The Fiqh of Salah #01 – Introduction
Channel: Yasir Qadhi
Series: Yasir Qadhi - The Fiqh of Salah
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Bismillah R Rahman Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam ala Sayidina Muhammad Ali, he was IVIG mine. I'm about I welcome you to our intensive classes the Tuesday class which insha Allah for this
semester, if you'd like is going to be the book of Salah cuttable Salah from a very famous humbly textbook. And so before we begin just a few words of introduction not too long about how to study fish and why should we study fish from a textbook a it's called an Arabic committin of fish. So realize my dear brothers and sisters as we all know that Islam has always been about law and law has always been a part and parcel of our religion and from the very earliest of times the Sahaba tabula Winterbottom your own they attempted to extract laws in more details, then what is generally mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah the Quran and Sunnah did not come as a manual of law, it came as
guidance. It came as a specific laws, but it's not a manual. It's not like a book of law. So the verses pertaining to different aspects of film are mentioned throughout the Quran. So later scholars came and they began to extract these verses and Hadith. And as we all know, this led to a slight difference of opinions in many issues. Over the course of time for general Suniva have evolved, we all are aware of these the Hanafi, Shafi, Mata, Ki and humbly and these four schools were these weren't the only schools that were more before and they're still one of you, one or two others around. But these were the four that were given general acceptance in the OMA and each of these
four, considered the others to be a legitimate attempt to follow Islamic law. So it's not a matter of basically each one is saying we are right and the others are wrong. Rather, these are all preferences, and each, as Imam Shafi famously said, that, I believe my opinion to be right, and the opinion of my opponent to be wrong, but I concede the possibility that I could be wrong, and he could be right. So this is the general philosophy of the mother have that? Look, I think this opinion is right. I'm pretty sure it is. But that's my opinion, and possibly my opinion could be wrong, and the other opinion could be right. And therefore, as we said, historically, these formats
have evolved and studying Fick from the books of the Madhouse is actually much easier and much more logical than studying filk directly from the Quran and Sunnah. Because directly from the Quran, sunnah. This requires scholarship, there is no verse, for example, that combines all of the Schrute of saga, all of the Arcana of Salah all of the Waje Bata voodoo, there is no one verse that basically does all of inheritance. Similarly, the Hadith, there's no one Hadith that combines all of this. So when you look at the books of fic, what the books have done is that based on each of the med hubs, they've listed very simply for the beginning student, as for the intermediate, and for the
advanced student, what they should study in terms of law. So it's always beneficial to start studying from some of the Moton or the mutton, it's called the textbooks of Islamic law. And I have chosen a textbook that is one of the standard introductory level textbooks of the humbly madhhab okay. So, textbooks are also divided generally into three categories, that which is for the basic introductory level, that which is for the intermediate, and that which is for the advanced, these are the general three categories. And
I have chosen the humbly madhhab, simply because I am more familiar with that the only reason otherwise, all of them at David handler are good, but my own, I've been exposed most to the humbly madhhab. Okay, we're saying that the best thing to do for the introductory student is to begin with a basic text of Fick. And each month hub has, over the course of time, centralize certain basic textbooks. You know, in any discipline, certain textbooks become more famous than others, right? In any discipline, you're going to accounting, you're going to medicine, you're going to engineering, there's always even though hundreds of books are written, what happens is the test of time that
certain books become popular, and in the humbly school. The book that I have chosen is one of the most popular books ever written in the humbly madhhab and it is called a Roomba. It is called an older and the Roomba translates in Arabic
As the support or the backbone, this is what along their means. So a Roomba is a basic textbook of humbly filled and in fact, this entire book is a detailed summary of the owner. So can you imagine their own there is just a booklet and this book that I have which is one volume is a intermediate oceans is the intermediate summary of the Rhondda. So the older the actual book of filth is just a little booklet and you will be getting the entire Kitab of Salah in English translation has been translated, you will be getting the entire Kitab of Salah and that is the goal to finish inshallah Huhtala in this series or seminars and just a brief introductory note of who the author is. And just
because you should know what these these authors and textbooks are. So the author of lambda is a famous scholar from Damascus from Syria, who died in the year 620 Hijra. So literally 800 years ago 620 Hijra he passed away, and his name is Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Kodama al Maka Dessy he is known as even Kodama al Makdessi, that is his famous title, even Kodama democracy, and even Kodama Alma DC is quite literally perhaps the most famous humbly scholar of the entire 12 centuries of humbly fit after Imam Muhammad that he is the one who has done just like for example in the Shafi school, the most famous Shafi scholar after Imam Shafi is a Noah we for example, right mama no way is literally
like the most famous Shafi so the equivalent of the humblest IV mama no way isn't Kodama okay the equivalent of a mama no in the in the Shafi tradition of the humbly tradition is Eben Kodama and even Kodama was born in what is now Jordan in a place in a small village in what is now the country of Jordan. And when he was a young child, the Crusaders captured that city. So his father had to flee with him as a young boy, and they sought shelter in the city of Damascus. The Crusaders never captured Damascus. And so he was raised, and he died in Damascus. But he studied for a number of years in Baghdad, he traveled to Baghdad as a young man, and he came from a line of scholars, the
Makkah disease are known as the scholars of Syria in this generation and the MCC, they're called the micarta them I call this a macaw. They said there's hundreds of MK DC scholars, but amongst them he was the most famous, his father was a scholar. And he first studied Islam under his scholar under his father, who was a scholar, and then he traveled the world and came back to Damascus. And Eben Kodama wrote many books, at least 15 books he wrote. And these books spanned many disciplines. So he was an expert, and fifth, and even Kodama has the most comprehensive curriculum for humbly feel one of the few authors who really thought things through and in fact, even Kodama wrote four books of
fear of the humble effect, each one of them was meant at a different level. So here's the introductory level. And this is what we're doing along the way, this was for the beginner. So this would be the equivalent of let's say, middle school high school, there will be doing a oanda at the beginning level, then there is the second level that was ammonia, and ammonia was for intermediate level and ammonia is thicker volume. Then the third level is coffee. And I'll coffee was meant basically for the advanced student. And then he had the fourth level which was an encyclopedia, and it is called alimony and alimony is considered to be one of the best books ever written in the
history of Islam. The same author we're going to study his book on under is this thing. The other vocal money is literally that big. It is one of the largest encyclopedias affic ever written in the history of Islam, and I'll move money and it is my favorite book of soccer is my favorite if I have any issue I need to look of an advanced manner first book I turn to is even Kodamas alimony. Why? Because Eben Kodama summarizes all of them as I have with their evidences. And then he also says, but the reason why the humbly method is right because obviously as humbly so every month I was gonna say their motive is right, he goes, and the reason why we are right is because of x y&z and he
brings his evidences. So there is really hardly any book that is as encyclopedic as a Mohini. And there is one other book I'm just going to reference for you should know it, and that is Imam unknowing. As we said they are they are, they're not contemporaries, but they are peers, if you like in the sense that Imam in no way is the master of the Shafi method, and even Kodama is the master and the codifier of the humbly madam Imam and no will he wrote a similar book from the Shafi perspective and that is called
image more, and image more is now printed in, I think 3536 volumes. It's literally I'm not exaggerating this big image more, I remember no, we saw a massive encyclopedia. And our money is a similar type of encyclopedia, but are much more as more pages if you like. These two books, our scholars say, are the pinnacle of advanced fact there's nothing more advanced than this has ever been written both money and ultimate is more of a No way. In any case, I digress into another issue, we are not starting with a multi Don't worry, we are going to start with the very beginning the very basic textbook and that is and that is which one what is called a lambda you should all know the
name of the textbook, because you should know we are doing a lambda. Now, along the my methodology will be not to concentrate too much on the other muda him when I did the fifth of taharah. And the field of Oulu was it last year when it is difficult to do so because the field of view is a small chapter. So I decided to give you a taste of comparative film. And we went over all of the muda have and what each one said and what was their evidences. That was fine for a small chapter. But the book of Salah Kitab masala, which is what we're going to do is always the longest chapter in the books of fiction. There is no chapter longer than the book of Salah and you will see why because there's so
many issues pertaining to Salah there is no chapter in the books or fifth that is longer than Salah. So if we were to do Kitab Salah in a comparative manner, I kid you not we would be spending years doing cabel Salah that we don't have time for that. And also we will I'll confuse you. The fact of the matter is, you don't need to learn although the muda have as an average Muslim, you just want to know how to worship Allah and move on. That's all it is. So we're just going to go over Kitab Salah from the humbly school and that should be sufficient for you for your entire life. It's all you need to know. And even if you're not humbly if you haven't studied the other metalhead, it's fine that
you just take the humbly method in all of Salah don't pick and choose that one opinion shaft anyone have been unbeli Don't pick and choose in the chapter of Salah keep yourself humble if you want and you will be fine insha Allah Who Tada. So we began with the book of Salah Kitab salah, and you will get your handouts and solo don't worry so I will dictate to you Sorry, I will recite to you what he has done. You don't have to you don't have to write down what he has written. You don't have to write down his text, you will get a copy of the text and I see some have already have some copies if you can just whoever has a copy, just look at it. So that you know so that you know what is taking
place. So we began with the fifth of Sala and it is now on page 118 of the of the handout the 118 of the binder. This is where the fifth of Sadat begins. And he begins Kitab masala with a hadith and it is even Kodamas general tendency wherever he can find a hadith in Bukhari or Muslim. He will begin the chapter with it he wants to mention Hadith when he begins any chapter of fic and he says robota Ignace Ahmed narrated that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said that five prayers Allah has made obligatory on the servants throughout the day and night. Whoever protects them and half of it hidden. Whoever does HIV of the Salah can Allah Who in the law he done a new political agenda. He
has a promise with Allah that Allah will cause him to enter agenda. So this hadith is in Bukhari and Muslim the famous Hadith whereby the summit, Allah has made five prayers obligatory whoever protects and guards the man half of our Alina has a guarantee with Allah that He will cause him to enter Gen. Y MLM you have failed either in lemmya con level or in the law he ahead and whoever does not protect them has no such promise with Allah insha Allah or the ABA who will insha Allah for Allah. If Allah once he will punish him and if Allah once he will forgive him, and this hadith in Bukhari, and Muslim Now, the hadith of course, is self explanatory, and it is one of the greatest blessings of
the one who prays regularly. The one who prays regularly has a guarantee with Allah as long as he protects the prayer. What does it mean to protect the prayer means you pray it the way that it's supposed to be prayed, you pray it, doing the or can the shuru toward Shabbat, perfecting the Sunon as much as you can, whoever does so and by the way of protecting the prayer is what in salata, tenha and fascia, it will Moncur when you really protect the prayer, even the prayer protects you from falling into
fascia and Moncure. So whoever protects the prayer, Allah has promised him you will enter agenda and whoever does not do so it is up to Allah. If Allah wants to forgive, he will forgive. If Allah wants to punish, he will punish first Salewa to harm Sue, this is now his texts, you don't have to write this down, I will translate, and then I'll explain for salatu Han Soo Jeeva, to another coulomb Muslim in our hotel in Berlin. The five prayers are obligatory upon a Muslim, that is body and alcohol. So there are three conditions needed to make the salah obligatory, number one Muslim, therefore the one who is not Muslim, obviously is not required to pray because when you are a
Kaffir, none of the laws apply upon you. Doesn't matter what even if the Catherine were to pray, it will not be accepted of him, because he does not believe in Allah subhanho wa taala. So the rulings of the Sharia are not obligatory on the kaffir. Once a person has accepted Islam, of course, they become wajib. And this is common sense. And there's no need for evidence of this happen. You need to be in your senses. So how thin eliminates, for example, the one who is not in his senses, the one who is crazy, the one who does not have intelligence, the one who's born without intelligence, the one who is not able to think. And it also eliminates the one who is unconscious, because he's not
alcohol, the one who's unconscious, and this is a temporary lifting of his ankle. And it also eliminates the one who is not conscious because of his own sins, such as the one who's drunk and the one who takes drugs. Such a person, even though he's not, he's not required to pray, because he's drunk, he is sinful for leaving the prayer and for getting drunk. Right, so not having alcohol, it could be not your fault. The one who's not born with alcohol is not his fault. It could be an accident that happens to you become unconscious, in which case you're forgiven. And we're going to come to the issue of costume makeup or not, we'll come to that later on. And it could be your fault.
And if it is your fault, then you are sinful and responsible, even if you're not going to pray. So the one who is drunk you understand isn't it cannot think straight, he's not going to pray. But it is his fault, he is sinful. And he will have to make up the solder as we'll talk about later. And the third condition is bodies. And bodies, as we all know, is the one who has reached the age of puberty. And the age of puberty initially, is defined to be by a number of signs, the books of Phil mentioned this. So for example, pubic hair, the growing of the pubic hair, or for a man it is the wet dreams that occur for a woman it is the menses, all of these are signs that the person has
reached the age of puberty. And as soon as puberty begins, then the rulings of the Shediac become obligatory. And what this means my dear parents and this is a big mistake that many of us fall into barley is not 18 years old. Barley is typically 1213. Max 14, this is by the blue comes in a 12 1314. Very rarely, with a medical problem, it might be 15. Otherwise, the average age of becoming value in girls is 12. And boys is 13 is the average age. And therefore at this age, Salah becomes obligatory on our
young men and women, because technically they are not even children. Now, technically, they are not children in the sense of the Shediac. Now, for the child, the Sharia has an interesting rule, that from the age of 10 onwards until they become by the parents are required to make the child pray. And if the child does not pray, the child does not get any sin, but the parent will get a sin.
Because the parent is required for this one act, they are not required for the fasting. They are not required for Zika because the parent gives it the child is not required to give Zika for the money of the child if the child has money. So according to the majority, we're not talking about just giving an example, the majority would say suppose the child has a fund his aunt gave him his grandfather gave him the majority would say the child is not valid, so he's not going to give Zakah but the guardian of the money will give zakat on behalf of the child. Okay, so zakat Siyam the parents don't have to ask the child to do anything. I mean, of course is healthy. You want them to
pray. I mean, you want them to fast, but it's not required. So technically, if the person the young man or woman 789 1011 does not fast at all, then they become valid at the age of 13.
and their first fast is when they're battle. They're scot free, they're fine. But the same does not apply for, for what? Sala for Salah. The parents are required at the age of 10 to start the habit and if the children do not pray, because the parents are not even caring, then the parents are sinful and the child is scot free. Why is the child scot free because children are never held accountable for the prayers and the Salah and anything until they become valuable. Children are never held accountable until they become bothered when it comes to these rituals. The child is not mortal if the child is not required to do anything, but the parents are the ones who are required.
So we have the three conditions if these three conditions are met, then Salah becomes wajib but there is an exception in LoL ha il one no fossa, other than the lady who is in the menses and the postpartum bleeding. These are two exceptions to the rule where the person does not have to the person does not have to pray. And of course the evidence is for this armato swatted well known the evidences for this are well known in the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam where a lady came to Arusha, the hadith is in Behati, and she said, Oh, Isha and this hadith is in body and this is one of the fundamental a hadith that women should know because it's a simple Hadith that
tells us what the fifth is our issue or Mother of the Believers. Why must we make up our CM when we are in our menses, but we don't make up our salah?
Why do we make up our fasting and not our Salah? So our Isha said, a how to return aunty? Are you a from hoorah? Are you from the hardware giants, and that is because the hardware Giants had bizarre fifth party Giants had strange holidays, you know who they were the first group that broke away the ones that assassinated it, the ones that assassinated it Rhodiola who and these are the harder giants and the harder Giants had completely weird rulings of nothing from the date rejected sooner, the first group to reject soon as the holidays we still have these groups around to this day. The first group to reject sooner is the holiday. When you reject the sooner What are you going to do?
You don't have to because we understand it. Okay, so Aisha said are you from? How old are you Hardy Jade? Why are you asking such a weird question? Then she said, we used to mince menstruate in the time of the Prophet says I'm nothing new. And he was the one who told us to make up the Siyam. And to not make up the salah hadith is in mahadi, explicit and clear. None of the scholars of Islam have have ever said at least in Sunni Islam have ever said that the lady who's in her menses makes up the salah. None of them have ever said this. This is simply not found in our tradition. But she makes up the but she makes up the fasting as we said. And the same applies to the new facade. And then
officer is the postpartum bleeding. So the blood that comes after the child is born, this bleeding, which the maximum is 40 days, and typically it finishes off in the 30 Something days. So for those 30 days, 40 days, she will not pray, and the prayer is not watching on her. When it's not watching. There's no question of Cabo because it's not watchable. So there's no why would you have her in that time and therefore, there is no making up for the lady in those two timeframes. Femen Jahad will do Baja, whoever denies that it is obligatory Lee jolly he because he is ignorant. Refer that he is to be taught the status of the Salah. We're in Jaha Inna, then kufr and if he denies he has to pray,
knowing it is obligatory out of stubbornness, then this person is simply not a Muslim, he is a Kaffir. And the reason for this is to demonstrate the status of Salah that denying the obligation of Salah expels one from Islam, and he makes an exception. He says whoever does not know that Salah is obligatory, then this person you teach him. And this is so common in our time still a person accepts Islam, and they don't understand what is Islam because now who I don't have to praise to devote for me to pray. So the new Muslim you cut him some slack. You don't expect him to have the rulings automatically. Whoever denies the salah refer Derrick you teach him. You explain to him, you show
him the verses from the Quran, the Hadith of the prophets of Salaam, once that has been made clear, and he still says I don't have to pray. Then he becomes a Kafir. And this is by unanimous consensus of all of them without him that the one who rejects Salah and unfortunately there are some Muslims that they don't say I'm too lazy to pray. They literally say I don't have to pray this for you guys.
This rejection of Salah is the essence of satanic arrogance because he believes that I don't have to do such that you guys do it, I'm not going to do it. This rejection of Salah is simply a an aspect of Cofer and therefore, the scholars have unanimously agreed that one who denies Salah is not a Muslim, as long as he knows it is obligatory now, there is a huge controversy that he will Kodama does not get into. And that is the one who does not pray out of laziness.
And I have spoken about this controversy multiple times. Even last year when we taught theology. I went into a little bit on we did Abu Bakar DX fighting the method. I also went into a little bit of this as well, just a little bit, and this is a huge controversy because there is one strand of the humbly school and only the humbly school the others don't have this trend. One strand of the humbly school that says the one who does not pray out of laziness is not considered a Muslim, but this is not even Kodamas opinion. So he did not quote this Abram Kodama did not follow this opinion while your hell outta hero her and walk to you would you be here illegally now when Jim AHA almost tell
hidden be shortly her. It is not allowed to delay the prayer beyond the time of its obligation except in one of two cases.
If you have these three conditions, your Muslim brothers asking if you're Muslim brothers after there is no scenario where you can delay the salah except one have to number one illegally now in JAMA Aha, you have the NIA to combine and you have a legitimate reason to combine. Okay, so then we Salford can combine the one who is sick and some circumstances can combine. In some circumstances when it's raining really bad when it snows really heavy and you're in the masjid. Then you can combine okay and authentically narrated that it was raining. We'll call the thunderstorm and it was Mother of time. So the process of them said prayer Isha now we will pray isha with Margaret. So they
prayed Mongolia and Russia and they combined and then they went back in the thunderstorm and they didn't come back for Russia. So it is allowed for example, we're going to get to the issue of combining later on in our in this book of Salah, but it is allowed for people in the masjid not at home. If you're at home and it's raining what difference is make due to pray Muslim and then Asia this time for the masjid folks to combine if the weather is extremely bad, and in our time snow is a good reason. For example, it snows really bad we can combine so when are we allowed to delay it as well so we can delay it if we have the NIA to combine if there's a legitimate reason to combine then
you are sinless or Michelle reelin be shortly her whoever is busy in the preconditions the shout of Salah. So for example, a person wakes up realizes there's 10 minutes left for the Salah and he doesn't have water now in the good old days you don't turn the tap on you go to the well to get water for example. Okay. So is he allowed to pray without doing will do because the time will finish or is the shot more important and the time is allowed to go?
The shot is not more is more important than the timing. Why? Because it is not allowed to pray without the shoot. And we'll get to the shoot next next Tuesday. Charlotte the next Tuesday class will be the shoulder of sada so in this case, he is forgiven if he had a legitimate excuse why he's delaying 10 minutes before for example, he is forgiven in going to get the water even if the time finishes.
And to then do although and then pray because one the one who is busy in the shoe route of Salah is busy in Salah Okay, the one who is busy preparing for Salah it's as if he is in the act of Salah. So if he has a legitimate excuse for some reason, and there is a possibility for him to do all of the shootout. Now obviously, if there is no possibility there is no water he knows there's no water in this case he'll do tangible but in case he knows that he can get it and it's just going to take some time then in this case it is more important for him to do the shoot of Salah and then move on to its word you better not accounted for in terracotta how wohnen was to T by salata for Interborough Illa
Whoever leaves the salah out of laziness.
He is to be asked to repent for three days, he is given three days. Now again realize these books
Fick, they were written for
average Muslims. And they were also written for what we would call lawyers.
So if you wanted to become a lawyer, Fatih, you would start with these books and work your way to Now you wouldn't become a lawyer after reading this booklet. That's the beginning. But you would start with this booklet, you would start, then you would work your way to the bigger, bigger textbooks. So realize, you know, what we call a lawyer, that is perfectly right, realize the respect we give lawyers and classical Islam was given to the folk Aha. And the folk AHA would become actual judges on the court or become Attorneys at Law, literally, they would be the football you go to, and they will be a group of fuqaha, they would be employed by the government, there would be the Islamic
Caliphate would employ them. So they're always rulings pertaining to
things of public nature, and understand why they're found in the books of fic. Now, these rulings are not applicable to us over here. But we should know the reality of classical Islam. And in the humbly madhhab, the one who does not pray out of laziness, the Islamic land must ask him to pray, because public morality is enforced in the Sharia, and the one who openly does not pray.
And he does so out of laziness. Why did he say our laziness because if he denies prayer, we get to the first point. If he denies Salah he's not a Muslim, but if he does not pray out of laziness, and everybody knows this, in this case, study by Saracen, he is given three days notice. And if he does not repent, his punishment is execution. What Allah put in his punishment is execution. And this is the standard opinion of the Shafi and Maliki and humbly school, only the Hanafis they said he should be imprisoned until he prays, okay, so the Hanafis did not have the death penalty for the one who leaves the salah. Otherwise, the other three months I have had the death penalty. And this is enough
to indicate upon you how important Salah is that and again, who is this for, for the one who flaunts that he's not praying? If you don't pray, and nobody knows about it, this surely the government's not going to go and have monitors and checklists, right? Nobody has ever done this in the history of Islam, that you have a checklist, where did you pray and whatnot, that's between you and Allah, but the one who flaunts that is not praying.
This is encouraging others not to pray, and an example has to be made, that you cannot just ignore the Sharia, so brazenly, so according to the humbly madhhab, that whoever does not pray that this person shall be executed. Now. There is a controversy. Is he executed as a punishment? Or is he executed as a motet?
And that has repercussions who can tell me the repercussions?
Janaza Excellent. Janaza what else?
Inheritance Inheritance did he dies a Muslim or a coffered? Right? What else? Wife does wife so all of this, you know, it's a it's a repercussion upon this and it's a very interesting issue, but it's not something that we are directly interested in. So with that introduction, we jump to our first chapter and we'll finish this entire chapter in sha Allah Huhtala today
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