Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 24
Channel: Tom Facchine
File Size: 36.28MB
Bismillah Alhamdulillah wa salatu salam, ala Ashoka, MDA MB, Muhammad Ali salah. But as gets a sneak, a lot of them are limited to the millions that are now in fact me, Matt and mtna was even there. And then yeah, Ramadan I mean,
welcome to beginning Arabic.
We are in what I've started calling level two. Level one took us all the way up to the possessive construction robot with all the lay everybody that fantastic with that, and it was fun. And now we're moving on to level two, which our first lesson in level two
is about feminine nouns, feminine nouns, how we can recognize them, what are their corresponding
What are their corresponding
demonstrative pronouns and so on and so forth. Right. And we said primarily, primarily that we should back up we said that there's different ways of being feminine
in the Arabic language. Okay. One of the ways is a linguistic femininity, and that is indicated by the timeout.
Okay, so you'll have the great majority of female names or feminine names. We'll have a timeout of buta Khadija, ah, Aisha Hafsa, so on and so forth.
However, the rule isn't perfect in that there are some masculine names, or at least met names for men that are linguistically feminine, such as Hamza, such as Oussama such as an invader, and so on and so forth.
Right, we won't use
no problem. Of course, it's okay. Not a problem at all. Sister say my thanks for letting me know.
So we're not going to be using how to heat which we learned is the demonstrative pronoun for this feminine, we're not going to be using heavy for Hamza.
Just because Hamza has a ton of water.
Right? It is linguistically feminine. But because it's a male name, or as the masculine name, the meaning takes precedence when we're determining what type of demonstrative pronoun to use with it.
However, there's opposite, there's the opposite situation as well. And we're going to get into that with this example right here, where we left off, there are some words that are not linguistically feminine, in the sense that they don't have a time or Ghouta but they are considered feminine
by something that is either hidden
or by meaning. So if we have the name Hynde, okay, very popular name these days among Arabs hand, is a very popular name, it does not have a tempo button.
It resembles a masculine name, however, it is feminine, we would use heavy,
heavy, this is my friend hand, we would say we would have to use heavy.
And then there are other words that are inanimate objects that don't have any symbol to tell you whether they're one or the other, you'll just have to learn that they are considered feminine, such as did the year in this this is a pan or a pot for cooking.
Alright, so this is a type of word that if you look at it, you can't tell that it's masculine and doesn't have a time on reboots. And it's not obvious to us as English speakers, that it refers to a feminine meaning. However, in the Arabic language, it is feminine, and that's why it has the demonstrative pronoun. So just to keep limber, keep your, your categories limber. Its Arabic is not like English, to the extent that it has exceptions to the rules so that the other but there are things that are kind of little wrinkles here and there. In certain rules, many of the rules that we teach, they are to explain the majority or overwhelming majority of cases. So whereas the vast
majority of words with a timeout of huzzah are feminine, not all of them are and a great many words without Temodal buta if they are inanimate objects are masculine but not always so.
So getting back to our law
So let's proceed with the examples. If I could have the say a family must set inside one of you take
both of you complete this example whichever one goes first, it doesn't matter.
Have a he mill cartoon. Wow, have a good run
of the mill up to Phil.
Phil Bedri. Alright, good. I saw so Milaca man, I thought is a spoon here. It looks like a spatula.
But really it's a spoon and I think what they wanted to do here was make it like a slotted spoon like a serving spoon.
And a feather is as we said, it can be a pot or a pan.
Very good. And we've heard how so Milan cartoon follows what we would expect of a feminine noun it has a time on water, so that's easy to discern that this is feminine, had the heat Milan thought to further however, doesn't have a terminal buta. So now we simply have to memorize that, yes, better is feminine. Well, how did he get the room? No, it has nothing to do with the fact that it's in the kitchen, and therefore feminine because
because of certain gender roles, no, it doesn't. It just happens to be this particular word.
We used to laugh because the book that we had, this is an updated version of this book, we have studied from the original version of this book that was in the 70s. And every single example, where there's a woman involved, she's always in the kitchen, and she's always kind of, you know, doing, you know, domestic things and, and vice versa. So, it'll be interesting to see as we go through the book if they've updated some of the examples are not
very good brother, Sarah, can you do the following example with our nice cow here?
Heavy Bacala tool fella. Hey, fella. Hey, good. Could you translate what that what you think that means? I'll spot you the biller. A biller is a farmer. Okay.
Oh, yeah, this is the farmers.
How do you say
so that that reminds it.
Very good. Very good. This reminds me of a story I have to share with you. Okay. So you know, this is language, this is normal. Okay, so one time there was a Somali brother I knew. And he was in a grocery store. And he had just come from, you know, his homeland. And he didn't know the word for chicken. So he goes to the back of the grocery store. And he picks up an egg out of the carton. And he waits in line in the checkout line, and he waits anyways, finally, he gets up to the front. And he says to the cashier, he says, Where is its mother?
Because he doesn't know that we're fishing. So this is this is normal on we don't, you know, we're used to mashallah our native language, we are very accustomed to being able to express whatever we want without really having to think about it. Well, when we are in a new language, we go back to being children and babies. We can barely say anything. And it's a test at the trial of patience. So both ah
that's a good.
So both of us is a cow. But more specifically, it's okay. And this term isn't really used. It's interesting how language has changed. So in English language, we've had many, many words that have fallen out of use with the increasing urbanization and such. So technically, a buffalo is a heifer. A heifer is a female cow, right? In in many languages and English is no different. There's different words for the male and female version of things. Whereas a male cow will be considered a skier or a bull, and a female cow be a heifer. However, today, you know, that's too much work for us city folk. And so we just take cow
but technically buffalo you can tell it has a ton of water.
And so it is feminine cow, we would not use buffalo. For a male cow, we would use a different word for laugh. The laugh is a farmer. And this is a really interesting word because it derives from a a word, Fela ha. Mostly Hoon. Maybe you recognize that word from the Koran, which is somebody who is successful or something
But he who is happy,
right? And so alpha law is actually on a pattern that indicates someone who is continually kind of intensely happy and successful. It's kind of the, I'm imagining in the history of the language kind of the sensation when somebody's crops turned out, or their, their sustenance is secured along as best. But notice here, fella is masculine. Bacala is feminine. And the demonstrative pronoun that we're using. For it. It is feminine. Because we're not talking about the farmer. We are talking about a cow.
Hattie, he bethought autodelta laughing This is the farmers cow. Because this here is referring to the cow. A cow is feminine, we have to use the appropriate demonstrative pronoun. Very good brother to me. Could you the following example.
were had someone
And is knows
now, okay. Okay. Now, here's an interesting thing. Who can try to take a stab at this and maybe see if they can figure it out?
We're learning the feminine,
huh? Why did they throw in some masculine?
Some masculine nouns right here have that and fun. Well, however feminine.
They thought we forgot the masculine nouns like what's,
what's going on?
Anyone want to take the guts?
Maybe these words are feminine, worse. The nouns are feminine. That's a very good Yes. Give it my little intro on.
But that's not correct.
Okay, Has everybody got the it will become apparent in the following examples. Has everybody gotten the screenshot of the new words before I
say family? Yeah, so very good. body parts. We're moving into body parts and finnfoam are body parts that are singular, meaning there's only one of them.
how the firm
but if there is a body part that comes in pairs, here's a eyes, hands. Then the body part is considered a feminine noun. Or I guess a family.
I'm going to assume that you knew that from before and not that you just looked ahead at them.
Okay, everybody has the vocab words. I'm gonna erase it and scroll down. Yes.
Okay. I'm sure somebody has
syndrome. Sen. is non
Sena is feminine.
Sentence feminine, I believe. But I'll have to check up on that. That's a good question.
So here we are now. Now we've reached the examples where there are
So we've reached my son Ross, could you please do this example for us?
Hopefully he will have he
isn't you and I is yes. Excellent. And so even though they come in pairs, notice that because of the time when you're saying
and here and right we're using
this is Nikita
and we're talking about this is a Joomla ischemia very, very The first type of sentence that we learned right, however, be turn the heat although known this is an ear and the indefinite
marker is hidden in the 10 week or it's placed in that suddenly very good Brother Mohammed Can you do the next example
well ha, hee you're done. Wow, the
Good, excellent. And this is the same thing no need to translate unless you really want to.
This is a hand yet.
What have you he reads balloon and this is a like, Mashallah.
So a lot of new vocabulary
A couple of new concepts. But by and large, it's mostly what you're familiar with as far as sentences as far as
demonstrative pronouns, and so on and so forth.
Anybody have any questions about these examples before we move on to the,
to the next step?
Okay, hope somebody has gotten a screenshot of the words.
Clear, I'm good.
Then we continue to Marine, to Marine is the plural of temporary that means exercises.
Yep, brought work to. Again, I'll reiterate that, you know, obviously, when we're here together in zoom,
it doesn't make sense to spend our time writing however, the more you write these lessons in a notebook and a journal, at home, even just practicing copying, the more it's going to submit all of these lessons and all of the practice that you're doing last, so I highly recommend that our teachers in Medina used to have us copy the Koran.
Or even better yet tried to write the Koran from your memory.
And that was a very, very effective learning tool for really paying close attention to every little letter and how that has to be there. Mashallah.
So now what they've done is they've taken away the Hellcats.
They've taken away the 100 cats, because they want you to now attempt to put into practice both what you know, from vocab and what you know from grammar, they're only going to give you the occasional
how to cat if there's an ambiguity. And this is how most books in Arabic are written. So we came actually across this before. Whereas, if you look at this word right here, Madras Hatsune.
Without the Fatah on the meme, it's ambiguous. It couldn't be more research on it could be the female teacher, or it could be madrasa or school, there's no way of knowing unless it was part of a larger story. And it was clear, but here it's not clear. And so they've placed that that's how they're for you.
And so on there. That's usually the standard practice. Same over here with without release.
Good. So where had we reached we have to compare.
We're down to I believe, since they're saying that you do the read the first one for us out loud.
Harvey, he must be done. Well, happy Madras. Excellent work. Very good. I'm going to just test a little bit of Arabic grammar while we're at it. So let's just look at have the one. What type of sentence is this? Is this a is Neo or Joomla? Or what?
This is Joomla is Mia. Because it starts from Essen. Whether it's a Shannara
and whereas the hub in that sentence have an SQ
is not to that. And Masjidul is
fantastic. Thank you very much. I'm someone from the shake. Bam. Number two
the hit the key to Abbas in Yes, fantastic. translate that for us. What does that mean?
Who is this?
my sister. Good. Now, this is a great question. You did this completely correctly. But everybody else deserves to know. How did you know to put a bum on the end that?
Would that would that be like the possessive construct?
That you are correct. But you're wrong.
Is Milan you're 100%. Right. And it's part of a possessive construction mobicone late, but but but but MODAF but awfully late doesn't guarantee that this is going to be a bummer. All it guarantees is that the mobile app has no Elif lamp, and it has no 10 when it can be alumni it can be a fun time to be a customer. So I'll give you another chance
I'm sorry, I didn't hear
We're gonna pass. We don't know. Okay, good. Hamdulillah I don't know is half of knowledge. Okay, so we have two opinions in the chat box. It's me. And the other opinion it has come up. Okay. For the sake of time, I'm going to tell you that this is covered. That's the reason oh two, as an ESA is not many. That's a good guess, SR Saimaa. There are
Asmat there are nouns that are Mevani, such as an ESA Musa write many of these sorts of names that end with an ally.
Right, those are met meet so they don't change at all, however, asked, does change, we have to have the
right. The reason that this hasn't been met is because of the sentence. And not because of the possessive construction. This is Julia is MIA Havey. He is the moped to that. And book to bear sin is the hover.
What is the default grammatical case of the MOOC to that and the harbor, it's more poor. It is in the nominative case, which is represented by the llama,
in this case with a singular noun. So
if, let's say that we change it to a Joomla, fair Lea, let's say I mean, it's a shame that we use this.
We use this verb in Arabic grammar, but we always use the verb, Baba.
Which means to hit or to strike.
Good questions. It's the same I'll answer that in just a moment. Shala right, so Baba means to hit or to strike. And for whatever reason, in Arabic grammar, that's always the go to verb to make a Joomla Lea just because it's very short and concise. So if I wanted to say for example,
that up to I hit or I strike
tab, I'm saying would be correct.
So we haven't learned any conjugation yet, so don't worry about that. But if I said for example,
write a little bit more legibly, just take my word for that long to means I hit the wrong tool, then it would become tap and bass and
bass is still live off pulled off eBay. It's still a possessive construction. However, it is now the object of the verb.
And so the grammatical case of changes, what doesn't ever change about both because it is part of this possessive construction is that it never has a 10 wheat and it never has an allotment
which is why I ask the question because this is kind of a tricky point to get.
As for compound subjects is the same thing Yes, there are such things as compound covers, very good. So one could ask okay, I'm best in this part of the column maybe according to you, yeah. Amen. But it has a customer. How is that possible? We have simple colors and we have compound colors we have hovers that are simply one word, right like up here have a mesh G doing simple to boldness, had he madrasa tune
simple, just one word, but but but we can have compound colors we can have a hover that is a possessive construction right here. How the he looks to us in the possessive construction, we can have a hover that is a prepositional phrase. Anna, which means I mean a mica. I am from the United States.
Right prepositional phrase. Now, why has a llama is because it is part of the hover and nothing else has come yet in the sentence to change it
from having a moment. However, once we get to Bess, oh, bass is the second part of a possessive construction. We know that that means it has to be metal with a casserole in this case to customers. So something has happened in the sentence to change it from its default.
I hope that's clear inshallah.
So some Okay, so
yes. So we can say like, if you didn't want to say Abbas, kasi he often? Yes. Correct. 100%. That's great. That's, that will really help us understand this point. If you didn't want to say, a possessive construction
100% If you say this is a system,
yes, it would be a simple cover. And the cover will be more for it will be in the nominative case because that's the default case for the for the cover.
All we did here is we took this and we've put it into a possessive construction and at last it's 10 We have to
good point that's a very very helpful way to think about
um, okay, so brother Xia did number two if we could have Sr 's Matthew number three
has a beacon where has he the judge
the judge excellent at the judge is a oh yeah, that's right.
That's a rooster This is a rooster and this is
a D because a rooster male chicken and a Jaja is a head
or a female chicken.
Again we see the different terminology for gendered animals
and these are simple sentences simple move to the common good
Okay, sister at home could you please number four
how's it going Dean
has an immune Mythili right
beneath him with the riffin good very good Mashallah. So she knew listen to how she knew how to put the bottom on the bins
because it's the same exact thing it's moved to that club bin to if I'm going to use brothers he is example if there was no dirty see, it would be had he been done
this is a girl or this was a daughter
but because now we don't want to say something that's simple and mundane we want to say whose daughter is having he been to mother received
very good. So we have have known more theory and even also has the download will have he for feminine been told mother received and perfect. I think I heard Brother will have a thought in the background there. We have number five for you. If you would
will sit in very good Masha Allah that was a tricky one.
Because of the Dhamma because it's an unfamiliar word. bomo Yeah, Syrian.
And this translates to on his mother. So this is yes. His mother
the heat on more Yes, uni. And again, I'm going to really rely on brothers eat as example because I really, really like thinking about that way. If we didn't want to say whose mother? It was. We would just simply say Hattie, he or moon.
This is a mother. Have he on one
with two bombers. However, we want to be more specific than that. We want to say whose mother she is. And so now we put it as part of a possessive construction. Heavy heat. Oh, Mo Yeah, city.
Okay, I think we've reached back to the beginning. And sometimes my list of participants it reorders them, so
don't feel offended if I go out of order for the second round. Oh, we're on number six now. And the first person on my list is sister same. Could you please do number six for us?
Yes, I guess
mean, are we good? Can you translate
Yes, yes, sir.
Either we just learn early. Okay, you I'm sorry. Yes.
Lakhmi Correct. Would you translate that for us? Do you remember what
there is? There is? There is meat.
Yeah, very good in the pot of meat. Yes. 100%. Whereas the meat. Now notice here, okay. Up here when we were dealing with
structions two out of three times
we were dealing with
proper names boom whoa yes he it in and off to sin now because we were dealing with proper names the second part of the possessive construction the more block II lay had to two castles. Whereas if you're using a common noun
a modal Rees, it only has one Castle has he been fooled with a receipt? Have no movie. So we're in a similar situation here with number six Aina played the role Lakhmi
and Latin means red meats.
Okay, is distinguished, though this can be I should say that this can change from place to place. I have you heard of some places in the Arab world where lamb is used for both chicken or poultry, and meat. But from Medina, what I'm aware of is that an even in the
in the text of the mat. Usually, if we say lamb, it's going to mean red meats and not poultry. Yes, so beef goats lamb. Camel even.
Not my favorite, but that's yeah, Jews.
So Anaa did the whole left me and they have this nice fridge here, we're assuming that someone's asking for the location of it in the fridge.
Not gonna have 10 win. But if Laflamme comes out and we change and what? Yes, yes. Fantastic. So we had likened it to a seesaw, you know, seesaw balances like this that the children ride.
Normally, if we have and now and so it's either going to have a leaf lamb, or it's going to have 10 wheat.
One or the other. Never both, ever, ever, ever both.
How do we know when something is possessed by something else? In that situation? It has neither.
But in a normal situation, like in the following part Oh, I didn't realize that the same and there's a second part to your exercise here. We'll get to that in just a moment. In a normal essence, that's not possessed. It will either have net zero and we'll even have 10 We'll because it's nine zero, or we'll have a leaflet. If it has a plan
correct ending it will only have one how to whether it's a castle or Fanta or llama
whereas if it has no 10 mean it will have to how to cause whether it is to kesubos to pets house or to the homeless. Correct. Go ahead sister assignment and finish I didn't realize that this was also part of your it's the answer to the previous question.
Here fistula larger. Yes. We wanted to say the
larger No. Yeah, yeah, he allegedly because of her feature fee her feature so a far larger display module and last harika will be Kustra Am I right? Fantastic. Yes. 100%. Good. Here. Why do we use here because we're referring to the pedal. The pedal to the pot is feminine. Fi is inside. The larger
self is what we cause snow or ice. Alright, so the ledger is the cooler for the freezer or the fridge refrigerator.
On the pattern of bad but feminine that Ireland
good. We're getting close to the end of time right here. We'll try to move on. Shay family could you split number seven between the two of you someone who that person was second?
Good. Nafi the tune as they wind up
I guess. Oh, yes. It's supposed to be when I see it now. That's one window with the kind of cross crossbar. Okay, so uh, Nafisa. Nafisa is a winner. Yes.
Good job. Everybody has someone taken a screenshot of this so you have all the new words in sha Allah
Okay, I'm going to erase it and run
the larger interview that they have time on water. And so it's obvious that they are feminine nouns.
The larger T in this case and theta two.
And the following exercise is asking questions with these sorts of nouns. And I think we're probably going to save that for next class because we're at the end of our time slots. Does anybody have any questions about anything we went over today? Anything that we've learned before anything that you came across that surprised you? Or you had a question about?
There are, yes. If we're looking for specific words, so if we think about lesson as a category word for red meat, then there are specific words for type of meat. So for example,
cuddle is typically lamb
or it can also be what do they call it? And Medina is another kind of more colloquial word they use the medina for it.
A lot him on him.
That's another song
that is a very good I like the connections that you make. So hello, sheep also known
can be used for either mutton, either it's an older
sheep for sheep or lamb.
Bethlehem beta lamb. I mean, I don't know Hebrew. So if it's the same Latin as Arabic slang then yes, that would mean
meat. We could say a butcher shop, right?
A literal translation doesn't do it justice the probably how it sounds in its
in its original form. If
is the same
route, it might not be Bates. Yes. Bates. Anything in Hebrew that has faith is his house.
But it could be for example, have right is it a hard hat? Or is it a soft hat? Ham means importance. Right? You say there's learn ham. There's an important announcement. Right? So I would need to see I would need to hear a native pronounce it and then we need to have a conversation over tea about Semitic languages. But it's possible it could be
anyone any other questions?
Okay, everybody's doing fantastic work. Thank you very much for your time and participation. Happy studying and we will see you Wednesday in sha Allah Tada. I said on Monday