Library Chats #7 – Ismā`īl vs. Isḥāq As the Sacrifice

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Yasir Qadhi

Channel: Yasir Qadhi

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Episode Notes

A Case Study of Tafsīr and Scholarly Influence

Episode Transcript

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Miss min Hill Allahumma new Mahi

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said I want even more valuable to catch you. Welcome to another library chats, I realized I haven't done anything in tafsir. So today inshallah Tada, I'm gonna discuss a very interesting topic to ensure that every single person, but please note that as usual for most of these types of chats that this is a bit more of a detailed discussion. And actually, to be honest, it is a summary of one week of our module over the organic sciences that I do at the Islamic seminary of America. So what I'll be doing today is a summary of what I do for one of our lessons or one of our modules, out of the 15 modules that we do for the Quranic sciences class at Islamic seminary. And by the way, so again,

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allow me to do a free plug here, the Islamic senator America, a lot of people don't quite understand what is the goal and the vision of the Islamic seminary, I do believe it is rather unique in the entire world. The Islamic center of America is not meant to compete with the traditional ruler ma training. Madras is like the Islamic University of Medina, or like us how to others of that nature. It is a seminary in the American or Western sense. It is a master's degree seminary. And we actually can welcome students that are coming as graduates of other Institute's and they shall allow to expose them to a different type of study. It's not it's not there's no competition, we are not

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intending to train rula we're not intending to produce through them. What we're doing is we are teaching students and that's what a master's degree does. We're teaching them well, first and foremost, to know the basic resources out there for the field that they're studying. And secondly, the master's degree is kind of that awkward degree in between the undergraduate and the PhD, where you're definitely not an undergraduate, but you're definitely not a fully qualified PhD. It's the beginning of critical thinking. It's teaching students to go beyond being spoon fed information, and to look at the broader picture. And so today's lecture kind of it's obviously it's a summary of what

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we actually do, but you get an idea of what we're going to be doing. And what we're going to be talking about into today's lecture is a classical controversy regarding the identity of the of the one who was supposed to be sacrificed by Ibrahim alayhis. Salaam, was it his half? Or was it yaku? Sorry, not to Sally Aqua was half or or is married, it is Sam, of course, Jacobi is predicted, that's one of the evidences that is used for shelter. Now this helper woman is helped by iacob. That's one of the evidences that are being used here. Now, the goal of today's lecture is not to decide which of the two opinions is more authentic, that is something that is for another lecture.

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We're not interested for this lecture about which opinion is right and which opinion is wrong or which one is more probable, not at all. And in this lecture, and that's what we do in our, for our, for our students at Islamic seminary, we're wanting to explore why and who held which position, and how various authors influenced other positions out there, and what we shall inshallah tada go over and demonstrate this isn't an opinion, this is a fact that I would like to state that the majority, some would argue the vast majority of early commentators of the Quran of the earlier generations felt that the the idea or the sacrifice was intended for his half either his son and not married.

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Whereas Of course, as we were all aware, the position that it is is made either his salary is now the default so much so that when somebody mentions is how people they think this is an unorthodox or a deviant position, the famous Cerruti Shere Khan mazama, see, whom I used to admire before these political intrigues began but he he mentioned many years ago, I think, seven eight years ago or something, you can find it online, that in his position, it is how it is set up. And Subhanallah it caused an international controversy, even students of knowledge and aroma Ooh, Bella, this is like a ball mobile position. How dare you what not. And again, you know, when you're not familiar with

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different positions, whatever you're taught becomes the standard narrative, it becomes the the, the Orthodox opinion, and then somebody comes along, and in this case, mulamba see whether I agree or not is the this whole lecture I'm not giving you my opinion, by the way. That's a separate lecture altogether. I might hint at it. But it doesn't matter to me for this lecture what the right opinion is, I'm interested in the development of ideas I'm interested in demonstrating that it is possible for ideas to change, it is possible for what is deemed to be orthodox to change. It is possible that majority positions change. It is possible that a majority position that was accepted by the vast

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majority of scholars simply becomes complete.

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thrown out the window to the extent that when somebody mentions a mainstream position that might have been well known in the second third century, that person is viewed as being completely coming out of left field. Nobody's ever heard of this opinion before. And this shows us that for well, although this is going to be raised at the end of the talk to some of the points that we can benefit from all of this now,

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the argument that I'll be making is, of course, this is not an argument, I should take that back, the facts that I will be presenting, this is an open shut case, the facts that I will be presenting is that there was a seismic shift in how our scholars have viewed the story of Abraham and who the sacrifice was, and that in early Islam, the vast majority of the Giants felt that it was his happily his Salaam, and then of course, in later times, in pre modern times, and of course, in our times, it is almost as if there is an edge to the point that when a person mentions is how that is how it was the sacrifice, people lose their their, their their, you know, rationality, or they become very,

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very emotional or whatnot. And this is a demonstration of how ideas can change over time. Now very quickly, the main source of the story of the Koran Of course, or the main reference is sort of soft fats versus 101 onwards, wherever it is Salaam says what color indeed there have been a lot of them and it moves on that we gave him the glad tidings of a haleem child, Fatima Bella mahasaya when the child was able to walk with Ibrahim alayhis salam, Allah yagoona India riflemen, me and me at Veronica foamboard mother Tara. So the story goes of the dream and Abraham Elisa Lam lays the child down and he raises the x and then Allah says you have fulfilled the dream. But so Dr. ruja and then

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of course they are FIFA, they now live in Albion and so the the the substitute of the the is mentioned here. What is really interesting and why this is the case is again beyond the scope of this one lecture because there's so many points in there all interconnected. What is really interesting, there's nothing in the Quran that is explicit, whether it was important smilers health and there's nothing in the authentic sooner that is explicit as well. Nothing in the authentic so nothing, nothing in the Quran, whether it was his health, whether it was his smile it his setup, and this is very interesting because Allah subhana wa tada mentions the names of his How can I but I

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ended up smiling about him many times, yet when it comes to the story, adjectives are used. And so the adjectives are ambiguous for vision of a woman haleem. So which one of this fella Bella ma who, when he was able to walk, which he which one is this one, because the story mentions, of course,

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is how it is for them. It smiler mentioned in the context, but of course, this particular context who is being referenced, we're going to come to now, the the the notion that earlier scholars predominantly held it to be as half it is something that you can look it up and do your own research. And I will quickly quote you, you know, some of the research that we've done in this regard, that especially the giant, even the God of poverty, who died 310 Digital, in a digital poverty are used very forcefully with almost a degree of like certainty, or you can say is very,

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very forceful, that it is in fact, his health and not his marine. And he mentioned this a number of times, especially human sort of soft fat. And he mentioned a number of arguments of them is that for best shelter now hope is helpful. And maybe a middle solid hint that we gave him the glad tidings of his help. And for the shelter now because I'm in Halima sudo, soft fat. So it properly argues that Bashara was never given for his smile in the glad tidings that an angel comes. And an angel says, Abraham, you're going to be a father, that notion or that Bashara, according to authority, and again, for this lecture, I am not, please don't come to me say so and so says we're just quoting

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what the LMS said, right? What are the differences between what we do at the Islamic seminar and other places? I'm not spoon feeding you what what to believe I'm asking you to think critically, I'm asking you to take a step back. I'm asking you to see who said, What, and why did they say it? So at this stage, I'm not interested in who's right and wrong. At this stage. I'm not interested in refuting a poverty, I'm interested in presenting a poverty and as a mockery, and all I mean, I'll tell you, all of them, and then seeing why they said this, and how it changed over time. So we're doing the history of the evolution of the idea. We're not actually doing the idea itself, who's

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right and wrong. And that's the point of today's lecture. So I'll probably argues that the beshara only came for his happily his salon, and there was never a beshara for his marine. And so when in sort of soft fat Allah says, Frobisher never would have been hunting for them better than Mara who salya right. So we gave him the beshara of a haleem of a forbearing child when that child was able to walk with Him. So nobody argues the shadow must be first half so this child is his health and nobody also argues for them.

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mahasaya indicates that Ibrahim raised the child and his smile was not raised with Ibrahim, his smile was all alone. So for them, it doesn't matter who said when the child was old enough to walk with Him, which indicates that there is some mentorship going on. And Ibrahim alayhis salaam did not was not present in his smiles childhood life. So nobody argues with these, these notions and of course, other scholars also mentioned other things as well. A number of early authorities explicitly mentioned explicitly mentioned that the position of the advocate of the Jews and Christians is that it is his health and so they bring this in as a supporting evidence, nobody uses it as the primary

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evidence now, authority then mentions a number of Sahaba and tap your own, who argued that it is happened It is very interesting to note that the overwhelming majority of the Sahaba and Tabby Ron who held positions about this held positions that it was his half it his salon, at least eight of the Sahaba It has been reported that they held this view, including formidable hot Bob, I live in an Ibis, the uncle of the prophets of Allah Who are you selling his son Abdullah had been above the habit of the oma and the total amount of the Quran in Masood Javid and Abdullah Abdullah heavner Omar and Abu huraira the Allahu taala and all of these It has been reported from them so Omar and

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his son our bus and his son, it was through jabber and upgraded all of them it has been narrated that they said it is is how it is set up. As for the tab your own too numerous to mention over 15 of the famous saburo the giants of Tafseer, who studied directly from the Sahaba again, Mujahid Jubail, Fatah, Derek crema Otto zaharie, Mark Cuban and the list goes on. And on the teapots everyone there The list goes on and on like the giants of the tab your own majority of them overwhelming have them clearly held the view that it is is how it is set up the earliest books of Tafseer that we have seen a suit that have seen more positive news for the man died 158 euro, they mentioned his heart without

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even a hint of controversy. Without even a hint of controversy. Now, was the position that it is a smile unknown No, it has been even a third party discusses this. And in the earliest books, it is ascribed to three Sahaba and interestingly enough, all three of these are found in the previous list as well. So it is most famously ascribed to Abu hurayrah. But Abu huraira has also ascribed to him the position of his health and it is also ascribed to ebonite bus but also even their bus has been ascribed the position of his health and it is ascribed to urban Roma. So all three that it has been ascribed to as being is married. Do you also find in various books of tafsir that these early

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authors have ascribed his house position to them as well. And as for the tab your own there are a number of tebboune as well. So Aiden will say yes Mujahid has said albasini is one of the famous of the Tabby rune also the famous el Kelby, the The more I reckon the historical Kelby he also said that it is married, not as happy if you look at the earliest books that we have about any subject about the and we find references generally speaking pretty much all of them are is help Mr. Malik for example famously it has been narrated from him indicator will jam ever been Eunice and also the the books of interviews ala carte awanee in a minute except that Adobe is is how the famous

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historian of Mecca as roughly in his famous Barmak. He mentioned that the Ibrahim was about to sacrifice his how his health outside of Minar so Mina, yes, Mina, not better, not this. So as of the is saying that Ibrahim and his half we're walking in Minar. So again, how is how God there he does not mention other scholars going to mention that buraq would bring it but our humanists have to muck and then bring them back this has mentioned later on so this is an asset of the

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die 244 Digital, also a banquet table. They noted the famous polymath perhaps the first truly intellectual polymath of our oma Emile koterba very understudied figure di 276. Even Paul Tabor mentions in his writings that Abraham was tasked with his he writes in his guitar, one mouth, excuse me, that is half is the BA. And this is the position of the majority of the people of knowledge. This is even kotoba, the polymath, the intellectual genius, the giant, even katiba is writing in 276 he passes away. So assume that he's writing around 250 or so that you think the majority of the people have knowledge say that is half is the B and E ascribes this position to even our bus, a bus

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route our bus the uncle and Abu hurayrah. The same one that is described as smart as he is describing is how to, but then he does mention that it is said that even Omar said that it is smart in in this regard, so he mentioned both points, but he mentioned the majority of the people have knowledge say that it is his health where he mentioned authority and authority is very clear. 311 we're going chronologically by the way if you haven't figured out authority is very

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Clear he mentioned explicitly that it is his heart. And he is forceful in his argumentation that he is pretty certain that it is his health and authority is a poverty, no need to introduce authority, a woman sodoma to read the he has his famous book that we that have the Koran also died at 330 100 or so and his stuff. He also mentioned that he also says that the beer is his health, and I will later some of Monday, in 375. He also mentioned that he manages both positions, some satisfy some service health. And then he said the more apparent is that it is his health again, a sum of quantity as well as the judge, the famous grammarian was the first to basically say or that we know of, to

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basically mentioned both opinions, and then says, I have a third opinion. And that is, we shall never know a TOEIC cough, we shall be quiet about this. We do not know Allah alone knows who was the sacrifice. And then as the judge mentions, because the evidences are so contradictory, and then he says he's like confessing is opening up his soul. He is saying I speak the truth when I say that, while law he I do not know which of the two it is, every time I lean towards one opinion, I am swayed by or shaken to the other opinion. This is the famous as the judge the Gregorian 311. So he's basically I don't know which one it is, you know, it's just this let's be quiet about it, and has

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another famous grammarian. And we'll first sit and person who wrote about the herbivore on the 3380. And has he mentioned in his audible or on Fox telephoto demo film, motivator berry for pod XL room, as the beer is how scholars different which of the two it is the majority of them said it is his half then he mentioned his opinions and positions. And then he concludes for VA Hilton zelia do louella and nibi had his hand up. So he says the clear evidence is from the Quran itself is that it is his house. So he derived from the Quran, that it is his health. And very interestingly, he refutes those who said that it was married because of Makkah saying that how do you know his half

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might have come to me as well. So basically, the point being that the story took place in Mina, so it must be married and unhappy saying how do you know that is how did not come to Mecca? And he also brings the other point that in the insert of soft fat when the story finishes of the of the sacrifice, Allah azza wa jal then says that, for sure now is how women work is helped by a boob, that we gave him glad tidings of his help. And then we gave him the tidings of Yaqoob sorry, that's not in Salford Excuse me, but the prediction of Yaqoob is there the point that the people of Israel's camp say, how could Allah predict or give the prediction that his half is going to have

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Yaqoob and then tell Ibrahim to sacrifice his half because there is no yaku right. Now, again, I hope you understand this point here. The two groups is madness help those that champion is married one of their arguments is when the glad tidings came for his half at the same time he was told there would be as Helen yaku so there they know there's going to be a progeny after his help. So when the double has taken place, how can it be his half because there is no Jaco and he knows from a lot that there's going to be a coup and has preamps this he responds he goes that how do you know that he was invited because this this fellow member of Omar who said he might have been bothered and if he was

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bad if he might have been married you know early and had a child Yeah. Oh, but already be in the picture. So a house again very early again third, fourth century. He is arguing that it is is how it has sent him again pretty harsh or pretty straightforward that it is his half and he takes on the challenges that it might be a smile and refutes them one by one, the famous scholar of Hadith and hack him in his alma mater have died four or five he has an entire chapter those who said that that is his half notice he does not have a chapter regarding the opposite he doesn't have those who said that who is married and he brings forth like I don't know 10 looked at look this up his office and

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Volume

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Volume to page 600 something so in his most ethical hacking, he mentions all of these reports and then which is not that common for a hacker This is really interesting. He becomes personal he mentions an anecdote not an actor he mentioned something about himself and and the times that he is and he says that while it helped him work like the karate was not the whole so this is from Abu hurayrah nslm are made it and cortada recommended and I found he address might have been a fan By the way, which we didn't mention in the first list because I did not find him in the earlier books of this. Yeah, I'm sure there's somewhere By the way, this is not a PhD that I've done. This is just

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any one lesson that I do out of 15 so I'm sure you will find other references please help me in this regard. And, and Charlotte we all come together and help each other this

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is not a final definitive document but what I've done shortly I've spent and in many dozens of hours or many in a long time doing this so I'm sure there are things that have missed you can add them here but hadn't mentioned Earth money, but I found in the list of married which we did not mention, sorry in the list of his health, which we did not mention, and obey even Cabinet Minister Trudeau and so on. So, and then he says listen to this hack him is saying, what are the contura Masha called Hadith jacobina what he says in Moodle, and that you tell him that he will home la telefoon and the Bihar is smart, he in Wakanda. Don't feel old interviews of the LA Juarez and Abu Dhabi herten and

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Abu Dhabi attain if not hit the homerun, what are these married one that'd be a horrible dinner Abdullah. Even Abdulmutallab well, and for in the edgy do my son if he had he, Allah de la, terracotta man caught in the who is half and he goes on and on. So this is very interesting. And Hakeem is saying, the scholars of Hadith that I studied with wherever I went to, they were certain that it is is married. But here are all of these evidences that it is half and I mentioned all of them for you. Right. So the scholars of Tafseer by and large said that it is his house. And the scholars of Hadith said it is smiling, why and how Kim says because they used a hadith and Abu Dhabi

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Hatton, I am the son of the two sacrificial people. And of course he had him says the first of the must administer married and the second of them was his own father Abdullah. If not, then we'll put it now by the way, footnote here. This is now me speaking, meaning I'm being now I'm judging judgment, that this hadith is actually not authentic at all, it is mentioned and no problem to mention it. And Sierra as you know much of the Syrah is based upon a hadith that are not any authentic, no big deal is that history is not the same as an athlete. But this hadith from a theological perspective, if you wanted to derive a an evidence for it, it is definitely not

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authentic at all. And this is the position of pretty much all the scholars of Hadith, including a body and others that as the Hadith isn't is that it is not authentic. Now, whether you want to use it in mythology or whatnot, I even said it in the theater as well, that's different thing. And you see it out, what you mentioned is doesn't have to be that so the point is that it hackin distinguishes between the scholars of Hadith and the scholars have to see and he goes look at all of these evidences that is, in fact his half and not is married. The next great will first set a salary in his cash flow by anthem, Silvana talebi, died for 27 Digital, and he has a fairly lengthy

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discussion back and forth. And he says that both of these positions have been narrated from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And he does not have a position without a facility woman, I mostly mean that, who is the, the the, the scholars have different who is it is made in his heart, and he doesn't take any position in his seed. However, in his other book of tabula rasa, and he clearly mentioned that his heart is the the bee. And so this is the famous lobby the great scholar of, of Tafseer of the fifth century of Islam, the greatest scholar of Tafseer of the fifth century is l y, d, and y d, who died for 68 hedgerow and Wahidi. His book has just been printed and humbled,

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I managed to get a copy of it. The massive, voluminous Albacete, how many volumes is it? It is 30 volumes or something, it is one of the earliest and one of the largest encyclopedias of see it of course, by the way and why it has multiple tapes. We're talking about the large one the car that you're that has just been printed recently. And in that book, he mentioned was fulfilled by a man who enabled on him for Excel owner, I don't know is how this is and why the scholars differ Which one is it? The majority of them say it is is half and then he goes that all of these great scholars, I loved him as rude, you know, so Katahdin Mujahid and then they said, This story happened in beta

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to Sham notice here now. So we have within those who said that it is as half you have two camps. One group that said the story took place in blood to Sham and one group said as he mentioned here that they travel all the way to Mecca, and it happened to muck with his heart. Okay, so he mentioned two categories within the astok majority said it is hot within them camp a is hot in beta democritus. In a student officer, Camp B is half was brought miraculously to Mecca. The story takes place in Mecca, and he goes back to beta mock mock this. And then at Whitehead he says, others said it is a smart read. And this is the whole of Surrey who say yep, and a sharpie and it has an energy Why have you

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been a bus in other words in terms of quantity? Clearly, the first position is the majority for ny D, he mentions a longer list. He mentioned more names of the Sahaba in that list and more names of the earlier

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scholars and then in Wahidi says what CFO had to do either and who is how the context of these verses indicates it is his health. So Allah Headey, again, is pretty definitive. And he goes on and on, you can look this up in his Tafseer. So Whitehead is pretty straightforward. It is how it is very clear to me it is how he says, the great scholar of Judah Gianni died for 71. Again, jozani, very exotic character, by the way, Johnny, he wrote one of the earliest treatises about the ages of the Quran, which was to have a massive impact on all further treatises. So he is one of the dawns of the topic of ijazah haoran. And he developed it to anyway, that's besides the point, we do this in

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another module of our Quran classes, the theory of the development of ages and who added what and how were things because again, the earlier anyway, that's besides the point we don't want to talk about though, but my point is that Johnny's a very interesting character, by the way, Johnny spoke fluent Arabic, he never traveled outside of Georgian, all of his and he's not Arab, by ethnicity. And yet he wrote some of the master books about Arabic but Allah and rhetoric, he spoke, obviously, you know, ancient Persian, that was his native tongue. He spoke ancient Turkish or you know, what we would call

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a version of among Mongolian Turkish, I'm not sure exactly which what he's both ancient Turkish. And he spoke fluent Sanskrit as well. And he would sometimes quote from the books of the Indians, the busy people. So that's the agenda, very exotic character, whether again, most of these are odema. Mr. Powell up, if you studied, this is a totally, totally different than if you study their lives. You can't categorize them so neatly into these boxes. I mean, this is later on all of these nice boxes. This guy's this this guy's this this guy's that I mean, this is the time of independent thinking. This is the time where people are refusing to be categorized, and john is an interesting

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character. Let's just put it that way. Anyway. What was I saying? Johnny? mentions that

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Johnny mentions that a very bizarre opinion. Perhaps he is one of the few people I think, I think one more person might have hinted at this. A Joe Gianni really mentioned something totally bizarre. You can call it a fourth opinion, even that he mentioned, his heart I mentioned, is married. And then he says, and he could both have been married from the processor. And then he says, unbelievably, this is really crazy. He's saying this, don't look at me. Maybe the Prophet system initially took the notion that it was his house from the GitHub before Allah told him is married, like maybe he got it from there. Or maybe it happened to the both of them, each one after one other.

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In other words, God Johnny is so confused about who it was that he's even positing that it might have happened twice that both of them are the that be that both his smile, and his half were tested. A lot of tested Ibrahim through both of them. And this is a very, very bizarre opinion that hardly anybody. I think, if I'm not mistaken, it's been a while since this is all

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old research. So it's been a while since I've done all the reading, but still, I think there was one other person I'm not sure but anyway, john is the big guy who posits the possibility maybe it happened to both of them and that's a very interesting position above me as well. He mentions both opinions and he just moves on he just mentioned some said this Some said that and he does not make any statement himself. Even though Josie the abello he died 516 By the way, if no Josie the big next big guys added misia died 597 By the way, so everybody's got some favorite books of Tafseer. Everybody just loves certain books if they've seen over others. Me personally, my two favorite books

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of tafsir are even after years book, Mahatma luigis and also Abner, Josie is at the mercy. Okay, so I've been out a year. And the Josie for me these two books are very, they complement one another immensely. They're totally separate in their own way. Josie is like a summarized version of awadhi and liberty combined and it's beautiful. Like he does a very amazing job. He's spent a lot of time sifting through the classical tradition. And it's just it's one of my favorite books of the year every time we do a quick tip see the first so if I need to look up an idea, the first seed that I turned to is him no Josie is that Miss you know Josie the 597? No, Josie, of course, the polymath,

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you know, wrote a ton of books and everything he writes, what I do with the behala Colin, the people deferred about the B Which one is it? One of them it is is how and this is the picture of so and so and so and so and so and so from them, some of them said it happened in Sham and others said it happened in Mecca and Allah made miraculously the earth become small. So that is how could come to Makkah. The second opinion is that it is married and it is the position of so and so and so he mentions a few names as well. And then he is also of the first to point out in a bus both positions have been narrated from from him. He is in both camps, his health and his smiling. So some of his

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students narrated his how some of his students narrated

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Narrated is married, and what it called a poem and her Jetson Lisa had them all do her. He mentioned, each of these groups has their long evidences, this is not the time to get into the evidence is what else have Bona He also wrote a whole award and our group what he means here is the henna Bella, our group considers the first position IE is have to be the dominant or the correct position. And in his other writings beyond the tafsir. He simply mentioned that his half was the DB and doesn't reference the controversy. So even though Josie as well, it's very, like, you know, like, there are two opinions, but it's pretty clear that it is how can you know let's move on

00:30:39--> 00:31:22

basically, right. So even though Josie as well leans towards, very strongly leans towards it is being is how old it will be as well, or to be died 671. He mentioned both opinions. But he says that the majority say that it is he. And he says that the evidence is for his house are more as well. And it ought to be mentioned the objections to his hack. And he mentioned the references given to smite and explains them away one by one, so as to be I would say. So again, this is a very introductory lecture, if we wanted to, we could divide every author into a type of a continuous spectrum like a hard defense like love, it would be a hard defense, right? Or a soft defense, or kind of in the

00:31:22--> 00:32:03

middle, I don't know or whatnot. So auto B is more on the soft defense side. Whereas nobody is more on the hard defense side. But they're still all on one side. Now, all of these people that I've quoted, and you can count them, I think there must be at least 1015 or so all of them are arguing that it is half predominantly, or fairly certainly, or it looks like to be the case that it is is half these are all the Giants now, there's another group of people, they were confused. And they said we do not know and they said let's just let it be it could be as what could be is married. And this is a number of great drama, starting with Elijah Hill the day 255. He's like a law item. As the

00:32:03--> 00:32:42

judge already quoted him at 311. He says Allahu Allah which one it is, every time I choose one. The other one persuades me so I'm quiet. The the the the person who travelled to India by Rooney, another very interesting character, exotic character. Again, he learned Sanskrit in India, and Hindi, probably ancient Hindu, whatever it was at the time. And he's the first one to write a book about the history of India, the famous book of the people in the field of philosophy and the beliefs of India that are good and that are bad. Right. So Alberoni, he mentioned a lot more than which one it is, as a machete 538 the the mortality the guy has a machete he discusses both now as a machete,

00:32:42--> 00:33:22

I I was motera did I was ambivalent, which category should it be put in because I read him a few times. And I came away, one side of me wanted to put him with his health camp. And then I said, Maybe I'm being biased. And so I put him in this camp, which is noted here, even though I asked you to read if you read Arabic, I would say that he's leaning towards his house, but I want it to be as fair as possible. So, I put him in this camp that because what he does, so is again, how much time do we have as an opportunity basically, he defends, he mentioned his help, and the evidence is then he said something that is married and then the evidence is then he says, Ah, but then his hocks

00:33:22--> 00:34:07

position is it can be argued against this married one for such reasons. And then he finishes like that. So basically, to present position a, position B, then refute position B and support position a then move on, but he doesn't explicitly say it's my opinion. So Allahu Allah, I placed him either in the middle, like, I don't know, or just above the middle where we can say he's leaning towards his half, but he is quiet about this. The famous and the Lucien abhiyaan, as well died 745. He, he was ambivalent, he mentions both he has no position as well, perhaps the greatest scholar in this category in terms of prestige in terms of rank and whatnot, who basically says, I don't know, his

00:34:07--> 00:34:44

fuckload, Dean or Razi, for Dean or Razi, the greater Raj either at 606. In his malfatti Halladay he discusses this issue, and if you really want a summary of both sides, look up the fatty highlight his famous steps here, and sort of soft as usual, you know, Razi, I mean, any you know, the hardcore literalist, they make fun of Rosie's Tafseer but in reality that of see it is a gem it is a jewel, I don't agree with many things in there many things in there shouldn't be in a book of their See, but even if they shouldn't be, what he's done for us is preserve a snapshot of an intellectual life in the six seven century right. I don't care if it's not supposed to be the book of the seat. He has

00:34:44--> 00:34:59

preserved for us milu Martin information that might not be relevant to that particular verse, but it's a window it opens up a VISTA, paranormal, apparent, apparent, paranormal, a panorama of how a mind in that timeframe is thinking and exploring. So

00:35:00--> 00:35:39

I find it very useful to read a fatty holiday. And in a fatty labor, what he's done is sudo soft fat is he's gone over both of these positions. And if you really want to a summary of passionately arguing both sides at the same time, by the way, Rosie was known for this as well. Rosie, you should know this about Rosie is that a Razzie truly was like an early academic like he wanted to argue the site. He didn't agree with just as passionately as the site he did agree with so much so that his students would be disturbed. And a lot of times people would criticize that Razi because he would argue the wrong side so passionately that some of the people in students might be convinced by the

00:35:39--> 00:36:20

wrong side because of his passion. So that's a Razzie. So in this section, you actually see this that he argues both pretty strongly. And then he concludes by quoting as a judge, and as a jazz. What was what remember is the Jazz at aloha Island, which of the two and then he says, and I too, am basically going to say, well law who I am. So for her Dina Rosie himself says, 5050, I don't know let it be Allah subhana wa, tada knows best in mama CLT used to be from the first category, then he came to the second category. So again, the first category is it is hot. And within that you can say soft to hard, right? The second category, yeah, we don't know how to GA. So they used to be the

00:36:20--> 00:36:59

first category. Towards the end of his life, he switched over to the second category, a salty diet, of course, 911, you can never forget the date 911. Okay. So as soon as he writes in his book that goes into a pool, I used to say that it was this hack, but now I say, let it I don't know. Okay, so he comes to this position of pleasure, by the way, so you only use to say it was his hack, okay. And so he is who he is instantly. Now, by the way, I want you to pause here. And think about all of these names I've quoted you write all of these names, regardless of whether you agree or disagree. Don't you think it is surprising that the average evens forget them? Because you don't expect them

00:36:59--> 00:37:35

to obviously say there's no problem? I don't know anything about certain disciplines in the world. I'm not admitting those disciplines, right. I mean, you talk to me about, you know, the history of the Bolshevik revolution will actually do know something about the fact I said Bolshevik Revolution. So talk to him about something in early medieval, you know, Chinese history, I would know nothing about that. I'm a complete army. But what is surprising is that the bodybuilder in sometimes even the Adam in some fields of Islam, is completely ignorant, that all of these giants are arguing that it is half or at least they're saying the evidences are so difficult that I don't know which one it

00:37:35--> 00:38:12

is, I mean, for Razi, and for a salty and for a machete to basically, you know, some aesthetic, soft wise, but to basically be ambivalent, to say that there's strong evidence is on both sides. That's a very, very big deal now. So these are the first two opinions number one it is is Hack number two, Allahu Allah and both evidences are very strong. We don't know this is the Animoto rockcliffe. Right, who then said that it is his maid who said that it is Mary such that it is now eclipsed all other positions you dare mention it is as half and Carlos, you are logged in will be removed there, Jared, you don't know what you're talking about. And again, brothers and sisters, this is the

00:38:12--> 00:38:52

reality of knowledge and ignorance, right. And I say this, not frankly, I'll say this generically, if an average student of knowledge here is a position he's never heard of the first thing he's going to do, he's going to think he knows everything. And he's going to reject somebody who spent decades doing that research, right? just completely dismiss. And this is a fault of half knowledge half, because you see if you're john Hill completely, you're like, Okay, I don't know anything. Yeah, the main problem comes in, I mentioned this in a Facebook post as well. And of course, this is a psychological syndrome, well known that a little bit of knowledge is a very, very dangerous thing

00:38:52--> 00:39:30

you overcompensate, you've studied three bucks, five bucks, 15 bucks, and you think you are a master of the particular field. How many students have knowledge I mean, again, without getting too explicit, but and I'm trying to be you know, generic here, look at the damage that is happening on social media online, look at the the fitter and the refutations who's in charge of doing this, it's not a rumor that have studied 20 3040 years. It is main maybe not even students of knowledge is people with little bit of knowledge. And they think that Halas This is the How can the bottle and that's why it's so dangerous, a little bit of knowledge is so dangerous. And one of the purposes of

00:39:30--> 00:39:59

this entire lecture that I'm doing today is to make all of us think and humbled ourselves that hey, next time you hear something strange before you dismiss it, be brave enough to take a step back and look at the evidences right. We'll talk about this more towards the end. So who said it's married when all of these massive giants said it's his half? Or they said I don't know of the first that I found to claim that there's more probability that it is married. And I'm not saying he is the first I'm saying he is of the first

00:40:00--> 00:40:44

I found and I'm sure if you do your research you might find somebody slightly earlier than this is even out the, the guy that I love. How do I know Jesus died 542 hijra. Even altea says that if there is more probability He did not say you're smarter you then call us he said, our job that the more stronger position is that it is married. And he argues this from four points. That number one, the good news came to Sarah from the angel and is married and her job was already out of the picture. Okay, number two, he says that so so he's arguing that the good news came and his smiles already growing up in Mecca. Number two, he argues that the good news includes the prediction of Yahoo. So

00:40:44--> 00:41:19

how could he sacrifice his help when there's going to be a coup? Notice here, by the way, all of these points have already been answered by the other camp. So it's not as if there's no answering. I'm just mentioning what he says. Number three, he says that there is a drama that the story happened in Mina. And what is his half doing in Mina? Again, he is saying, What is this house doing a minute, we already quoted a number of authors saying how do you know his house didn't come to Mina and other groups, that is half and the sacrifice took place in beta democritus. Not even in Mina, we have this from a number of the tabulation and earliest scholars of Islam. And then the fourth, he

00:41:19--> 00:42:03

quotes the Hadith. And Abu Dhabi hadn't I am the son of the two sacrifices footnote here. All four of these are not definitive. All four of these has been responded to by the other camp nonetheless, even after years, like it seems to be is married because of these four evidence available with the famous Professor dice 685 Hydra wave always says, oh, how do the more apparent of the two based on the Quranic context is that? It is is my email, not his heart? Okay, so we have been altea and elbow ball, we saying that it seems to be more likely that it is married. Okay. Jay, you still What happened? Where was that seismic shifts such that the other position is never even heard of. And it

00:42:03--> 00:42:45

is now pretty much the standard narrative across the entire globe that is married. And anybody who dares mentioned is how it's as if what are you coming from where who said that before you were you. So who is the main person to shift that narrative is none other than our favorite character in all of medieval Islamic history, and that is the great giant, the lion, the intellectual genius, the defender of Orthodoxy che hola Islam, Ibn taymiyyah Alhambra, Li alhaja Rani Ibn taymiyyah comes along and he basically argues that it is almost all three he says it is almost definitive that it's married and not his heart. And his student of course his erstwhile loyal loyal if there's anything

00:42:45--> 00:43:28

called a loyal student who's Michel liberal I you know, I am champion this very forcefully as well. And then of course, the minor student of even Samia Nikita was a young man in his 20s he obviously studied with him in Tamia, but as a young man, and then he wrote his stuff CW Cassia and so, even Kathir becomes the first mufas Cid that is like diehard like no way can it be his help? And is it been Katia has a section in his dossier entitled regarding the opinions of who the sacrifice is, and in his study of the history that he wrote, he also has the detailed strong passionate defense that it is is smart and not is hot now. Therefore, and then from that time onwards, by the way, even

00:43:28--> 00:44:12

Tamia is very harsh, even taymiyah says, This position is like Bolton is that it is coming from the Israelite elite yet, and that it is almost definitive that it must be is married at his salon, I have not found anybody before even taymiyah. That is even as fractionally passionate as he is about this issue. He comes in with a passion and a force. And he destroys in his mind and demolishes the opinion that it is his help. And he says it must be is married. And he blames the educator is really at influence that it is not from Islam sources. It's not from Islamic sources that it is his Marine, this is coming from the Jewish and Christian sources that it is his health. And then after this

00:44:12--> 00:44:40

point in time, we'll have to wrap up here we're gonna come to the conclusion now basically, we see the shift begin slowly but surely. And of course, I'm not the only one making this argument a number of academics have made this if you study and survey tipsy literature, it is very clear that even taymiyah and his students did have a seismic impact on this notion slowly but surely, is how it becomes out of the picture is married becomes the dominant narrative so much so that basically in our times,

00:44:41--> 00:45:00

pretty much everybody thinks that this is the only position out there. In fact, I would go so far as to say so by the way, I'm you know, this last Ramadan, I did my seat of the hold on in 30 lessons, right. And probably some of you remember that once it slipped and it was a slip. Yeah, and of course I mean, I'm studying this but of course

00:45:00--> 00:45:40

It slipped that. And when they brought him wanted to sacrifice his house, it was a slip. Okay. By the way, for the record, I'm sympathetic to have been Tamia that it is made over his house. For the record, I'll just say that I wasn't gonna say that, but call us I mean, just so that no deer comes on this lecture as well. So the hose I sang, so in that, in that series, I made it slip that Ibraheem alehissalaam wanted to make us happy, that'd be her when I was a slip, it was a slip because I wanted to is my, my God, Twitter went wild. If you notice, like if you're online and you know, hundreds of people, the Facebook feed of it, the YouTube link, I had to literally issue a

00:45:40--> 00:46:18

retraction. And guys, it was a slip of the tongue, you know, it was just like, and it was a slip of the tongue. It wasn't meant, but there was like notions that oh my god, am I introducing something new into the faith or the villa and again, panela the majority of the oma Derrida of the past, the giants of them, we're arguing is half and then if the Tamia comes along, argues is to smile, and even taymiyah again, you know, in the 700 20s, right, so for 700 years, the dominant narrative, the majority I quoted you right now, in this lecture, four or five people who said the majority position is is half right. And then even Tamia comes along the end, the force that he argued with it, and the

00:46:19--> 00:46:54

the the ferocity really, and the evidence has are, not all of them are, by the way, new most of them are the standard stuff is there. But again, it's just that they've been kathina coming along, and then slowly but surely, trickling down to the other groups are in the other movements as well, until obviously, nowadays, the default position which the average Muslim thinks they're not even the average person, the average student of knowledge thinks that it's married, is the one that is intended, and maybe there was a shot position in the past, that is his help. But in reality, this is the Jim hoard, the Orthodox, the sooner etc, etc. Again, the the point of today's lecture primarily

00:46:54--> 00:47:29

was the history of the evolution of ideas, and not necessarily which idea is right and wrong. Now, as we wind down and conclude. And this is what we do in our in our Islamic seminary class, right? The goal is, after you're presented to now give you those those questions to think about to contemplate an intervention, research papers and come back to it because again, the goal of the Islamic seminary, let me do that free plug, again, is to teach you critical thinking, but the difference is from within the framework of Orthodoxy. That's why I say, and please don't take this as a boast or what not, I am not aware of any other Institute in the world that is doing what we are

00:47:29--> 00:48:05

trying to do at Islamic seminary, which is critical thinking while remaining faithful to our religion. So we want to provoke you to think outside the box to look at the broader picture, but still understand that there are red lines that we believe in Allah and His messenger that the hold on is a revelation from Allah subhana wa Tada, as soon as a source of law, I mean, you know, we are as Sunni in the end of the day, but again, cause you to think and be broad minded. And that's what hamdulillah in our seminary, we've had students with no background, Mashallah, I struggled a little bit, but still learn a lot. And we've had students that are graduates of us, HUD and whatnot also

00:48:05--> 00:48:43

come and benefit immensely. And one of them said to me, like, you know, I never thought of it, I studied this material, one of them. Or one of them said to me, I studied this material, but I never thought of it the way that you're teaching. I said, that's exactly what we're trying to do. Right? The thought process is to take a step back, because in the traditional Islamic universities, you are essentially taught to replicate what your teachers have taught you. And there's nothing wrong with that. Obviously, the oma needs hundreds of 1000s of deobandis. And as hoodies instead of fees, no problem like, you know, copy and paste, replicate and send your students out. That's healthy. And we

00:48:43--> 00:49:17

don't expect you know, everybody to go do that. But at the same time, somebody's got to take a step back and say, Okay, let's look, take a look at the broader picture, though the people who do that obviously come under attack, because it's frightening. How could you have graduated from Deobandi and finished, you know, 15 years and study with the shareholder Hadith, and then come back and start rethinking through? Are you really Deobandi or not? And the same goes for the other, you know, this eidetic? My point is that at the Islamic seminary, we are intentionally wanting you to think critically, but still remained faithful to the to the overall obviously, a paradigm of Sunni Islam.

00:49:18--> 00:50:00

And so after all of this brief, this was a brief we could do longer than this, after all the this brief overview, what are some of the main questions and I'm not going to answer I want you to think about and go and go further with this. of the questions that we need to dive deeper in. Is the the notion of the contradictory reports that are reported in the names of the Sahaba. I mean, do you really think that three Sahaba had both views simultaneously? How do we reconcile that contradictory notions are being ascribed to both sides and sometimes with authentic change, like even a bus and there's not one indication that he actually switched over I mean, this is a big opinion about

00:50:00--> 00:50:36

position, if you change it as some students gonna remark like, for example, I mean, look at when I change a position, I get 10 refutation videos against me, right? I mean, these great giants if they change their positions, we don't have a single hint of that. And yet we have these contradictory positions being attributed to them. So that's something to think about. And I don't, again, there are answers. This is not the time to get into there's a question that I'm I'm posing for people to think about. Another major question that we need to think about is the impact of Israel in the art of Judeo Christian sources on our to see it in particular, and this is something that is well known

00:50:36--> 00:51:20

that a Ben Tamia here is accusing this position of coming from Australia yet okay. Okay, fair enough. But that means that the majority of the adopted this position until they've been Tamia comes along. And that raises some awkward questions and it raises the broader question of the impact of other things, not just it's this one issue. Now, for example, one day I will in Charlotte talk about advanced theology and other areas. And it is my opinion and I've said this multiple times that the entire suffered controversy that Islam is infamous for is sectarian Islam is infamous for more Tesla, a 30, ashari machery, the the karamea. All of these different groups out there, the Jamia the

00:51:20--> 00:51:49

entire controversy is in fact a Christian controversy that is imported into Islam. It is not Quranic is not emanating from the Quran and Sunnah. It's something that early Muslims came across these Christians arguing over the nature of God, the nature of Jesus, and that led to this entire debacle of the last 1200 years. And you just have to take a step back and wonder well, how important is it and why should we even go down this this entire area if that is the case, so now not everything coming from

00:51:50--> 00:52:27

from outside of Islam is bad. I mean, the early hominids, as they're conquering these civilizations, understandably, there is this notion of Wow, these guys are superior to us understandably, imagine, you know, the early oma is in the early Otto's of that timeframe as they encounter the Romans, then the Persians as they encounter these other civilizations, there's no question that they understood that they have achieved a level of dominance and of intellectual dominance. That's the early omega, it's in the early autumns did not have. So they kind of willingly took a lot of stuff in some of them, we see in the effects of the fsia. So is it been Tamia? Right? That because of this is how it

00:52:27--> 00:53:01

became the dominant right? Is he right, in this regard? And if he's right in there, how about in other areas as well? These are questions to think about, about the impact of external ideas. And again, not all external ideas are bad. The way the government was run was purely Roman, when the Muslims, or the early May as they adopted the Roman Muslim, they could not have run the government. They did not know that a woman though, what do I mean? What does this mean? Yeah, and how did they, they the the, the the running of the government, the currencies, discovery of paper, I mean, everything, the notion of Anyway, there's a lot of things that they took from, quote, unquote, the

00:53:01--> 00:53:11

West, that was very beneficial to us, we needed to do that. But not everything was and so some of the things we need to think about. Another thing that we need to think about is interestingly enough, evident to me.

00:53:12--> 00:53:50

I asked my students this, how selfie is it been Tamia when he's willing to go against the majority of the setup? And this isn't the only view, by the way, right? As every admirer of have been Tamia knows that. Even taymiyah was brave enough to break away from what he considered to be the dominant position, so much so that he was even accused of breaking away from his mouth. And that's, to me, of course, it's a sign of bravery. It's a sign of intellectual courage that just because he found a lot of people saying something, he didn't mind accusing them of taking it of his radio sources, like think about that, right? Because the repercussions are not only are they all wrong, but they took it

00:53:50--> 00:54:26

from a source that is a very Islamic No, by the way. Even Tamia in particular was a very harsh critic of Israel idiot, more than other people. And I think the reason was that he saw the impact that it had. I mean, you could make an argument that it's not a problem to take from Israeli Diaz because their profits are the law is that I'm said that go ahead and narrate from the Ministry. So there's no sin upon you, but just don't believe them. But anyway, even Timmy was very, like adamant against this. But my point here is that this this notion of even taymiyah, following the seller, I mean, again, this is a motif and a cliched slogan, he had no problem disagreeing with the majority

00:54:26--> 00:54:55

of people before him if he felt the evidences, you know, did not indicate that position. And to me, that's one of the reasons why I admire him like he's, he's not the selfie, the way that selfies making out to be used when trying to say he looked at the evidences, and whether you agree or disagree with with him, you cannot. You cannot help but be impressed and admire the intellectual courage that it must have had to do what he did in his lifetime. The final point that I'm gonna mention is probably one of the most

00:54:56--> 00:54:59

important you know, to me, in particular when it comes to this whole

00:55:00--> 00:55:44

A lecture that I've given, and it's what we really leave our students with as well. I just quoted you a whole ton of aroma before the seventh century, who either were passionately for or not that passionate but still for or ambivalent about Abraham and his talk. Sorry, his mess is how can I smile at him Salaam, hardly anybody one or two, maybe three, maybe you'll find one or two other people were just like out of Ohio, that it is that it is married. I have not found anybody who was as firm and as passionate as it meant Tamia to say that it is almost a lottery to say this is code that is coming from an Islamic sources. And then of course, the impact that it had. Now, where is

00:55:44--> 00:55:46

this leading us all?

00:55:48--> 00:55:51

Let me just be not that explicit. I usually am.

00:55:52--> 00:56:41

Who cares? How many lemme let me rephrase that. If you're a student of knowledge, who cares? How many of them said something, if you are not a student of knowledge, and you are an arm, you're a blind follower. Yes, go with the authority. If you're not a student of knowledge, or an average Muslim, then you base the hack in your mind on who the person is. If you claim to be a student of knowledge, much less than odd, then you have to be brave enough to take the statements of men no matter who they are, and put them in a secondary or secondary, maybe even tertiary box of evidences, it doesn't matter who said what the truth transcends the names of men. Now, theoretically, everybody

00:56:41--> 00:57:19

said everybody would agree with me theoretically. But in practice, we don't find that in practice, if somebody comes for liking Bahama, seated like others might possibly do. And they say something that your average student of knowledge has never heard, ooh, below ball mobile move today, because they don't know any better. They've never studied, they are replicators not thinkers, right. They are graduates of whatever Institute's or even not even graduates and they are replicating just like you know, copy and paste Xerox machine. And they're not taught to think beyond the box, they don't even know there is a box beyond the box that they have studied. Here is a classic example in front

00:57:19--> 00:58:04

of your eyes of a majority dominant opinion not only becoming discarded, but becoming unknown, completely becoming almost eroticized completely over the course of time. And actually, I'll lay my cards out, I am sympathetic, I said this to the position that is married. I mean, if you look at it purely from the evidences, you kind of I think I agree it's more likely it's married than his house. But who said that in early Islam, the majority were on his side. And therefore, the majority opinion, even if it's said by giants should not matter to a true researcher and a true academic, we have to understand that the way that our almost currently set up scholarship by and large consists

00:58:04--> 00:58:43

of regurgitating and memorizing it does not consist of challenging, it does not consist of being brave enough to break away from the paradigm frankly, if a Deobandi has studied, you know, 10 1520 years in his Institute, or unecessary, or Medina guy, and then they dare break away from the standard narrative, as you are aware, that comes with a lot of baggage and a lot of tension. It's very difficult to do that. And my argument is very straightforward. So what if a lot of people said something, it doesn't make it right? The correct opinion is independent of the names of men, and the quantity of the names of men. And that is also a very important point. I mean, again, if you study

00:58:43--> 00:59:18

intellectual history, and again, this is something I want my students to do. The majority opinion typically is based upon socio political factors. Simple as that I'll just lay it out there, the dominant method, the dominant philipa, that that is common in a time and place has nothing to do with truth as it comes from a law it has to do more with the socio political context with the kings and the rulers with the Prime Ministers with the institute's that they sponsor, this is the reality you know, the Lesnevich sponsor the karamea, for a period of time the entire region was karamea. The humble eyes were powerful and fourth century above that the soldiers came and they brought in a

00:59:18--> 00:59:54

Shiite Islam and because of a particular instance, which inshallah we will talk about in one day. eyeshadows became the dominant strand, for many centuries that remained the dominant strength, socio political factors has nothing to do with the heck being from Allah subhana wa Tada. And if we can understand this for trends, if we can understand this for Philippine movements, we have to be brave enough to say, individual opinions as well can be influenced by look, you know, if you're in an environment where 99% of your teachers are on one position, and you're not challenged to think about that position, you will absorb that position and move on. That's the way the world works. There's

00:59:54--> 01:00:00

nothing wrong with that, right? But the fact that 99% of your teachers say something doesn't mean it is

01:00:00--> 01:00:33

The correct truth is just that that school and they are taught a certain philosophy. And they're taught a certain whether it's APA, whether it's film, whether it is a position like it's made in this house, the fact that you have not heard contrary, and all the machinery you use Teddy would have not heard contrary means nothing. Because at the end of the day, every film on every trend is basically within a spectrum of opinion. Very few people are brave enough or foolish enough, depending on how you want to look at it, because it comes with cons when you break, we're right to go outside the box and think for themselves like, Okay, let me let me do a deep dive about this

01:00:33--> 01:01:11

particular issue. So for me, this topic, is illustrative of a fact that I want every student to have knowledge and and and potential Adam and Adam to be aware of, and that is that no matter who says what that is a secondary, maybe even tertiary evidence, it is not an evidence in and of itself, the evidence of the help of a position and both have a position, it transcends the quantity. And even the big names that said it whether it's even Tamia, whether it's poverty, whether it's an old movie, whether it's a bin hasm, all of this is secondary, we look at the evidences. And of course, for every field, they have their different evidences. But anyway, for me, this was one of the most

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important points that I wanted to stress via this lecture, that if you're an average, we would not follow the name, don't follow the evidence. But then know your mo pundit don't refute, don't get involved in defending the help, because you have no right to do that you are following who you think is defending the hook. But if you want to be a true, bona fide independent to any scholarly thinker, what not, then you're going to have to be brave enough to set aside your prejudices for or against and look at the haka beyond the names of men, in any case, inshallah hope that that was of some benefit. And by the way, this does apply to all the destroyed these reputations going on as well.

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Because if you look at it, the majority, if not, I would say 99% of the people that are involved in this social media

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debacle, frankly, they are not independent thinkers, they're complete vocalists, they think they're defending the truth, because their version of the truth is a very simplified, reified, ossified, you know, hand me down, you know, handed to you in a slogan, and then that's it, anybody comes along and distorts or from their perspective, or thinks outside or, or whatnot, they can't handle it, they can't handle the truth, right? That was a classic line, but they're not able to handle it, because they their wavelength is not capable of digesting that somebody can be beyond their narrow spectrum or bandwidth. And in any case, inshallah, this lecture has shown you a number of things, most

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importantly, how easy it is for a majority position to change so much so that something that would have been a majority in early Islam is now considered to be completely almost heretical in our timeframe. And this is something it's not a it's not an opinion, what I just said right now, this is the fact you can literally go and generation to generation as I very briefly done, this is a summary of what we've done. And I shall a final plug as well. If you enjoy this type of stuff.

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And you are serious about this type of stuff, don't do think about the classes we're doing at the Islamic seminary, because I am not familiar with any other institute that is trying to make its students while being faithful to Islam. There's plenty of places that are not faithful to Islam, that want to do this type of stuff. But while understanding that we are in shallow data, mainstream, you know, orthodox Sunni Muslims still within the framework, wanting to challenge and wanting us to take a step back of the entire tradition, even as we respect the tradition, I don't know of any other Institute's so that's a free plug there for an institute that I feel very passionate about

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Allah subhanho wa Taala guide me and you and all of us to that which he loves to talk and look at. Let me think about the next topic or idea. I haven't done history have I let me do something in history to again make you guys in Charlotte, start thinking along different lines. Until then send on wedding records.