Shaykh Yasir Qadhi discusses the Usul Ul Hadith in this final part of the series.
Conditions of Hadith:
- It must have a continuous Isnad. Isnad decides the authenticity of any Hadith.
- Adalah – honesty and integrity
- The person must have precise and accurate memory – Dabt.
- The hadith should conform to similar hadiths narrated on the same topic whose chains are stronger.
- It cannot have any hidden defect.
Tahdhib al-Kamal, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, Taqrib al-Tahdhib are some of the major books related to hadith and the origins of the same are introduced to us aptly.
What is the opinion on the Daeef hadith? There are three opinion son the same:
- Accept them.
- You accept them but with certain conditions.
- It should not be touched.
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smilla rahmanir rahim
Al Hamdulillah Muhammad who want to stay in who want to sell fiddle, when in doubt human Cerulean fusina woman sejahtera Marina, Mayor de la bufala Mobile da da da da La
ilaha illallah wa wahoo la sharika was shadow and Mohammed and I will do a sudo. I'm back in this last section inshallah today's seminar, we're going to give you a smattering of most of these terminology.
Before we start this idea with this subject, why are we studying it? Firstly, we're not sitting in great detail. So just why are we even mentioning it? Firstly, practical benefits, when you see a term say, why is it different from hetson? What is what is it say? How did What is the hexahydrate? What is it? So as a practical benefit, immediate practical benefit. Secondly, it shows you the preservation of the sooner that Allah was either really has preserved this sooner by having this type of classification so that we know that this project is authentic. And this has it is not authentic, this project is muzzle mobile or fabricated whatever the case might be. Lastly, it shows
you the great care and the great
efforts that the scholars of the past have done in preserving the sooner without a doubt the science is unique in the history of mankind. Now this is something that we say a lot, but not many people realize the repercussions of such a statement.
The science of hygiene, the preservation of Hades is something that is unique. Never has it occurred in the past and never will it occur again. It is the miracle that allows method of bleach less than wisdom. And the scholars of the past to expressly mentioned this, that Allah has honored the Muslims with, for example, the is not system, the chain of narrators to be opened up a book or do you find a whole chain of narrators, this chain of narrators, Allah has honored the Muslims with it that it doesn't it didn't used to exist in the past.
Okay, so we have to understand, this is one of the fundamental reasons that people fall into mistakes because they don't understand the science. It's a unique science. You talk about chemistry, you talk about physics, you talk about anything that existed. Yes, we've achieved, you know, lots of different ideas and new knowledge and everything. But the basis of those sciences existed.
Geology, geometry, mathematics, everything 1000s of years. The science of Hawaii is something that is unique to the Muslims. And even that in the first few 100 years after this, after that, in our towns, we don't look at these nuns, it goes back to the process of No, after Buhari wrote down his it's not the end of story. So if you like for these two 300 years, a unique phenomenon occurred that did not occur ever before and it never will occur. So this is why the average Muslim, he doesn't many times understand this. And so he falls into areas that have not been preserved. Likewise, the kuffaar when they usually attack Islam, they don't start with the Quran. Because they realize to
attack the Quran is far more difficult. Even though they do attack the attack the sooner because to attack, the sooner from their perspective is easier, because it's so confusing to many people. Not many people have studied this sooner. Not many people have studied the science of it. And here I'll give you a general rule of thumb. Amazingly, when you find this, this you will find without a doubt every time when a person attacks, the sooner write this down as a general rule of thumb, he will be the most ignorant with regards to this one. The general rule of thumb here, when the person attacks the sooner, oh, how do you know it's been preserved or how to enter this is a sign of life, that
person would never in his life have opened up the whole body and read it. He would never have studied the basic sciences as much as the advanced to the detailed ones.
It's amazing when a person tries to refute a theory you will find him to be an expert on it. That's when you'll say well the first floor is here, the second floor is here. The third floor is here. As for the people that reject the sooner, especially amongst the Muslims, you find them to be the most ignorant with regards to the sun.
So how can you speak about a subject that you have never even studied?
Even if you came in under under my dimension, those that deny, the sooner they haven't even read Bukhari and Muslim. So they don't even know what they're denying.
And the more you study the certain that the more you study the sciences of the Sunland Hadith, the more your Eman goes up that this science has been preserved.
So understand that and realize that and you can use this as a refutation of those that come to you.
He who deny the preservation of the Sunnah is the one who is ignorant of the history of this. It's that simple. Okay. So, this is why this science is important for us to study to appreciate to realize the efforts during ama have spent in compiling the headings the process of them and categorizing them.
Who is the first one ever to write about the science? The sciences of headings we're talking about? Not the heavies itself. realize there's a difference. The first one to ever compile a book was a person by the name of some complicated name. Rama whom was he who died in 360 hijiri
Does this mean that the sciences have had it were unknown before the science 360 AG? The answer is a resounding no.
Even the scholars of the of the of the of the of the Sahaba and saburo and the tablets have your own. They had the rudimentary sciences of hedges established. Even a Syrian for example narrative in the city in dade 110 he he narrates when the fitna broke out.
We started asking the people narrate to us where you heard it from before the fitna. We wouldn't ask them. In other words before the fitna, the fitna, he's talking about it's a big fight that occurred between the Muslims a political thing that occurred in the later time of the omegas period. Okay. He's saying before this fitna broke out, we would accept it from anyone because we trusted everyone everyone was innocent, naive, but that's not it. But they weren't if you like they weren't capable of lying about the Prophet phones in the tablet all of that time. So how about of course they were above this. But the tablet room when it miniseries said, when the fitness broke out, when this
political strife and struggle broke out, which is a different topic. After this, we started asking the people who narrated this to you.
Where did you get this from? So this is the beginning of the science of it's not an ethnicity and died 110? When did he say the statement of fitness, synonymous? They rule on the 16th of the history of 40s 50s. There's an extra which particular fitness is referring to, but within his life period, within his lifespan, that basically,
very early on, very early on amongst them in the Muslim history. People started the sciences, it's not
you say the process and instead it Who told you? Where did you get it from? Not only that, even if you didn't waste time, he said for human guru Illa. Allah sooner, we would look at the person of Africa sooner, and we would take his ID and we will reject the person that did that and not accepted
to Hawaii, she either Morteza those early groups that existed, they would not accept their heading. Only the person from assume that was trustworthy, if it was accepted. So this is the basic science of of
you know, it's it's not, it's not, as we're gonna talk about in detail, is that list of names.
Okay, mom Buhari said my share of the love news has said that my chef, Mr. Malik said that my chef knocker said that my chef Omar said that the process of circumcision, this list of names is called an Israelite. When did it start? As soon as the Sahaba even we're alive, but during the time of the time,
during the time of the saburo.
So we find that even though the sciences and IDs were not written down, until let's say 300 or something, they were existed. And in fact, even if you look up, for example, Sai Bukhari you will find many chapters on narrating Hades, how generic, what is the proper methodology now, likewise, you know, Michelle God who was before
Misha fury, he has many sections in his in his book risala, dedicated to talking about the sciences of hudy. But the first one to write a separate book on the subject was this person by the name of Rama Hormuz II, followed by a number of people that have dimensioned in the fire that's going to be handed out until finally, in the year 643 hazera, even a Salah, a famous alum of Damascus came and he wrote a book which was so comprehensive and so unique that later on every single book would reference in the last word and even for that call this animal Kadima the introduction, okay, he called his work animal Kadima. Every single book that was written after him the last work basically
it was either an explanation of his work a conversation at summarization, adding various points in the slot left out okay, correcting the status, everything was released this book that's how famous it became it became so if nicotine even even if it is the famous Adam came and he wrote a Dyson has been shown to sort of overhaul it, which is religion. So that's work and knowing the famous and knowing he has to work out in this other book, okay, like was a Suzy. He has the explanation of Nicolas work, which is the one that he studied in university of Medina. to work on the explanation of, of Unknowing explanation of imminence of the last work, okay. pointed images thought was the one
who really defined the sciences have had it for later times. And he died 643 but he wasn't the one that invented it, it was invented, or it was the basis of it, it was existed since the time of the Sahaba.
They have a question arises, why is Hades preservation so different from that of the Quran? I mean, the Quran is clear, but it not every Muslim agrees to it. So why is the haze preservation different? The answer to this is that you have to look at it from a different perspective, that the Quran, the proper person have ordered that every single verse be written down and he placed it in its proper place. He personally supervised the writing of the Quran. As for the sooner, Allah subhanaw taala will that it was not the case that no one ever supervised writing the Sunnah, and if you think about it, it's not possible. Why? Because
The process of freedom is delivering sooner. You cannot write every single thing that he did
you see what i'm saying the Prophet's life. So instead of eating and drinking and sleeping and going, this is the sooner How could you Sahaba right all of this. So you have to look at it from a different perspective. Once the Sahaba started narrating it, then later on all of the symptoms and the trials and the term turmoil of the Muslim bunkered people then devious people started fabricating a hadith in order to gain some type of acceptance and most of the people so for example, the first movement
that was to attack the oma Yes, okay, they fabricated Hadith in favor of their particular
excuse me, in favor of their particular tribe, that this tribe is the one that the Honey Hole come from. So they use this hadith in order to attack their opponents. So fabrication of heavy started, once fabrication started. Not just that, but you had people that were not qualified to narrate how he's narrating it, people would forget for memories, people with weak memories, once all of the sort of the top scholars have had it needs to come forth with a set of rules with a set of principles, how are we going to differentiate the week from the authentic? How are we going to take what is correct and leave what is incorrect. Therefore, the science that has emerged and evolved as the
times around it changed. So today, of course, it is a well defined science which you study. And obviously, it is not a living science in the sense that most of this already been done, you can't really change the science. Now, there was a science that was used at a certain time, and we use it in our times, also, but we use it upon the headings that are already present in the books, whereas the scholars of those times will use it, and how does that work? still being circulated by word of mouth, this is the only difference. So inshallah today we'll talk about the most important categorizations of hygiene. I'm going to use the blackboard here, I hope everyone can see it. If
not, then we won't use the Blackboard.
For any highlights to be considered or authentic, it must meet five basic conditions. Before we get there quickly.
We understood that maintenance is not this right? Let me just write it like this that actions are by intention. This is a habit that everyone knows. actions are by intention.
This Hadith is narrated by who was interviewed by
okay. And it was never hear from Atacama, okay.
And so on and so forth all the way down to, for example, Bali.
This section of the heavy, I'm going to have to stand on one side. So this section of the Hadees, which has the name
can Iris Can you fix this, I can go further back, this section of the headings which has the name is called the If not, which is a series of names going from whoever compiled the headings like boccardi muslimah would always say to me, all the way to the companion to the Process Center. And that is the start of this section we write down is not
this section of the Edit is the button
which is the actual text of the Heidi. Okay, now the scholars of Hadith were interested in both these not and the Muslims. But in general, the isnaad is what primarily decide the authenticity of the ad is not as the primary thing that you use to define the authenticity of the ad. Because really, if you think about it, this is the crux here. This is the key here, who told well, howdy, this Howdy, how was he? What was his memory like? Okay, what was his trustworthiness, like? Well, how about the ones that narrated it to you all the way back to the library, all the way back to the hobby all the way back to the profits of them.
So this is the crux of the hobby. So the scholars therefore said that in order for any hobby to be accepted, as far as must meet five conditions, which is what we're going to talk about now,
it must meet five basic conditions.
The first condition
is that it must have
a continuous is not
no breaks in this night, no missing links in the snap. So for example, if I come and I say that Abraham Lincoln said something, everyone's gonna say, How did I get this information from you? We're not alive when Abraham Lincoln spoke. Likewise, if a person married from someone that died before he was born,
or that he never met if he lived his life in Iraq, for example, and that she lived his life in Makkah, and it was known that neither of them traveled. How did you get this information? So then this first condition will not be met. And we'll talk about that in detail. The types of life that is related to the fact that a continuous is not is not present. The second condition for a Heidi to be considered authentic
is that all of the narrator's
Must Be honest.
By honest, I mean, there must have integrity.
they give you a practical exam in our courts of law, okay?
The cop stands up to testify, and the criminal also stands up to testify. Criminal says I didn't do it. The two cops say I saw him do it. Who are you going to believe? And this criminal, for example, is a serial convicted criminal, so many cars before? Who are you going to believe? The two cops Why? Because they have established Well, technically, they should have established their reputation as being honest upholding citizens of the law, where this criminal, he is well known that he is an evil person, he is a liar, or he is a thief or he is whatever we're not going to take from him. So we're talking here about the moral integrity, is this person trustworthy to narrate as he is he so the
only unscrupulous that he will say a lie about the profit. So for example, this is what we're talking about here. In Arabic, we call it
AI, da, da,
So this is the second condition. The third condition
is that the person must have
precise memory. Now, this is very important, because this is different from the second condition,
a precise and accurate memory.
In Arabic, we call this.
Okay? This is very important, because you realize this causes of headache looked at two separate aspects of the person, look at how careful they were. There's one thing a person's honesty, but not every honest person has a good memory.
Not every honest person even has the knowledge and look at so for example,
look at, for example, so many of the people in our times that are giving, you know, lectures or whatever are talking about Islamic giving correct what many of them might actually be sincere. It's not as if they are trying to misguided people. But because they have never studied Islam, for example, or that they don't care to study it, or whatever they are actually giving wrong foot was wrong information. I think Islam says this, I think you know, the Aziz is this, such a person might not necessarily be evil, but because of his ignorance, or because of an inaccurate memory, or because he's not qualified, we cannot accept a statement. Likewise, the scholars have looked at this
aspect, and they call this precision in memory. He might be honest, but when he heard something, was he have a good memory that he could memorize it and then transmitted in the same way that he received it.
So there are two separate things to look at the person.
The fourth aspect is, and the fifth aspect of something that we're not going to go into too much detail because they're a bit more advanced, is that it does not contradict something stronger than it. In other words, a person was an average guy. Okay, I'll give you a black. Another practical example, is that
a person says it's going to rain today. Okay.
You meet someone, for example, he is the weatherman of your locality or area, he tells you No, no, I studied he was not going to rain today. Or inshallah, whatever his predictions are of that time. Or, for example, you meet someone who says that so and so was in an accident, then you meet a family member of that person. And he says, know that that wasn't the case. It wasn't an accident. Here, in this case, we have a person that might be honest and have integrity. He might even have a precise and accurate memory. But in this particular case, there was someone that was more knowledgeable than him more accurate than him that contradicted his thickness. So in Arabic, we call this phenomenon
shots. Okay. Basically, it contradicts something that was more stronger than it don't write of the conditions you have to be shot to know the conditions if you don't have to be Yanni is not allowed. No.
shih tzu does the Arabic word for the plural? No, she will do.
However you want to write that don't write shots because that is not the condition needs to have is the condition you don't need to have. Okay.
questions they don't deserve all this time. The fifth question the fifth criteria is that there are no other hidden defects, hidden defects in other words, apparently, that is not might be very correct. You can't find any and this discrepancy in it, but when you study this Heidi's and you compare it to other ahaadeeth you find a hidden defects in it, and that is called an aerobic inlet. So of the conditions is that there is no in
Okay, now these four and five are a bit more advanced, but understand these three at least and we're going to discuss briefly the four and five. The first condition once again was that you have a continuous link, no breaks in the chain. second condition is that the honesty and integrity of the person must be firmly established. The third
condition is that not just his honesty and integrity, but also his precision in memory is his sharpness of memory was also established. The fourth condition is that it cannot contradict something stronger than it. And the fifth condition is that it cannot have any hidden defects. Now, briefly quickly, we're going to go over 10 or 15 terms. So whoever wants to take notes better, write quickly and those that are not in Charlotte.
Really, as long as you understand these five points, that's the most important thing, but so that you are a bit more and you know, a bit more detailed, we want to go a bit more detail about the various types of studies, what happens when a change breaks or whatever, we're going to talk about a few of the more important terms. Okay. So a continuous is that what happens when you don't have a continuous? It's not?
The general term when you don't have a continuous it's not his moon culture?
In other words, it's broken. One quarter, when use when Ireland says the Hadeeth is monocot. There, it means that somewhere in the chain, somewhere in the chain,
there is a missing link. Where is it? We don't know when he says it's a general term.
Suppose it was the Sahaba that was missing, the hubby himself, for example, will have been will not be the student of employer said the profits are seven cents.
So the tablet he narrates directly from the profitability center.
We don't know the name of the companion. In this case, this is Marcel.
Now we know the missing link where it is
more than is the strongest why added to the stance, strong device in the sense that
all of the other life IDs are considerable, lesser category, but it's still great. But the strongest of them, even all of it stay relatively speaking, you can categorize them, the strongest of them is the most. Why is this
because the Sahaba obviously, are of the highest level, they can never lie or say anything, you know, mistakenly. So the fact that they're missing in the chain is the weakest type of missing link. Whereas for example, if the later person were missing with that person might even be a liar, that person might be a person that is rejected by the scholars of Haiti. So but I'm worse than it still is a life ID, but it is the strongest type of diversity. Suppose the person that was missing was at the bottom of the chain like body shape, for example. Okay, or more than his shift, and basically the, the, the the, the missing link occurred right at the bottom of the chain. The person that is
above the personality like behati, Muslim or widowed in this case, we call it Mala
Mala, which means suspended. It's as if the head is suspended. Because it's above the person he can't release. It's like suspended alone because the chair above him is not has not been mentioned. So it's more or less, it suspended there.
Anytime there are two consecutive missing links. For example, your Malik says that the process of himself, Mr. Malik didn't even meet any of the Sahaba. Mr. Malik varies from the pattern who narrate from the Sahaba, who narrated from the process. So there's two people missing here. Anytime there's two or more consecutive people missing, then we call it more than one
more about which means like confused, like this video is confused, because it is not, it's not. It is confusing in the sense that there are two people missing, we don't know who they are. Okay, these are the main types of bias as it related to the first condition.
common term is one called dead, which means that break is anywhere if the break is that of the Sahaba, we call it musen. If the break occurs at the bottom of the Chamber of Commerce, if the break occurs to people consecutively or more, we call it more England and obviously more of the weakest of the life elite because there's two people missing two generations, maybe a two year gap in the chain. Although these are by ID, there is one more.
There is one more category and this is called within.
And this is we need people a little bit more into detail here.
would then lead means that you're not sure that the person actually heard it from his shoe.
You're not sure that the person actually heard it from his chair. Certain people were known to practice this act called at least what is the least that this means?
narrating on behalf of someone whom you never met, pretending as if you met him pretending not as alive, but it seems like that. Let me give you an example.
For example, one of the rhythm of our time shift that has been to me personally I've never mentioned if I were to say Shere Khan Advani said
then I am not actually narrating something I heard. It is something maybe from a cassette or a book or something. So if someone were to know
I read this, I don't have a direct, it's not. You cannot take this as a direct link. We lived at the same time, there's a possibility that we met, but I didn't meet him. Some of the scholars of the past and some of the narratives of it, they fell into a mistake. It's not a sin. It's a mistake of knowledge, at least, in which they would narrate the hedges in such a fashion that people presumed that the person had met, but in reality he had not met. So that that's why it is called modela. How do we know this? We have to look up this narrator was he known for that this or not? If he was known, then in that case, we consider the attitudinal again with many conditions, which we're not
going to get into right now.
Okay, that was the first condition for an evening that it must have a continuous change.
The second condition
was what we called Ida,
which was what
integrity and honesty. Suppose the person did not have integrity, he was not honest. In that case, depends on what he was, if he was a liar, if he was a fabricator of Hadith, that Hadith is known as mobile.
Mobile means the Hadith is fabricated, we know for a fact beyond the shadow of a doubt that this idea is not authentic. It is never the presence of never said it. How do we know this because one of the narrator's did not have a data, he was accused of lying.
Suppose he wasn't accused of lying, but he was accused of being a major sinner, okay, for example, he would drink he would womanizer, whatever. In this case, such a headache becomes vice didn't.
We cannot accept it. And it's not just if it's very weak, by the means very weak.
One is it moldboard if the narrator is a liar, he is known to lie in the head is the processor. When is it by Jude then when his eyes Allah is not met, but he's not a liar?
When he is not a good Muslim, but we don't know him to lie. So we can't say his mobile. So he says one category above that. So we say it is by By the way, you should know that mobile has a number of synonyms to it for practical purposes, bothy. Okay if you hear a scholar see this as it is barbell, basically, it is synonymous with mobile. Also the phrase, it has no basis of Salah this hadith has no basis also is synonymous with mobile. And other other phrases to basically this category means you know for sure that someone fabricated is headed and pretended it was a Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu. It is.
So this is the on there's one more thing is
suppose the person is unknown.
who he is, for example, one person will say, amor narrated to me that his father said that the process of him said, we don't know who it is, we don't know who his father is. He mentioned the name. He said the name of the person, Mohammed Abdullah may be okay. But we don't have any biographical information about this person. In other words, his status is unknown.
Also, this Hadees will be considered weak, there is no special term for it, you're just seeing it here. There's no special term that you use here. But if the person within Arabic is much who is unknown,
so when you don't have any information about the person,
and this, by the way, is not as common as you would think. Amazingly of the miracle of Allah subhanho wa Taala most of the narratives of Hadith, you have detailed biographies about them as we went to mention in a short while inshallah, okay, but the point is this module it affects that as Allah. Why, because when you don't know somebody, you don't know what his what his character is, you don't know whether he's good or bad Muslim. So, therefore, we consider it as one of the, if this is not mentioned, this will also be considered by
the third condition was what? locked which is precision in memory, right.
Now, here we have to go into some detail. People are various levels of memory. Some of them have excellent memories, they will remember what you say precisely, almost word for word. Others they will remember what you say, but not as precisely, but they're still they have good memories. So they will not differentiate between this and they said, if a person has superb memory, the headache will be considered.
If he has above average memories still is good enough is how he will be considered Hatton.
This is the only difference between the
both of them are acceptable in Islamic Aveda, Islamic law, Islamic everything.
Both of them are sensible. But just to show you the precision with which the prices of ideas were preserved. They even differentiated between someone that was well known for his votes.
Someone that was not as well known. So for example, as Buhari, without a doubt he cannot be compared to any inheritor of Hades who might have Adana, you must differentiate between the two. So Buhari would have been given the status of, for example, His idea for his teacher Yeah, is the main idea, Medina, such people that are famous and well known that if scenarios had to be considered of this level, and an average person, like a student of knowledge of his time, who was integral, and he had integrity, he had good memory, but he wasn't as
famous or as well known, is hiding.
But for practical purposes, the two can be used for our level at this level synonymously in the sense that both of them are acceptable in Islamic
Suppose now his memory was weak. So, in other words, you could not trust him with regards to what he heard and then married, he heard something that in areas something else, but he's not a liar, in this case that he did become buddies here, once again, Vice is a general term there is no specific term for this, but you can say that it is bite because his box is not good. It is it because so and so, his love did not meet the level that was required of him, okay. And if his memory is very, very bad, then obviously, it becomes very, very weak, right? So depending on how bad his memories learning,
so over here in books, you can see that by hand has and this is the only difference between the two. If a person has a weak memory, it'll be classified as if it has a very weak memory. Okay, if we can't provide advice to them, but a person with a bad memory never reaches a level of mobile fabricating, okay, because we didn't know that he's a liar. Mobile only occurs when you know for a fact this person is a liar. If a person is honest, but he has the bad memory, then you say have you provided for diabetes and you cannot classify it with bots that are more blue or something of that nature?
Okay, the fourth
condition of sohei was what?
No, no shoes right. So, over here, basically, it has it is biased because of this, which is called shadow, the condition is no shoot.
If it is, then it is called the heavy shadow in the sense that it contradicts something that is more authentic than it. Let me give you an example here. It is narrated in the morphodynamic that the Prophet sallallahu Sallam said, when one of you prays to the cries of budget, let him lie down on his right hand side on his right side of the body. Okay. Now, when we look at this hadith is not the rest it would be at least happened in the narratives are all acceptable, truthful everything. But when we look at the other a hadith found in Bukhari, and Muslim and so many other works, we find that in fact, this was not a statement of the Prophet system. This was an action reported by Ayesha
Ayesha said that the Prophet was an actor he prayed today guys would lie down in his right hand side. So one of the narrator's accidentally in defensive memory, once you occasionally failed him, he made it into what a statement that the process of instead when one of you prays to look at a budget, let him lie down on the right hand side. How did we know this? Because when we compared all of the other chains, we compiled all of the other headings, we found that this particular person and we know who it is, this shows us the precision with which we know the sciences of how does this person who was happening level,
he made this into a statement, whereas in fact, all of the other people that narrated it, and they were of the same level, whenever needed as an action. So then we classify this ready to be shot, we give it a special category of bite, we don't just call it bite by that even though shot is a type of bite. But because of the fact that all of the people in the chain are good people are worthy, respectable people, we say the shot. Okay, so the idea is that it doesn't meet this criteria, it falls under shot.
The last category, which is the most complicated category is that there can be no illness. Now, just by the term, I'm sure you realize this is more complicated than it looks, no hidden defects. What is a hidden defect? Well, the scholars of Hadith are classified 10 1520 different types of hidden defects, which is really beyond the scope of this class. But let me give you an example of what happened for example, one time, which shows you what an inlet is basic in India means a student of knowledge would look at this Hadith, which is not and he would think everything is clear and fine, but only the item when he compiled all of the other headings from this person. And from concerning
this topic, you will be able to see a defect a defect, which will not be seen by student of knowledge. It is obviously only for the NMR. This is where you separate the island from the student of knowledge, as student knowledge my study ID for 567 10 years. He won't be able to
Make this particular branch his speciality, only the major amount like I remember hardy like it murrini like Emma Muslim, they were able to master these. And they were able to point out the hidden defects. Let me give you an example.
What happened once again just shows you the precision with which the sooner was preserved that one of the students have had he, he was he wrote his nose with a chef, and he walked out of the classroom. Okay, and the wind blew, so his nose for mixed up. So what happened was two pages, when you put them together, they will reverse over. So the it's not the one he went on to the method of
Everything looks as clear as the date. But Mr. McCarty was able to point out to Mr. Muslim and our other people of his time that this person made a mistake here. Because this has this has never been narrated by this is not yet he narrated. How did he know this, because of this thing called hidden hidden, hidden defects, that two pages were basically swapped around accidentally. So the other one had, it got connected to the start for the Medina, another heading. And he remember how you said this person never narrated this edit from this Assad. Rather, he narrated this added from the system. So what happened was,
the two IDs got mixed up. And in fact, in reality, the amazing thing is a scholarship, I just recorded this incident, that this student, he got his notebook mixed up, so that he would narrate, edit, and he would transform them. One is not to another method and one lesson to another. So this call is I just mentioned it and remember how he was able to pinpoint exactly in what it is where it occurred. The point is, this is a very complex, complicated field, not something that is easy to explain or describe because of the fact that we say it's a hidden defect leave it is that an open thing? Anything could be a hidden defect, how do we find out what is the hidden defect, there are
not they compile all of the Hadith narrated by this by this person. And in this chapter, and then they compare it and they're able to do deductions determine when there is a hidden defect. And again, there are different types of terms. Depending on what the defect is you have makuu you have many types are entered in, the scholars of police have defined for you. There's one more type of there's two more types of definitions that are important.
They're not related to necessarily the authenticity of the Hadith, which you will read about them a lot with a lawsuit versus a heart
all of the profits hobbies can be categorized
as either mutawatir or a hat. Okay. Now, this is nothing new, what we just talked about how these could be studied and and we thought that it could decide, okay, what is the difference between the two, which means that it has been narrated by a large number of people in every generation, it is beyond a shadow of a doubt something that the process of them said, whereas I had had this is something that has not been narrated in this number in this fashion. Now, why do we care so much about this?
In reality, the fact of the matter is that the scholars of the past did not care that much about it, they did not care that much about it, because it is a constant process of service. However, what happened was the scholars of innovation, they came and they tried to destroy the sooner by another man, another method and another matter. And they said that well let us differentiate between with a white hat, then we will reject the hat and think only the voter watches.
And by doing so, they basically rejected the sooner why, because most of the sooner they had had. So we find that the more insensitive for example, they say we will not accept a hat ID. But now the problem arises when you reject a HUD HUD if
you reject most of your also, so the more it doesn't fit, okay will not accept a HUD headed in matters of RP The only, but we will accept them as a fit which is a contradiction. And to this day, to this date, this ideology is present and rampant amongst many Muslim groups. We didn't want to mention any names here, but a very large and famous group in our times at night that has had a Sunni Muslim group, they say we will not accept as they claim the social names are not Sunni by saying this, they will we will not accept the head has eaten up even to this day the type of ideology remains. So I just want to point out that yes, there is a difference in that with a word that has
been narrated by a large number of people has not been narrated by a large number of people, but for practical purposes. for practical purposes, every sight it needs to be acted upon or believed. There is no diff, there is no benefit practical benefits for dividing the healthiest into the water and have yet the scholars have done it just for the sake of knowledge and the scholars have done it for the sake of destroying the sun. So keep this in mind, you will hear this phrase a lot by the way that I had added cannot be used a high tides are not a source of knowledge. It cannot be relied upon totally. And this is all of this is from the more data that has affected the groups of our time. So
whenever you hear this, realize that this is not the position of the Jamaat, in fact the amount of Sharpie rahima
law as a whole two chapters in his Salah, about this concept here, where he defends that has led to us the moment Buhari in his, in his German. So, he has a whole Kitab a whole chapter dedicated to showing you that has added can be used, and in house it is bought in a hat that I had. So all of these qualities of the sooner they used to refute this policy, the better when they said this, unfortunately, our time is those that claim to follow Bukhari and Muslim. They haven't read Bukhari and Muslim. Therefore they they tried to deny a hadith or has
category that we have to talk about is
where is that? Where is this headed? ending? For example, who said that the Prophet says Adam said, or did the Sahaba? Say it? Or did they have their own say, and depending on where it ends, the scholars have given names for each of these things. So the Hadith of the Prophet says none of that goes directly up to him. In other words, as a hobby says, the prophet SAW sent him said, this is called a metaphor, I guess it is raised.
metaphor, it was raised all the way through the process and the meaning of metaphor, is that the phrase all of the solar system occurs.
If the Prophet says send him said, Allah subhanho wa Taala said, then it becomes a Heidi's What?
Okay, so if the processor says, unless it becomes an SOC, if the Sahaba said that, whatever he said, like a worker said something Homer says something, you don't call it a headache, but you call it Mo, this is a moku statement. malkuth means it's been stopped, stopped right before the processor. Now the multiple statements of the sahaabah, they occupy a position art in our religion in that we benefit from them. And we look up to them, and we respect those statements of the Sahaba. But they don't have the same legal weight as the sooner suppose the tablet remains the same in one generation under the Sahaba. We call that thing for.
For muscle, it means cut off, so that it isn't, it's as if it has been cut off, the first two generations have been cut off. And the statements of the third reign also are important in our religion, but under that of the Sahaba. And both of these are under that there were four and the Hadith, close to the Prophet sorcerer. So before we conclude, I want to talk a little bit about the science of religion, science of men, designs of men doesn't mean we study men, we study the biographies of men, they are the people, the men who narrated the heavy.
This is really a very long and large science, but it was one of the earliest sciences ever, in the Muslim oma. Because even before Bukhari and Muslim and others wrote their books of sight, people had already started compiling books of religion or men. What is the books of religion, the books of which are basically is our books related to discussing the biographies of the narratives of Heidi. So we have books written about other people, you look up the sounds of the names that we mentioned here, there are books that you can go back to that talk about these people. Now this is something like I said, is unique to the Muslim ummah.
It does not exist. So much detailed information about three generations of Islam, the Sahaba, the Tibetans, and even the duration after the winner to any scholar of that period. We have books written about him, you can look them up alphabetically, his name, his father's name, look him up, what the scholars said about him, how reliable he was, the other mother tested him what level of precision he has, all of this has been recorded. And this is something that is difficult to conceive. And I wish we had some of the books here I will show it to you. Only when you read these books do you realize and appreciate how this religion has been preserved? Because had it not been
for this science of men in with regard to healthy food not be preserved.
Every single narrator found in every single book of Hadith.
There is at least his name has mentioned these books.
And in some rare cases, like we said, there will be module that we don't have any information regarding him, but his name will be found that yes, this person did narrate Hadith in this timeframe, but we don't really have information about him. But the majority of narrators, let me just put an estimate like maybe 90% of the narrators
have had you have any books of Heidi, you will be able to know a biographical sketch of him when he was born, where he lived, who his you are, okay, who tested him. What did the scholars say about him, who his students were where he narrated it, any problems, you might have had everything. And this is amazing. For example, in when I was in second year, we had a whole year long class called the science of men. Just what I did, if you like we studied over 90 books written by other but about the science, 90 books. The entire book is just a list of names. And these names will tell you what the scholar said about him. Mr. hajipur
Have telehealth can be the study contributed by rote all it is, is a collection of named 12,000 9000 names. You just look up a name, and you find what it said about. Okay? Likewise, remembering is that human Muslim has the book before them. Mr. McMahon has many books his students can pull off of him. And there's something you really have to see to appreciate the fact that these men have been talked about discussed. And when I went to third year in my college of Hades, my yearly research paper was about one man, the entire year from the beginning to the end, right? I had to do a comprehensive research about one person now models his name, this man, I had to go back to every one of these 8090
works, and see what the scholar said about him. And try to finally decide what was the correct thing about this guy. And I wrote on computer 4050 pages about this. And he was not one of the major scholars, a committee member who has heard of him, hardly anyone.
Yet, I was able to write a 4050 page, things about myself and things about the science. That look, one man who is an average person, he's not one of the big guy, one of the big guys, you write PhDs about them, right? Yeah, came to mind. He has a few PhD.
ideas. Medina has a few PhDs done on him. But actually, the minor players, if you like, someone like me comes along, and he can write 1400 years, 1200 years later, a 4050 page research paper about when he was born, where he lived, where he traveled, okay, who he studied from, who his students were, what all of them up before him before he was in his time, and after him, said about him, whoever talks about him, what had he narrated? Okay, all of this was done on this map. This shows you that this is no wonder the kuffar jealous about this science. And no one wanted to so complicated confusing that many Muslims fall into mistakes about this. Okay, I just want to mention some of the
more important works, and then we'll conclude that inshallah Oh, god, what it
the earlier works like what happened to headaches literature, the earlier important works, right? They were absorbed into the later works. So the earlier works, although they are still existence, only the scholars and the students of knowledge go back to them. The students and all that have had these not even any students of knowledge. Only the specialized people of the people of the fields in the fields of study will have these 8090 works that I talked about, that were written 100 100 foreigners, euthanasia, foreigners, you every generation has 1520 3050 or 40 works to it. As for our times the beginning student of knowledge, if you just want to study a little bit of it, the first
book you'll buy are the the two three main books you'll buy. We'll just talk about them. So you get an idea of what's going on here.
The biggest and most important of these works is fadeev uncommon
that he will come up by someone called alizee. And mizzy was a very, very close friend, as students and of course not in the same year. Okay, he was around the same time Christopher 726 of this around that time he passed away. Okay. That means convention, a condensed version. So this book is a condensed version of command. And command was written 120 years ago. Okay, and I wanted something interesting that everyone should know, this book, the original command, who does it talk about? It talks about the narrator's of all of the six books, the key to the system that we talked about.
In fact, it was because of El Gamal that we have this term the six books, where did it come about? Who was the one that invented the term? Why do we have these six books are from different from the others? Because this person, not an mizzi? And someone was abalone and makdessi? Okay, who wrote Oh, come on, he did such a thorough job. Such a perfect job of compiling the names of all of the people. Remember, this is not just the Sahaba This is from the Sahaba down to even Bukhari, all five, six generations of all of these six books he compiled from the original source works.
Okay, you following me here? Right? He compiled from the original source works, and he did such a good job of it. That because of him, and because he chose these six books, the six books became the six books that because so much benefit was in a coma l command of Amazonia democracy. They said these six books, people started studying them even more because of the simplicity of finding a person in a coma. Okay, so that our misery came along 120 years later, and he's convinced that he will come out. Do you know how many volumes This is published in
3737 volumes that we will come up to is not as rigid. Even I don't have this work. It's too expensive. Okay. It's in print. Amazing.
in Princeton available, if you go to Jordan or Syria, or maybe any country that specializes in this is still available. Okay? This is definitely will come on up. And mizzi. Obviously 37 volumes is not something you can carry around and benefit from. So come on half of the Imam of the magazine, and the one that really close the door for us to hide, if you like or shouldn't say that, but I'm saying he perfected the science of it this time. And he wrote
attack. What does that mean? Who can tell me
the condensation of the condensation, Okay, this one comes down to a reasonable for thick volumes in small print. Okay, this is what I have here.
And this is very, very comprehensive. For a beginning student of knowledge for beginning level, this book if you have it. Again, this only deals with the six weeks to six months. It doesn't do for example, the mustard, or the Muslim theodicy, or the rooster didomi, or the pseudonym Simon Massoud, you might and you might not find the guy, if that guy is found in the six works, you'll find it in here. If he's not found in the six works, you will not find it. In fact, he would say if you have to go to other words, which we're not going to mention, we don't really have time for that. But even his students complaints of this, they complained it's too big daddy Big Daddy, so comes along,
imagine again in his lifetime. And he writes, Deke Read,
read means making something close to you. So if he was too far away from you, so he'll make it free to give you a free book, daddy. Okay, so this is an evil, evil, evil parodies of the command of the Commodore museum. And this is a very reasonable one volume and some have it in two volumes. It's
it's basically, every single narrator has two lines, two lines, one or two, Max, nothing, never more than three lines. Whereas the mizzi, you can literally have 1015 pages about one man.
So have them the hazard and condense this into a few paragraphs for each person. And then in this work, Dr. De V, he has one line, his full name, his full cornea when he died, and what his level is that it is level meaning is he is not level is he acceptable is not acceptable. Is he trustworthy? Whatever his final verdict as his final verdict. And this is the standard thing that the beginning step that any person goes back to for any individual thing, he goes back to this statement. Now we didn't get into an IRA going to about how they decided who was acceptable. Suffice to say that that too is a science in and of itself. They would test the people that would examine them, it is well
documented, my mathematics would go to a person and recite to him the hobbies that he took from him, then come back after 510 years and ask those same ID to see how his memory was. Okay, and other instances of this nature. So then they will document his memory, his precision, and the hooks of Hades are filled with some type of anecdotes and incidences that prove to you that that is a science in and of itself. And one last point, what do we do with bodies heavy? The important question.
Obviously mobile IDs without adults, mobile fabricated has nothing to do with them.
guys get them very weak. Also nothing to do with them. This is unanimous consensus scholar says this. So a Manhattan we take them all of them. The Escalade comes with bypasses, what do we do? There are three opinions quickly, the first opinion is that you accept them in general, without much conditions put. And this is the beginning of what he was called, it was really a shazz unknown opinion or not really followed. The second opinion, which is the opinion of many of them, is that you accept them, but with certain conditions. with certain conditions. These conditions are number one, that the heavy not to be very weak, just slightly weak.
that the Hadeeth be in a chapter
concerning something that is not thought of or watching or how long but it's something that is encouraged. Okay, that an event that he something that is encouraged, okay.
And number three,
that when you do this had if you don't really believe you're not you realize this is life hiding. So you're not, you don't really believe that you're going to get the reward that is mentioned in the head. Okay, these are three conditions mentioned by some of them, and that's their opinion, but really the stronger opinion for our practical purposes. And the last opinion, the third opinion is that the average layman should not touch the aesthetic. You should stay away from bias. Why? Because the layman is not qualified to put these three things into action. And that's the first reason. The second reason which is really very important also, that
we have enough funding and hasn't had enough in order that we can start acting
What if we want to that we don't have to try squabbling over the life? There are so many slides and has an ad? Why should we get bored with advice was when we know for a fact that the processor says something? Why should we argue and get into fact, a gray area that we don't know for sure whether he said it or not, you want to worship a less process? Firstly, there are plenty of sorry and hasn't happy that we're not doing that we could do. And the person could live his whole life doing that without getting involved with device. So really, for practical purposes. And this depending of your family, many of you remember, it is better, much, many strongly encouraged, if not obligatory, for
us laymen to stay away from rice paddies to rely upon the hay and hasn't had it without a shadow open the floor for questions. And they have one not just this sheet, but another sheet, talking about books for further reading. And there's three levels beginning level, intermediate level, advanced level, all of them are in English, if you'd like to benefit from them.
Oh, no questions. So that's my mission. Okay. So panicle location, what is