Moutasem al-Hameedy – The Evolution Of Fiqh – Part 5

Moutasem al-Hameedy
AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the history and significance of the time of the Prophet sallama, including the use of questions and doubts to establish authenticity, the importance of learning to be a Muslim person, and the use of language and language systems to create confusion and confusion. They stress the importance of practicing practical knowledge in learning a language and building language skills, and the need for practical knowledge to build language skills. The conversation includes brief and unclear comments from two speakers about the current state of the economy, the potential impact on the economy, and the need for people to stay home during the pandemic. The segment ends with a statement from the host thanking the speakers for their time and attention.
AI: Transcript ©
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Sorry about Santa Monica, Monica, Santa Monica. Okay, previously we then we talked about

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and the difference between Santa shriya and the meaning of linguistically and how the concept of developed into something that is specific into the technical meaning that we know. And then we talked about in the first stage of its history of its story, which is basically the time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, we made it clear that the sources of where they are, and the sun of the price of sun and the sun of the province of Sanam was mainly either a speech or action. Or sometimes it was an approval from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam.

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And we said that the messenger saddam himself used to make HDR, which is basically analytical reasoning.

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And the last one is that I would, I would either confirm the conclusion that Professor Solomon arrived at or last month that I would change it, they are also the companions of the Prophet Adam, during this stage they exercised, he had, so they performed he had to a certain extent, but it was all as a again, either confirmed by the prophets of Salaam or corrected by the messenger Allah Salatu was set up.

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And we said the sources of when filk were mainly the Quran, and the son of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, and to a certain extent, a very, like marginal amount of faith was basically the HTML of the prophets of Salaam and he had of the companions. Now there's something about the book and the sooner that we have to state and make clear before we move on, there's something about the Quran and the Sunnah we have to understand in terms of

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what we call an Arabic,

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there are two concepts that we have to study when it comes to the revelation. There are two things we have to study when it comes to Revelation. And this is how we deal with it.

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First of all, is a full boot to boot which means authenticity.

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we decided to move your explanation later on, because we already started. So first one is a full boat, which is authenticity, we have to study, and you have to be careful about the laughter establish the authenticity of the text.

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And the second thing is Abdullah,

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Abdullah, Abdullah, could be translated as

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what the text refers to.

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When the text refers to

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a smaller the study of meaning, the study of the meaning of the text, what does the text denote? Or connote? So what does it speak about directly? What does it speak about? indirectly?

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So we have these two issues of football, which is authenticity, and Adela, which is the meaning

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or what the text refers to.

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Let's start first with a footnote, the concept of the boat which is authenticity. When can we affirm that the text is authentic? For example, the Koran? How can we confirm that this verse is actually from the Quran is from Allah subhanaw taala hamdulillah. With this concept on every verse in the Quran, has been handed down to us in what we call a tower tour, at our tour, a tomato is that a huge number of people narrate the same thing.

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from one generation to the other.

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So the number of people at every level of narrators doesn't go low. It's always like a huge number of people, that it becomes impossible for this text to be a lie.

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Or inauthentic.

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One example,

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who's been to China?

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Okay, no one has been to China.

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How do you know China exists?

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map someone made the map. Someone wrote it.

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So many people want that. Haven't you seen people anywhere from China in the first place? So you've received so much news information input about China, China's there, these are these things are made in China. Okay, that's probably the biggest tomato today. Made in China.

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Yeah. So you're getting so much information about China that it's an it's an impossibility that China doesn't exist or you have doubt that China about China the existence of China?

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Or does anyone have doubt that China is the biggest manufacturer country in the world?

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No one has. Why? Because this is something that's, as we say, in Arabic mustafi. It's so widespread, it's so evident that it would be foolish to question this and try to say, Okay, give me a scientific fact that this is actually reality. And that's also obvious most of the field is so widespread, the evidence is all over the place. You don't need to check it that way. Okay, so what are in that sense, basically means that the text has been reported, taken from the Prophet sallallahu sallam, right from that point until today or anytime else.

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This number, this verse has been handed down by a huge number of people that it's impossible for them to agree on it. If it were not authentic, if it were not like that. That's what our total means. This is what tomato means. So the Quran all of the Quran was reported by tower all the verses of the Quran were handed down to us by by the water. So, this is why there is no doubt about its authenticity. Sometimes there are issues that are raised by certain researchers certain orientalist specifically or sometimes people who want to question the authenticity of the Quran. If you really look at these questions, usually they are taken out of context, usually taken out of their

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historical context, if you were to examine any state, so, they would, for example, mentioned that when the when the Muslims or the companions were collecting and writing down the must have through the command obachan only allow and who

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and who was the companion was meant was given that responsibility

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zaytoven of habit, ZEW fabric was given the responsibility to document the plan in writing in one book between two covers. In one book,

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they both have it for example, says said that I found the all the verses in the Quran and and he said, the last one that I found was two verses from surat October, la caja Kumara Subramanyam forsaken Azizullah him a little

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mini naraku for him. He says, I found this verse I only found it with Hosea,

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even with habits was a member of habits. He was the only one who has it.

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So you will find the Orientals, for example, taking this according this, it's authentic, by the way, quoting this because this is a hail Buhari, quoting this. And they say you see, the Quran is not reported by the water. It's not like a huge number of people. This verse, you only found it with one companion,

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only found it with one companion?

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How do we respond to this? And that's the problem. If we don't understand the context, if we don't see exactly what the companions were doing, and we hear this, the problem is that if you don't get an answer, it will stay as as a seed of doubt in your mind, then we'll hear another thing. And the third thing and the fourth thing here on there, and these things will pile up until sometimes they might get you to a point where they you start questioning your inner and your faith.

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And this happens to our youth when they go to university. They study like Islamic studies on under, you know, you know, especially in the western universities, it's not Muslims are teaching you. And the western scholarship on Islam is not based on studying Islam for the sake of studying Islam. It's based. It's all built on the premise of questioning, questioning Islam, so they don't focus about Islam. What Islam teaches, is basically about casting doubts and creating questions and doubts about the authenticity or about anything that is in favor of, of this religion. And for them, this is what they call, you know, critical approach.

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So if you don't have a good study of Islam or good understanding of Islam and the history of Islam in the history of the Quran, and you face these doubts, or what you start with is doubt Islam doesn't. By the way, the like the Muslim scholars, their approach to this was the opposite of this. It was for them to establish

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the basics, understand the history. And when when you have got all the pieces together, now you can look into doubts. So for those who go and study Islam, in western universities, they have to be careful if they are not well versed in Islamic history, and a lot of the issues of Islam. They are putting themselves in such great danger, such great danger because they don't have a basis. They're not foundation to stand on.

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So when they face these doubts, they don't have the tools. They don't have the information to challenge these, at least for themselves, to preserve the

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Man, and these seeds of doubt will be planted planted over and over until they get to a point where they could eradicate someone's belief in Allah. Especially with social pressure, pressure, you know, media pressure, political pressure, all of this works together in order to make it hard for a person to stay Muslim. And we believe in our loss.

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So this duck, for example,

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they say okay is dealing with habit found the only way Hussein

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found this person was him, you need to look at the other narrations.

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They even without, let's look first, at the general context, a huge number of the companions memorize the Quran in full, there was a good number of the companions who have memorized the Quran in full. So that means

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Hussein, I wasn't the only one, number one. Number two, when database habits emerged in this, he said, like if, if Abu Bakar commanded me to move mountains from the mountains or heard from its place, in a bucket by bucket,

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it would have been easier for me than you know, doing this thing which is compiling the Koran in one collection.

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So, he because he made a very strict condition upon himself, he said he would not receive it would not accept and write down a verse, unless the companion that he takes it from has memorized it and has written it

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and has written it. So, if you put the statement of segments out within this context, that means

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that means he actually found in Medina, only hoceima had it written. What about the other companions at that time, at that stage, a huge number of the companions were actually out in the battles. Another time, the context is very important. What were the Muslim is busy with at that time, some of abubaker

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Hello, Brenda, fighting the battles against the opposites, people who oppose stated and left Islam. And this is why I'm on top came to Abu Bakr Al de la, I know and he said lepidus to *, but he said that a lot of the Muslim companions have memorized the Quran in full. Now a good number of them are being are being martyred in the battlefield. So he could see in his foresight and his wisdom, that things might get worse. So let's document it. Now when we have it all memorized and written, we have everything clear.

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So that shows that not all the companions west of the Medina, a lot of them were actually out fighting battles.

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another durational Buhari from hoceima from zaidan. With avid, he says, I found all the verses, and I put them in the book except for one that I remember the prophet SAW, Selim used to recite it, and it's from Suraj. At Toba, I could only find it

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with Hussein. So that means they haven't established himself knows it already. But because of his condition, he needed to find it from someone who has memorized it in his head and memory and has written it in his book in his in his records. So basically, the statement of JW Sabbath was about his strict approach to the collection of the Koran. And it has no indication about this verse being only known being only known to

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Tokushima or one companion, seeing all this context, it removes this kind of doubt, all other doubts that are cast upon this authenticity of the Quran or the Hadith, if they are treated in a similar fashion, you will, you will see that they would not hold any criticism and in real criticism.

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Okay, so we're still talking about through both authenticity. So the plan was reported was handed down to us by means of our tour. So every verse in the plan is motivated, is motivated. That means it's been handed down to us through a huge number of people at each stage, that it's impossible. It's an impossibility for it to to be problematic when it comes to authenticity. What about the Sunnah of the prophet of Southern the Hadith of the Prophet SAW center, in general, the Hadith of the prophets of Salaam has been preserved has been preserved has been preserved. There are there is a there is a paraphrase of difference among the scholars. So the main body of Hadith was reserved,

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the main body of it was reserved on the periphery, you will have certain a number of Hadees they could go on the hundreds or the 1000s of times where the scholars have differed, how much whether they are authentic or not. But for the main body of the headache, you will find them to be authentic. So the main body of the Sun has been reported authentically and we know it

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So what was the signal reported by Taiwan, I don't know, it's actually a minority of the Hadeeth were reported by Taiwan.

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That is that

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the headache was reported by a huge number of companions, then a huge number of taburiente. And then a huge number of expats have been, and so on and so forth at each and every generation. This is like a minority among the Sunnah of the prophet SAW Allah, and the scholars have written compilations of the matamata Hadith.

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most of the sooner was reported as what we call a had had. So it's either mutawatir or ahead, what's ahead, ahead had basically means that the Hadeeth was reported without our without tomato. So could be, for example, a hadith reported by five companions, five Tabby in six at bats in 10. This is called a hat. I had all those taken from warhead from one, but doesn't mean it's only been one single generator at one stage. But it means it did not reach the level of power, or it's not a huge number of people reporting it at each level. So it was reported by a lesser number of people, there is no specific number, whether it's 567 What's the least there's no specific number, because it's

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more of a judgment of the scholar of Hadith sometimes, the you know, the the the reliability of the narrator's if they are probably, let's say five, it could be sometimes more powerful them in terms of their memory and their understanding in this head, it could actually have more power more authenticity that has been reported by 30 people at the same level.

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So, this is why the issue of tomato or when does the headache fall off tomato. This is an issue that depends on the judgment of this scholar himself. This is why cheerfully Sam Tamia, when he talks about tomato he mentioned that tomato is different from one scholar to the other. So, there is a room for this kind of individual difference individual. So, the expertise of the scholar, the mastery of this color that field and their knowledge could actually give them such evidence that for them this hadith is matamata. For example, He mentioned an example he says that has been reported to say by for people like the the stage or the the layer of narrations, the least or the weakest has

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the safe for only four generators, all other generations say have they have more 10 but at one stage, at one level, it has only four generators.

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So even taymiyah says this heading in the right is a very like reliable in terms of their religiosity and in terms of their memory. And then

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this heady the meaning of this Hadeeth has been supported immensely in the Quran. And in other sooner he says for this scholar, this hadith might reach the level of tomato is so powerful that there is no doubt about it. So the issue of tomato is more of a personal sensitivity of this color himself. The mastery of this color himself. Okay, so this is with regards to the full board is well authenticity. So we said the Quran is reported all by tomato, the sooner a small number is reported by tomato, the majority of his of it is reported by a hat we said I had means it's less than tomato

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I had and this is something external, extra you don't have to write it down. Generally the scholars of Hadith have divided the like the ahaadeeth under a hat this under categories, they say for example, there is a hadith

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al Mustafa

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had he does so widespread and like has become very well known.

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Very well not an example of this Hadeeth by the way, is

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the hadith of intimate Mr. Lubin Nia, although it was reported by Bob at one stage only one, but it became so like widespread afterwards, the Hadith rises to that level, that level, but generally muster it's it's the highest level of a hat it has more number of directors at each stage. Then there is the sale Aziz Aziz, okay, as is basically less than wish to have. It has a lesser number of narrators, but still somehow in the middle. And there is sometimes what they call single Hadith single, Hadith, Hadith or fraud, or that that has only one Narrator And they also include the hadith of Omar Abdullah which has never been yet because they say no one narrated it from the prophets of

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Salaam, but Mr. Bob will be alone. By the way, this is something extra.

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So this is the Quran and the Sunnah when it comes

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To a full boat, full boat authenticity, authenticity and thoughts after boat.

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Now, it's not enough for us to know that this hadith is authentic.

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Or I know this verse, that's not the end of the story. That's the first stage of the story, the first stage, because there is something called a data which is the second second concept. Okay, the meaning

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of an indication, the indication of the text indication of the text.

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So there are texts, that we call them in a solid pneus.

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This text is the meaning is apparent and clear. And there is no difference about it. Like for example, in the last month, Allah says, what a masala is there any, like different meanings to establish the prayer?

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Is there any other meanings? It's so obvious, so clear, so straightforward. This is what we call loss and loss, and loss. It's a hadith or a verse from the Quran, whose meaning is so clear. So it's very indicative. It's very precise.

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And it doesn't take like different meanings. It doesn't allow this text doesn't allow different debate debating meanings or conflicting meanings. It's one straight fixed meaning.

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For example, last month, Allah says femen shahida mean como Shara folia sama, so whoever witnesses the month of Ramadan

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let him foster it.

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Is there any question about the indication of this is so clear, this is not this is not a last one. Allah says What about buka Allah taboo in what Bill was a nurse and alum made a judgment and made it incumbent

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stipulation upon you to worship Him alone? What bill while he the son and to be good to your parents to the parents, is there any question about this? Is there any like conflicting meaning here and a shadow of meaning it's so obvious This is nice. So this is what we call in in in the science of soulful also they call it a you Delilah? The indication is clear cuts.

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The indication is clear. Cut there is no question there's no doubt about it. Cut you Delilah dealer, copy your dealer

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and there is a text

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that allows more than one meaning

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and these two meanings could be in conflict

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could be in conflict can be inconsistent meanings as well.

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For example last month Allah says when layli either

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will either

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ah or lady the SS well lady either as what's the meaning of ISIS in Arabic as well lady that is not a common word. Yeah. But if you go to the dictionary you will find the meaning there as as the Arabic language

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it actually has two meanings. It's a verb and it means as as could mean come.

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And it could mean go well lady that has a lot of antennas making is wearing by the night and he's saying is making off by the night. And he's saying well lately and then and the night when it came or when it left when it arrived or when it left. So reverse hold holds both meanings. This is what they call an Arabic Moshtarak, this word in Arabic. There are words in Arabic that have double meaning. So could it be this or that is they call them Moshtarak.

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Moshtarak associated has associated meaning. How do we know we know usually by the context, so could be the linguistic context could be social context. It could be the personal context.

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So we'll leave it as you will find some of the scores of FCA say, and the night when it came, when it comes, you'll find other scholars say no, it means when the night and the night when it goes, who's correct?

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Who's correct?

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Who's wrong?

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None of them is wrong. Because the word in Arabic indicates both indicates either this or that.

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So this is what we call one knee, you Bella.

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one knee you dilara that the invocation is not so obvious is not clear cut.

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A clearer example is on a las panatela says, Well moto la cartuja de la busca, bm fusina thalassa taco and the divorced women. they await in their head the meaning in their head the selasa three Kuru. Kuru is plural of

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a word in Arabic called por

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la Hamza.

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Okay, so let's Medina says the divorced woman remains in her in the waiting her at that 3434. What score in Arabic?

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One meaning is it's a menstrual cycle. The other meaning

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is the opposite is when the woman is clear and clean. She's not in her period.

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The same word has two opposite meanings.

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That's what or is in the Arabic language, the usage the way the Arabs used the word or they could say, Oh, this woman is inhaled or

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this statement could mean she's Korean, or it could mean she's in her menstrual period.

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It has double meaning, but the meanings are opposite.

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And this example is always used in the books have a solid circle.

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So this is called one knee your data? How can you confirm that auto here means menstrual period? Or means a time of the when the woman is not in her period?

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How can you confirm?

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Whatever the context doesn't tell you like this verse doesn't tell you, it just says women or divorce, they stay in there for three or four.

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Like, linguistically speaking, you cannot favor one meaning over the other.

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contextually, you can't favor one meaning over the other, both of them get 5050 chance.

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So that's what we call the knee URL of a knee, we are not so sure about the indication. That's what it means. So it's not clear cut.

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It's not clear cut.

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It's not clear cut.

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And it's very important to understand, it's very important to understand

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because all of this will explain and show us why the scholars differ about certain things.

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So now with regards to a dealer or a dealer, both of them are correct.

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We have a huge dilemma, which is clear cut indication text, we call it nos in solfa. It has a clear cut indication There is no doubt about could like establish the prayer could also mean don't pray.

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No, no way. It's so clear cut that you have no doubt about the indications so obvious. So clear cut. That's a huge dilemma. The second type is a one knee you dilemma when the indication is not so clear. It could be this or it could be that could be this could be that could be this meaning of because the word has double meaning. So it can be that means this meaning or that meaning is we call one new Delilah. Now let's come to the new source. So the text of the Quran and the Sunnah. A lot of them are a lot, a lot of them are called a dilemma.

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And a lot of them have a new dilemma.

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So you'll find both in abundance when it comes to Africa

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the vast majority of the heads up a huge dilemma

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issues of our data, the texts that talk about our data, it's not a good deal. It's obvious has one meaning it doesn't have any double meaning it's so obvious.

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So that's why Allison have agreed on almost every issue laughter

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there are a couple of issues, but they're they're marginal and they're not big.

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The issues of

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when it comes to now I'm talking about the technical meaning of Okay, technical meaning Academy, Emelia, the detailed applications in this technical sense. The the texts of the Quran and the Sunnah are there are three that Allah open the door Allah which are more

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okay here we need to do what we say in our big touchscreen we need to visit one black answer answered is not is not

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we say for the general principles, the general principle principles of how faith works, like for example, saying the general principles, you will find them solid, and you will find them in power and you will find them in the principles of the science of soul effect. And you will find them in the four key Maxim's or principles, the principles, for example, one of them about all of us add

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any harm should be removed.

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Is this called a drama overlay? This is a it's clear cut, because you will find it everywhere. Even though it's not, maybe it's not always stated. But in almost everything in the Sharia, you will find this indication is there.

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So when it comes to the general principles that govern the general guidelines, you will find them up a Delilah, you will find the text talking about them so clear. And the number of texts that indicate them sometimes indirectly, are so powerful, that they are overwhelming, overwhelmingly clear cut. But when it comes to the single issues, single issues, single issues, is this Hello, how long is this Hello, how long, for the most part of the fifth, you will find most of it will be about new dinner.

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Most of it will be on a dinner so it's not so clear cut. And this explains the differences. In fact, among the companions of the Prophet SAW, so now, the differences of the fact among the scholars afterwards without behind, and even the ones after them like before Imams, and so on until our day,

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until our day. Why because the texts allow for more than one meaning they do allow, specifically, if you bring 234 or five texts that pertain to this issue, bring them together, you will find that while there's a like there's a number there is a there's room for this kind of difference. And that's what this call is call al-hurra for most is

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the difference or disagreement that is allowable.

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And if that makes sense, there is reason for it. There is a reason for it.

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Okay, so now we are done with this concept, or these two concepts about the Quran and the Sunnah that we have to understand. So about forbort a thought, which is authenticity. And we said

00:32:24 --> 00:32:43

the Quran is all authentic. And it's all been reported by tomato, the sooner for the most part of it, we know the authenticity of it. And smallest part of it was reported by tomato. And the biggest part of it was reported by had. That doesn't mean I had not authentic by the way.

00:32:44 --> 00:32:45

I had our authentic,

00:32:47 --> 00:32:52

our authentic. So I just is talking about the number of narrators. That's what it's talking about.

00:32:54 --> 00:33:11

And the second principle or the second concept that we started is and dilemma or a dilemma, indication or the meaning. Is it clear cut or break a dilemma, or is it one need you Delilah? Is it not so clear cut? Have an indication.

00:33:13 --> 00:33:34

Now let's just have a reflection on what the prophet SAW sanlam Look, have you ever like heard or seen a hadith or verse that tells for example, about Salah about the prayer. The Pillars of the Salah are 123 the obligations of Salah are 123 this sunan on Salah a 123 Have you ever seen something like this in the Koran or the sooner

00:33:35 --> 00:33:47

and are Can I watch the bat? As soon as Have you seen this kind of indication and academic approach? No. How did the companions learn from the prophet SAW Selim? How did they learn how he prayed?

00:33:49 --> 00:33:53

They watched him they saw him pray that's it. This time pray.

00:33:54 --> 00:34:32

As simple as that. How did they learn to make although it's so clear in the Quran Surah Nisa sourceamerica. The generally speaking, wash your faces, wash your hands to the elbows, wipe away, wipe your hands and wash your feet. That's what the Quran says. The prophet SAW Selim exercise this in front of them, they saw that and they learned it, the person didn't say, Oh, this is a recon, this is a pillar. This is wajib. One of the obligations of although this is one of the sunan it's like, okay, it's a good thing to do, and we'll do okay, but even if you miss it, it's not a big deal.

00:34:35 --> 00:34:41

And this is why the companions vent the best. And for generally speaking for the general masses of the Muslims, that's the best way to teach them.

00:34:44 --> 00:34:59

Now, the scholars developed later on this classification of obligations, pillars, recommendations, etc. to develop this for academic reasons for people who want to study Islam to become scholars to become students of knowledge. So they have it all codified.

00:35:00 --> 00:35:08

In their heads and in their books, so they know how to classify it, how to organize it, how to refer back to it, how to archive it and so on and so forth.

00:35:10 --> 00:35:36

But the knowledge of Islam is practical the knowledge of Islam is organic is something that you learn by practice by mixing, how are the companions learnt? How did they learn that if this How did the companions later on conclude that this thing is a pillar, because like someone missed it, one of the companions missed it, he can't come to the prophet and he said, I missed that. The prophets or some would say to him repeat that, like, so the realize if this is missing,

00:35:37 --> 00:35:58

okay, that's a pillar that means if it's if it's missing, then the rock is invalid, you have to repeat it. Someone comes to the person and says, I missed I missed out this one on my prayer. So the purpose of that says, makes you dude sell, or the professor himself missed it. Like the middle to shout, it also missed it. So he made so do the cell

00:36:00 --> 00:36:11

at the end of the Salah, so the companions realized, okay, this is our sort of scholars later on realize this is there another pillar because even though it was missed, it could be compensated with Toluca. So let's say it's a worship.

00:36:12 --> 00:36:25

It's one of the obligations of the Sala even if you miss it out by mistake, it doesn't nullify nullify you rock out your Salah, you can still make it up with to sell to do live sell. There are things that are seldom sometimes did, sometimes he didn't do.

00:36:26 --> 00:36:35

Or when someone missed them, it was not a big deal. So the realize these are soon and these are recommendations, and that's how they learned. And this is the power of this kind of teaching.

00:36:36 --> 00:37:17

This is the power of that kind of teaching. Because the academic way doesn't stick doesn't First of all, doesn't like resonate with everyone. Second, it's easy to forget, you know, when you practice something you don't forget it. Like, I think some like someone, someone like people in their 30s now 40s, even 50s, they probably they haven't been on a bicycle for 2030 years, give them back on a bicycle, they will ride it, no problem. Why? Because this practical knowledge is stored in your body in your brain, you don't lose it, you don't miss it, it's so profound. But if you learn about something, and you know, leave it for five years, you need to learn it all over again.

00:37:20 --> 00:37:47

So in the in the competitors learn from the profits of send him day in and day out on a practical level, and it was their daily life, this knowledge stuck with them. This knowledge stuck with them. And this makes it easier as well for people to learn, which is easier for someone to learn from the book, or for him to see you a couple of times making model, which is easier, which is more memorable for them to see you make a model. And this is how kids learn

00:37:48 --> 00:38:03

the same thing, how do kids learn language by hearing repeating words listening to changes in a Connect sign language to spoken words, and so on and so forth. And then they build the vocabulary, they build the language, it's stored in this in this system.

00:38:06 --> 00:38:34

So that's the easiest way probably to learn a language. And even those like those who learn a language, from the books and from the tapes, and from the classrooms still, like if you put them in the street there, they really have difficulty communicating. Because they will sound they'll come across very awkward, they'll use awkward language in probably not the right words. And so and so, but leave them in the streets for a few months, they'll the language will start adapting and they will pick up the proper kind of use of the words.

00:38:36 --> 00:38:50

Since that kind of is what Islam, as we said was said to be lived. And this is how it's best learned is how it's best learned. So this should be a point with people who teach the general Muslims.

00:38:51 --> 00:39:24

Sometimes people think knowledge is that it has to it has to be classified. It has to be this it has to be that, you know, when did the prophets of Salaam give his like companions something like an academic presentation, you don't see this. And I see this. And that's the most profound title. But as we said for someone to become a scholar, someone to become a student of knowledge, they will need this kind of codification to build on it so that they can understand the terminology they have access to the books and so on and so forth. So it has its own merits on the academic side, not on the practical side.

00:39:29 --> 00:39:59

Okay, now we will be talking about the the era of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, we saw that when the prophet SAW Selim passed away, now the companions had the book, and the sooner they had the book, and the sooner the book, as we said was written, was already there. more of them memorized it, and it was recited widely. And then the sum of his khilafah was two years during that time it was collected in one compilation

00:40:01 --> 00:40:01


00:40:03 --> 00:40:08

so they had the book, The show now was mainly memorized some of it was written as well, like I'm

00:40:09 --> 00:40:26

loving us, wrote a lot. He had his own his own collection. Some of the other competitors had their own collection of love not a bass used to write a lot. He had a huge, he had a huge library, huge library collection of ahaadeeth that he would record everything and write it down.

00:40:29 --> 00:41:00

So the the, the companions, some of them memorize certain Hadith some of them memorize certain Hadith here and there. And this knowledge was shared is what will allow and how did he like if he faced something new? And during the time of a MOBA, there was something new, like the Morton Dean, people that was stated at such a big scale. That was never the time of the prophets of Salaam, what should we do with them? What How should we deal with them? People also stated What about people who remain Muslims but they refuse to pay soccer? Right there were tribes who refused to pay zakat.

00:41:01 --> 00:41:41

So, our worker thought he made his honesty had he looked into into it, and he made that as he made an analogy. So, he made it as from the people who live Salah that they should be fought, they should be by the by by his government. So he said people who leaves a cow will have the same thing should be treated the same. I want to hop up said how do you find these people say that in Allah he said well law he there are quite a lot of them and when I saw that he was I shall fight against the people who want to differentiate between salons because you will find okay masala to Sokka. So he made up the as an analogy.

00:41:42 --> 00:41:49

So he decided to fight against them. Then the companions all agreed upon this. There was a state of which map there was the state of which man

00:41:50 --> 00:42:06

so this was a new situation, the province of Islam there was no such apostasy or refusal to pay the soccer as such a big scale something else as well appeared during the time they allow and and it was the false prophets. False Prophets Can you name some

00:42:08 --> 00:42:29

we'll say Lima al Qaeda, okay, the proper pronunciation is musei Lima is commonly said Masai llama it's been like mentioned this kind of principle. It's mostly Lima will say Lima masala form and the Masai Mara claimed to be a prophet. Who else

00:42:31 --> 00:42:41

is what the NC LS what an NC from an asset as well as what an NC also in Yemen that's what an NC he also

00:42:42 --> 00:42:49

claimed to be a prophet. And as well answer and that's what was possessed by Jin. Okay, who else

00:42:54 --> 00:43:11

to lay * as the Yes, but he raised around repented. Yes to the * st repented, he claims to be profit then he repented and Hamlet became a good companion. So this is why the scholars of Hadith they like they had an issue whether they should consider him to be one of the companions or not.

00:43:12 --> 00:43:13


00:43:15 --> 00:43:16

Who else?

00:43:19 --> 00:43:22

We had a woman claiming to be prophet and her name was

00:43:27 --> 00:43:27


00:43:29 --> 00:43:39

Sasha. Sasha, okay, she was a woman, she claimed to be a prophet, and she ended up marrying Muslim. She ended up marrying him.

00:43:40 --> 00:43:45

Okay. Now the probably the biggest issue that the companions faced was

00:43:50 --> 00:43:56

the death of the Prophet sallallahu sallam. The passing of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam was such a huge issue for them.

00:43:57 --> 00:44:21

And the one that was most knowledgeable among them was the one who really managed to deal with it and that was Abu Bakar Fabiola. Juana Abubakar of the Allahu anhu. And that shows you abubaker had the deepest the proper kind of understanding that the messengers also them during the later part of his life, in one hot way, he said in Abidjan, who era Bain and Bain as a hottie dounia within a coffee dunya.

00:44:23 --> 00:45:00

And in onion tefera Eliza a lot that he says one servant was given the choice whether to stay in this dunya and enjoy it, or just to depart and leave to our last one Thailand he chose to leave and be with a lot on wattpad. So none of the companions figured out what the person was insinuating. But Abu Bakar was sitting there and he said, Yasuo Lalanne of deca be about in our, in our one fusina almost in Jove a lot. We would sacrifice ourselves or parents even for you. And he cried. He understood the problem was referring

00:45:00 --> 00:45:08

to something, and the companion is worse, like, what does a worker say this? You know, what's the point? What's the connection?

00:45:10 --> 00:45:32

So he knew the processor lamb was actually telling them that he was about to leave. And this is why he probably was the one. The first one when the President passed away a lot of the companions, like, didn't know how to handle this. They were in a state of shock and disbelief, even among the low No. But when Abu Bakr will be alone, who came he recited the Quran, he said,

00:45:34 --> 00:45:36

woman, Ramadan Illallah, soon called Khalid,

00:45:37 --> 00:45:52

Mohammed is only a messenger, before whom messengers came as a matter of putting on collective for the con, is it if he's killed, or if he dies, that you turn back on your heels? So among copses, it was like as if it's the first I hear this verse.

00:45:53 --> 00:46:12

Because that's of the profound understanding, that profound understanding was reflected on the attitude of overkill. They allow and so they had issues. What to do with the Prophet silence, should we bortion should we should we just bury him, but he's a prophet. They don't know how to deal with that. But they agreed Finally, they agreed on washing him

00:46:17 --> 00:46:25

without taking his clothes, the issue of burying him where to bury the profits Arsenal, where to bury him.

00:46:26 --> 00:46:43

So they had different opinions about burying him, but they ended up burying him, because one one of them brought the Hadith of the president that they should be buried, where they passed away, is where the Prophet should be buried. So the person was buried in the house, or in the chamber of, of Isaiah, or the Allahu Ana.

00:46:45 --> 00:46:46

Okay, so

00:46:48 --> 00:47:19

the companions, what was there for, generally speaking, it was depending on the Koran, and depending on the authentic Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So this is why abubaker will they allow and if he had an issue he had to deal with, he would gather the companions, the main ones, the most knowledgeable among the companions. Now, in his book, animal Walker in Iran, talks about the levels of scholars at every stage of Muslim history. And the some of the companions, the

00:47:20 --> 00:47:53

Middle Kingdom says, among the companions, there were a group that was the most knowledgeable, there were around 130 130. These were the most knowledgeable among the, he calls them the scholars among the companions. Scores among the capacity mentioned is this, in his book, lm will walk around 130. Or just above that, he says, These people were the most knowledgeable among the companions of the Prophet SAW among them is Abu Bakr and Omar before the 10, were promised paradise, and others.

00:47:54 --> 00:47:57

So Baba would, would gather these

00:47:58 --> 00:48:14

big number of these companions, he would consult with them. And then they would arrive at an opinion, they would arrive, and they would ask, Is there a verse? Anyone heard about a verse that is relevant to this issue? Do you see the connection between this situation and a specific verse? Or

00:48:16 --> 00:48:21

who knows a hadith about this? Has anyone heard from the prophets of Salaam about this?

00:48:22 --> 00:48:34

Does anyone see the connection between this anyone has an aeration about this and so on, and so forth. And then, after that, they there was nothing like it was a new situation, no clear connection between

00:48:35 --> 00:49:02

a verse from the Quran or Hadith and this situation, they would resort to ht hat as they did with obviously, fighting the apostates and the ones who refuse to pay Zika and with the issue of the Quran, compiling the Quran in one collection, right, compiling the Quran one collection, like when I'm on a hot tub, said this to Abubakar blah, blah, blah, and he, like took a step back.

00:49:03 --> 00:49:07

He said, But how can I do something that I didn't do? Then

00:49:09 --> 00:49:24

I will pray this to Carla. And then he consulted. Then they brought the Sabbath. And they told him like we have thought about compiling the Koran in one collection and saving without said, kay fortify Luna, Amman, let me tell us why sauce.

00:49:25 --> 00:49:27

How do you do something the President didn't do.

00:49:29 --> 00:49:30


00:49:31 --> 00:49:33

Abu Bakr Al de la Amaro de la vida,

00:49:34 --> 00:49:52

explained to him and they said, Listen, the companies are being murdered are being martyred and the battlefield will losing them. And slowly, slowly, we're losing the number of companions of memorize the Quran, who kept it in their, in their memory and in their books. So we need to document it so it doesn't get lost.

00:49:56 --> 00:50:00

So, ultimately, this was an edge map from all the competitors

00:50:00 --> 00:50:22

And they decided to do this, they decided to do this. This is generally speaking how the companions of the prophets of Salaam, this is the kind of trip that they had individually. Like when one of them faced a personal situation, they would see if there's anything on the on the sooner, if there's anything

00:50:23 --> 00:50:51

they don't see a connection didn't find anything they would use that he had, he had is based on the plan and the sooner. So usually they would use for example, as an allergy, seeing something that resembles what we find in the Quran, the sooner so they would take the same ruling or seeing a principle that governs this kind of effect. So they would apply it where it belongs as well. So this was generally speaking, there are issues.

00:50:53 --> 00:50:59

And this, by the way, explains what we call or what the competitors use to call out rightly or wrongly means opinion,

00:51:00 --> 00:51:03

the use of reason, the use of reason.

00:51:04 --> 00:51:26

And you will find statements from the Prophet saws, alum, and even statements later on from the competitors on the scholars that put down the concept of opinion of why the more I put it down, that's not a good thing. We will also find text from the prophets of Salaam and the companions, and later on scholars that actually praise opinion. So how do we deal with these?

00:51:36 --> 00:51:41

Exactly if we have a text, that is enough, that is clear cut of the data.

00:51:42 --> 00:51:44

There is no room for opinion.

00:51:45 --> 00:52:21

There's no room for opinion, but the text has to be clear cut, because sometimes you might think it's clear cut but it's not. So who decides people don't understand the Arabic language. People understand the Quran and the Sunnah, and have very profound understanding of them. They can tell you or this has only one meaning because sometimes you only see one meaning but but that because you don't understand it very well. That's because you're not up to a level we could really understand the other meanings of the text. Okay, excellent. So it is blameworthy when it contradicts a text or when there is a clear

00:52:23 --> 00:52:33

indication from a text and then we bring another opinion there's no room for opinion here. Okay. When is opinion on right? When is it? What is it good? When is it bad?

00:52:36 --> 00:52:37

When do you think it's good?

00:52:48 --> 00:53:01

Okay, when someone resorts to he had an analogy when there is all reasoning when there is no text, he doesn't know what text and then they found find a text that actually confirms this. Do you know an incident about this?

00:53:06 --> 00:53:14

Okay, it happens. It happens. So Paula, and I happen to have lobbing missiles, there'll be a lot more I know he had an opinion

00:53:16 --> 00:53:18

about the woman.

00:53:21 --> 00:53:24

But when the decaf is made a say a woman, a man

00:53:25 --> 00:53:29

performs the Nika they write the marriage contract.

00:53:30 --> 00:53:40

Okay, but they do not consummate the marriage yet. They have not consummated the marriage so agreed to have nicaea and they give the word and that's the vinegar has done. But

00:53:41 --> 00:53:54

her Maha has set up his hair, don't worry has not been named. They agree they will be Muhammad, but they don't know how much it says 1000 or 10,000 or 15,000 and has not been defined.

00:53:57 --> 00:54:01

So some of the scholars or some of the companions, they said

00:54:03 --> 00:54:14

at that stage husband dies before consummating the marriage, and the Dory has not been named. She gets nothing. After loving mustard road, said no.

00:54:15 --> 00:54:21

She gets paid half of the dollar, she gets paid half of the Dory

00:54:23 --> 00:54:36

all the normal Mahal, the average Mahal at her you know in her in her country, for example. Modern method here, the average mar odori of she gets paid half of this.

00:54:37 --> 00:54:59

And then I shuffle the low on her nose about an incident from the province of Southern he actually made this so when alumnus would heard this Heidi from Asia, he made some good sugar. So Judo gratitude to Allah subhanaw taala because he had was in accordance with the text, but he had not previously he didn't know about talking about the companions of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, so they were facing new issues.

00:55:01 --> 00:55:19

We're facing new circumstances. So they needed to find out the ruling of a Lost Planet Allah about these issues. So they needed to depend on the Quran and the Sunnah and the deep understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, in order to perform he had an arrive at the right or correct opinion

00:55:22 --> 00:55:30

when there is something about and I find the need to clarify this the understanding of the companions is the best

00:55:31 --> 00:55:32


00:55:33 --> 00:56:11

understanding of the companions is the best ever there is no understanding that could compete with it at all. No understanding of the deen could compete with the unknown of any people compete with the understanding of the companions because they learned directly from the prophet SAW them and they learned in a way that was as we said, dynamic and organic. And their daily interactions with the prophet SAW lots of them they would ask questions to the Salaam and Allah would answer in the Koran there are 13 places in the barn where last month Allah says always a lunatic and they ask you then Allah is the reply 13 times 13 times and these are from the companions these specific times there

00:56:11 --> 00:56:25

were from the companions of the Prophet SAW them this is why one of the companions says that never met us How was humble Mohammed Salah the best of companions are the companions of the Prophet SAW Selim. All this time they asked the professor 713 times only

00:56:26 --> 00:57:05

13 times only they would not they would wait for the professor to clarify to them and this is why you like some of the tablet in some people would ask them so many questions they would say you know this kind of questions you are not required to ask these questions. You're if something was clarified to you you take it if something was not mentioned to you, you don't ask about it. Unless that doesn't mean if you have a situation you don't ask what's the Islamic ruling but that means don't come up with strange questions thinking what if this happens what if that happens okay, so understanding of the companions only allow and when was the best because they lived with the prophet

00:57:05 --> 00:57:10

SAW them they saw when the revelation was revealed this is what I loved the most Oh who and who said

00:57:12 --> 00:57:29

lol fully Ariela for me for us had the Mohammed in healthcare home you know for the companions of Muhammad wa Salaam, their rights and their merit. For in the home can above our head he met Yoko Luba, they were the best in terms of hearts of this whole Alma

00:57:30 --> 00:58:03

Napa fan and the deepest in terms of in terms of understanding. Oman, Sahiba, Rasulullah sallallahu, and he was selling them. Why should he do my work? At Tenzin, there are people who lived with the prophets of Salaam and they saw witnessed firsthand, the revelations being descending on the prophet SAW some in which situation and in answer what questions. So they had a very profound understanding of the deen. She said, to be who whom, what attitude, so follow their guidance for their way is their understanding is profound.

00:58:04 --> 00:58:14

Although they did not use academic language, they did not use a little of classifications and words in here and there. But their knowledge and their understanding was the deepest.

00:58:15 --> 00:58:29

And Subhanallah There is something about the levels of knowledge, you know, when you start learning something, usually, at the beginning, your language, or the words you use to describe and talk about this knowledge will be very simple and simplistic.

00:58:31 --> 00:58:41

When you start studying something, when you form ideas about this thing and start talking about them, they're very simple, because they're very basic, you're just a beginner. When you get into the intermediate level,

00:58:42 --> 00:59:04

you've been like a few months, maybe a couple of years into something, you still have developed the language and you talk about things, your mind starts to create complex ideas, right, you become more mature. So when you talk about these ideas, they become very complex academic. So people find them complicated. People find that complicated, you will use lengthy technical language.

00:59:07 --> 00:59:49

But when you move on to the experts level, and that's a very high level. Language goes back to simplicity. But its profound simplicity. It is profound simplicity. This is why the Masters in every field, the words they say are very simple, straightforward, but is so profound at the same time. There's so much wisdom, so much depth, so much meaning in a very simple statement. This simplicity is not the same as the simplicity of the beginner. It's not the companions were just like this, the language was so simple, it was so profound, so deep, so consistent or systematic, because they had a very proper understanding.

00:59:51 --> 00:59:52

So the

00:59:54 --> 00:59:57

these are the companions of the Prophet saws for them and this is their understanding

00:59:58 --> 00:59:59

just to show some of the aspects

01:00:00 --> 01:00:07

The since the companions of the Prophet SAW Selim, some of them witnessed the messenger. So I'm saying something others did not.

01:00:09 --> 01:00:24

Like someone was with the process of sending them to one day, and there was an incident, the process of them talked about this incident and explained the ruling about it. Maybe Amato, and on that day was not with the messenger. So he did not hear this hadith. He didn't know this hadith.

01:00:27 --> 01:00:27


01:00:29 --> 01:00:49

I don't have I didn't have that knowledge. But by mixing with the person, he has profound knowledge, he has a lot of the knowledge of the prophet SAW center. So some companions heard certain added some other companions heard another, you know, Hadith and so on and so forth. So sometimes the companion would face a situation, and he would not have a hadith to answer it, after the prophet SAW.

01:00:51 --> 01:00:56

And he would ask, and he would not find the Hadith. So we would perform wished he had, he would perform wished he had

01:00:58 --> 01:01:04

another competitor would perform another wish he had, or maybe another competitor is following added that he knows about this issue. So this is why they differ.

01:01:05 --> 01:01:11

Another example as well would be the companions were still human beings. So they would.

01:01:14 --> 01:01:18

So they would interpret certain things the prophet SAW Selim did in different ways.

01:01:19 --> 01:01:45

Like there's a scholar, Indian scholar, very like this is a very exceptional scholar, one of the he passed away, he passed away about 300 250 years ago. When do you lie? Louis? What do you love that we very profound, profound, profound, profound, profound scholar? Really, this man was a genius. He wrote a book, this is actually a masterpiece.

01:01:52 --> 01:02:00

I believe so. Yes. He wrote a book and this book is a Marvel until today. And it's called how gentle law he'll barely ever

01:02:02 --> 01:02:12

forget a lot better two volumes profound. It's not easy even to understand this man has so much wisdom in his writings in his book, and he has another book as well.

01:02:13 --> 01:02:16

I believe I have access to it.

01:02:23 --> 01:02:26

Yes. Okay.

01:02:28 --> 01:02:32

He's got a book called insoft vs. babylist. Enough

01:02:33 --> 01:02:43

justice, doing justice to the reasons of disagreement among the scholars. And he talks first about the reasons why the companions of the Prophet SAW Selim differed among themselves.

01:02:44 --> 01:02:48

And it's actually profound. I found, I have the book here.

01:02:50 --> 01:02:58

I just want to see the summary of what he exactly said about the reasons for the differences of the companions of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam.

01:03:00 --> 01:03:03

Very quickly, so that we can close our session today.

01:03:07 --> 01:03:07


01:03:08 --> 01:03:19

The first reason why companion would differ from other companions, he says that one of them his a ruling or a judgment from the prophet SAW Selim or a fatwa, but the other did not hear it.

01:03:21 --> 01:03:23

So the second one would use his he had,

01:03:25 --> 01:03:43

would use his he had, and he would arrive at an opinion. So he says this could result in different cases. For example, the issue of the second one matches the Hadith, the same as the Hadith as I told you the story of a new master without the Alolan. But it could also mean that

01:03:46 --> 01:03:55

it contradicts a hadith. So he comes across the Hadith and the other companion explains to him the Hadith, so he gives up his he had and he takes the Hadith.

01:04:00 --> 01:04:14

But he could make an ht hadn't be other than the Hadith. Yet, the Hadith arrives to him. And for some reason, he's not convinced. He's not convinced about fubu. It's about the authenticity of the hoodie.

01:04:15 --> 01:04:21

Or he's not convinced about the indication of the hoodie, that it actually talks about this. You see why we started the

01:04:23 --> 01:04:30

thibaut. We're at diletta. authenticity and indication very important two aspects about the text to understand.

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So here's a beautiful example. It's basically

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among hot top.

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Basically, there was a case in his time when a woman is divorced three times my husband that's bad and being on a cobra. We're not going to come back to each other.

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So during her does she gets does she get finances, finances from her husband and accommodation.

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Does she get that on?

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Not so I'm going to cut up asked about this.

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He asked about this, this she gets so there was Hadith one Hadith from fathering I've been twice one of the women of the companions Fatima bento case. She came to Amman, she said she was divorced for three times by husband and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam did not. They did not

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make her husband provide her with finances or accommodation, there was no obligation upon him because now they will be separated, completely separated. So Omar will allow and who did not take the Hadith

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and he basically what did he say? He said, I will take the verse

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what is what will what will not fall apart the matter will not happen.

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And for the

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and for the ones that are divorced or right upon the ones who divorced them and they had a lot of rejection letter for June I mean boo to him in the follow up letter for June letter for June I mean boo to him, do not get them out of the house. In a world I fortunately Latina we finish at mobian Marina and let them not leave the house unless they fall in such a huge big mistake. So I don't have power they say said Lana trochu kita Ba La Hey, Becca, William LA, Atlanta de casa de cut and Canada. That's lan nakatsuka. He says, I can't leave the statements from the Quran verse from the Quran. For a woman he's talking about father, I've been twice there. I'm not sure whether she really

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her memory is sound or not? I don't know. So he did not trust her memory.

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is not his trust memory. So he passed the judgment. Okay, and he did not take the headache not questioning the headache authority of the headache, and not questioning the woman herself. He just questioned her memory of this headache of this specific caddy. So he did not take it from him. So he held on to the verse.

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Can someone say no, I'm not rejected daddy? No.

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Can someone say Omar, you know, rejects the testimony of one of the companions female companion? No, really. But he had within the situation, he has certain signs, certain clues that actually gave a very strong impression that she did not memorize the situation. Well, this is something that didn't like, complete the picture for him. So he said, I'm not gonna discount one of the verses of the Koran for a statement of a woman. I don't know, whether she memorized or not.

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Okay, I think we run out of time. But okay,

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I think is a good foundation now to talk about, in the times of the companions of the prophets of Salaam of the fourth Holika of Rashi, Dawn, which is the time of 11th year 11, after his law to the year 4040. After his law,

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we've laid a good foundation shadow next week, we will see we will talk about

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where the companions used he had and when they had differences, how they handled these differences, what are the reasons behind these differences? And then take lessons from that era from the look of that time for our own time for our own time. Okay, so I will conclude just to remind you again, of the paper that you're supposed to do. Today, brother gave me three proposed titles, I will look into them, and I hope that you

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was okay. Yeah.

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If you're around like in the next couple of days, inshallah we can talk about this. I'm going to look at them tonight. And make sure when you choose the topic that it's actually choose a specific topic. Don't say like, I want to talk about maybe the authenticity of the Quran. This is a PhD dissertation.

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No, talk about something specific, like one of the sisters wants to talk about this jihad. Talking about Jihad actually requires four PhDs. So talking about this jihad, pick one subject the same, okay, take his literature review, Historical Review, or wish to have throughout the ages. So that's you take it from sources, from references. And then you need to make a point of original point of research to a certain extent, which is basically Okay. Let's see how we can apply she had, for example, to issues of mortgage today. Or maybe, let's say, some of the pressing issues of our times, choose one subject, one topic, so that you can research it. idealistically, I can see what the

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scholars talk about, you're not going to research it as a scholar, but as a student of knowledge, who sees what the scholars say about this, where did they, for example, implement he had, she had of this college she had of that scholar was the difference between this and that, and so on and so forth. So basically, you're practicing something, we're talking

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About and you are discussing an issue that is of value and benefit to us at least Muslims living in the west of this station and time. Okay, so be specific, you can start very broad for your review, but ultimately you need to get a point or point which is very specific, very, very specific, you need to narrow your research down so you're talking about something Otherwise, it will be just copy paste, copy, paste, putting some stuff together and handing it out. And that's not research that's copy paste

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what you need to do and you know, mind your references as well, you need to create some kind of review but you need to produce some kind of show me an original piece, something you really put your mind into. It's not that you you know collected from some sources here and there something you really work worked on. So, you see like the opinions of certain scholars about this or we need to make this Jihad about this specific issue, what do we need to know about that? Who can we consult and all about this we need experts in the field and we need scholars in terms of knowledge and so on and so forth. Just Just an example.

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So find the topic that is most appealing to you, and let me know I can help you out inshallah choose from a few topics just

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so law was eliminated helmet while earlier

Exploring the Evolution of Fiqh. You will learn about the term fiqh, how it was used in the times of Prophet (SAW), times of Khulafa Rashidoon and how the four famous Madhahib evolved, reasons behind difference of opinion. How fiqh evolved to our time. And many other important and relevant topics related to our time.

Jan 2017

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