin is a mass murderer,
everyone knows that in Pakistan is a mass murderer. Okay. He has killed hundreds of 1000s of people, indirectly and directly, possibly 1000s of people, okay. And he
led a nationalist movement called the muhajir movement, right. And he found political asylum in Britain, despite all those crimes committed by him, he was given asylum here, and he's still here. He's still living in Britain. And
you know, he has no serious problems living here. So the issue is, likewise, Persians would give refuge to any Mughal Emperor on the run or a prince on the run, so that they can use it for the future. And Persians were against the Mughal Empire moguls were Sudanese. The Persians were Shia, right. And there was antagonism between both empires. The Persians are suffering is a very powerful, immensely powerful. At the same time, moguls were very powerful. moguls had the gold of India, the Mughals had the power, the strength, despite his diversity of India, right, the Persians were also very powerful, but they never had the guts to invade India, but what they did was they invaded
occasionally Afghanistan, because even Afghanistan was governed by the morals right up to Kabul, Kandahar. This was all under moguls, you will see coins from Johnny's time and Sharjah hands time and even all exists time coins minted in Kabul and Kandahar. cities like that Kundera was of course lost to
Persians in the time of Sharjah Han Xiao Han tried to take it back in order example one of those people who tried hard unsuccessfully to take it back from Persians he was not able to do it. So, Persians were also important players. That's why Akbar orange zabe son when he rebelled, was given refuge in Persia. So orange have never forgive him never. He died in Persia in 1704. Three years before his father died. Awkward. He spent the rest of his life in Persia never came back to India. Likewise, other sons of his or grandsons if they made a mistake, something that threatened the stability of the state. He would he was ruthless. At other times, orangey bottom gear, crushed
He was doing the job of a good Indian king in his times. You see, a lot of the people now criticize kings of that time for doing what they did. And they apply modern secular liberal standards to those kings. But they didn't live in this age. They were not ruled by these conventions, or these norms or these sentiments, right? Imagine orans a, was to catch rebels.
And instead of making them an example, it was, Oh, this poor man is going to be in pain, you know? And then all these human rights organization come along, and they say, No, no, no, no, you have to put him on trial, give him justice, dah, dah, dah, dah, dah, dah, dah. None of that existed at the time. Keynes had to make examples out of rebels.
And this is exactly what a good king would do. And if a king who was soft and weak would be seen
as a sitting duck, it would be a fair game, you know, he would be attacked very soon others will start to rip. So every time a rebel
or a rebellion was crushed, it was crushed severely to make an example out of them. And this is exactly what happened to Guru tegh Bahadur, the night guru of the Sikhs.
Every Sikh you talked to mentioned the word orang Zeb.
They will know him. Have you had this experience? Yes.
Yes or no? Yes. Every Sikh
you know, for example, like the Shia, every Shia person you talk to they will know the known name. Yes, either. Yes. Yes or No. Yes. You see Maja? Yes, they know these names, because they see them as our enemies of the debate. Likewise, when you spoke speak to a Sikh person. And you mentioned or exam
or exam is xid to the Sikhs of around to the Sikhs because he killed the ninth guru. And the 10th Guru was also
fought by the Mughal armies, and two of his sons died in war and the Sikhs blame orange Zavala directly because he was the Emperor and the governor of surrender, who was the governor, his name was was really hard.
But if you look at the other side of the coin from the mogul perspective, the king was simply crushing rebellions. Take bother. The night guru of the Sikhs was devastating, the Punjab. He was devastating villages. He was devastating the countryside. He was creating chaos. He was killing people, including Muslims in many of the Punjabi villages. And the Sikh version goes that he was fighting for the rights of the
Kashmiri pundits because they were being forced into Islam and the Guru tegh. Bahadur stood up for the rights and that's why he was killed. But that's not the truth, the truth historically, actually, that stuff is very difficult to establish these are narratives created very late by the Sikhs later on sent I mean, almost a century later, these stories are made up and they were made popular like you know the stories of Karbala. Have you ever been to? Have you ever been to
a sitting in Muharram? Or have you ever watched it on TV? How the sheer dark green, the sheer storytellers that talk about the story of Karbala, what happened? And they have so many details. There are so many details that Abbas did this or saying said this, Zainab cried and she said this. Yes.
Sakina said this, they have so many narrative so many details as if there were clocks, working, continuously taking notes standing next to them in war. Yeah, she said this or not this. She said this was not this. She said this, I'll note there's so much discussion and dialogue between individuals in the middle of the battle impossible. Any historian with two brain cells would know that this is all made up. This cannot and in fact, when you do dig deeper, you come to realize that these stories don't actually reach the actual source. They are just dubious stories told by people later on.
There is very little authentically known about what exactly happened in the Battle of Karbala. We do know a sane rhodiola one was killed. We do know he was oppressed. We do know the Muslims killed him.
We didn't do know the names of the people but we don't know the dialogues. The discussions they were having between each other we don't have those details from authentic sources. Likewise, the Sikhs have these stories.
These narratives that the grandmother was talking to the grandsons in this way and they said this and this and that. And the details are so many that anyone thinking Hold on a second, can the story be true? Where the details come from? What is the source and then you dig deeper. The source is not there. It doesn't reach the actual, you know, person it is attributed to.
So orange Zeb is maligned by the Sikhs For this reason, but he was doing the job of a king. He was doing exactly what was required of him. Punjab was his region, he governed it. He had to maintain peace on the roads. So people are being robbed, like the Sikhs are doing later on secret billions. They
took such an intense form that the Sikhs were robbing, burning pillaging Muslim villages at will. There was a Sikh rebel called Banda Singh Bahadur, who was eventually killed by an emperor later on called Farouk car, he was ravaging the Muslim villages and Muslim regions.
we'll pause for a second.
I hope you guys are not getting bored.
orange army is maligned for that reason by the Sikhs that because the ninth guru was killed, and the 10th Guru was on the run. And he was also hunted down, but eventually we have historical sources that he actually sought pardon from the Emperor, and orangefield. Let him go, Okay, fine. You want to come to terms you want to behave yourself? No problem. Go ahead, bear yourself No problem. You see the sea gurus were not as significant as they are today. At that time. They became important to Sikhs later on. Right. And this is why you don't even find them mentioned in the mobile sources. They were just insignificant rebels, doing rebellions in the Punjab mobile state was concerned about
bigger issues like the Murat has in the south. So, that is one thing. Then orange says anti Hindu policy, Was he an anti Hindu King? No, he was not. He was not because when you look at his state, he has Hindu generals, Hindu treasurers, finance minister was Hindu. Okay, they were Hindu dignitaries. rajputs, who owned the land of miroir and miroir. These two in Rajasthan, today, you know, the area called Rajasthan, this was governed by the rajputs. And they were given high positions in the state. And you know, how the mobile muscles work is another question altogether. I don't want to complicate things too much, I want to keep it simple, they would be
counted by the amount of
military men, a person would be given by the state. For example, there would be Punjabi is in Persian language, the one who has a force of 5000
cavalry or 10,000 cavalry or 15,000 cavalry or 20,000 cavalry. So their rank would be raised by the amount of Cavaliers they would have in the in the forces. So a lot of the Hindu generals or rulers or Rogers, who were vessel states working within the Mughal Empire, were given high position by our exam, as I said 31% of the mogul dignitaries in the time of orange river Hindus, in fact, during the war of succession when four brothers fought each other during that war 23 Hindu generals are Rogers sided with Dara shikoh 21 sided with orange say, if orange a was a religious bigot, as the Hindu nationalist claim today, why would 21 Rogers
important Hindu figures within India side with orange zip and fight for him and kill and die for him?
Can you imagine Hindu forces rajputs and baratas fighting for orange dead and dying for him.
So there is a reason
for this current hatred. One of the reasons is a story of Shivaji. Shivaji was a merata figure from the south of India, who had resisted mobile power in the south and he had rebelled against the mobiles and he was taking forts and he was traveling the mobile army. He pursued guerrilla tactics and moguls are obviously pursuing conventional military style of invasion of the South. So he was harassing the Mughals for a very long time. Even at that time, he was not as significant as as he became later on to the Hindu nationalist Shiva. He died soon after, and his son sama Ji, who continued and he
was arrested and he was executed by the orders of orange zip. So the hatred for orange zip is there because of the rebellion of Shivaji. And Shivaji has been turned into something he was not. Right. You see a lot of these extremist Hindus who are in India today, Hindu nationalists in particular, they make up stories, and they inflate the stories and they're treated as history.
They're treated as history. And the spread these lies in the name of history. This is why the hate historians like older tradition. And there are others who are writing on our exam. Some have simply shut them out in India, they don't want to die. They don't want to kill them, they don't want to get killed. That's why they don't talk in history anymore. Some of the major authorities in history in India, they don't open their mouths anymore. They are not publishing on these sensitive matters. This woman is truly brave, who has published this book, and literally put her life in danger. And she has
the audacity to even travel to India. And lecture on oral exam yesterday, the day before they were yesterday. She was lecturing, go check her on Twitter, or refresh. You can look at the book afterwards when when I'm finished in sha Allah tala. So orange was a very Muslim king, he penned Koran, in his own hands.
And he, according to some reports, made caps with his own hands and he sold them for living but I don't know how true the stories are by he did pen Korans in his own hand, at least two to three copies of pen by him within his lifetime. And he would pray diligently. He was a very, very pious Muslim, no doubt personally he was a very pious Muslim. We don't know how Muslim he was as a king. Was he a good Muslim King or not? is another question he did impose JCI in 1675, or 1676 1676, he imposed jizya because of the rajpoot Rebellion rajputs rebelled against him, Rajput for a very powerful strong entity within India, who represented Hindu power at the time. And they were mainly
Mughal vessels. They worked with the Mughals at times when they found them to be weak, they did rebel and our rebellion was taking place in 1617. And as a as an opposing gesture
or a volunteer imposed jizya. And jizya was not of course collected widespread in India. It wasn't successfully collected always. But he did impose jizya and this is one of the reasons cited by and right wing Hindu nationalists that he imposed jizya but he's he was there in the in the time of October, October lifted Giovanni apostatized. He lifted up and he imposed other tax taxes on Hindus, amazingly, jizya was less then other taxes imposed by Akbar, on Hindu pilgrim pilgrim sites by orange, they came to power when he came to power in the 1670s. He imposed jizya and removed all those taxes. And this affected the Mughal Treasury daily is costing the mobile Treasury daily,
because he was getting hundreds of 1000s of rupees
every month from these pilgrim sites. And I'll show you what a mobile rupee looked like. I have one with me today so that you can all have a look. And it belongs to orange zip. And we will put it on screen pounds have come out. Sorry. But I hope I hope is there.
I did put it
in my pocket. And I hope I haven't lost it.
You see, I have a principle that when you find something when you look for something, you'll never find it. Sorry, seems to have been lost. I'll look for it later. And if I find it, I'll show it to you. Maybe it's in the other pocket
actually might be in this pocket.
Yeah, I did bring one with me. But I cannot find it now. But mobile repeat was simply
11 grams of silver found it okay. This is a rupee
minted during the orange save period, it is pure silver 11.4 grams of silver. This is the mobile rupee. And this was minted in a city city called Tata. Tata is in Sindh
in current day, Pakistan, and that was a very big mobile center.
have power. And
it was a huge city at the time. And this is a coin minted during the reign of orange zip. It has the name of the king orange xav alum gear. Okay. It says
yeah, so you can have a look at it afterwards.
You'll never have a look now. Yeah. Okay, go ahead. Okay.
So what happened?
The GCR he imposed actually
caused more loss to the Treasury than benefit, but he did it because he saw it as an Islamic duty as a Muslim King. At the same time, there were strategic reasons for it, to punish the rajputs for the rebellion. And he imposed the jizya as a discriminatory possibly discriminatory measure. It is very possible he did that for a reason I'm not too sure. Plus also to win the allama over to his cause, which are which was already done during the war of succession or llama war with him.
Also, in 1668, orans they started another project
and a project he is very little known for, unfortunately, even within the Islamic circles.
Are there any one of the brothers here?
One of the brothers, one of the brothers, put your hands up Why are you hesitant?
Okay. Brothers, I let me ask you, you know, what is the largest compendium
of the Hanafi Fiqh, the largest collection of hanafy opinions on jurisprudential matters
fatawa oliguria Yes. Why is it called alum diria
that literally translated means rulings of alum gear, but they're not alum de orang zaev was his name and alum give the world Caesar the word Caesar was his title and he literally sees the world you know, he governed 95% of India. So that was one of his greatest service, one of his greatest services to the Hanafi Fiqh in particular and to Islam in general. Okay, the compilation of fatawa oliguria. Okay. I know the Salafi is and the other ladies do not agree with that thick. I know that okay, but it is the greatest
achievement as far as the Hanafi school of thought is concerned. This collection of fatawa out,
outdid the previous collections of hundreds of dollars like photographers like photographer tower kasi, Han, fatawa, Titania, there were other photographers, but there were smaller in,
in, in length, but this was a very huge compilation. It took
a number of alama dozens of alama seven years to complete it. The project was started at the behest of the Emperor in 1668. And it took seven years but it was completed by 1675. The fatawa lm Giri was complete as a project and it contains rulings from the Hanafi viewpoint on different matters, it is basically law, it is law. And this collection then was sent to court that causes all over India to govern by this law. So they would rule especially in Muslim affairs, looking at fatawa Adam Giri and it is the largest collection of Hanafi Fiqh opinions in the world to date. It is very big, depending on who publishes it, it runs into volumes, right.
So that was one of his achievements. And amazingly, one of the scholars who was very, very well appreciated and well known, called Chava. EULA del V, who lived in the 18th century, who was born when orange he was still alive. Shower you know, was born in 1704, or exept died in 1707, showery loss father shatter him was one of the scholars who was actively involved reluctantly, albeit reluctantly, in the compilation of this fourth hour. The reason why he was reluctant was because he didn't like to be too close to the state. He was a pious man, it was down to earth he didn't want to be too close to the king. But
when the king orange xav asked him to take part because he was a renowned scholar. Shout out to him the father of showery law. When he was asked by the king to take part he refused to take part but then his mother shabda his mother, she encouraged him and said it is a good deed. You should take part and ignore
the state affairs and you don't have to get involved in the state too much.
And then he took part. So fourth hour long video was completed that way. And then the same man had a song called Sharia law later on who became a great scholar. Also another great service of orange save to Islam, which will never be forgotten, which will remain until the day of judgment, I believe, is apart from without oil and beauty is what? Anyone? Any guesses? Who wants to guess?
Where's my coin gone?
any guesses? Who's been to Lahore Put your hands up? Yeah.
Now everyone woke up. Bochy mosque. You when you enter Lahore from the old road, not from the motorway from the old road, the first thing that hits you.
And you know, you are struck by a sense of all
it is so wonderful. It is so powerful the site, the site of the badshahi Mosque, the famous literally translated the king's mosque, or the Royal mosque, it was built by Oren zabe lmds orders, it was built in 1617. Of course, it took a few years for it to be completed. And the name of the king orange zevalin here is written at the gate
plaques, and this was the largest mosque in the world. This was the largest mosque in the world at the time. Of course, now we have bigger mosques today. But at the time, in the 17th century, it was the largest machine in the world. And it is an absolutely amazing sight, you have to go and look at it to understand what I'm talking about the artwork,
the strength of the Muslim civilization in India
and the search, you have to take your children to it. If you go to Pakistan Next, go and take your children to Lahore and show them the bachi mosque and explain to them how it was made and who made it and why it was made.
And they will never forget it. If you want your children to admire Islam and its history, then you must show them the achievements of Islam and Muslims. That's when they will actually start to understand what Islam has achieved in the past. This was a huge achievement on the part of orangevale and gear rantala. So he surpassed if not equaled his father in building monuments, when he had sanctioned this particular mustard, and this was a great achievement for Islam and Muslims in India. Other achievements over orange gear is providing patronage to Allah ma he supported Allah Ma and this was the golden age of Islam and Muslims in India. The amount of manuscripts penned during
the time of orange zabe is immense, so many neurons, I personally own copies, handwritten copies from that period, on where the scribe would write at the end, that this particular copy was transcribed. In the such and such year of the reign of Alexander Allen gear, the the blessitt king or the great king or whatever the titles were okay, and the date would be there and the place of writing or transcribing the Quran, that would be would be there. And then there are other companions like books written on Fiq on Hades. tafsir akihiro heart and Hades, a great scholar called Abdul haq Mohandas deneve Rama Talalay was born during the reign of October and dyed in the rain of orange a
volunteer had written commentaries on mascot
on Buhari for example, and some of them I own myself personally my personal library I have the manuscripts from that period where the king orange xav is mentioned. Even Hindus are writing books in Persian. I have a manuscript in my personal library in my position, where a Hindu called ROM Singh has transcribed
a manuscript on
the the Muslim pious figures from India, some of the pious figures, you know, those big shrines in India nowadays. moinuddin chisti, and Zamudio, Leah and
psychedelia jewelry in Lahore. And these people, they were very much venerated in India at the time, India was predominantly Sufi, Hanafi Sufi at the time, until things started to change in the 18th century after the writing of Sharia law. And then in the 19th century, things moved further towards drifting away into a whole Hades movement.
Came became very prominent in the 19th century and many 1000s of Muslims became 100 Hadees because they found that way to be closer to the Sunnah this this was the view, of course. So, at that time at Orangeville time, India was very much Sufi, Hanafi. And orangette himself was very much a Sufi king. He was like, you know, he had Sufi inclinations, and you couldn't expect any better from him. You know why? Because that's all there was in India. That was the Islam of India, even though he had the scene who were writing commentaries on Bukhari and Miss Scott and