Channel: Tariq Appleby
Bismillah Alhamdulillah wa salatu salam ala rasulillah Ali, he was happy he married Assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. Today we begin with a new book. The book is called or offered in my lab and an image in our lab, the removal of brain of blame from the great moms. This book was written by me Tamia, Rahim Allah, and it is about the reasons and the the causes for the differences of opinion amongst our LMR of Islam. It's a very, very important book specifically because we constantly hear that there's a disagreement, there's a disagreement, a difference of opinion, and we struggled to understand what the reasons for that, you know. So this book is an explanation and a clarification
of that. Let's begin firstly with the biography of the author. The author is Ahmed Ibn Abdul Halim Eben abdus salam ibn Abdullah Abdullah Qasim al Haider, Eben Mohammed ma Tamia. I know that is a long NASA. But what is important for us to remember is the first three months, even Abdel Halim even abdus salam. And the reason why we only want to focus on his father and his grandfather, specifically is because that his father and his grandfather were great scholars of the humbly madhhab. Specifically, his grandfather, his grandfather was one of the major scholars in the Serbian or a sham region. And he's also the author of a very influential book on the thick of Hadith, or the
hadith of that book is called Manteca bar. vertical bar is a book with that has a little bit more than 5000 Hadith in it, and they all revolve around the fabric of Islam. And the book that we studied at the Faculty of Hadith at the Islamic University of Medina, called Nilo Thor is an explanation of motor power that was written by a Mia's grandfather, and his father, Abdul Halim was also a scholar. But as the scholar says that his light was diminished because it was a star between the sun and the moon. What do they mean by that, that his light did not shine as brightly because of his father and his son, ignat Tamia because if your father was great, and your son is greater than
when you were a great person, then you might not shine in history as much as your as your grandfather or your son. He was born in the year 661, in the city of how Iran how Iran is in
southern Turkey, okay, it's in southern Turkey. It's close to the border with Syria. And at the time that that distinction was not there like that turkey or that Syria, it was still called a sham. He left that city when he was five years old, because the Mongols were advancing from the east. Just a few years before ma Tamia Rahim Allah was born the Mongols had sect Baghdad. So Baghdad fell, you know, before it may Tamia was born by just a few years. So this was a very, very turbulent time in Islamic history. The Mongols destroyed so many, you know, Islamic cities like Al Baqarah, or some are called and then also book done, and that was the end of that Basset khilafah Okay, so everything
we know him Allah and his family, they fled the city and they traveled to Damascus. And that is where the families settled. And this is this is also where it may take me out Rahim Allah died in the 728. Right, so he lived from the 661 until the 728 rahima Hola. And ma Tamia was will lie he one of the signs of a loss of a hardened hautala because he completed his memorize memorization of the Quran, by the age of seven or eight. By the time he was 20. He was already you know, giving fatawa and allow to give legal verdicts. They say that Tamia Rahim Allah, whatever he would read, he would memorize.
This was the kind of intelligence the kind of memory that he possessed whatever he read, he memorized. That is why one day when he was a young boy, he his father took his his brothers, you know, on a picnic and they wanted him to join them. He said, No, he's going to stay at home. So they left and they left him at home. After a few hours, they returned from the picnic. And they asked him, you know, what have you done? He said, while you were gone, I memorize the Book in Arabic grammar.
Those few hours I sat and I memorize the complete book on Arabic grammar or not. So this was the kind of man that he was some later when he would when he's when his fame or his reputation would grow. Some other LMR would say well, ah, he I've never met him.
one like him, I've never seen anyone like him. And I don't think that he's seen anyone like himself.
They would speak about these knowledge of fick that whenever he would speak about, like the fifth of the humble mouth hub, then it would be like he was any mom in that. And that's that there's nothing, nothing surprising there, because that's the mother hub that he grew up with. That's the mother of his father and his grandfather. He grew up in a house of knowledge. But when he would speak about the shaffir, a mouth hub or the or the Maliki mother or the Hanafi madhhab, you would think that he was a specialist in that mother. When he spoke about Deaf seed. He said, I read more than 100 books on Tafseer. Now, one of the greatest books of the year is the book by Imam
Thornberry, that zero poverty, it's in more than 20 volumes. So when he says I read more than 100 books of Tafseer then he's talking about books like that. Right, the fear of poverty and you know, the books that came after him. So it may take me a long time Allah was an ayah, a sign of Allah subhanho wa Taala. He's his academic life, his contribution to Islam, and not only that, not only his academic life, but me. Tamia was also known for his jihad. It is know that it may Tamia to took you know took part in some of the battles against the Mongols. So me Tamia Rahim Allah was a person that not only lived knowledge in terms of study, but he lived knowledge in terms of of practice and
action. So there's lots to say well law he in preparation for for this, this so the books have been been written specifically about his biography and they are so many you know, YouTube lectures on the biography of imitate Mia Rahim Allah, I'm not currently aware of anything in English, but inshallah in the coming weeks if we find something, I'll definitely tell you about that so that you can benefit you know more about the life of this great Imam. But what we do want to focus on and what we have come together for is to discuss the book that was written by me Tamia Rahim, Allah now everyday Mia was a very, very prolific author. Okay, one example of this is that one of the books that is
still studied today, Akira Toluca sutiya, this aqidah he wrote between acid and Muslim.
So, this was the kind of memory that he had, he didn't need to go into his library and take out books and find references he could write, he could write, you know, from memory. And this is amazing. So, behind Allah, I want to ask you now, how many of you can write an article on Islam from memory?
Not a book, just an article, two, three, you know, 2000 1000 words and quote, you know, from the Quran and from the Sunnah. And from the books of the lemma, they say about me Tamia that it was rare that a book would be mentioned and he didn't know about it. Just imagine that. You know, if I mentioned books to my students, then Firstly, they the eyes glaze over, is he going to recommend another book, you know, and so the handle, but the reality of the situation is that it may Tamia was a sign of a loss of a handle with Tyler. He was he was a prolific author, and this is one of his books. Okay, so let's get let's get started with the book. But before we talk about that, I want to
mention the Firstly, the importance of knowing this subject, what is the importance of knowing the causes for the different you know, the key love between the dilemma the first benefit is that it excuses and it helps us to excuse those or allameh when they have made mistakes. If an island makes a mistake, he tries his best to reach the proper conclusion, right? This is this is normal, that the scholar is studying the issue and wants to arrive at the proper, you know, conclusion. Recently, my wife and I, we were discussing the issue of whether or not it is permissible for a person to donate their organs. And there's definitely a disagreement amongst the scholars, whether they are
contemporary or scholars in the not so distant past. Is it permissible for me to say that when I die, I would like to donate my organs, you know, so that they can be used for some someone who needs it, my heart, my lungs, etc. So the scholar is going to start is going to study this issue, looking at the Quran and the Sunnah and the statements of the dilemma, seeing how you can arrive at a conclusion. But if we understand how complex this issue is, then if he makes a mistake in that issue, we'll be able to make an excuse for him. Then the second reason is, it increases our understanding of Islam specifically, our understanding of
the second benefit of studying this topic is that it increases our fear because what happens when I lead
Later when we do examples, then you'll say, Oh, I didn't know that. Okay, that's the first thing. So when you study this, you'd be like, oh, that, firstly, that issue exists. Secondly, that issue has evidence. Thirdly, there is disagreement amongst our lemma, then you also begin to train yourself how to think like a scholar.
How do the scholars think, what kind of methodology do they use? what's the what's the method, what's the method that they that they use when trying to, to resolve certain issues. So these are important benefits. And one of the other things that I want us to also understand, and I said this earlier, is that
as your knowledge increases, so your criticism of the scholars must decrease. And this is absolutely important, because we're living at a time now where everyone has a voice. If you have a social media account, on any platform, then you have a voice, people that were not speaking and people that shouldn't be speaking, or speaking about Islamic matters. And one of the worst things to find on Facebook or any other place is scholars having they're having their reputations destroyed, or question or the integrity question because of certain opinions that they hold. So the more you understand how fake works and how Islam Islamic knowledge works, the less likely it is that you are
going to you're going to make these judgments on the immediate Tamia Rahim Allah He begins he says Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. praise is due to Allah for his bounties, I testify that there is no deity except Him. He has no associates in the heavens, and, and I testify that Mohammed is his slave and messenger and the seal of the prophets, peace be upon him and his family and companions, continuous praise and blessings until we meet him. So, this is his introduction. And as you can see, this introduction contains the following. Firstly, it starts with Bismillah Ar Rahman AR Rahim. So with the bus mala and this is the way of of the
Quran and the Sunnah and of the LML, who came, who came after the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam every surah in the Quran, except for one sola begins with Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam when he would begin, he would start with Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim. And we see how important this is because we say it even before we before we eat, and even when a couple have you know, have intimate relations, the husband is also required is not required, but it is also recommended for him to say Bismillah so this this shows the importance of starting something seeking blessings from Allah subhanho wa Taala and his names and his attributes.
The second thing that we find in this particular Hooda is that it starts with praising Allah subhanho wa Taala. And praise is to say something beautiful about something or someone that you love. This is very important, because I'll hand is more specific than the other Arabic word with a similar meaning and that's mud. Because mud can come from someone, they'll say something nice about you, but they don't necessarily like you. But Hamed is always with all respect, honor and with love. So I'll hand to Allah subhana wa Tada. Why because of all of his blessings. And there's that's why Allah deserves all Hamed because only Allah subhanho wa Taala is the one that sends down, you know,
these blessings upon us. And the last thing that the chef mentions is ahlawat upon the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and that's absolutely absolutely important as well. We find that if you go throughout history, many orlimar begin their books and the letters with these three things, the bus mala, the hamdallah, and sila and Salam upon the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and also for his family and for his companions. All right, then the chef moves on into the book itself, he says to proceed. It is obligatory upon Muslims after being loyal to Allah, the Exalted and His Messenger peace be upon him to be loyal to the believers, as the Quran declares he saying,
we're talking about the issue of loyalty and allegiance to the Muslims. And the chef is saying that that is compulsory, because Allah subhanho wa Taala has commanded it in the Quran. And just think of this hadith law you know, I heard you comb your hair. He He may you have been enough See, none of you truly believe until he loves for his brother, what he loves for himself. Just think about that for a moment. What kind of relationship must exist in the Muslim community if our Eman is not complete, if we do not love for other Muslims, what we love for ourselves and Allah subhanho wa Taala Come on.
us to not take the kuffaar as only besides the believers, the believers need to be our main focus in terms of loyalty and allegiance. But then he says, especially to the scholars who are the inheritors of the prophets, peace be upon him.
So, generally speaking, we have allegiance towards the Muslims, but to the scholars specifically, why, because they are the inheritors of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam because in the Hadith that's narrated in the Sudan, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is reported to have said, that the prophets Do not leave behind gold or silver coins. They don't leave behind wealth, but they leave behind knowledge. And whoever takes it, then he has taken a great and a good portion. So that's the scholars of Islam. They have taken the inheritance of the Prophet sallallahu idea, he was said, of all arriraw he went into the marketplace for the law of wine, and he told the people, oh
people, the inheritance of Mohammed sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is being distributed in the masjid.
You know, go and get your share. Of course, if you tell people that, you know, inheritance is being distributed, and they could get a share, I'm sure most people would say, Yeah, let's go. So they if when they went there, they didn't see any money being distributed any wealth, any property, what did they find?
Quran, Sunnah, Arabic classes, people were teaching, and they were teaching Islamic knowledge. And that's what he meant. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam left behind this knowledge. And the scholars are the inheritors of that knowledge. Then he says, whom Allah has made like stars that serve as guides through the darkness of the land and the oceans. Allah has made the scholars of Islam, he's made them guides. Because when you go on Hajj, and you don't know what to do, you are an alpha. and you're not sure what should I do now from after the the prayer, we just prayed vada Nasir. And now I have this entire period until the sun sets, what should I do? You go to a scholar,
you go to an island, you go to a new style, then you say, you know, Chef, what is the sadhana for me to do now? And he tells you, if you're at the masjid and you're not sure, you know, you were in your Salah, and you doubted if you had if you had broken you will do in the prayer. You go to him and he guides you. Are you having issues with your business? Is this Hello? Is this how long what what is the scholar tell you, it tells you whether it's permissible or not. And so he's guiding you, these scholars are guiding us they are guides on land and whether we are flying whether we are taking a boat, but wherever we need guidance about living as a Muslim, on this dunya we find that the people
that we turn to are the scholars, so therefore they are more deserving of our loyalty and our allegiance, then then the ordinary, you know, Muslim or layperson. Then the chef says for prior to the advent of the Prophet Mohammed Salah law violation. So before the Prophet salallahu alaihe salam came, the scholars of the earliest prophets, they communities were less inclined to good. Whereas the scholars of the Muslim community were deemed to be the finest as they carry the mantle of knowledge bequeathed by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and they are the revivals of whatever was forgotten of the Sunnah. in that sentence, there's two main things we want to take,
firstly, that the scholars in the previous nations, they were the worst of the people. That's why I'll say is of idealism of the Buddha, I lay him while I'm balling, not, to not guide us to the path of those whom your anger has, has been bestowed upon, know, on those who have gone astray. Who are they, the LMR of, of Christianity and Judaism. Because these are people that had the book, but they corrupted it, they tampered with it, they took from it, they distorted it, they added to it, they wrote what they own hands, and they claim that that was something that was revealed to them by Allah subhanho wa Taala. And that is obviously false. So they were the worst of people because of these
actions that they did. And they made highlight what Allah had made the hell out of them, and they made the hell out on what Allah had made the halal, so they were the worst of people. That's why one of the companions accepted Islam. And he read the ayah in Surah, two Toba where Allah says that they have taken the rabbis in the priest as Gods as deities as our burb as, you know, loads besides Allah, he said, you're also love but we did not worship them.
Because his understanding of that would was that we didn't make suju to them. We didn't make dua to them. So the Prophet said, Did they not make Hillel what Allah had made the hell out of them, and they made hot on what Allah had made the halal and you obeyed them in that, that that was your worship of them.
So this is why this the shift says that they were the worst but these the scholars of Islam, they are the ones who Allah subhanho wa Taala has bestowed upon them this knowledge of the Quran and the Sunnah. And they've taken it and they have lived it and they have taught it. So that is the first thing that we take from the sentence. The second thing that we take from the sentence is that one of the other duties of the lemma is to revive what has what has become less known in the community, one of the rlms of Egypt, he says that when he started growing his beard, growing a beard in Egypt was considered to be, you know, like, abnormal. No one grows a beard. Now, we're talking about 3040
years ago. And it's common. I mean, you have it's very common, even now in the Arab world, that growing a beard is not, you know, it's not taken to be, you know, from the Sunnah. And it's not taken, you know, very seriously. But he started growing his beard. And he started talking about that. And he started talking about the Hadith about growing the beard and the fact that the Prophet had a beard, then Abubakar and Armand and earthman, and Isley excetera. And then slowly but surely, the people started learning from that, and they started reviving that son of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and so with these with everything else, if you're living in a community for
instance, where you know the intermingling of the sexes is very common. And then you come and you start speaking about that, at the beginning, people will find that very, you know, upsetting, who are you to tell us you will be doing this for decades and generations and now you want to change things, but the more you you revive, you know, the some acknowledge amongst the people, the more you will see people responding, it will take time, it requires patience, but it is definitely something that is important and the LMR they they fulfill that purpose, the purpose of reviving those aspects of the deen that seemed to have been forgotten. In the chef says through them the Quran is
established, and they act upon it. And the Quran speaks through them and they articulate what the Quran contains. Because when we don't understand an eye of the Quran, where do we go?
Do we look at the translation? Of course we do. But what if we don't understand the translation either? What if the context of the ayah two What if we have read one the story of Musa in Sudoku puzzles and then we read the story of story of Musa and circle Baccarat and there seems to be you know, something that we can't you know, we can't quite get them to fit them on the reconcile them. What do we do? We go to the cinema, they explain the book of Allah subhanho wa Taala to us. They explained the Sunnah to us. So they are the ones that act as that's why it Milka Ibrahim, Allah, ma MI, a student, right one of his greatest if not his greatest student. It will take him wrote a book
called Ll Moonwalker in analog bill ILM in
basically giving notice to those who sign on behalf of a loss of a high North Island. He's talking about dorama because when you say this is Hillel, if you come to me and you say, Chef, I've got this business. And you know, this is what my business entails. If I tell you that that business transaction or your business is halal, it says if I am signing that fatwa on behalf of a loss of a hand or $1, I'm saying that this is halal. According to Allah subhanho wa Taala. You understand the gravity of the situation. So even look at him, Rahim Allah when he wrote this, that is one of the things that he wanted, you know, our lemma and for students of knowledge to understand they're
giving a fatwa and saying that something is halal or haram is an extremely serious matter, and you must be well equipped, and you must be prepared to face and to take that responsibility and not to shun it or to you know, to think lightly of it. So this is these are lemma. All right, now let's move on inshallah. huhtala. So now that we spoken about some of the virtues of the lemma, the second, the second paragraph deals with something else, and that is basically short history of fifth. And I also want to talk about the four imams specifically. Okay, so let's stop now for a moment. And let's just get some background before we continue. We understand that when the Prophet
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was alive for 23 years, he was the Mufti.
People came to him with the questions and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would answer them. He would either answer them directly from Revelation that Allah subhana wa tada revealed to him in the form of the Quran, or revelation that Allah subhanaw taala gave him that was not the Quran specifically, but was nevertheless revelation from Allah or the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam would use the principles of the Quran and the previous this the Sunnah and revelation and He will give His opinion on certain issues.
An example of this would be the man that came to him and said Yasuo law. My wife has given birth to a child that has a different skin color than both my wife and I, I assume or you know that my wife has been, you know, unfaithful because the sun the color of his skin does not resemble my my skin color or my wife's skin color. So did the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, you know, use Quranic evidence or evidence from the Sunnah to answer this man's, you know, complaint or his issue? No, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam asked him, Do you have camels? The Manson Yes, the prophet Allah Larissa asked him what color are they? So Well, they are that no reddish color. So the Prophet
salallahu alayhi wasalam said, Are there any amongst them that are great? He said, Yeah, a few. So how do you explain why most of them are red, or reddish, and a few of them are gray. So the man explained well, that must be some ancestral genetic, you know, issue that one of the ancestors must have had that color. So he said perhaps your son the son of yours, is also like that.
Maybe one of your your great grandparents, you know, or or your your wife's great grandparents had this particular skin color and that's why your son has that skin color now. So the the profits of the lioness enemies using chaos, and this is an analogy. But the point I want to emphasize is that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. When he is alive, they are no other sources of, of evidence and fit. It's the Quran. And it's the statements of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam and his actions and his tacit approval. Like if the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam sees people doing things, and he does not criticize them. They we take them as evidence. For instance, those men on
the day of me that were that were playing with their spears, those Abyssinian men, they were doing a spear dance in the masjid. Did the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam say anything about that? No. So those two men could have understood from that, that they actions on the day of their aid in the masjid were permissible. Another example of this would be that the Prophet salallahu it was set up new or must have known that a horse had been floated in Medina, and that the people that distributed the meat for consumption, but yet the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam didn't say anything about that. So those are the three aspects of the Prophet Sunnah, that we take as as legal evidence now,
when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam passes away. Now a new era of fake is going to begin because now the Sahaba are going to have to rely on the Quran and the Sunnah. And if there is nothing in the Quran and the Sunnah, that speaks about a particular issue, they will need to do HD hide, which is independent personal reasoning, they will now need to apply their minds to the issue at hand based on the evidence that they have in the Quran and the Sunnah. So, now we begin a new chapter. But this is an amazing period. Why? Because we have abubaker and Omar and earth man, and I Li and Ayesha, and we have Abdullah ibn Massoud, and we have zedi been Thabeet and obey Eben
Caribbean, Abdullah bin Ahmad and so many, many others that are there to explain the Quran and to explain the Sunnah, and to give their own fatwas on issues. Again, as we will see the chef mentions a few of them in the first section of the excuses that we're going to talk about, but after the Tabby ins error, what's the norm after the Sahaba we have the era of the of the brain and they now have the Quran, they have the Sunnah, but they also have the photos of the Sahaba
omoto the Allahu anhu said this, and earthman said that and I live in Abbey Talib said this. So they have so we have a lot more information that we can work with. So by the time the first of the four imams is born, who's the first of the four imams?
the first of the four so let's just talk about them very briefly. We're not going to go into too much detail. Imam Abu hanifa Rahim Allah was born in the year 80, after the Hippodrome in the year 80 after the hedgerow and he died in the year 150. Okay, so he left for about 70 years, and he was the Imam and the scholar of Kufa. So from the 80 until the year 150. This is the life of Imam Abu hanifa and his main city was al Kufa
This is in Iraq. The second of the four imams is Mr. Malik, Malik, even us. He was born in the year 93 or 9493 or 94. in Medina, that's where he would was born. That's where he lived. And that's where he died. Rahim Allah and he died in the 179. So in my myleague Rahim Allah had a very long life. So he died in the year 179 and he was in Medina. The third of these imams was Imam Shafi. Rahim, Allah, Mohammed Idris, Mohammed Idris. He was born in the year 150. And he died in the year 204. So Mr. shaffir, a comparatively speaking died very young. No, he died in his 50s Rahim Allah, but the legacy that he's left behind, still influences us today. We still live with that legacy of
hamdulillah. Right? Whether it be here in Malaysia, or Indonesia, or any other place, not only for those that are studying and are being taught the shaffir a must have, but also for all of the scholars, because his books are rissalah was one of the very first books on a solo flip, like Islamic legal theory. And what is the methodology? How does one approach the Quran and the Sunnah, etc. It's one of the most beneficial books, one of his students said, I've read this book more than 500 times. And every time I read it, Allah opens up some new benefits for me. And just a reminder, though, that's a excellent reminder for us. There are certain books that you read from cover to
cover, and you put them down, you might never look at them again. But then they are other books, we can call them the Omaha the month is the most important books. And these are the books that you need to read constantly over and over and over again, of course, the Koran That goes without saying, but books like Bukhari, or Muslim or Riyadh, asylee head, or any of the explanations that specifically for the whole body, if you have access to fat and body, whether it be in English or Bahasa Indonesia, or it is in English, that you should be reading and reading a lot. certain books need to be read multiple times. One of my one of my teachers, he says that there is this very important book
of Hadith that he's read, it's in two volumes, and he's rated more than 40 times.
Why? Because some of us are great at memorizing and some of us are not. And if you don't have a great memory, or you have you struggled to memorize, one of the other ways in which to make that knowledge firm is for you, too, is for you to read and to reread and to make notes and try to be as you know, as involved with the book as you possibly can. The last of these four imams is Mr. Ahmed, even humble Ahmed, even Mohammed Ibn humble, and he was born in the year 164. And he died in the year 241. Okay, I'll say that again. 164 to 241. And he was in Baghdad. Okay, so you have these four mobs. Now, there were many, many other scholars besides the scholars in that time period between the
80 and the 241.
These were not the only four allameh remember that by the even before Imam even before Imam Abu hanifa is born, the Muslim Empire is already extending from North Africa, all the way to the Himalayas. Right, and from what is today parts of the southern part of Turkey all the way to Yemen. So the Muslim Omar is vast, and the scholars of Islam have spread out to Egypt and Syria, you know, and Iran and even past that, and in Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula. So we have the oma, you know, in so many different places. So these were not the only scholars living at this time. In fact, Mr. shafia, he says that layth avonside from Egypt was more knowledgeable in fifth than Mr. Malik. But
lithium and Sarah did not have the caliber of students that Mr. Malik had, so that they could document his fatawa and his legal opinions. Do you understand? So not only were the other unelma but some of those are that might have been more proficient.
But Allah subhanho wa Taala knows best. What I do want you to understand is that these four mud hubs are the main focus of the Muslim oma today. In fact, there isn't a an area in the world today, where people will not be you know, will not learn the Hanafi Maliki Shafi or Hambali mud hub, like here in Malaysia, it will be the shafia a school and that would be the dominant school that's taught in schools,
colleges and universities and also the main focus point for
These, even if we don't restrict ourselves, you know, to the mud hub on every single issue, but that's going to be our main point or our main point of of reference. Right now that we understand that and just have a brief understanding of the of that history. Let's move on now to the second paragraph that the chef mentions. He says, it should be known that none of the Imams who are generally accepted by the Muslim Ummah, would intentionally oppose the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, in any aspect of his Sunnah with a small or great, we have to know that of these four imams that I mentioned, and others that we have not mentioned. We cannot say about them, that a hadith
would reach them, and it would be authentic, and they would say, I want nothing to do with it. I don't care what the prophet what the prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, I mean, so behind Allah, would you? I mean, is it even possible for us to have a thought like that? No. I mean, when you What is your default feeling when you meet someone of knowledge? If you meet someone like Mufti mink, or you meet, you know, someone, I'm just going to speak about the English speaking world. No, but if you meet someone like that, what's your what's your default opinion of him? He's knowledgeable, and he's pious. And he has great respect for the Quran and the Sunnah and great
knowledge of the Quran and the Sunnah. That's your default. So so it must be not only with contemporary orlova and people that we are familiar with, and that we know but also there are lemma of the past, that when the Hadith when knowledge reach them, that they would accept that knowledge, but this is because they are in profound agreement regarding the obligation of following the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Like Mr. Mishra, if you're Avraham, Allah makes it very clear in his book are rissalah.
And this book is available in English or rissalah is available in English, it's a few 100 pages, but you should be able to finish it in a few days, it's not
it's not going to take you a very long time to do I would recommend that you read it if you have difficulty with it and or someone that's more knowledgeable than you someone who is familiar with the book, but this so that you can get our get an idea of specifically of this point here, the scholars are in agreement that we have to follow the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam there is no difference of opinion. You're not going to have an island from the Hanafi madhhab say, No, we don't accept Hadith.
Or you know, the Maliki saying that you know, we only find out for I'm all for mud hubs and all varla are in agreement that it is obligatory to follow and obey the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. They believe that the words of anyone other than the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam may be accepted or rejected. It's very clear.
Like even Malik Rahim, Allah said one day, he said, and he was pointing to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam his grave, because Mr. Malik obviously taught in the prophets, Masjid, and the prophets grave was closed by sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And he said, Every single person everyone's opinion, is accepted or rejected. You know, if demand the possibility that it could be accepted or rejected, is, is definitely warranted and it's there, except the person who's buried in this grave.
He's opinion is always accepted. There isn't another option. If the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said something. If the Prophet gave his ruling, he gave his verdict he gave his decree, then we say summer I know what Alpina we are and we obey. We don't say, Oh, I know. I know. If it's not in the Quran, then I will not accept it. Oh, it doesn't make sense. Oh, this hadith doesn't, you know, contradict science. Open, my chef said, but the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, So Mr. balik is laying down this this corridor and this principle, that when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says something, and we have verified the authenticity of that statement, that no
one is allowed to have a different opinion and to and to reject what the prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, If any of their opinions was for was found to be in opposition to an authentic hadith, then there must be a just excuse for that. And these excuses fall under one of the three categories and we'll talk about that now. But let's just focus on this.
If you find the opinion of an Imam, going against an authentic hadith, then you must know that they are variety of reasons that that is the case and that's what we are studying today. That's what this class is all about. What happens when there is a statement of an island, past or present, and it goes against a clear Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Then the LMR have given
themselves and excuse long before hypnotize me I wrote this book, because it is authentically reported from many if not all of them, that they a statement like the following. If the Hadith is authentic, then it is my mother hub, or any one of my opinions that go against an authentic hadith then throw my opinions against the wall, meaning reject them. So these statements come from Imam Abu hanifa Imam Malik Imam Shafi, Imam, Ahmed and many other scholars. Okay, but if you don't understand all of the intricacies and the complexities of that statement, for instance, how do you know that Hadith is authentic?
If you don't know, then you can't say that. Oh, but the Imam said that if the Hadith is authentic, then we should follow it. Where's your evidence for that? You don't even know if the Hadith is authentic. You don't have the knowledge to verify its authenticity. You understand? So even though that statement was made, it requires scholars to to implement that's why Imam nawawi Rahim Allah in his book as much more which is why Allah he if he had completed it, it would have probably been the greatest Encyclopedia of Islamic you know, legal thinking. Any another book that comes close to that is the book by Edna Kodama, the humblest scholar, but the mama mama nawawi was a shaffir, a scholar,
and he wrote a book called al much more it's an explanation of a sharp theory text. But the issue that NEEDS CLARIFICATION here is that in this GitHub, if there is an authentic hadith, the mother of Imam Shafi, he seems to go against it, or Mr. Musharraf. He made a conditional statement. He said that if the Hadith is found to be authentic, then that's my opinion. Mr. Managua, we would say on multiple occasions, the Hadith is authentic. And so therefore, it must be the hub of Imam Shafi. An example of that would be the issue of eating the meat of the camel meat. And it that breaking your widow does the eating of camel meat invalidate your widow, Mr. Mushaf Avraham, Allah said that if
the Hadith is authentic, then that's my mother. So Obama nawawi says it very clearly in Allah much more that the Hadith is authentic. And so therefore, it should be the Imams mother, although it is not the official view in the sharper image hub, the more attachment instead, in the humble mouth hub, that's the view that if you went to a restaurant now, and you had some camel meat, and you were in a state of Bordeaux, when you started eating, by eating, that camel meat you will do would be invalidated. Okay. And the humble mother, they consider this from the bullfrog that meaning that they are the only mother hub that holds this as the official opinion. The other three other hubs
don't hold that as an official opinion, even though there would be scholars in that in those medallions that might hold that opinion on an individual basis. Anyway, what are these three excuses that we are going to be studying? Is the chef says Firstly, that the scholar did not believe that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam actually uttered the heidy. That's the first reason
the scholar doesn't believe that the Hadith is authentic.
Or the Hadith has not reached him even. But even if it's reached him, he does not believe that it's authentic. And they we need to go into the sciences of Hadith. What are the reasons for the acceptance or the rejection of a hadith? And when I mentioned to now, and I want you to remember them, so that when we come back to them, we can go into more detail? What are the two main reasons why a scholar might reject a hadith the two main reasons are a missing link in the chain of narration that is not someone's missing someone is not there is a missing link between two narrators we could either have the Sahabi is not mentioned or the Sahabi and the Tabby is not mentioned or
someone in some way in the middle of the is not some someone is not mentioned or missing. And it could be from the compiler like someone like a mammal Bukhari if I'm alcohol he says in his saw here, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said
so is the is not there is no is not there whatsoever. You just quoting the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam and without providing there is not so we're going to talk about that in more detail in upcoming lessons in Sharla that's the first reason that there's a missing link in the chain of narration and I would like to use the word is not or sonnet from this point onwards. I don't want to keep on saying chain of narration. Okay, we're going to use the word is not I think, I think we'll just stick to the word is not okay. There is a missing link in the it's not. The second reason why the scholars might reject the Hadith is because the rate is have been criticized
And in Sharla, in the coming lesson, we will go through all 10 reasons why a narrator might be criticized? Why would a narrator be criticized? The main reason is would be because of lies.
That's the main reason and then we'll talk about, you know, poor memory. We'll talk about beta is the narrator guilty of a beta, what kinds of beta are the different kinds of beta? Does this beta take the person out of the fold of Islam? Does it not? Does that beta warrant you know us to, to criticize this narrator and reject these narrations and so on and so forth? There are 10 different reasons why the scholars reject a hadith on the basis of the narrator's reliability, integrity, trustworthiness, okay, so 10 related issues there. But those are the two main reasons if someone walked up to you and said, Listen, the you know, the the sciences of howdy they seem very complex.
On what basis would scholars reject the Hadith? Well, it's very simple. is either a missing link in the internet, or one or more of the narrator's have been criticized? Are we clear on this? That's absolutely clear, I hope. Number two, the second Secondly, the second main reason that the scholars differ is that the scholar did not think that the question or the issue in question was actually intended to be covered by the Hadith. What does that basically mean? The first reason deals with authenticity. The second reason deals with understanding
does this hadith apply to the issue at hand? Does this hadith apply to the masala the fifth issue that we are discussing? Because if you believe that the Heidi deals with business, and I don't believe that it has anything to do with business, we are going to have a disagreement? If you think that the Hadith is applicable to some other, you know, to a particular chapter, for instance, let me give an example in Arma lupini, yet, all actions are only judged according to the intentions does this Heidi deal with the removal of nudges from myself? If I have some nudges or some impurity on my phone? Do I need to have a knee? Yeah, like I have four will do and sila and hustle and Hajj, etc,
for the removal of this impurity from my film.
So some scholars say yes, and some scholars say no, because you see that Hadith is applying to actions that have to do with a vida. And if you don't consider the removal of nudges from the job as being an EBITDA, you don't need an ear for that.
So, these are important issues, that the Heidi's might not apply to the chapter that we are discussing or the issue that we are discussing, alright. So, what helps us to understand that would be a solo or solo thick is going to be the way that we are going to determine whether or not the Hadith is applicable and it can be used for this particular issue and whether it has any relation to the issue at hand. Now, solar fit is a beautiful subject, a very, very important subject, okay. Alhamdulillah more and more books are being made available in non Arabic languages, languages other than Arabic, I should say. And one of the one of the best books that are available that's
contemporary is a book called principles of Islamic jurisprudence, okay, written by Mohammed Hashim al Kamali used to be a professor or He is a professor at UAA. Okay, is originally of Afghani descent. So this book is really beneficial, but a little bit difficult. Okay, there's another book that has been translated, it's a book by chef Mohammed, even highly, highly earthy meat. It's a book that he wrote for high school students in Saudi Arabia. Now, this is a subject that high school students do not study or pseudo fit in any other countries that I know of. Right? Imagine we taught students these subjects, when they were very young,
gave them a great understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, and how fick works, and knowledge of fit. That's why we have we have the problem with the youth that we are having. Now one of the reasons is because they do not have excellent foundational knowledge of Islam.
They don't need to become the next Imam and nawawi or immunity Mia, but they need to have a solid basis for when they go out into the world. So with solar fit, we will talk about more of that. The third main reason is because that the scholars believe that the ruling contained in the Hadith is abrogated its monsoon. So the three main reasons why the scholars differ have to do about the authenticity of the Hadith. Number two, the understanding of the Hadith, and a claim about
abrogation of the Hadith. Those are the first and the main reasons why the scholars differ. The rest of this section is going to be a clarification of those three things. So let's begin in sha Allah Allahu taala. He says, These three categories can be further divided into a number of more specific reasons. Now he's going to mention 10 is going to mention 10 reasons and he's going to give us the the principle and he's going to give us examples and inshallah Tada. My aim for the rest of today's class is to finish the first three. So let us begin. The first reason is our Kamala Harris, that the Heidi did not reach the concern scholar, and whoever is not aware of a hadith is not responsible for
not knowing its ruling. Okay, the first reason is they Hadith on the topic has not reached the scholar. So, Abu hanifa gives his opinion on an issue, but it seems to go against a hadith which is absolutely clear and authentic. But the chef is saying that Hadith perhaps has not reached the scholar that we are discussing. Now. Please tell me how this is possible.
Imam Abu hanifa Subhan Allah, Mr. Michel ferry, Mr. Malik, Mr. Varma, they didn't know about this hadith. It's an authentic hadith that they didn't know about these people lived in the time of the Taliban in America very Islam is reading. They are centers of learning throughout the Muslim world, how do they not know a hadith?
I would I would like an answer from the, from the students.
Okay, well, one possibility is that the Hadees was only found to be authentic later, but that still doesn't answer the question as to why he didn't. I mean, he didn't get anything. No Hadees reached him at all not authentic or, you know, unauthentic. He didn't know about that had it at all. So how is that possible? How can you be a mujtahid, great scholar of Islam and not know that.
So what is the answer?
Okay, everyone specializes in something. But that also I want to add to that, that it is not a precondition that the scholars be knowledgeable of every single thing the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said or didn't the chef will mention that explicitly. The second thing is that at that time, none of the books that we are familiar with today of Hadith were written.
There was no Muslim Imam Ahmed.
There was no Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim and so Nabi Tao would tell me the Diploma in any of these books, or daddy, me. So most of what the scholars were discussing amongst themselves, is what they had memorized, and what they had written down. Is this clear why But anyway, let's see what the chef says, To further clarify this. Thus, if the Heidi did not reach him, and he gave a judgment regarding the a particular question on the basis of the apparent meaning of a verse or another Hadith, on the basis of analogy, or the presumption of continuity is this hab. Then his opinion might fortuitously agree with the Hadith in one case, while opposing it on another, so let's go
through all of that one by one, if the idea did not reach the scholar, okay. The chef did not know about this hadith. For instance, as we will look at some of those examples. Later. Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu, he is asked, listen, okay, the person did not say listen, but I'm saying, the person said that, what is the inheritance or this woman was a grandmother, and the mother of the deceased was deceased. Right? So the mother of the person who died, died before he died. So his grandmother is alive. So she's coming to aboubaker and she wants to know if she inherits What is her share of the inheritance. Now abubaker of the law of mind, if he did not hear this Hadith, then he would not
have given her anything. Why? Because the Quran does not specifically mentioned the grandmother.
So he didn't know about the Hadith in which the Prophet gave that grandmother and this is only when the mother is deceased. someone dies and his mother is not alive. Only his mother's mother. Can she get her the mother she what is the mother share? By the way?
one sixth. All right, so the mother would have gotten one sixth, but she's not alive to get her one six. Kevin one sixth be given to the grandmother aboubaker. If without knowledge of the Hadith, he would have said, No, you don't get that [???]. Why? Because the court does not stipulate the grandmother as a recipient of of that ship. Does it make sense? Is it clear? So that's what he means. Because he saying that if the ship doesn't know that Heidi is either going to base his opinion on the Koran, or some other sooner, or he's going to use not some other sooner, but on key us, or he's going to do is going to use is this hub? the presumption of continuity? sounds fancy?
Basically, it's the default ruling. What's the default ruling? For instance, if you are in will do and then later you doubt whether you will you're you have auto, right.
Right, I go to the toilet. But you know, you took Udo but you doubt that you broke your shoulder? What should you do?
Should you consider yourself to be in a state of Ohio or not? Should you take although again,
you have although that's the presumption of continuity, you paid us back a few weeks ago, now you're checking your account, and there's no you can't seem to find the record of that soccer payment. But you know, 100%, that you made it.
So you need to pay soccer again.
There's no record of it, the MT went out, but there's no record that you have actually paid. That person also doesn't have a record. Obviously, this is very hypothetical now. But you know, let's use use cash. It's a better example. You gave that poor person that you know that were the recipient, you gave them the Zika. But then later, you started to have doubts? Did I really, because you found some money in your wallet, you're not sure like, you know, did I miss a 50? No, the presumption of continuity tells you that you paid your Zakah in, in full and it should pay no attention to the so this is the kind of thing that scholars will use the use Docker or they'll use analogy. They'll use
principles like these to give the opinion in the evidence in the absence of hiding evidence, like a specific idea that deals with this issue. Are we clear? Right so that explains this, he says, This is the most likely reason for most of what is found in the opinions of the pious predecessors, the Salah for salia that oppose certain had the
most the scheck is making a
statement here, he is saying most of what we find the salaf, the Sahaba, and the tab you're in at Barrow, tabea in disagreeing on, it's because they don't have a hadith or Hadith has not reached them.
You understand that that's why you're going to find them holding opinions. For instance, some of the Sahaba held opinions about Buddha, that it was still permissible. But so behind Allah, the Hadith is very clear to you and me, yes. But to that, so happy he might not have known about it. Like had he known that the Prophet had prohibited the niqab of Buddha. What is matamata is a temporary marriage, where a man and a woman agreed to be married for a specific period of time, a day, a week, a month or longer. So this is what are some of the Sahaba had opinions regarding its permissibility. But they did not know about the the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam on this issue, and
there are countless other examples of this. So this is perhaps the greatest reason for early disagreement amongst the scholars of Islam, specifically in the first 100 to two 150 years, that they did not know the Hadees now he goes on, and he explains, because he wants you to, to understand and to be able to answer the question I answered at the beginning of the section, and that is how is it possible that these called scholars didn't know
that we they were scholars, they were not you and me? I mean, how many ideas do you know how many ideas have you memorized? How many books of Hadith Are you familiar with? So, obviously, they will they will much greater, much better, much more knowledgeable. So how is it possible that this would not have reached him? He says, and in so he continues, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam no sorry, indeed it is simply not possible for any single member of the oma to know all of the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, I want you to make a line under that.
Just you know to remember, it is not possible for every single person to know every single Hadees how many a hadith are they in Sahih Bukhari
a little more than 7000 worth repetition of course, but even after that it's still 1000s of ahaadeeth in the Muslims of Imam Ahmed, they are close to 40,000 Hadith in them.
Not all of them are authentic, of course, like Sahih Bukhari, but the majority of them are, but nevertheless, the point that needs to be stressed is that even Imam Ahmed would not have been knowledgeable of every single Hadith, and having a way of every word in every narration and every fatwa that had ever been given by the prophets of Allah today was said of all the Sahaba. So, this is very, very important to understand. Then he goes on, he says, The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to speak, issue legal verdicts, pass judgment, or perform an action, which was seen or heard or heard or seen by those who were present at the time. And they or some of them, would convey
it to others would in turn convey it to others, until it reached who ever allow the most hi world amongst the scholars from amongst the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the followers of those who came after him. Two things we want to take from that that sentence, number one, that the Prophet salallahu alayhi wa sallam statements and actions were many, they were numerous. How many words did the Prophet speak over a period of 23 years? And if you look at the books of Sierra, we even have what the prophet said before he became a prophet.
How many words do you utter every single day?
How many words do you and I speak? Even if you are a person that does not speak much? How many words do you speak on average, people speak between 50 to 40,000 words a day.
Now imagine you are tasked with explaining the Quran, reciting the Quran, teaching, giving commands, giving explanations, sending people out for jihad, and for Dawa. You're going to be talking all the time. And because you are someone that needs to be emulated, you are going to be in public as much as you can, so people can see you pray, and they can see you perform the Hajj, and they can see you in jihad, etc, etc. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, his life will lie. I'm not exaggerating when I say that no one else's life has been documented, like the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam his life, every single detail, the number of gray hairs in his beard, or on his
head, the you know, the prophet the size of his forehead and nose, you know, what the kind of hair that he had on his chest, the size of his feet, and the shape of his feet, the kind of perfume that the prophets will allow it to send him enjoy his clothing. We even know the names of his animals and the names of his swords and spears, and his and his shields. So this is a very detailed, a very detailed discussion. How is it possible that anyone could have complete knowledge of all of this, but the chef is going to surprise us with something later. And that is going to help us to really understand this point, he says, and in another assembly, such matters would be seen or heard. Sorry,
there was something else that I forgot to mention. They said there were two things we want to take from that sentence. The first is that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam his life, and his actions were quite numerous, too many to count. The second is that whoever saw what they saw, and whoever heard what they heard, they would then convey that so not everyone was they at the different times, that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam was speaking or doing, for instance, or whatever hotel blah, blah. This is in Sahih Bukhari in Qatar Bella in the book of knowledge. Ahmadi Allahu anhu says that a neighbor of mine from the unsought, we would take turns to sit with the Prophet
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, one day I would go, then I would come back at the end of the day, and I would tell him what I learned from the profits a little larger than him today. And then tomorrow I would work and then he would go and sit with the profits of alarm instead of and he would tell me what the prophet said at night. Now I'm will lie. Let's just think about this logically. Do you think that they are going to mention every single action and statement and word that the Prophet said every time they were having those interactions? Now?
When men go for the drama of football, and they come home to their wives and family, and the wife asked, what was the football about? If you have if you were not asleep during the football, you might just summarize the football in five words. The football was about taqwa. He mentioned a few ayah and one Hadith I remember that he quoted was Hadith x y&z That's it. That's what you said. Not every single thing. If I asked you what was the what was the Imam wearing? Was he wearing a turban or or a coffee? What color was his job? You might not remember any of those things. Did he raise his hands the remaining
Do you know while he was on the member, maybe you didn't see that you were in the masjid but your your viewpoint was obstructed. This is extremely important to understand that the Sahaba themselves did not have access to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam 24 seven, and secondly, that whatever they did have they conveyed, and they conveyed that to the tab aid, and they then conveyed it to those who came after them. until it was documented in those, those, those great compilations that we are familiar with, then he says, in another assembly, such methods would be heard or seen by those who were absent from the first gathering. And they too would convey it to whomever they were able
to. As a result, the first group would know what was not known by the other, and vice versa, like the example I gave you of our mod, and that I'm sorry about the law of wine Houma. And they have many, many other examples example, those people that could not fight with the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasallam, in jihad, those men who because of the, you know the blindness or because of the lameness or because of illness, or because of some other duty that they had to perform, like earthman had to take care of the profits daughter, his wife of mines wife, the profits daughter, so he didn't join the profit at the Battle of burger. So in that entire journey and battle and journey
back, the prophet said and did things that Earthbound did not know about, isn't it.
And those Sahaba, like Abdullah, even only MK two, right when he was in Medina, as the governor as the Imam of the masjid, he would not have been spending time with the Prophet sallallahu, alayhi wasallam days he would not be there, he would not see the Prophet for weeks, the Battle of the book was weak, so behind Allah, so he would not have had access to the so when the Sahaba return, they would share with him some of that knowledge, but not all of it. And perhaps that was not knowledge that he needed. And that's another important point that we'll get to in the future inshallah, who died. As a result, the first group would know what was not known by the other and vice versa. And so
the scholars amongst the companions, and those who came after them, would support each other in the relevant levels of the extent of their knowledge of the or the quality of it. So abora radi Allahu anhu accepted Islam in the fifth or the 60 year after the Hydra.
So he's already missed about 1819 years of the prophethood of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam his life as a prophet. That's a long time. What is the Prophet said in the inter intervening, you know, years so much? But why is Abu huraira the most prolific narrator of Hadith, because in the five years that he then spent with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he never left the Prophet side, except when necessary.
And whatever he did not ask the Prophet directly, he asked other companions about even while the Prophet was alive.
And he also after the prophets death
sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, Abu huraira was also asking the Sahaba he would ask Abu hurayrah abubaker and Armada northline and the prophets wife Ayesha, and others, you will with the Prophet year, and they tell me about him. rsmo Malik rhodiola, who I was about 20 years old when the prophet SAW lrsm died, but he was not there. And none of the Sahaba actually were there. When the Prophet was a boy, and he's hot in his chest was opened and his heart was removed. But honestly, if no, Malik is the one that is the one that narrates this, have you thought does he know about the
others, you know, either the Prophet sallallahu lism told him, or he asked the Prophet, like, I think that this is one narration, he sees the scar on the prophets chest. And he asked the prophets, Allah Larson about it, that's a possibility.
The Prophet had an actual scar on his chest, and it was covered with hairs that grew down, like in a single line down, right, the prophet had no other chest here, except for this line of hair that went down in the middle of his chest. And you will find more details of this in the books that deal with the profits physical appearance like chabane, luthier, MIDI, right, great book, Al Hamdulillah. Anyway, so the Sahaba even amongst themselves, they differ in the number of the number of Hadith and also the quality of the narration, like some of the oldest Sahaba were after the prophets, Allah lies have died. Many of them were reluctant to give howdy and to narrate them Why?
He said we some of them would say we grew old, and we forgot.
So they did not want to say something and then maybe make a mistake, you understand? So other Sahaba had more certainty. That's why if you look at the seven most prolific narrators of Hadith, almost every one of them without exception is a young man or woman.
Abu Abu huraira Abdullah bin Omar Abdullah live in a bus and a sub nomadic Abu Zubaydah hoodie, Jabba Abdullah I shadow de la vida, all of them are young. They are either teenagers or they are they in the early 20s or early 30s. They are all young Alhamdulillah. So that that age, that vitality, that they had those great memories were amazing in terms of the preservation of the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. All right. Now he's going to mention examples from the Philippines or Russia did. And the reason why he's going to talk about the qualifier Russia did and show you that they were they were people who did not know every Hadith is going to talk about Abu
Bakr, Omar earthman, and Isley and he's going to give us examples where these companions did not know about certain Heidi, and if they did not know that anyone who comes after them are also going to be less knowledgeable or are going to be less knowledgeable. Does that make sense?
I mean, if Abu Bakr radi Allahu Allah Who doesn't know it, yet as a man or the Allah and who accepted Islam in the first few days after that meeting at the Cave of Hell with jabril, Eve is a Muslim from the beginning, is with the Prophet day and night. He does the he draw with the Prophet is in the cave with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he never he never misses a single battle.
And wait how often the Prophet would say, I entered myself in a bucket and our modem, I left myself a bucket and although
they will always with him, yet they will not fully aware and had complete knowledge of Asana. So when the chef says, as we have said, it is absolutely impossible to claim at any one person could encompass all of the Hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and this can be illustrated through the example of the righteous caliphs, who are more knowledgeable regarding the affairs of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam he should know and other matters relating to him, especially abubaker of your loveline, who was never far from the Prophet with wherever, whether at home or on his travels. In fact, he was with him most of the time, to the extent that he used to stay with him
at night to deal with the Muslims affairs. This is also true of our modem la palabra de Allahu Allah, and you will find many Hadith in which the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, I entered with a bucket and armor and I went out to the abubaker and armor. This is actually a statement that I leave in ambientali also used to show the virtue of abubaker and armor.
Like he said this, that the prophets Allah, Allah where I live, so how often did he say, you know, I entered with Abu Bakr and Omar I left with Abu Bakr and Omar, why, you know, why is that important? Why is it Why is Ali using that that statement of the Prophet as evidence, because he wants to show you how close these two men were to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
Of course, the Shia would reject that because she I do not believe that Abu Bakr and Omar were sincere. They go further than that. They say that they became apostates after the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam stuff. That's why until recently, the grave of the person who killed Ahmadi mahatama do lavon abou Alma juicy was being celebrated as a Muslim and a place of visitation by the Shia in Iran.
They made a grave to honor that man
imagined imagine a grave to honor a man who killed our motive.
So this is why
it is important to study the the views and the attitude and the beliefs that I leave now Vitaly had towards abubaker and armor and earthman. What did he say about them? What did he think about them? The fact that he named some of his children off to them is a perfect indication of how much love he had for them and respect. Because I'm not I'm not sure about you, but I don't name my children after my enemies.
know anyway, so let's continue despite this up when Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu was asked about the grandmother share of inheritance, he replied, there is nothing prescribed for you in Allah's book, nor do I know anything for you in the Sunnah of the prophet Sall Allahu Allah, he was set up, but I will ask people about it. Yeah, we see two things. The first is that he does not find evidence that the grandmother should inherit in the Quran, and he does not know of a of a sinner. He doesn't know. So how does I mean if I'm a banker, or the love, I know doesn't know. Then Abu hanifa Malik Shafi Ahmed, is it less of more likely that they
We'll know you understand the the the reason why the chef is mentioning this. So if Abu Bakr radi Allahu anhu doesn't know about a hadith about the shape of the grandmother, then other scholars are going to be more likely to be in the situation where they don't know about the Sunnah. Because this man was worth the profits of the law, it was set up from the from childhood, nevermind, you know, from Prophethood, from childhood, and he doesn't know that the Prophet said anything about this. So behind Allah. The second thing that we learn here is that he says, I will ask the people for it, about it. Why?
Because he shows great humility.
He's not saying I'm aboubaker and if I don't know, this, Heidi, that no one knows this, how do you know, he also understands about the law of mind that he was not with the Prophet 24 seven, he had to sleep, he had to take care of his family, he had to do other things. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was, you know, even if he wanted to spend time with the Prophet, the prophet needed also to do his own personal things. So there were times where he would not have seen this. Another example is of the daughter of abubaker of the law one because in her experience with the Prophet sallallahu, alayhi wa sallam, she, she did not see the Prophet urinate while standing.
Imagine this is your wife, your wife has not seen you stand and urinate. So when she hears that someone is narrating, and this person is or someone is narrating that the Prophet was, you know, stood and urinated. She accused him of either lying or making a making a mistake. There's some disagreement about what the word means in that particular context. But she did not believe it. She did not think that that was true. why she's basing hers on unexperienced but the Sahabi saw what he saw.
If you see what you see, then no matter, then it, that's why the LMR look at the statement of her data and they look at the statement of OSHA, and they see how they can reconcile. And so they say that I just saw the profit when things were when he was healthy. And when he could squat and urinate and hurt Eva must have seen the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam at a particular situation at a particular juncture where he could not have squatted, either the situation was not was not suitable, or the Prophet had some, you know, some injury that, you know, he couldn't squat and urinate, you understand? So so that's how they're going to go about reconciling between the two. But it still
does not detract from the statement of her data. I saw the profits of alarmism do that action. So it will no matter what I shall have the Allahu anhu says the Hadith of the day festival stands, however you want to interpret it, that's a different matter. But the Hadith has been established. So what I want to point out here is that I did not see the Prophet 24 seven,
there were times where you know, the prophet was away from her or the Prophet left Medina, you know, and he was not he was not back again for weeks. So, these are definite reasons and it continues to emphasize what the chef is trying to say that they did not know. So, therefore, latest scholars would also have that same problem if not on a greater at to a greater degree. Then he goes on to say,
but I will ask people about it so so he did ask them and my elbow here are even sharper, and Mohammed even Muslim. These are two also very young companions from the unsought they came forward and testified that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam had given her a sixth. This sooner was also reported by Milan Eben Hussain, another young companion. Thus, even though none of these three companions was of the same stature, or age or level of virtue of abubaker, and the other caliphs, they were the only ones who knew this particular sooner, after whose practice the oma has since agreed upon him to learn their Rahim Allah. He wrote a book about HMR. And in that book, this is
consensus of the scholars. He says the scholars are unanimous that if the mother is not present, the grandmother inherits one sixth.
So we now take that as a given, it is a consensus issue, that if the mother is not alive, the grandmother will inherit one sixth. Even though our worker of the law one was not familiar with the headache. Now we move on to Amarillo, Katara de la one. Similarly over him Nakata radi Allahu anhu did not know the Sunnah, related to seeking permission. What are we talking about here? The Hadith about seeking permission is that when you go to someone's home, you ask for permission to enter thrice.
How do you do that? May I enter? Can I enter? Is it okay if I come in
These are all different ways you do this three times. And if no permission is given to you, then you don't just walk in and say, listen, I'd be outside. I've been asking, you know, is anyone your cause out there? I know it's there. I can hear you people speak though. You ask three times, no permission is given your return. So this is what Abu Musab Sharia law the Allahu anhu did. He came to the house of Armando kotoba to Lahore and he asked for permission to enter three times. No permission was given. So he returned. All right. So I've also already cited that salt in supportive of his narration. And this is why our mod was more knowledgeable than the one who related this sooner to
him, because armadio long line within called equaled for Abu Salah Shadi, you say, Listen, you came to my house, you asked for permission to come, and then you left. What happened is, is no, the Brotherhood the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says, say that if any one of you seeks permission to enter three times, and no permission is given to him, you should turn back, you should go back. So this is what I this is what I know. So this is what I practice. I'm about the Aloha animal didn't know that.
He didn't know that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the spoke this and yet something else. Not only did he not know it, most likely he was not practicing this either. That means that some of the etiquette that we now take as being absolutely essential and most important, many of the Sahaba were not doing them. You know what I'm saying? Like this isn't a ticket now that because of our of our access to so many so much Islamic knowledge. Like, you know, if someone drinks with a left hand, we say, No, I don't you know, the idea.
You know what I mean? Like is like, that's, that's basic monkey did not know that. But yeah, this is also basic go into someone's home and
get no answer. Okay, nothing happening. Third time, nothing, Okay, I'm gonna go No, I don't know you do do practice this year. You do Alhamdulillah. Right, the saying Bismillah before eating, eating with your right head, all of these things are taken as being as being we take them for granted that they are just part of Islamic culture and etiquette. But they there's something that is very, very clear that our motto, the Allahu anhu did not know about this. But once the Hadith was mentioned to him, then this is what he accepted. Alhamdulillah right. And that's what we spoke about at the beginning, when we said that when the tsunami comes clear, and it's authentic, and they know it,
they you know, they know it and they are aware of it, then they practice it, and they implement it. Right. Likewise, amo did not know that the wife inherits from the blood money of her deceased husband, what is the blood money of a deceased husband? Or a deceased person? What is the blood money for a Muslim?
The blood money. The Arabic for that is a deer,
the deer? It's 100 camels. Right? It's 100 camels. And we there's another example that we mentioned a little bit later, all right. Instead, he thought that the blood money belonged to the Akela What is the arquilla? The Akela? One opinion is that it is the the a person's male relatives on his father's side his paternal male relatives, like your uncle, and your cousins and your nephews. All right, so on your on your father's side. So these are your akeelah so they would be the ones to get the blood money, your wife would not get a share. But one of the Sahaba said until at the heart Gibbons of Vienna killaby, who was appointed by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as a
governor of certain regions, wrote dorama informing him that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam gave the wife of ash hub of the Barbie, radi Allahu anhu a share of her deceased husband's blood money.
Does the wife is she entitled to that? Yes, she is. Why? Because technically speaking, that blood money is part of the inheritance, or that's one that's one explanation or another explanation is that it is she is also part of the Atilla right. We're not going to get into the the nitty gritty of that issue. But what we can see is that he didn't know. But when he was informed, what did he do? He then gave that wife a share of her husband's blood money as a result, Ahmadi Allahu anhu abandoned his opinion in favor of this hadith and said, If I had not heard this Hadith, I would have judged contrary to it.
Instead, so not only is abubaker normal, they they lay down the foundation for us what is that foundation.
If a hadith comes to you, and it is authentic, then you have no opinion with that. Contrary to it again,
Did that is the reality?
No, because because the cousins are also responsible for paying the DIA if you are guilty of murder, or accidental killing
your akeelah in the same way your only other recipients of your blood money should you be killed. They are also responsible for paying your blood money if you kill someone else. So it's it's a reciprocal. If they don't have money, you don't have money. I'm not sure what the ruling is. All right, but blood money will need to be paid. That's why one of the Mujahideen he died in Chechnya or Bosnia. I think it was Bosnia. And one of the RMR Saudi Arabia was asked about that, what do we do? right because we killed him accidentally, you know, friendly fire. So the chef's rule that the dealer should be paid and obviously they didn't have you know, the money to pay for that and then
the chef paid it himself.
Right, which is a lot of money 100 camels is Mashallah, what's what's the camel now in Malaysia? 345 1000? ringgit? 6000? ringgit? Subhana? Allah 600,000 that's that's the least.
This is very expensive. What's the price of a cow right now? Since April Altai, was not to fall 4000 for a cow, is that a cow? Or is that a cow?
Now, I mean, because, you know, you get different kinds of cows. You know, a lot of Stein some cows look like, they remind me of the story of use of alayhis salaam, you know, seven fat cows eating 7000 cows. I have this picture in my mind. Along with that, we move on inshallah Tada. Another issue is so now hamdulillah. We are mentioning more and more fig rulings, we did some inheritance. We did some issues. We did something related to dia. Now he's going to talk about the jizya what is the jizya the GCI is an annual tax that is taken from fighting aged non Muslim men under the protection of the Muslim of the Muslim state. Okay, so Jews and Christians, or the main,
the main, what we call them,
look at the word escapes me, what I need to say is that if Jews and Christians are living in a Muslim state, then men of fighting age are required to pay an annual tax in lieu of military service. Okay, so that means that they don't join the Muslim army, but they pay an annual tax that is taken from them. So that they that basically it's a protection, a protection tax.
Right, a safety and security tax, if you will, we will guard you, we will guard your property and your lives, but you will pay this tax and the rlms are unanimous. And please make a note of this, that this The jizya is not taken from women and children or from people that are unable or cannot fight. So even though the jizya was taken from from non Muslim communities in the past, from men and women and children and from everyone, that's how it's not permissible. You understand? There's a big difference between what Islam teaches and what Muslims practice.
I think we all understand that. There's a big difference between what Islam teaches and what the Muslims practice. So there have been some oppressive taxation, the schemes throughout Islamic history. That's wrong. It goes against the Quran and the Sunnah very clearly at each bar. There's not there's not a difference of opinion the scholars are unanimous, we don't take jizya from non Muslim women and children. Is that clear? All right, so we move on now to the to the issue at hand. Omar also did not know the ruling of jizya for the major ones, the majors or the Zoroastrians, they are mostly a religion. So founded in Iran and in some other places like in Mumbai in India and other
places but mostly in Iran. They were the dominant religion at the time of the Muslim conquest of the Persian Empire. Okay, they are basically fire worship is the they say they are not fire worshippers we say they are fire worship is the reason why this disagreement between us is because they temples have this eternal fire that they have burning 24 seven All right, but if you take us that belief further, like with Hindus they don't say we worship the idol right they worshipping the God that the idol representative a, you know, it's it's philosophical mumbo jumbo and linguistic gymnastics. But the point that needs to be stressed is that they are major ones. And the word major ones come from
Magi which basically are the priests, right? That's why the story of
In the Gospels about the birth of a Sabbath Memorial, they talk about the three main, you know, Magi, those three those three men that brought gifts, you know, at the time of his birth anyway, that who were they there was already Austrians who came from Iran if the story is true, and you know, that's a debate and the discussion for another day, but do they pay jizya? is the point at hand? Do they pay jizya? So I'm gonna do love I know who did not know of any Heidi on that topic. Why? Because the Quran and Sunnah that he was aware of only stipulate that the jizya is taken from Jews and Christians, not from Asians. All right, until after I met him when
he was informed by Abdullah Madiba Aeroflot Viola one, that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, treat them as you treat the People of the Book. So, the jizya is taken from the major organs as it is taken from the nassarawa and the wood, the Jews and the Christians. So, now, that Hadith Moreover, rather before we move on to the next sentence, so jizya is taken from them question that I want you to research for next week is and can the GCR be taken from the Hindus and I want you to use the mogul empire in India as a case study.
Is it permissible for jizya to be taken from the Hindus
and you can use the mogul empire in India as a case study? Did the Mughal Empire extract the jizya and take the jizya from the Hindus of India? That's your research topic? Would like a detailed 5000 page thesis on my table next week? Not next week?
The week after, right the week after? I expect inshallah huhtala detailed analysis and discussion of this must Allah insha Allah say insha Allah. Yeah, apparently in Malaysia, inshallah can have four or five different meanings. That
that's another discussion for another day. Anyway, he says, When Ahmadi Allahu anhu reached a sort of, or a subtle, near taboo, it's still a city, they are close to the book, and was informed that a plague at streaking a sham, right so this is a plague that had broken out in Syria and Palestine, many of the Sahaba died during this particular plague. When when he was informed about it, he consulted he stopped, he stopped the caravan. And he consulted the early Yog rune who were with him at the time, what was he consulting them about? What should he do? Has anyone heard anything from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam regarding what we should do regarding the plague regarding
anything, you know, that could be useful at this particular moment? They said No, He then asked the unsolved, then they also did not know of anything. Then he asked those who accepted Islam at the time of the conquest of Makkah. And every one of them told him what they thought and none of them were able to inform him of a Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So look, look and and and pay attention to what he's doing. He asked him Oh Ha Joon, they did not know any sooner. He asked the answer, they did not know. He asked the people who accepted Islam at the time of the conquest of Makkah. And they did not know these are some of the most senior companions of the
Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. And they did not know until I've documented even again, about the Allahu anhu came and told him of the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam with regard to plagues, when he said, if the plague appears in a land while you are in it, do not depart in flight from it. And if you hear that it has smitten or affected a land, do not go towards it.
If you hear that there's a plague. Do not if you are in that city, in that land, don't leave. Why? Because you might spread the disease as a result of that. And if you are heading towards it, don't proceed turn back so that you are not affected by that disease. And so this is the basis of quarantine.
The basis of quarantine is to keep the people that have the disease isolated so that the disease does not spread and to stop people from becoming infected. Okay, so when they had the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, this is what they were trying to do. Right keep the people isolated, treat them and make sure that people do not enter the city and or that anyone leaves. So the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said this, and what did he do? He turned around and went back to Medina. Alright, so he followed the Heidi, and again, it shows us not only the the amount of not only was almost unaware of the Hadith, but the other companions was
As well, it was only a matter of an hour even though senior Sahabi but he was the only person that came forward with a statement from the Prophet sallallahu it he was sitting on another occasion almoradi Allahu anhu discussed with Abdullah Abdullah the Allahu anhu the problem of a person or one who has experienced doubts concerning his prayer, when he has missed something or you know, some is broken is wood or something similar, and Omar was not aware of any sooner pertaining to this matter. He was then informed by Abdullah command even alpha drama even Aeroflot. Viola when he comes to the rescue, quite often in in our study Alhamdulillah that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said,
the one performing the prayer should ignore his doubt, and bases action on whatever is certain to him. Something we discussed earlier. If you have a doubt, we're talking about the presumption of continuity is this habit? And if you have a doubt, but you will you add certainty before the doubt arose, then you build your opinion on the certainty that you have, whether it whether it's matters of a bidat or whether it's transactions, business, whatever it might be, if you have certainty, but that certainty is affected by doubt. You don't pay attention to the doubt and you, you you you proceed on the basis of your certainty. So it was very clear Heidi, finally Ahmadi Allahu anhu was
once traveling on a particularly windy day. And he asked, Who can tell us from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam something with regard to the wind? Abu huraira radi Allahu anhu said, I was informed of almost request while I was at the back of the group, so I spurred my riding camels to move to hasten towards him until I reached him and narrated to him what the prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam ordered when the wind would rage, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam ordered that we make dua of Allah, I seek you the good of whatever is in it, and I seek refuge in You from the evil of what is in it.
It is a very, very strong wind of Allah, like sometimes when brings rain, but sometimes we brings destruction, right? So Allah, I seek you, I beseech you for the good of what is in it, and I seek refuge in You from the evil that is in it. That's what so I didn't know any of this. But what he wanted and this is again important is he wanted to know what did the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam say about this? I think we will stop here in sha Allah. There are many other issues that we want to cover. And we also want to talk about earthman and Ali, but we will do that in the coming lesson. Maven ilahi Tyler, are there any questions before we end today's class?
Anything we need to discuss any issues that need to be dealt with? If there's nothing then will endear barakallahu phaco May Allah subhanho wa Taala bless you with sincerity and beneficial knowledge. And may Allah subhanahu wa taala help us and give us an understanding of the legacy that the scholars have left behind for us so that we can benefit from that Baraka local vehicle was Salam alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh