Moutasem al-Hameedy – The Evolution Of Fiqh – Part 3

Moutasem al-Hameedy
AI: Summary © The conversation discusses the importance of Islam, including its belief in the holy eye and the need for praying at night to receive the Lord. The history and context of the Bible are also discussed, including the use of " leg conversational" and "fitness" in language to address humanity, the use of "we" and "we are" in writing, and the history of the dry eye. The importance of the Prophet sallaviya and the need for acceptance of the presence of the God in culture is emphasized, along with the use of "will" in political context and avoiding offense. The segment also touches on hedging every year and finding all-inclusive rules in the Quran, while the end ends with a discussion of the time of the animal problem and the importance of finding all-inclusive rules in the Quran.
AI: Transcript ©
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Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim al hamdu Lillah wa salatu salam ala nabina Muhammad in a while and he was so happy that this is the third session in our class the story of or the history of

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legislation, Islamic legislation.

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Last time we spoke about,

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generally speaking about the difference between so we defined

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and the difference between Phil and Sheree at which area.

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And what we will start with is that if you have any questions about last times class, we would like to start with them. I received a couple of questions. One of them was about the logistics. So I hope they keep me out of the logistics of the class for the sisters who wish to, like have a vision of the shift. So the sisters can be on this side where they can shall have a good view because some sisters like to be

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like, they don't like they like to be hidden, so they don't want anyone to see them. So we try to accommodate both of these with regards to the partition or the setup of the class, I left that for the brothers in the media. So they did that and I prefer not to interfere with that so shallow, whatever it is, try to work around with it, if you can.

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Okay, the difference between let me

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let me ask you, what's the difference between Sharia the word sherea

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sherea and the word filk as the word filter developed later on?

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Yes. So who can tell me some of the differences between Sharia and filk? As the word for have developed later on? In the Islamic history? Yes. The

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Sharia is divine. It's from Allah subhana wa Tada.

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unchangeable, okay.

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It's more or less like a constitution. Okay.

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Okay, so it's more of a deeper understanding or the proper deep understanding and interpretation or human interpretation, right.

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It's applied to specific Well, the word specific might be a bit tricky here. Okay. That means it's only to a specific.

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It applies to all the practical, you know, things when we need a ruling from Sharia, or ruling from Sharia. Okay, by the way, the difference is not so clear cut. It's not so clear cut because the word Sharia means legislation and because Sharia is from Allah because Allah Subhan Allah says in the Quran, from Nigel NACA, Allah Sheree, I mean, m refectory. Then we made you upon a Sharia away which is means a straight path, or a way to follow. So follow it also sing to the condom and everyone who follows the process to follow this Sharia. This shows that Sharia is from Allah, Sharia is from Allah. And it is what you find in the Quran and the Sunnah, in general terms, for example, in the La

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Jolla model Bill adley. Well, son, Allah commands with what is just and what is inherently good, or what is best adolescent what eater either kotoba and connecting your kinship, connecting to your relatives. When and in fact, share it we'll move on the law prohibits and warns against fascia, lewdness, anything evil acts, with a monk or anything that's despicable in terms of actions.

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This is Sharia. This is the sharing of Islam. Now for us, let's say working in a mixed environment, Is it amonkar or not?

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It depends. It depends, like generally speaking at the time of the prophets of Allah are seldom men and women used to pray in the masjid. Was there a part? Like a woman's masala men's masala? There wasn't? Was there a specific like mustard for women specific mustard for men? No. Men and women would pray in the same area, the President did not even put any partition. So is that considered to be some sort of mixing to a certain extent? Yes. Okay. So in certain environments and certain conditions to specify this specific for example, situation, does it fall under munkar or no? That's the approach that's what is that's what it is. So the specifics of a situation need. They need

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understanding they need reasoning they need this they had an order to see how the Sharia fall. How does it

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Implement or how is it implemented here? under which principle should we put this specific situation? This is exactly what is. So first is sort of the human effort, the human effort to arrive at the Sharia of Allah, or to take a ruling from the Sharia of a lot about this specific issue. Generally speaking out of this how to develop, developed or evolved to me,

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okay, does that make sense? So it's the human fit is more of the human reasoning, the human effort to see or find out? What does she suggest with this Sherry? I say what do the principles of Sharia really seemed to tell us about this specific situation? So we could get it right, we could get it wrong. That's the HD head. And this is exactly why the Prophet sallallahu Sallam said in the famous Hadith as reported by Korea and Muslim in a straddle hair chemo.

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If one tries to arrive at a ruling or a judgment in a certain situation, if he makes, he had

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his tethered hacking or for asabe fella who agilon and he hits the truth, now, that means hits Sharia. If he arrives at a ruling that is congruent with Sharia, that's the true ruling from Allah there, he hit, he managed to arrive there to get there. So he will get to rewards for the he had and for hitting like the truth. But if he were in Buffalo,

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but if he gets it wrong, then he's getting he still gets one reward, which is the reward of attempting and trying, which is the HD head trying to find out, but he misses the reward of arriving and the true sherea ruling. So how does this help us by the way, today? It shows you that people say, okay, we don't want Sharia to be implemented to this country. They don't know what they're talking about, right? Because Sharia is basically even like, a lot of most of what you have in Sharia, you will find, for example, let's take an example the American Constitution, a lot of what the American Constitution has, does is actually in line with what we have in Sharia, right? It calls

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for justice for equality, right? It calls for respect equals for equal opportunity isn't that these original Islamic principles like the American

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fathers would call them. So the aim for that day, the forefathers or the founding fathers, right, they did not make these inner principles up, they've always been there from a divine origin, from a divine origin, a lot of the Justice a lot of the ethical principles that you have, in different cultures around the world in different religions, even though there's some distortion that has been in our practice and introduced to these religions. All of these ethical principles come from a divine origin. They come from divine origin and they are perfectly in line with the law with the law, this is why they did not die. They did not die even though like there are certain parts of the

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world where Islam did not reach yet still, if you check with their some of their philosophies, some of their some of their principles, you fund them ethical principles. Sometimes you even sometimes might feel there's a divine origin to these like humans could have arrived at these just by reasoning. Because that shows that a Lost Planet Allah says what aminomethyl illa Allah Fianna there, and there is no nation except that Allah sent a messenger a messenger, at least a messenger to them.

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So every nation on Earth received a messenger from Allah. So there was a message sent down. So a lot of these old philosophies, a lot of the goodness in them is not in contradiction with Islam.

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And we Muslims need to develop an a more of a differentiated approach to these things. Some Muslims are victims of this dichotomous mentality black and white.

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What these kofod have is all filth and haram and evil.

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It's only what Islam is. But if you look at a lot of the like rulings, these the constitutions, maybe the basic legal system, justice, equality, respect, equal opportunities,

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social justice, a lot of these principles

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on these Islamic and these Islamic these are Islamic. So why do you put them at the other side of Islam? Why do you put them on the other side? These are already there and look at the Prophet Solomon widow because this is something we're going to see inshallah, as we talk about the first stage in Islamic legislation, which is the period the

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bill Phillips calls it a found foundation or the founding period. Basically, it takes this beautiful classification from Mohammed wholebody, who's an Egyptian passed away long luck. I think 1450 years ago, he passed away.

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He wrote one of the best books about Teddy hunter shear, the history of legislation.

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So he calls it

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Mahabharata testes in Arabic, which is the foundation, the foundation period, which is the time of the Prophet sallallahu sallam, he says, and other writers as well like Manal upon in his book that we recommended as well in Arabic.

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They say that the Prophet sallallahu Sallam and you'll find this a lot in the books have sold a specifically lm and walked in by email. He says that the profits are solid, not wipe out everything that was injured earlier.

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He did not negate it, he did not fight it. There were things that were good that Islam came and approved of approved of these things. So stamp doesn't come and annihilate a whole system and try to replace it. That's not the way we stamp at all. Because any nation on Earth, you will find a great deal of what they what they have are beautiful principles that come from divine origin. Islam came to maintain these doesn't fight against them.

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And the problem is that Muslims sometimes through some extreme rhetoric, some individuals within the Muslim community, they do communicate the message that Islam came to eradicate everything that you guys have. On the contrary, on the contrary, Islam, whenever it says it sees something good, it approves of it, it supports it, because this kind of is what they call you know, in the

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in political language, and also in, in the study of history. There are two types of nations or governments how they come to existence. Some of them eradicate and deconstructs everything that came before them, they deconstruct, they remove, wipe out everything that came before them. And then they build everything from scratch.

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And this pattern is usually unsuccessful.

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But there are other nations and Islam was one of them. That doesn't deconstruct what was there before it. But it embraces the truth, the good things about what was there before builds on it, and uses it to change what's evil and established what's good.

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That's why the prophet SAW Selim says in the famous Hadith that we all know in, boy if you tell me Mama Karima, I was indeed sense to complete and perfect. The best of manners and character.

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To complete and perfect is complete and perfect. You see, complete and perfect. He didn't say to establish altogether because these were the previous messengers, prophets, they already established these. And the remnants of these are still there in nations. So why should you wipe out everything that's already been established?

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So Islam, in that sense, is practical, is practical. So it's important to see. So when we talk about Sharia law, Sharia is not there.

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Okay, too, because Sherry is not something that we humans can definitely say you go to a chef and you asked him about a ruling. So he makes it hard and he gives you a fatwa is this Sharia?

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It's not Sharia. It is a human effort. So what do we call it, we call it. This is an instance of

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this is an instance of it's a human effort to see how the divine Sherry of a lot could be translated into our present reality in this specific situation.

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Okay, and talk a bit more about the difference between Shantha so we established the differences not such a, like clear cut difference. It's not.

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The fifth is the human attempt to arrive at the rulings of Sharia. Because as Amanda Shelby says, in his book and waffle cart, he says, in the law, he has his own agenda. z Latin hochma, Allah subhanaw taala has an everything that happens in this world, every issue, Allah has a ruling about it

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was a ruling about it. That's what Sharia is. Now, when we studied the Quran and the Sunnah, and we study, and also we can develop the tools and understand our present reality, the context within which we operate, and try to implement these tools and these rulings and these principles and the Sharia to arrive at what the ruling that our last potato has about this. This is a human effort. And that's what we call

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that's what we call

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Okay, let's take another difference between fifth and sherea was another difference to share with us.

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Difference between fifth and sherea.

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Excellent. Sherry is timeless. It's not bound to time. This is why this is part of the

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miraculous nature of the Quran and the Sunnah. This is why the Koran is always relevant to any time because it establishes these principles establishes these principles, even the rulings that are on mentioned specifically, are applicable to every time. So usually the Koran would deal with generalities as the scholars say, bureau mats will also.

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But the Quran mentioned certain things like the rulings of inheritance, they are specifically mentioned. Why? Because they are relevant regardless of time, regardless of culture, regardless of circumstances they apply.

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So the specific rulings that are mentioned in the Quran specifically, is actually there to be implemented at all times.

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Okay, another difference between Sharia even you can use it. I mean, if you understood the point, the difference, you can come up with some differences, by the way, these differences are not all inclusive,

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is not all inclusive, they're just trying to explain may you might come up with a difference that's actually substantial and important.

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is not binding. And we said this statement needs to be like explained still because sometimes might people might misunderstand what it means for because not binding in the sense of Sharia is binding, no one you know, you have to apply or we have to

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comply by what Allah subhanaw taala legislated. Right.

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the ruling that is given by a specific scholar, based on his own, he had in a specific situation, okay, might not be binding to everyone.

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Let's say two scholars have differed. Two scholars have differed about let's say Muslims taking part of this to try to be a bit relevant. Muslims taking part in elections in non Muslim countries,

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Muslim supporting certain candidates, scholars have differed, Is that helpful? Or is it How long? Even some scholars said it's actually wajib?

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So this one who said it's Helen,

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is he following the HTML of someone who said that's how long? No, this has an opinion this no opinion? Does he have to? Does he have to follow the opinion of the other person? No. Does the other person have to follow? Does he have to follow the opinion of the first person? No, why? Because this is what we invite. It's not a binding, it's not binding.

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So what should the general Muslims do?

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The general public of the Muslims, this is why usually Muslims what they should do,

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Muslims should a Muslim individual who doesn't have the tools to performance to how to make use jihad, and understand in the light of Sharia, what is the ruling of their like a certain thing or a certain transaction or a certain situation. And their time is basically they should be connected to a scholar, either directly or through a student of knowledge, through a student of knowledge, so and this scholar that they make, take the lead of the making of right, you make a template of this scholar, you basically taking the rulings from him, he based on his knowledge of the Quran and the Sunnah, and Islam and the tools to deal with faith, based on these skills and these tools, he's

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going to end his knowledge of the situation, his knowledge of the actual reality that he's making a judgement about. You connect to that person and you take the ruling from them. And if you ask for everything, and they provide you the evidence, and they explain to you more in detail, you move higher level from being a lead follower, just mere follower into a higher level, which is much better, which is where you are Moreover,

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you have more lights, more guidance, you have more enlightened, you're more enlightened as a follower, by the way, tech lead is not his fault is loosely translated as blind following that lead. Okay? It's not really blind following is a very harsh word. It's very harsh word. But basically when you take from a scholar that you trust, their knowledge, and you trust, the fear of Allah, the relationship with Allah subhana wa Tada. Okay, that's the person that you ask their opinion or their he had about the specific ruling.

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More importantly, they should know about the situation you're asking about. They should know about the situation you're asking about, because oftentimes, if the person does not understand and humanely comprehend a certain experience, they can't make a judgment, correct judgment when they have not really engaged in it. An example of this from our books, classical books.

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One of the famous Muslim folk Aha, is probably might be like the most notable in avahi and method

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Vahidi as a matter of advisory, they are the scholars who used to follow the apparent meaning of the text. Regardless of any interpretation, they would hold on to the apparent meaning and sometimes to the negligence of the real intent behind it. And I mentioned previously here in this Masjid one example, from some of the,

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or the scholars of a bahariya. Like for them, the prophet SAW Selim prohibited urination and still and still water, you have a pond, there's still water in it, the probability that someone urinates there.

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Now we'll go ahead and say, some of their scholars, they say you cannot urinate in it. But what you can do is urinate in a container. And if you pour that container in that, still water, there's nothing wrong.

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That's okay.

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That's okay.

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You see, so you can't, that it says you can't urinate in it. They say you can't urinate. But if you urinate in a container, then pour that container into the water. That's fine. No problem. You have not gone against the headache. That's how apparent they are. And some Scott and I believe he had this, although he was not very hairy, but in that specific sense, he had some bahariya in him. Basically, he said, if you pray at night in a dark place in a dark room where it's it's like pitch dark, it's completely dark. You can't see anything even your finger you can't see it. He says you can pray naked.

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And what did you take it from? He took it from Sora and never wore jasmine and Layla Lee bass. And we made the night a garment. So I said the night is a garment Alice, you don't have to wear anything.

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That's also bahariya.

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So one of the great scholars of Avaya, the famous Imam even has an even has more than him. It hasn't lived.

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Anyone knows where he lived?

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And Delos in Spain, he lived in Spain.

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Mm hmm. And Hasn't he had fatawa about hedge and pilgrimage. But he himself has never been

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to hedge. He never made that.

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So I mean, Tamia Rahim, Allah when he was talking about hedge and he mentioned some of the fatawa have been hasn't. He said watch him Allah home and it hasn't made a lot of mercy obon hasn't had he performed hedge, he would have changed a lot of his fatawa

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he would have changed a little bit about head. Why? Because some of the things the rulings that he mentioned about hedge are completely impractical, impossible to implement, impossible. So talking about something from from theory is not like being there. And this is why usually even like

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this about 20 more than 20 years ago, I remember Shetland van used to be asked and this is famous thing, he used to be asked about fatawa and he said, Can I do this about certain concessions? Can I do this? Can I skip that and so on and so forth. He said ask the CEO of Saudi Arabia who live in McCann who perform Hajj every year, he says because these people have much exposure, he has been to hedge so many times, but these people receive a lot of questions during Hajj on a daily basis. So they see situations he himself has never seen. So, he says they have a better practical knowledge of hedge. So they are better able to assess the need for that concession more than me.

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So, you see, so relevance and knowledge of the situation is very important for anyone to give a ruling about and this basically knowledge about the situation improves the quality of your feedback. So you need knowledge of the texts, religious texts, knowledge of the tools, which is a solid, okay, how to extract rulings, how to understand this verse, how to understand this Hadith, how to put them together, how do they apply here? Okay, these are the tools and understanding of the situation, understanding of the situation.

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These three knowledge or types of knowledge the person the more the person masters them the the better his quality of life with regards to that situation.

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So back again to the example we gave, okay, Muslims taking part of voting and elections and non Muslim countries. So the scholars have differed. Someone comes to you, you you you decide to vote, someone says to you, oh, it's Haram, it should work. Right, based on the opinion of some scholar who had an assessment of the situation, is it binding upon you? And if you do it, he says, you become Muslim or you have committed schilke or you've fallen into how long? That's an abuse. That's an abuse. Because when scholars have differed about this, it shows now there is a matter of fact, no, I've gone against the opinion of that scholar.

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Okay, and I'm following

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To the opinion of another scholar,

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I'm following the opinion of another scholar. So I did not go against Sharia, I might have gone against the look of your shape, but I have not gone against the Sharia of Allah. Be careful.

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Be careful. So the ruling of Allah subhanaw taala about any thing is actually one it cannot be more than one like about Muslims voting. Muslims here, say in Toronto voting in

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Could it be halal or haram at the same time? No, it has to be one ruling. But the Muslim scholars, they use the HTML and the knowledge and they try to arrive at the ruling of Sharia. Now the opinions they come up with this is what we call is what we call so when you follow them, you're following for in the hopes that it matches what Allah subhanaw taala. Okay, the ruling of a law about the specific issue.

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And that's the best we know about what Allah wants about this specific issue. It's through the scholars, through the scholars. As long as you are following a scholar and the scholar has the tools, you have no issues even if it's wrong, even if it's wrong, you don't have a problem. If you fought for the scholar who is trustworthy and interest and interest you followed him. And he you don't have any desire here or there you just trying to follow the true ruling of Allah, Spanish Allah and that's the best of your ability. You've done this. There is no blame islamically on you whatsoever.

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So you see the difference between Furqan Sharia is quite practical and important when we make the distinction. It's very important that we understand this. So where do we find Sharia? Where do we find Syria? We find it as we said in the Quran, and the Sunnah, in the Quran and the Sunnah. But sometimes the implementation of this specific ruling to a specific situation might become an issue of

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might become an issue of, let's say, and this is something very common, by the way.

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Being dutiful to the parents,

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do rule validate is in an obligation. It's in the Koran, is it Sharia? Absolutely. It's Sharia, let's say someone

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has a father who abuses him severely, physically and emotionally. And his father is such a vicious, bad, evil person. Every time he goes near him. He destroys him. To the extent that this person started having psychological issues, mental problems, really affected to him as destroying his school or his professional life and even his marital life. Every time he goes next, his father, his father, is this venomous, poisonous, negative kind of person?

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Sometimes some people give advice Oh, no, you have to go to the park, you have to be beautiful to him. You have to be good with him. You have to do everything he wants you to do.

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This understanding is wrong. And someone would say no. Last month, Allah says Bukola tabuteau illa. Yeah, very dangerous. Allah says you have to be beautiful to your parents. And the person is stuck. He says, well, like I'm between two like two evils. Here. Either destroying my life and going through this extreme hardship, and probably even not only abusing my own life will be the life of my wife and my kids. And I need dependence on me. Or I'm going to go against Allah subhanaw taala, the person has stuck.

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The person has stuck. So that's the issue that the person thinks that this opinion is Sharia. No, but sometimes, yes, the Quran is clear about something. But when someone like a father is extremely abusive, and impossible to deal with, who said you have to be you have to obey them. And by the way, this is missing this because it's very common, is very common. Sometimes there are parents. And it's been this has been, by the way set by some scholars, unfortunately. But it was mentioned in certain circumstances in the past.

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Some scholars said if your father tells you to divorce your wife without you knowing any reason, and she's a good woman, you have to go on divorce. I had this. I tell you, I heard this.

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But as far as I believe the correct ruling from the scholars is that if you divorce her it's Haram.

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It's haram because your father is commanding you to destroy your family for no reason. And to destroy the life of this woman and this woman for no reason and destroyed the life of the children for no reason. This is a crime. This is a bit how can you obey your father in an act of disobedience? You can't. So you're not supposed to do it.

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And if you think that's not common,

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then it's actually very common. These kinds of requests specially by sometimes the mother or the father is very common in certain cultures and the person

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is a law says you have to obey the parents. So they go and destroy their family, and then really don't realize that maybe the mother is jealous. And she's a human being she has this weakness in her. Does that mean? like someone's mother is jealous they go and destroy their family.

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So Pamela has a lack of mind you to do something like this. It's actually a crime to say a law that allows you to do this. So the understanding the distinction between shady and fake is very important, extremely important. Because oftentimes, people try to manipulate others by saying, so this color, this color said this and that you have to obey it. Otherwise, you're disobeying Allah spawn, tada, you're going against Sharia. They do this for political reasons. They do this to manipulate and control others. And it happens a lot. How oftentimes, like a scholar has an issue with another scholar.

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and they actually,

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they have an issue and they speak against one another. The students of this color, they say, you have to cut off that scholar and you know, don't even listen to him don't even take from him. Why? Because our scholar said, He's deviant. And if you're listening to him, you are a person of innovation and bitter. And you are this and that.

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Why? Because the opinion of this scholar or a number a group of scholars, what about the other scholars? They said, I mean, this call you can take from him? There's no issues with that. No, no, no, it's our shapes opinion. Now these guys have made the fifth of the shift into the Sharia of Allah. And it's a very serious issue. These people don't realize these people don't realize the the gravity of what they are doing.

00:31:38 --> 00:32:11

For you to take the opinion of a scholar to be the Sharia of Allah specifically when other scholars have differed with them. That's a very big issue, very dangerous issue in our at the back of the prophet SAW salon, and we are somehow challenging the divinity of a las panatela there, were associating certain parts of it. And this is very serious, because the Muslim scholars have always different By the way, even about personalities. Do you know Imam Al Bukhari himself, remember Buhari a good number of his colors at his time? They declared some some of them declared him to be Kaffir.

00:32:12 --> 00:32:13

Do you know that

00:32:14 --> 00:32:35

and he was challenged in he was pushed out of cities, like when he went to nicer bore, the Mufti of nicer bore, spoke against them and rallied the people against him. And he was like, his life was destroyed. His everyone was speaking against him saying he's a caffeine he's a Catholic. Some people said there's a mocha there. And he's this nice that he had to leave the city in disgrace. And he said

00:32:37 --> 00:32:37

he had to leave it.

00:32:40 --> 00:32:42

And he passed away because of that plight.

00:32:43 --> 00:32:56

Because someone of these callers who spoke against them or from a listener, by the way, are not from the move, Teddy. They're not from the, from bad schools from Madison. They just misunderstood some statements he made and they had personal issues with him, and it escalated.

00:32:58 --> 00:33:12

And they said, He's his gaffer, and it cleared him to be careful. Some of them said these like Jeremy etc. He says the Koran was created and it wasn't true. And Imam Al Bukhari died in distress because of this, because of this incident,

00:33:13 --> 00:33:17

a boon or a menace for honey, one of the scholars of Hadith.

00:33:18 --> 00:33:23

I can't remember the other scholar he had an issue with. So later on, when the scholars spoke about them.

00:33:25 --> 00:34:06

I think it was later on even hedgerow scholar and all that remember that at least when he was talking about them, he said, what he says about that scholar, we don't take it. What the other scholars says about him, we don't take it, but both of them are respectable scholars, and we take from them apart from this issue. This is what the scholars say, to has to do with a Quran. You know, the envy and jealousy between scholars of the same age, same of the same time, it happens, it happens. So how can you make the opinion of a scholar to be of divine sanctity? You can't do this. So the difference between theory and faith is very important. The difference is very important.

00:34:07 --> 00:34:10

Okay, any questions about this so we can move on?

00:34:11 --> 00:34:12

Any questions about this before we move on?

00:34:14 --> 00:34:16

Okay, good. Again.

00:34:17 --> 00:34:23

Okay, who read the homework, we said, Do you have to read until page was it 45

00:34:25 --> 00:34:29

who managed to read this from book the book of abominable Phillips?

00:34:30 --> 00:34:32

Okay, excellent. Excellent, very good.

00:34:40 --> 00:34:40


00:34:42 --> 00:34:59

Please keep your questions specifically specifically about our class issues have questions about Facebook. I said, Send them to my email address, send them to my email address. I might send them back as an answer as an email, or sometimes I might answer it on a public place.

00:35:00 --> 00:35:01

hearing them as students Charlevoix.

00:35:02 --> 00:35:04

Okay, again, I want to go over the,

00:35:06 --> 00:35:50

the, the times or the periods or the stages through which Islamic legislation went through. And you will find these in the, the E copy of the book of abominable f lips, page 14. First one was the foundation is the era of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu sallam, that's his life. That's his life. And hopefully today, we will start with this in sha Allah. A second one was more of the establishment, although this word is disputed, as well, because the legislation was there, but the fifth started to be established. The fact not this area of the tertiary is the fifth itself, that's starting to be established there, which is the time of the rightly guided caliphs. And that's from

00:35:51 --> 00:35:54

year 11th, after hijra to the year 14, the

00:35:56 --> 00:36:09

Illuminati probably Allahu anhu, was killed. And third stage was the building of the Umayyad dynasty, which is, that's building Okay. That the building of the

00:36:10 --> 00:36:21

science of faith as a as a separate discipline, now it started to evolve into a separate discipline. Okay, that's the time it started during the Umayyad Caliphate.

00:36:23 --> 00:36:32

Until Okay, which is roughly roughly around 150 years, or 150 years, so,

00:36:33 --> 00:37:01

or a bit less, 130 years, around 130 years, okay. And that was the time when the Imams afterwards the Imams started to appear before him. I'm starting with a believer, then consolidation, flowering, sorry, number four was flowering. That's the herbicide dynasty. And this is the time where the former that hibore established before my lab, and other than them were established, there were other modalities as well. But these four that have survived.

00:37:03 --> 00:37:10

And then after that, consolidation, stage number five, the decline of the Abba beside dynasty

00:37:12 --> 00:37:30

until the murder of the last, Calif, in Baghdad, that's when the Mongols took over about that. And this is around, it's roughly around 300 years, around 300 years. Yes. I don't know why Amina Bella Phillips put the, the, the the dates or the

00:37:31 --> 00:38:01

like the years and see, I'm not sure I wish anyone if anyone can help us out and bring them back to hijiri calendar that will be great. So we can have this as a table. Because he put the dates there, according to the Gregorian the Roman kind of calendar, okay. Then the final stage, and that was stagnation and decline. And this cause actually say until it's until today, it's until today what had had ups and downs. It was not a straight

00:38:03 --> 00:38:23

state of decline, which is tallied and the cancellation of HD had cancellation of which he had, but actually it's not so straight. It's not like one stage from that time until today, which is about 100 800 years. This stage according to this classification, the final one which is stagnation is around 800 years, we're talking about 800 years.

00:38:25 --> 00:38:33

It was not so like apple at all. It was not like one stage there were moments of great like

00:38:35 --> 00:39:05

outside burbs, which they had beautiful, like the time of Eben Tamia, and that was a time of revival of itself of itself. This is the time when they met the hub of El Hadeeth got revived. And they got revived not in confrontation with the form of their head. On the contrary, on the contrary, it blended with the former head, and it benefited from them. And for example, in a minute me himself, even Timmy himself. What was his method?

00:39:06 --> 00:39:29

humble he was humbling. He was humbling. So he followed the humbling mother but yet he made he had a lot of he had so he would sometimes depart from the method itself. He would depart from them and of itself. Some of his students were worshiping, worshiping. Luckily, ma'am, they're happy with Shafi, one of the students have

00:39:30 --> 00:39:31

ever been to me.

00:39:35 --> 00:39:41

So these are the stages that we will be dealing with insha Allah, the scholars, when they talk about the history of,

00:39:43 --> 00:39:58

of hadith of fifth, and they so they usually try to explain the difference between Sharia and filk. They also try to make the difference clear between awani in alcar, noon, and four

00:40:00 --> 00:40:19

Cologne, cologne basically is loosely translated as the law as law. But this is for students who study in a university in the university, because they deal because the Arabic or the fifth Islamic in the last 300 years in the

00:40:21 --> 00:40:26

Ottoman Empire, it started to be called on, on.

00:40:27 --> 00:40:33

This is why you find today some of the folk Aha, when they teach, they say, are known in Islamic Islamic law.

00:40:34 --> 00:40:44

But that's not very much used in Arabic. And the reason is that in the Ottoman Empire, the who, whose main method was what

00:40:45 --> 00:41:24

hanafy mother, the Ottoman Empire, the main method, the scholars were Hannah phase, and the main method was the Hanafi madhhab. They actually took the Hanafi. And they wrote it in the form of a law. It's like a law, you know, it's like points, articles, etc. It was very well, like documented and structured. Like, it's like a legal, like a legal book. And it was called Magellan electoral Academy, I believe. It's very like one of the best sources of fat off today that we have, by the way, Magellan Atilla camel, ugly. So the scholars of the Ottoman Empire, the Hanafi, scholars started documenting the Hanafi. Instead of making it more of a religious text, they make it more of

00:41:24 --> 00:41:48

a legal text. So it was published slowly, slowly as Magellan will accumulate Lee and that was the legal system of the Ottoman Empire. And what did it have to translate it loosely, it's like the document of the legal rulings. There's more of a legal book, but it was all based on the Hanafi madhhab, all based on the Hanafi madhhab.

00:41:49 --> 00:42:36

So if you read some of the texts there, they sound more like sometimes like secular law, sometimes Why? Because they wanted that to run the government run the legal system. So they wanted something specifically, like very legal and technical in the language. So this is why they use this. So this cause at that time, they started calling it Unknown. Unknown. Unknown means, as I said, loosely translated as law but canon is a Greek word, originally, or known is a Greek word. That mainly means foundation. But in the Arabic language, it means system. And criteria. system and criteria. That's what it means. system and criteria. So in this help found only Islami that means basically Islamic

00:42:36 --> 00:42:39

law Muslim, which is the which is the fucker itself.

00:42:43 --> 00:42:52

Okay, the sum of the profits or loss? let's actually look at something before the break. Do you think there was any kind of Sharia before the prophet SAW Selim?

00:42:54 --> 00:42:54

What was that?

00:42:56 --> 00:43:01

The Christian legal system. Okay, what else?

00:43:04 --> 00:43:20

The Moses, okay. The Torah was there among the Jews. So these were legal systems. These were legal, originally divine systems, but as we believe they were tampered with. Okay, so some of the truth was still in there. What else did the Arabs have any any legal system?

00:43:23 --> 00:43:27

The Arabs szijjarto. Ibrahim, how do we know this?

00:43:29 --> 00:43:40

The Hajj, so the Arabs performed Hajj, right. How did they perform Hajj? So they had there was certain rituals, certain things to be done, right. Some of the most still maintained in Islam. Where did they get them from?

00:43:42 --> 00:43:57

It was handed down from the time of Ibrahim and twisted obviously and changed from some of Brian's many less Ram. A lot of this historians they say, the Arabs were actually claiming to follow the Sharia of Ibrahim and this My name is Salim.

00:43:58 --> 00:44:15

And some of the, like the the general rulings. So the Arabs didn't have like a proper system or they have, we can call off the norms, the norms that the Arabs followed. And these originated from the Sharia of Ibrahim and he's married, but then they were changed and distorted.

00:44:16 --> 00:44:17


00:44:19 --> 00:44:41

you have for example, they have no ammo, no fire, no fire. They don't even know file was among the Arabs. He actually he was alive at the time of the during the early like the first day 3635 years of the of the Prophet slife. But he passed away before the problem became a messenger. They didn't know fail.

00:44:42 --> 00:44:54

He challenged the Arabs and he said well law he met it forming Dean mendini comerciais en la military O'Brien. He says, I don't know anything among your religion or Arabs. There's actually in line with what Prophet Ibrahim was upon.

00:44:55 --> 00:45:00

So he like so obviously the Arabs were claiming to be upon the religion of Brahim and

00:45:00 --> 00:45:01

Islam his main aim is setup.

00:45:03 --> 00:45:23

The Arabs also had for example, people to judge among them, they had people to judge among themselves to tribes differed or to people different about something they would go and seek the judgment of a person who a wise person so they had these rulings they had these certain like remnants but they were not like a proper legal system. They were more of a

00:45:27 --> 00:45:30

they were more of a of gnomes, they were more of gnomes.

00:45:32 --> 00:45:34

Okay the Prophet sallallahu Sallam

00:45:35 --> 00:45:47

at the time now this this is the period or the stage of foundation, the stage of foundation, the stage of foundation. What do you think the sources of sherry are where?

00:45:51 --> 00:45:52

The Quran

00:45:55 --> 00:45:57

only the actions of the prophets of Salaam

00:45:58 --> 00:46:04

and these things so the Quran and the Sunnah, more or less the Quran and the Sunnah, the Quran and the Sunnah.

00:46:10 --> 00:46:44

So the Quran would be sent to the Prophet sallallahu sallam, and the prophet SAW Selim would explain it and act upon it, and sometimes would clarify things and would clarify things. So this is the history of the term of the prophet SAW son, it was quite straightforward, simple. It was in the Koran was interpreted by the prophet SAW, Selim was implemented by the process of him and his companions. And this was the, at the time, so more or less, what's the difference between Sharia and at the time of the Prophet? Can anyone

00:46:46 --> 00:46:47

find a difference?

00:46:48 --> 00:46:49

Was there a difference?

00:46:51 --> 00:46:52

No difference.

00:46:53 --> 00:46:57

So the Sharia and the fifth were more or less the same.

00:47:03 --> 00:47:04


00:47:06 --> 00:47:10

Excellent, excellent. So pretty much Sherry and fairhall the same thing?

00:47:11 --> 00:47:23

The same thing because the Prophet size alum who is supported by Allah would give the rulings specifically so we would know the Muslims would know for sure. This is the Sharia of Allah, this is the ruling, no doubt, right.

00:47:24 --> 00:47:24


00:47:25 --> 00:47:49

There's no no problem. But there were certain incidences where the profits are seldom used, he had there was no ruling from Allah. So he used his own he had right he is his own. He had but Allah subhana wa tada would send a Koran a verse to correct that he had so in the final tally, like would realize okay, things would settle with the Sharia ultimately would be the same as Syria.

00:47:50 --> 00:47:57

Because the last winter would correct the salah and is how easily Muslim is infallible. Anyone can think of any instance

00:48:01 --> 00:48:06

the cap captives of better Yes. So what was the

00:48:10 --> 00:48:33

the prasada Salam had to choose between two things, either ransom runs in them or kill them. he consulted with Abu Bakr on the low angle and the mobile hot Bob obachan alarm said, you know runs in them, we benefit from them. And they are our cousins. And Uncle Bob said you had everyone to their relative and let them finish them off. The pros on them sided with mobicred. Then Allah smart Allah mentioned

00:48:34 --> 00:48:41

real time versus shorting the process, I learned that this was not the right running another example anyone can think of.

00:48:43 --> 00:48:43


00:48:53 --> 00:49:19

Excellent of the heart of the heart of the heart, the man who said to his wife, you are just like my mother to me. So the person said, like, you can't, that's it. She says how long for you but then last month, I revealed there's an expiation he the person can pay it or can do it. And then that would be canceled. This layout would be canceled. Another example. Can anyone think of an example let me take them all out? Yes.

00:49:24 --> 00:49:25

The death of Hamza

00:49:32 --> 00:49:34

Okay. Yes.

00:49:36 --> 00:49:53

Yes, a couple of things actually happened in the Battle of HUD, where, like the death of Hamza Lila, and the process of them said I should take revenge by killing this number of that number of them. Then the last panel to either send them something to the contrary of this. Also in the person got angry as he fell off his

00:49:55 --> 00:49:59

writing animal in the battle, and he wanted to curse them then Allah subhanaw taala

00:50:00 --> 00:50:04

Tell them something else. Okay. Can Did you have another example? Was it the same the same?

00:50:08 --> 00:50:11

excuses for not following?

00:50:14 --> 00:50:15

Yes, accepted? Yes.

00:50:18 --> 00:50:22

Excellent. After after the Battle of Tuborg the hypocrites who remain behind.

00:50:23 --> 00:50:37

They started giving like excuses to the prophets of Southern grace. I'm accepted that and he forgave them. But last month I said that these should not be forgiven. These should not and sort of the tober Okay, sisters and examples that come to the sisters.

00:50:38 --> 00:50:41

Okay, there was a also like Hillel omiya.

00:50:42 --> 00:51:26

Actually one of the people were left behind. In the battle. Three ones were left behind in the Battle of the book, but he was truthful, he was not a hypocrite. He was a companion. He actually found he caught his wife in the act of having a relationship with another man and the ruling in Islam wise. If you wanted to accuse someone of committing fornication or adultery, you would have to bring four witnesses. So when he saw this, he went to the promised land and he said he told him what had what had happened. The messengers are seldom said Alba to shoehorn avaloq you give me four witnesses all I'll whip your back the punishment for like making a false accusation 880 lashes,

00:51:26 --> 00:51:28

right. So

00:51:30 --> 00:52:12

so the so he said to the prophet SAW Selim, he said, someone says his wife in this position is gonna get four, four witnesses. So then Allah revealed to the prophet SAW Selim an exception from the general rule, that if one of the husband, husband and wife, one of them catches the other in the and the forbidden act, that they don't have to bring for witnesses, but they can make for witness or instances of witness oath of this by themselves, and that would count as four witnesses. So, so that was another obviously like correction from the Quran from Allah Spano, China. So in these short instances, filk might be for a short time, slightly different from Sherry, either slightly different

00:52:12 --> 00:52:40

from Sharia, but would be brought back again, to the to the perfect compatibility between forfeiture so it'd be the same. So ultimately, the between the time of the Prophet the life of the profits that I send them, the Sherry And Phil were pretty much the same, were pretty much the same. Now we're gonna look at the Quran and the Sunnah in a bit more detail at the time of the Prophet Solomon how they were used for, but this inshallah will be often selected a sham, I don't know enough

00:52:42 --> 00:52:58

about that, let's continue. So now dealing with the, the first stage of tissue of Sharia, or the fifth of our tertiary legislation is the foundation that's the life of the Prophet sallallahu sallam. And this is

00:53:00 --> 00:53:50

this call is usually divided into two main phases, McKee and Madani before he draw and after his, because the first phase has its own characteristics. And the second phase has its own characteristics as well. So in the, in the meccan period, which is the around the first 1300 years, then I'm not exactly 13 they're a bit less than that 12, around 12 years and five months. So in this time, the Quran was revealed to the Prophet Salaam Salaam. And this is what the scholars of illumine Koran call a swab machiya or as Mackey and they are different in style and content, generally speaking than the verses of Quran and madonie, or the swab and verses that were revealed in Medina

00:53:50 --> 00:53:51

or after hegira.

00:53:52 --> 00:54:34

And the most correct, like differentiation between Mackey and Madani because because the scholars have different about this, some of them say whatever was revealed in Mecca, even after hedgerow ism, or whatever was revealed in Medina is Madani. But this is not the most acceptable, did you more of their LMR. And this is actually the most accurate I would say is before he draw, that was all all the score on there was revealed before his role was called mechi. Whatever was revealed after his role was called madonie. And this is actually academically speaking, this is the most the one that really fits most the descriptions of these verses. So in the Maquis or the meccan period. The Quran

00:54:34 --> 00:54:45

was firstly the main content vocal on is about to hate and about the articles of faith. But the articles were mainly to hate to hate the last panel to add establishing so hate.

00:54:47 --> 00:54:53

And I believe about Amina briefly talk about talks about this. Yes, okay, good.

00:54:54 --> 00:54:57

So, the content of the meccan period

00:54:58 --> 00:54:59

Yes, content of the horn.

00:55:00 --> 00:55:46

meccan period he says that's page 19 on his book says to hate of Allah, little hate of loss penalty. And you can add to this generally speaking the articles of faith. So allowed stress belief in himself and belief in the human effort, the hereafter the hereafter. This is most of the core of Mad cat. The, the the ultimate theme, I would say, is actually about this, anything, even the stories that I mentioned that they are mentioned, as you know, in the context of belief in Allah, in the context of belief in the hereafter and the next life, that's what they are, and Mackey is generally about and the tauheed Here you will find mainly what will be stressed, it's still hate of UI, the

00:55:46 --> 00:56:10

right have a lot to be worshipped along the right of Allah to be worshipped alone, because the Arabs, they believe the law was there and they worshipped him in general. So Allah was one of their gods or the ultimate God for them, but they had false deities they had idols that they worshipped as an as media is between them and Allah Spanos Allah and they consider them to be helpers of Allah.

00:56:11 --> 00:56:28

So they believed Allah was the creator, they believed allow us the Sustainer they believe the law is the provider law was the owner of everything. They believed in all of this, but they did not worship Allah alone. They associated partners along with a Lost Planet Allah, and they had an issue with the names and attributes of Allah

00:56:29 --> 00:56:34

will either have Taylor Hong Kong, Iraqi lahoma Studio, Rahmani Paloma Rahman.

00:56:36 --> 00:57:19

And the last one that I sent to the Prophet Salaam, and when you say to them, prostrate to Allah, man, Allah, they would say, Who's that man? What's up, man? And as Juliet remains a moron, shall we prostrate to whatever you call us. So they only recognize the name, Allah. Some of them recognize other names, but usually they would recognize the name of last month, they did not acknowledge properly the names and attributes of Allah subhanaw taala. But the main theme was to hate Lulu he hate the new allow us the rob the new he was the creator, but to hit it earlier worshipping Allah alone singling out along with worship, that was not there among the Arabs. adjure Allah Allah has it

00:57:19 --> 00:57:32

is what they said agenda le hasta la Hanwha Haida in Punjab? Did he make all these gods into one? Like he reduces all our worship just to one God. This is something that's strange for them. That doesn't make sense didn't make sense.

00:57:34 --> 00:57:36

So the main theme is towhead.

00:57:38 --> 00:57:41

Also Allah's existence was which is again, like

00:57:43 --> 00:58:14

you Yeah, like it wasn't an issue of denial among among the Arabs, Allah was there, they recognized him but it's still it was mentioned, probably in challenge to people who were complete atheists who disbelieved in Hamas. pantalla because the Arabs had also they mixed with the, with the Persians, they mixed with other cultures, well, in Africa, and in Europe, and they, some, some certain beliefs, have transpired or have infiltrated the Arabic culture. The next life is another theme as well.

00:58:16 --> 00:58:43

The people of God, which is basically the stories of the ones who believed in the last one and the ones who disbelieved in our life stories that relate but all of them, you know, revolve around to hate all of them revolve around to hate. And then the issue of Salah as well was revealed, mainly in soul a lot. A Salah in the meccan period, sola and the meccan period, anyone can think of what surah was mentioned in,

00:58:48 --> 00:58:52

in the Atlantic of cocoa for Saudi Arabia becoming hotter? Yes, in general, right.

00:58:54 --> 00:59:01

In our clinical concept for suddenly long, big pray to your Lord, and sacrifice, but what else indeed more detail was mentioned as well?

00:59:04 --> 00:59:29

Yeah, you have Muslim men, right? Yeah, a Muslim woman later in Pali, you're Muslim, or the one who's shrouded stand up in prayer all night cumulated in love, except for a small portion of it, where you rest this for half of it, our postman honkala or a little bit less less. So this is why the scholars said

00:59:30 --> 00:59:34

at the early stages to Yama lead was an obligation on the Prophet sallallahu sallam.

00:59:35 --> 00:59:53

Some say it was only on the Prophet, some say was on the Prophet and the Muslims, early Muslims to pray at night to Yama lay and actually was very important thing. And this shows the merit of the MLA to me later was more important to the prophet SAW Selim then the sooner that we pray throughout the day, that

00:59:54 --> 01:00:00

these were the prophets of Salaam when he traveled, he did not pray the sinner but he would pray the

01:00:00 --> 01:00:34

Am Elaine in traveling. He was to keep the AMA lane and with him he would not give it up even in travel even when he was ill. He was still prickly Emily. And the last petal explains in sort of Muslim men. In Nana she attended leaning. He shouldn't do what an aqua mattina indeed, establishing the prayer night brings more connection between the tongue and the heart. So what you recite gets straight to the heart, it's more awakens more your heart. That's what he should do open up one more pillar, and it's straight, and it has more impact on you.

01:00:35 --> 01:00:53

So that shows that these difficult times last month that I wanted to develop the Muslims to such a high standard to face these extreme difficulties very difficult circumstances. The last month Allah commanded with pmla that shows the murder of pmla in developing us as Muslims it's very important

01:00:56 --> 01:01:23

and some scholars say not the prayer at the early stages of Islam was to write as in the morning to work as in the evening to work as in the morning to work as in the evening to work as in the morning to work as they went after the slot and in Mirage after the Prophet ascended to heaven if five daily prayers were priests was were prescribed during that journey, and the prayer at that time for Joel was to vor was to us or was to Mecca was three and a shot was two.

01:01:24 --> 01:01:27

So all of them were tu tu tu tu except for Maverick was three

01:01:28 --> 01:01:36

is how they do this how it was then when they migrated to Medina. I shadowed Lila and and the rates you mentioned.

01:01:37 --> 01:01:55

Then the prayers were made, like lower on us on a shift were made into four. So this is why when we travel, the prayer goes back to its first stage two to two to three malherbe and to foreshadow why when we travel, we may also it goes back to its original shape.

01:01:57 --> 01:01:58

Okay, another

01:01:59 --> 01:02:19

topic is the challenges. Yes, the a lot of disputes. And a lot of the arguments that the Mexicans were presenting to the profits of our salon to his companions, and sometimes the hardships that went through there were documented as well in the salon in the meccan period. Generally speaking, you will find the verses in the meccan period, obviously shorter

01:02:20 --> 01:02:31

and more impactful and more poetic, more poetic than the verses in Medina versus Medina were longer long verses.

01:02:34 --> 01:02:41

There were more detailed, less poetic, more specific, more specific. So for example taking

01:02:44 --> 01:02:45


01:02:48 --> 01:03:00

when the Jamaica how're now loaded, so Hey, welcome wamalwa 1 million. Anil Hauer in Hawaii Illa Why do you have a llama who's ready to do millet infest our

01:03:01 --> 01:03:07

poetic Kela will come up well lately in Edinburgh or subida as far as

01:03:08 --> 01:03:12

these verses in del caballo de Lille Basha dementia

01:03:13 --> 01:03:14


01:03:16 --> 01:03:30

la appsumo bo mill Tiana Roxanne will be necessarily one I accessible in Santa Elena najma Yvonne de la casa de nada and so we are banana but you read it in San Juan de la jolla Imam. Yes Allah Yana Yama, Yama.

01:03:32 --> 01:03:40

Okay, let me let me hear that. What did you buy that? Allah kanakam as well as our Jelena no mokou bata with Elena de Bursa.

01:03:42 --> 01:04:07

So these verses are quite poetic, powerful description of health description of Paradise description of the events in the hereafter the description of previous nations, the creation of the heavens and the earth. So these verses were very powerful, impactful, there's no need to talk to people about details, no need to talk legislation was limited was like it was minimal legislation.

01:04:08 --> 01:04:18

In these matters, it was also always about our data, always about a year and about data and belief matters of belief, the articles of faith and most of the time,

01:04:20 --> 01:04:38

about justice about recognition of Allah but worship of Allah gratitude, a loss of penalty. This is how the verses met computed word and they would mention stories of previous nations. Just as a reminder, a powerful reminder to come back the punishment of loss pantalla about the word of Allah, Spanish Allah, this is how these verses were. So the matters of

01:04:40 --> 01:05:00

effect were minimal. Where Salah was there, the prayer was there. For example, you will also find, for example, the prohibition of Xena. The prohibition of Xena was there as well and the meccan period and the early stages prohibition of Xena prohibition of fornication and adultery. But apart from this was how

01:05:00 --> 01:05:07

Hardly any the most of the fifth was about listening to the prophets of Salaam obeying Him and following him

01:05:13 --> 01:05:16

see what else about mcca been lacking period

01:05:18 --> 01:05:27

also the in the Mexican time the Mexican Koran you will find most of the times Allah addresses humanity in general.

01:05:28 --> 01:06:01

Less than yeah you Halina hermano Hello say yeah, you harness or mankind, or beautiful because they kind of address or speech is directed to humanity in general. This is a message to humanity in general, because the message was supposed to be given to these all of humanity, non Muslims. But in the Mac in the mid Medina, it was more about legislation for the people who have already accepted faith. So most of the most of the time Allah would speak to the believers as Yeah, you have Latina and oh, you who believe.

01:06:05 --> 01:06:05


01:06:11 --> 01:06:17

In the madonie period, the shorter the verses, as we we said were more lengthy,

01:06:18 --> 01:06:49

more lengthy, more relaxed, more relaxed, the content addressed something else, because the heat is already established. So he would all would always be mentioned, but not as frequently, as in the meccan period. Now there was more about legislation was more now about obeying the prophet SAW Selim. there we're talking about the people of the book, because now there were Jews in the Medina, People of the Scripture, how to deal with these people. And sometimes the Koran would address them directly calling them to Islam.

01:06:51 --> 01:07:00

You would find also verses about the Mona 14, because now when most like Muslims had, like a government there and they had a state,

01:07:01 --> 01:07:23

it was well established. There were people who were pretending to be Muslim, they prayed, they did everything like Muslims externally, but inside, they were enemies of Islam, they did not believe in Allah subhanaw taala. So the Quran also talked about them on 13 that's in Medina, you don't find them on Africa, in Mecca, actually, there is one mention of one African Medina, but the scholars say that was like,

01:07:24 --> 01:07:33

in a general sense, but most what is whatever else in the Quran about them and after clean was revealed. in Medina, also you will find in

01:07:34 --> 01:07:55

Medina issues of jihad, issues of jihad, because now in the Muslims, Muslims were prohibited to fight in Mecca, was how long for them, and for the first probably year and a half in Medina as well was how long for them to fight or even carry weapons. It was how long was prohibited for them. We're not allowed to do this. But then later on,

01:07:56 --> 01:08:16

it was made halal for them and then it was made obligatory upon them in order to defend themselves and be able to carry the the message also legislation, different types of legislation, different types of legislation, so we'd find out what about that about the Salah, about the song fasting, and about Zika and about

01:08:17 --> 01:08:18

later on about hedge

01:08:20 --> 01:08:20


01:08:23 --> 01:09:00

so these were explained in the in the madonia on it, also find issues of dealings like transactions. So a Lost Planet Allah for example, the longest verse in the Quran is inserted to the Buffalo area to Dane or Medina, which is lending, how to lend money what are the rulings of lending money, the issues of giving a trust to someone and taking a trust, holding something and trust. So these certain transactions, Riba was dealt with, then hammer was dealt with issues of marriage, and he can

01:09:02 --> 01:09:20

call the nicaea all of this was dealt with in detail sometimes issues of wasley. Like, whatever person dies and they leave something behind them, you know, what they can help with their will, where they can make with their will, and how would their inheritance be distributed? All of these are in the madonie period.

01:09:21 --> 01:09:28

So this is we're talking now about the Koran about the Quran. What was the role of the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam

01:09:29 --> 01:09:34

Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, what was the role of that? Can anyone share something with us?

01:09:38 --> 01:09:40

The actual interpretation of

01:09:44 --> 01:09:45

exactly the it's the

01:09:46 --> 01:09:54

perfect implementation or implementation of the Quran, in terms of speech and action from the prophets will allow and yourself

01:09:55 --> 01:09:58

from the prophets of Salaam. So in more detail, what would the Sunnah do

01:10:05 --> 01:10:09

Perform is demonstrated through the actions of the prophet SAW.

01:10:11 --> 01:10:31

Exactly. So the Koran would mention something but it's called an Arabic Mooji men, this is language of salsa Mooji man, very general terms of what I mentioned something in very general terms established the prayer. But the Quran doesn't mention anything about how to perform the prayer

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standing up then do going down to record then standing up again then going down so the crown doesn't mention anything. So the sooner

01:10:41 --> 01:10:43

does does what we call in Arabic

01:10:45 --> 01:10:56

detailing the general concepts in the Quran. So there's something mentioned the Quran very, very short, brief, General fashion. So now would mention the detailed

01:10:57 --> 01:11:17

you know, form of that, like the solid like the prayer, establish the prayer that was mentioned on the Sunnah mentioned exactly how the prophets of Salaam prayed, they are the moves. Everything in the Quran was mentioned either through the sayings or the actions of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam. What else would dishonor do?

01:11:20 --> 01:11:52

What do we find in the sun? In addition to the Quran? Now we're talking more about the relationship between the Quran and the Sunnah. The Koran is always number one and legislation. What comes number two is the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. So we said first thing, he Sunnah would do tough sale of the monument in the Quran. Man, very general terms in the Quran and the Sunnah would bring the details of seal, the Seal of it mentioned how to establish the player. What else would the center do in relation to the forearm?

01:11:54 --> 01:11:58

With the center establish a new ruling that was not mentioned in the Quran at all?

01:12:00 --> 01:12:05

We'll come up with a ruling that was not at all mentioned or referred to in the Quran.

01:12:09 --> 01:12:15

Yes. Okay, examples. So one example is the

01:12:16 --> 01:12:16


01:12:19 --> 01:12:28

was talking about the forbidden women to marry? Yes, there was no mention about having

01:12:34 --> 01:12:34


01:12:35 --> 01:12:36


01:12:38 --> 01:12:54

Exactly, exactly like in the diverse well last one is high dimensions. And sort of the Nisa the women that are prohibited for men to marry the ones that are allowed the ones that are prohibited the mother, the sister, the aunt, etc, right.

01:12:56 --> 01:12:59

But the sooner introduced another rule,

01:13:00 --> 01:13:13

the prophets of Salaam said Latin karma to Allah, hi, Lottie. Allah, Allah to a woman should not be combined in marriage by the same husband, with her aunt, paternal or maternal.

01:13:15 --> 01:13:23

So someone cannot marry a woman and at the same time be married to her aunt. You cannot.

01:13:25 --> 01:13:37

But this is not mentioned on the phone. So this is a call to a cease and arbic establishing a new ruling that's in this one that's in this one. So that's another one as well. What would this have to do with the Quran?

01:13:39 --> 01:13:44

Sometimes it would explain the context. Explain the context. Like for example,

01:13:45 --> 01:13:54

we know that the last month Allah says Allah Vina Amman will Ameobi so a man whom behold, Allah, Allah homearama Amata don't like ramen.

01:13:55 --> 01:13:56

Martin Sorrell

01:13:57 --> 01:14:23

lost metallocene by mentioning the story of boy him and he said I'm those who have believed and they have not mixed their belief with volume. Volume is injustice right? With one for those people that will be safety on the Day of Judgment. There will be safe from the hellfire. So when companions heard about this, I've loved Mr. ordinariates. This Hadith on the companions, you heard about this, the rest of the prophets of Solomon, they said, Who doesn't do it justice

01:14:25 --> 01:14:59

acts as difficult. We believed but we do invest in justice. So that means we're not safe on the Day of Judgment. The Prophet sallallahu Sallam said in the whole Lisa valic Well, I can eliminate this maculicola I've decided I was talking about lachemann. Yamuna Yella to Sheila Camilla initial coloboma. Did you hear through the words of Lockman? He said to his son, or my son do not associate partners with Allah indeed schilke this kind of shirk association of partners is a great injustice. And that's the injustice that's referred to in the other verse.

01:15:00 --> 01:15:19

So that means should injustice humans should so there's some that clarifies this isn't, clarifies this. Also, there are certain things that are mentioned in the Koran in inclusive terms. Yet there's some there may be exceptions, some made exceptions.

01:15:21 --> 01:15:22

Like some of those

01:15:27 --> 01:15:28

nothing's actually

01:15:29 --> 01:15:31

crossing my mind at the moment.

01:15:32 --> 01:15:38

Okay, if I don't remember anything, I'll probably think of it next time, shall I? Maybe I can give it to you as a homework.

01:15:39 --> 01:16:07

But inshallah Okay, so, the Quran and the Sunnah, the Quran and the Sunnah are to be followed. And by the way, there's no difference in terms of taking guidance. We take guidance between the Quran and the Sunnah. The Quran comes first because it's the exact words of Allah. The Sunnah of the prophet SAW Selim come second because it's the it's a revelation from Allah, but it's spoken and worded by the prophet sallallahu wasallam. Also the preservation of the Quran

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is more exact than the preservation of the sooner but the sooner generally speaking, has been preserved, has been preserved through the the efforts of our Hadith scholars. So

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if we find

01:16:26 --> 01:16:45

a Sunnah from the Prophet sallallahu sallam, that is 100% 100% sure of it to be authentic, like hiring Muslim, married Muslim, Muslim have narrated it, and the scholars of Hadith all agree that this hadith is authentic. And we have a verse from the Quran. In terms of legislation, both of them, by the way, in terms of legislation have the same power,

01:16:46 --> 01:16:51

they have the same power, because all of them are revelation from Allah subhanho, wa Taala.

01:16:54 --> 01:16:56

All of them have the same power in terms of legislation.

01:16:58 --> 01:17:35

But in terms of sanctity, and level and respect, the Quran comes at a higher level. And there's some things mentioned by the scholars of Islam. So for someone to say the Hadith alone, take this headache because a headache, you know, sometimes there are some issues within the ration is that any one who says something like this is actually following their however their desire, that desire, because if someone really studied the science of Hadith very carefully, you would realize for the general part, or the most part of the Hadith in general, it's been preserved. So we know what's authentic, what's not, when the scholars have different about certain Hadith, whether they're

01:17:35 --> 01:17:38

authentic or not, okay, this

01:17:39 --> 01:17:45

realm or this space for difference, and hamdulillah it's awkward for us to differ about No worries.

01:17:47 --> 01:18:23

But for someone to come to a hadith where the Muslims have agreed that it's authentic, specifically something that mojarra Muslim have narrated and I've agreed upon. And the scholars have studied these, by the way, like some people think, Oh, it's Buhari almost them, why was he a human being he makes mistakes. Muslim wasn't a human being he makes mistakes. That's, by the way, a misunderstanding because of how it was studied, and was filtered by subsequent scholars millions of times, scholars who have dedicated their lives to study Hadith. It's like in Arabic, they say like a Muslim and Roma and the high lumen.

01:18:24 --> 01:18:39

Scholars have with regards to a Muslim they've studied even letters, letters they've studied like they're on aerations. Like inside a Muslim, there are about five to nine Hadith where the scholars have certain issues about a word about a letter, is that letter really authentic or not?

01:18:40 --> 01:18:43

So the scholars have studied them in great detail.

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So for someone say, Oh, isn't Horace Mann, he's a human being he makes mistakes. That's not a proper understanding. Because mojari does not only stand for one man. It's been studied subsequently by millions, literally millions, millions of scholars and students of knowledge, and nothing has been found to be wrong in it.

01:19:03 --> 01:19:12

And whatever has been questioned about it says and letters here or there, they have nothing value, they have no impact on the authenticity of the Hadith. It's just a matter of excellence in veneration of the Hadith.

01:19:14 --> 01:19:26

So anyone who says okay, the Hadith is shadow, there's some doubt about its authenticity, these people have something else but they found this kind of excuse to you know, you know, to start questioning certain rulings.

01:19:27 --> 01:19:59

But if we have an authentic hadith that we know is authentic, and official, so authentic, and we have a verse both of them have similar power in terms of legislation. In terms of legislative legislation, this is why last pantalla says woman komaba solo for Hulu, woman Hakuna noventa whatever the professor brought to you as commanded you with you take it wherever he prohibited you then give it up. Simple. Last month, Allah says one young Animal House in Hawaii law you need

01:20:00 --> 01:20:17

is not speak from his own desires or his whims. It's an indeed revelation from Allah. This includes the Quran, and this includes whatever the Prophet said. And this is why when Abdullah asked us the prophet SAW Selim, shall I write down, you know, you say the Prophet Solomon had held this dangoty said, October 11 fcba, the Maharaja man who,

01:20:19 --> 01:20:24

you know, write down by Allah subhanho, wa Taala, nothing comes out of this mouth, but the truth,

01:20:25 --> 01:20:41

but the truth. So that means the sun has been preserved, generally speaking, the little space where scholars have different about certain ahaadeeth, that's fine, that's fine, we accept that we're okay with this. But this does not cast doubt on the rest of the idea that we know for sure are authentic.

01:20:43 --> 01:21:18

And this gives our religion stability. So this is why we need to be careful about people who call themselves called arnim. They have nothing to do with a Quran. Because the Quran does say follow the prophet SAW Selim. And if you try to understand the whole and to the exclusion of the sooner you will not get it right. Because you're taken away the context and even in life, you take anything out of context, it doesn't make sense. You can like put the spin you want on it. And remember, the Allahu anhu understood this very well. And he said, he said Raja della Kumara, Hawaii will pour an ambition. And

01:21:19 --> 01:22:02

he said if the people of desire argue with you, using only the Quran, he said, you know, you can settle their arguments and respond to their arguments with the Sunnah because the Koran is quite flexible, it could take it could be twisted, the meanings could be twisted, you can put the spin you want on the meanings or on why because the Koran as as we mentioned previously, it's it's where the Sharia mainly is taken from is mentioned in general sense a lot of talks about justice in general, a lot of so anyone can say okay, this is justice, and he's gonna force it into the Koran and so on and so forth. And this is what the Howard for example did. They said woman can be madonsela love hola

01:22:02 --> 01:22:29

como Catherine. They said anyone who doesn't judge by what Allah revealed, then these are this believers. So they may texture on the companions of the Prophet or sudden they misunderstood something to to me in that these companions refuse the judgment of a lord choose some something else, so they may take fear on them. So this is why you can only get to the truth when you get this balance between the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

01:22:31 --> 01:22:32

Let's move on to the

01:22:35 --> 01:22:38

to the mid Medina and period but generally speaking,

01:22:41 --> 01:22:43

in the Quran, you will find

01:22:44 --> 01:22:45


01:22:46 --> 01:23:01

commands a one is something you have to do obligations. You will find recommendations something you advise to do. You will find things that are made Hellen open neutral, you will find things that are disliked,

01:23:02 --> 01:23:17

disliked, okay, it's better not to engage in them. And you will find things that are decisively how long five things these are the five rulings in Islam obligation recommendation neutral. halaal MOBA disliked and prohibited

01:23:19 --> 01:23:41

How long? These are the five rounds in fundamental one and there are some scholars add something else. Sometimes they include it with a third one which is more bare how neutral they say LMS school to an O but at my school Toronto, something Allah did not make a ruling about LMS school to home a lot did not mention he didn't say hello he didn't say hello

01:23:42 --> 01:23:43

this is not necessarily mobile.

01:23:45 --> 01:23:48

This is not necessarily Hello.

01:23:50 --> 01:23:52

But a lot of left it for a reason.

01:23:53 --> 01:24:10

A lot lifted for a reason. And this is why a lot of analysis in the Colonia you will live in a new lattice and oh and Shia in took that accomplish Oh believe Do not ask about certain things that when you ask about them, if you get the answer, it will it will offend you. It will not be good for you it will put you in trouble.

01:24:11 --> 01:24:42

It will put you in trouble. Although this was mentioned about some people asking about their forefathers but this causative syrup also said it means anything that Allah did not say anything about did not make a ruling about it should be left like this. You should not try to say it's heaven or *. I'm just leaving. It's called miss school tune and this is what it's called. It's been a law remain silent about it. He didn't want to mention a ruling about it. And there is a wisdom behind it. This is why the prophet SAW Selim said in the law as the origin Amala can be a

01:24:43 --> 01:24:54

fella who want to have come and share a fella Walker who lost Montana commodity with certain things so do them. A lot prohibited you about certain things don't engage in them

01:24:56 --> 01:24:57

was second and

01:24:59 --> 01:24:59

a half

01:25:00 --> 01:25:02

mettam become finatus

01:25:03 --> 01:25:37

the law remain silent about certain things out of mercy for you. So don't ask about them. Don't ask about them. This is why sometimes and this is why the prompts that I'm also said, like in a hadith in the law carry hola como de la waka waka for the soil. Allah hates for you to chat. You know, he said she said and you know, talking to so many things getting so much into a lot of details, or cassata soil and excessive asking, you know, what's this? What does this mean? What do you mean by that? What is this? So to know what about this? What about that? Okay, let's think about that. So much questioning is not a good sign.

01:25:39 --> 01:26:05

This is why the companions of the prophets of Salaam they used to say like I love and I'm not kwinana Habu and ness, Allah Rasulullah sallallahu sallam, we used to have haber respect and fear like of the process of them, that we asked him so much. So that, so they said, We used to be happy when one of the Bedouins came because these guys like they would ask the person over anything. So they said, because we could not ask. We really loved it when the Bedouins came. It couldn't

01:26:07 --> 01:26:09

be you? Yes, and Rasulullah sallallahu

01:26:10 --> 01:26:14

LSR? Because these guys had the guts to ask like big questions.

01:26:15 --> 01:26:28

But we the companions like they would they would not ask so much. They would wait for what the person would say they would take it and stand by that. And this is why they were the best generation. Asking about this, you know, is this how long? What about this? You know,

01:26:29 --> 01:27:00

sometimes you ask us cola about this thing? Are you working in something? And generally speaking, it's alright, but maybe little doubt comes around here. say, oh, KY, there's this thing, you know, would that make it harder? Or how long? You might come to a chef? And if he's wise, he would say, just stay where you are? Don't ask, don't ask? Well, I've seen scholars answer this question. Don't ask. Don't because they know if you're going to like find out the details about this. You might put yourself in trouble. But somebody will say No, tell me because if it's Haram, I don't want to do how long right?

01:27:02 --> 01:27:14

This causes, you know, just leave it as it is, and carry on do what you do. Knowing you know, but this, the prophets of Salaam said this might in our link to this hadith and I don't want to you know, get in trouble. And

01:27:15 --> 01:27:24

somehow life due to this kind of thing. You might, by the way, get in it, especially these days, if you start chasing these small threads, you might turn everything into

01:27:25 --> 01:27:36

everything. And there are some people who said today like they say, if you work for the government, Muslim or non Muslim in any part of the world, it's how long your money is how long?

01:27:37 --> 01:27:49

Why? Because it deals with Riba and it deals with this and deals with that. And Swan is mixed, so it's mixed. So they say the Imams in the and they say like one of them said the Imams in the heroine in Mecca their money is how long

01:27:51 --> 01:28:04

Why? Because in Saudi there are banks and there is Reba and they deal with this and they deal with the international fund, International Bank, etc. And they This is her arm as it goes into their salary. So it's Haram. So what they do is, so their money is

01:28:05 --> 01:28:13

this kind of chasing things to that extent is not good. This is a Lulu Dean, Dean.

01:28:14 --> 01:28:15

And part of this.

01:28:19 --> 01:28:48

No, I don't want to get you into thinking about certain things. But generally speaking, if what you do generally speaking is Helen, there might be something dodgy there and you know, you live in a country where it's hard to find jobs and you know that you can't find a job afterwards. You know, you might put yourself in hardship and in harm and what you do is generally held on but a little bit something is introduced and has an element of how long my advice would be. If you know you're going to put yourself in trouble don't ask about it. Anyway, so what are you talking about?

01:28:49 --> 01:28:57

You know, the prophet SAW send them and let me show you this as well. One day, one person was so curious about what's next and what's

01:28:59 --> 01:29:31

one of the companions what is pure what's impure, like, okay, that's that's impure, I have to wash it, otherwise my Salah would not be correct, etc. He was walking with a hot tub and they passed by the House of someone he had like water dripping from top top of his house. And the water was dripping and it fell on the on that person which is like soap. So he asked yourself a bait ama aka heroin ama just like asked the man. He said, Is this water like pure or impure? And we'll have like, slapped him and he said yes, I have a bit a letter Jimbo.

01:29:32 --> 01:29:51

He said don't answer him. You're not you didn't you will not ask to dig deep to these issues. colosse Forget about it. Some people are chasing for what's harm and they just want to find it everywhere. By doing this you make things complicated for Muslims everywhere, even at the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam

01:29:53 --> 01:29:54

so this is why when the Prophet Salaam like

01:29:56 --> 01:29:59

after Hajj someone came to him and he said the Rasul Allah and lamb

01:30:00 --> 01:30:03

Should we make hedge every day? Or do we have to make hedge every year Sorry?

01:30:04 --> 01:30:13

The prophet SAW Selim did not like this question. He said no altona amlogic. But he said if I said yes, it would become obligatory on you to make hedge every every year.

01:30:14 --> 01:30:17

And this is why and of course with this Hadith, then inshallah

01:30:18 --> 01:30:20

the median period we'll deal with it shala next week,

01:30:21 --> 01:30:29

the province of Southern says In short, one nasty will shadow Muslim in the Muslim in Ramadan, salah and Miss Ella tiene

01:30:30 --> 01:30:33

cerca de la hora and half I heard very nicely actually masala tea.

01:30:35 --> 01:30:54

One of the worst Muslims to the Muslims to other Muslims. One of the West people to the Muslims, is someone who asks about something that Allah did not make a ruling about Allah remain silent about it. Imagine you just asked about it. Allah did not say it's halal or haram or worship or Morocco and he didn't say anything. He left it open.

01:30:55 --> 01:30:59

He remains silent about it misquoting him. So he asked about it.

01:31:00 --> 01:31:02

So Allah made it how long because of his question.

01:31:07 --> 01:31:14

See the issue of questions sometimes. So we need to be careful. I need to be careful. So from now on, don't ask me any question

01:31:18 --> 01:31:19

that shows

01:31:20 --> 01:31:38

this is not blood and tissue dude. Sometimes we ask questions. Because I would like to know what's about this is sometimes for fun. Sometimes I want to show like the teacher or the Imam or the shape or the the scholar that Oh, I know about this. So I'm asking you about something that's not easy, right? I want to give impression.

01:31:39 --> 01:31:54

This happens a lot. happens a lot. Sometimes you ask a question just to show the attendees I'm not talking about here. But generally speaking, sometimes people ask questions to everyone. I read about this. I heard about this before that I know it before you guys know about it.

01:31:55 --> 01:32:32

So we need to be careful about these. These questions have consequences. So don't ask don't ask why certain things like you will find this cause have differed about something else. There's a scholar that you trust, their knowledge and their Deen and their concern for the truth and the search for the truth. You ask them either directly or through a student of knowledge, you get the answer. That's it. Take it and you don't ask for this fatwa shopping is a very dangerous thing will lie. It said door for fitness. I get a lot of people, they come and ask me. And I usually ask them Did you ask someone else before they said yes. I said so why do you ask me?

01:32:35 --> 01:32:35

Why do you ask me?

01:32:38 --> 01:32:51

Because my answer there's not going to solve the issue for you. Right? It's not going to is gonna make it more complicated. And if you see I gave you an answer that's different from someone else who say why these Muslims differ right now. It's a new issue. I see a new fitna for you.

01:32:52 --> 01:33:07

Why push yourself there. Ask the person that you truly trust in terms of knowledge, a scholar, proper scholar, and preferably asking for students of knowledge, who knows your circumstances so they can ask the question in the right manner, and probably get a good answer, a suitable answer.

01:33:08 --> 01:33:14

And that said, Don't ask someone else. Anyone else. This fatwas shopping is really creating a lot of fitna among us

01:33:15 --> 01:33:19

and testing people about what do you or why do you have another opinion other machines

01:33:20 --> 01:33:24

that's from the things that are props aren't prohibited. So inshallah

01:33:26 --> 01:33:37

again, you probably this is normal reading for this week. But what I would say I would, I would like to give you a homework this time is just to get you to, I needed to find

01:33:39 --> 01:34:00

an example where there is a ruling you can ask you can ask people by the way say I don't have references you can ask people. I need you to find an example where in the Quran you find an all inclusive ruling and all inclusive ruling. The Sunnah Hadith of the Prophet Adam came and made some exceptions out of it.

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is called hos an all inclusive and then hos

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is the son that comes makes any an exclusion or exception out of that. I need you to find an example of this. You can find it in a book find it online. It's in Arabic called the am and costs. You will find it even like in English books, we'll talk about some effects, they must mention certain examples. So you need to bring an example and write it down and hand it over to me on a piece of paper with your name on it.

01:34:34 --> 01:34:34


01:34:36 --> 01:34:43

Okay, you need to find an example where the hold on gives you an all inclusive statement. For example on tells you

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what I think your whole machinery can mean and do not marry women who associate partners with Allah or non Muslim. Do not marry non Muslim women. That's cool.

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I am general. Okay all inclusive.

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The Koran itself came and made what we call auslese or house so it made an exception to this rule, which is in salt and Merida Allah Allah subhanaw taala says

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Leo, mahalo can play a better community now. Nakamoto Well, masana to Mina la Vina otaku, tab and the decent, chaste women from among People of the Scripture are halal for you to marry. So this makes an exception to the general rule. But this is in the Quran. I want you to find the all inclusive general text in the Koran, where the Sunnah makes the exception.

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Okay, takes part of that general ruling or a portion of it out of this general ruling.

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Okay, this is more of a training on a little bit of a solid facts but also blends into what we are doing the connection between Quran and Sunnah, specifically that some of the prominent these were the sources of legislation. Okay.

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Until next time, we'll finish with the median period. And we will conclude with what the characteristics of fit were at the time of the problem, then we'll move on to the second phase, which is the time of the components look at the time of the companions. And this is going to get more interesting because the handler during the time of the animal was fixed was clear cut, there was no issues. After the professor lamb you'll find differences, you'll find opinions, and that's very helpful to our times in Sharla. Just like last year, or So, last

01:36:36 --> 01:36:54

time, you said I'm still like, if you have questions, send them to me or at me, ma'am, on the email [email protected] I might not answer you directly. But inshallah like today I answered one question, but in the form of a discussion insha Allah. So Baraka Luffy also loves to them and to be able to do it with somebody else.

Exploring the Evolution of Fiqh. You will learn about the term fiqh, how it was used in the times of Prophet (SAW), times of Khulafa Rashidoon and how the four famous Madhahib evolved, reasons behind difference of opinion. How fiqh evolved to our time. And many other important and relevant topics related to our time.

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