Channel: Jamal Badawi
Series: Jamal Badawi - Pillars of Islam
© No part of this transcript may be copied or referenced or transmitted in any way whatsoever. Transcripts are auto-generated and thus will be be inaccurate. We are working on a system to allow volunteers to edit transcripts in a controlled system.
In the Name of God, the benevolent the Merciful, the creator and the Sustainer of the universe, peace and blessings upon His Messenger and servant Muhammad forever. I mean, I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except for the one God. And I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger and slave servant of God. To all of the viewers of the Islamic focus program, I greet you with the universal readings of peace, the greeting that have been used by all the profits from Abraham to Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. Assalamu Aleikum, which means peace beyond you.
This is the Islamic focus program. I'm your host Hamad Rashid. In today's program, we start our seventh in the series dealing with the Pillars of Islam. And today we'll be talking about the third pillar of Islam, which is the cut or roughly translated in English is charity. Joining me on the program is Dr. Jamal Baddeley, of St. Mary's University, assalamu, alaikum, brother Jamal, Ronnie.
I'd like to go to the meaning of the terms kata mentioned in my
opening remarks, it perhaps could be roughly translated as being charity. But oftentimes when you read books that have been written by many people who are non Muslims, there's different translations and different meanings that are assigned to this term, the cut sometimes, for example,
they indicate that it's like a tie, which would be familiar to many of our viewers, I'm sure some suggests that it's a tax, some say to religious tax, some say that it's, some say, charity, and so on, or any of these words are roughly equivalent to the term the cot, or equivalent to the terms of cat. Well, quite frankly, none of these terms really fully explains the original Islamic term soccer. I don't know of any language that has the exact equivalent to this.
The original or literal meaning of the cat in Arabic, means purity, purity.
For example, we find that in the Quran in chapter nine, verse one or three, addressing the Prophet says, take from their property,
something to purify them, and to Sanctify them, this is the origin of the word. Some other related meanings also in Arabic to the term zakka means also blessing or growth and development. Of course, blessing growth and development are also related to purification through the act of of payment of Zika.
The, in the legislative sense in terms of standard jurisprudence, is a cast simply means the payment of a certain percentage of one's assets
to the rightful beneficiaries, as an act of love of God and expression of obedience and gratefulness to him.
Within this basic sense, I explained then, the terms that you referred to, some are quite erroneous, some are incomplete
and erroneous term that I'm familiar like you mentioned, as mentioned quite frequently,
twice, it is not equivalent to twice, because if you look into the dictionary definition is the one tense of the produce of the land which is paid, especially in medieval times to support the church and clergy.
Whereas in Islam, Zakat is not paid to support clergy or church, it's paid to support the poor.
And in Islam, also, you don't know you know that there is no institution of church as is understood in the, you know, Judeo Christian tradition. The term tax is not appropriate either. Because when you say text, most people think of something that you've got to pay, because you've got to or else you'd be punished by law. If you don't pay it. When you pay your tax, you pay it also, reluctantly, you try to seek every deduction that you could possibly get. You could try your best to avoid payment of tax whenever it's legal, by claiming anything that you can, in the case of Zika
It has done essentially by the Muslim as an act of worship and love of God. So you don't do it reluctantly do it says yes, ethically.
Furthermore, nzqa also is different from tax. Because the care is determined by way of minimum and the Muslim is encouraged and induced to pay more than that minimum. You've never heard of that. In text. For example, if your tax return shows that you've got to pay $3,000, you don't say All right, let me pay 3500. He never heard of that. But in Islamic the other way around, I want to say 100, but not
nothing, the sonic attitude of payments as a worship of God as an obedience, gratefulness to him. Many people actually pay more than that.
So in that sense, then I would say that perhaps the term you used early charity, or arms, maybe charity is the closest meaning to expressing the meaning of the characters. If you check, for example, in Webster dictionary, it says that charity means an act of love of God or fellow human being. So it actually combines both of them. Maybe with just one reservation. Most people when you say charity, it gives the sense of something voluntary, you pay it or you don't pay it, it's all left up to you. What as an Islamic Mecca is an obligation, an obligation, a duty, and every Muslim there is a minimum. But of course, there is no maximum to what you could possibly face, I'd say
perhaps, charity is the closest,
we always encounter difficulty when we try to complicate things into a language. That's not the original. I'd like to ask you about the significance and the place of the cat among the pillars that we've been discussing, and we'll discuss them in the programs to come. It comes third, and we've talked about the first two principles that comes third is it doesn't follow that it's the third right.
The way I interpreted the Righteous Among the five pillars of Islam after the testimony, the prayers comes always second, and this is confirmed further in the Quran. When you find that the cow or charity has been combined or mentioned side by side with prayers in more than 80 verses easier. Just to give you an example in chapter 24, verse 56, it says, So establish regular prayer and give regular charity and obey the messenger, that you may receive mercy.
The Quran also indicates that failure to pay this duty of charity towards fellow needy human beings,
Aaron's the person the wrath and punishment of God in this life and in the Hereafter. And this life could be the loss of blessings, suffering and as well as the punishment in the hereafter. For example, in chapter nine in the Quran, in verse 34, you find a very dramatic description of how people who
are reluctant to pay the car are punished in the Day of Judgment.
It says that
those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of God announced unto them in most grievous penalty, and then it goes on describe that this metal that used to
cherish will be heated and that they will be marked our branded in their faces and their backs and their flanks. So it really gives a very terrible description of the consequences of this miserliness and lack of gratefulness to God. On the other side, you find also the Quran is replete with quotations which encourages people to do this act of charity or second, just to give you one or two examples.
In chapter two in the Quran, particular verse 261. And it gives a vivid description as to how God rewards people in many falls, of what they spend by way of charity. And listen to this, the parable of those who spent of their sustenance or wealth in the way of God is like that of a grain of corn.
It grows seven years, and each year has 100 grains. God gives many false or multiply the words
increase to whom he pleases, and God cares for all and he knows all things. So even one act of charity you spend $1, God cares about you even 700 times as much as you have spent and even taste and more.
This is one in describing the believers also on the Day of Judgment by way of their reward in paradise. For example, in chapter 51, from verses 15 on it gives a vivid description of the enjoyment and Felicity of believers and then it relates to the reasons One of which is
decide that you as to the
righteous, they will be in the midst of gardens and springs, taking joy in the things which their Lord gives unto them. Because before then that's before the day of judgment,
or while living on Earth, they lived a good life or righteous life. They were in a habit of sleeping, but little at night, because they spent part of it in worship. And in the hours of the early dawn, they were found, praying for forgiveness. And this is the past, in their wealth, and positions, was remembered the right of the needy, who asked, or those even who didn't ask. So in that sense, then, above all, the payment of the care or charity is an act of love of God is an act of expression of the commitment of Covenant, to obey God and submit to His directions.
Let's go back to the affordable for you to get you to elaborate a little bit when we were talking about the
the meaning you said that the cat literally means pure.
What What do you mean that could you explain what you mean when you say literally means purity? It means that when you pay zakat, it purifies and provides a number of meanings. Number one, it purifies your property or your assets. Because if this is a duty on you to pay, then it is not pure, unless you pay what is due on it, it purifies your property, it's more blessed, are legitimate or valid in a spiritual sense. Okay. Secondly, it purifies the heart
of he or she who gives the care, purify the heart from selfishness, greed, materialism, lack of concern for fellow human beings. So that's another meaning also of purification.
It also purifies the heart of the recipients of the care the poor, purify his heart from jealousy, from hatred against those who possess more and don't care for him. So by this kind of sharing the act of love and sharing and mutual concern, humanitarian feelings, his heart also security purified from jealousy,
you can look at it even in a social level. And you can say also Zakah is purification of society at large, from class struggle, and conflict. purification of society from social injustice is
the system of economics or politics, which allows the rich to become richer and the poor to become poorer, almost like taxing the poor to pay the rich, there are all kinds of things, as an example of this medical doctor, for example, can deduct the transportation cost of his car and depreciation, as part of his business expense. But poor you and me cannot do it, even though many people who are not earning as much are in more need to have this kind of deduction. Some can't even afford to buy the car. Exactly. Right. So this is one aspect to purify society from this kind of feelings of
injustice is and lack of concern for others.
It purifies society as a result of this from any subversive ideology which find fertile ground, when you have this kind of greed and lack of
social justice in the system of economics or social system. Jen,
you've touched lightly on this, the Islamic view of private ownership.
I'm sure that you know, this would be something that would be of interest to many of the people who are watching the program. It could you explain this few, perhaps a little more, at least as it relates to the concept of musica. We're talking. In other words, you're you're referring to the social justice that I mentioned as it relates to how Islam views.
property. Right. Right. Well, to start with, Islam makes it clear and we find abundant evidence of that in the Quran. That Above all, the, all the universe, with all what it contains, belongs ultimately and exclusively to God that is God is the absolute sovereign owners and Masters of the Universe.
From this basic notion, it follows then,
that no human being
owns anything in the absolute and ultimate sense.
According to the Quran, human beings are created to be the trustees of God on earth, to fulfill his well. It means then, that God out of his benevolence
even though he owns everything has endowed us with
This resources are This one's to test us to give it as a thrust in our hands so that to see whether we can use this capability or wealth in the way that pleases Him to serve ourselves, our families and humanity at large.
But in that sense, then you find that the Quran sometimes talk about property as the domain or ownership of God, for example, in chapter 57, verse six says, that those who believe in God and His Messenger and spent in charity, out of the sustenance were of he has made
you, IRS and trustees, he has given you that you don't really own it as such. But you find, however, that out of the grace of God, instead we find in the Quran, he uses the term use property, your wealth, to refer to human beings, in order to give us a sense of dignity, to give us a sense of, of confidence in ourselves, to encourage us and motivate us. And it is natural, instinctive nature in all human beings that they want to work and get some reward for that work, they want to accumulate some kind of wealth. So the Quran also on the other hand, uses the term your property.
We find that, for example, in chapter two verses 262, and also in 188, in the same chapter,
but something that's really fascinating in the Quran, that even though God owns everything,
when he asked us, or command us to spend part of that,
for the needy, he calls that alone. Imagine, he owns everything. And then we when we pay you consider it like a loan from us to him. Of course, not in the literal sense, God doesn't need loans from anyone, you don't borrow what you own. But it just gives us this sweet feeling that you are dealing not just with human beings, not with government, or tax collectors, we're dealing with God Himself was abundantly generous, in terms of of his reward. Just to give you one quotation of this, to get the sense of chapter two and verse 245. It says, Who is he or she, that will loan to God, a beautiful loan, which God will double unto his credit, and multiply many times?
And what could be a better deal
than this? As you mentioned before, in the same chapter, chapter two, it talks about multiplying seven times, 700 times or
more. So this reflects the attitude of the Muslim that neither does Islam re condemned
private ownership, nor does it tolerate greedy type of economic systems that crushes the poor and needy and just keep the rich richer, and the poor poorer, or at least, traditionally, it's a very beautiful concept, the concept of being a trustee, right? I think if people could keep that foremost in their minds, it might have a very profound impact in terms of how
our what our relationship, some of the economic systems that our sense of social responsibility end, I'd like to ask you a series of short questions now, relating to the system of the cat in its rules, I guess the one that would obviously come to most people's mind is who has to pay it here, we talk about taxes, everybody must pay the taxes if we're wage earners on what about the cat who has to who has to pays a cat, okay, the cat is due on every Muslim
something beyond his basic needs.
For a years, amounting to what is called nisab or more nisab was simply a minimum of extra, beyond which a person is not required really, to pay zakat. This nisab or minimum varies from time to time, it is estimated at the present time roughly between, let's say 405 $100 in other words, if you're a Muslim, you you have something beyond your basic needs amounting to $400 or more and you have that already for a year or more then Zika is due on on this extra whichever
extra assets in general that you may possess now when you say he's a cat is paid on on the on one's assets. Now, does that mean that all of the assets that you only for example, your hostess will be taken into into this calculation as well? No, there are exemptions just like he talks about deductions, legitimate deductions.
Of course. First of all, you don't pay the care on your basic needs. As I mentioned before, when you have like clause
At home or food that you're storing, you don't have to pay the counter because this is this our basic needs that exempt. Secondly, your principal residence
is also not marketable, you don't have to pay the
cost of whatever is not the category.
The tools of profession also is exempt from the care because this is not well, this is a tool to help you earn money. Suppose you're a carpenter or wherever you have equipments, you know, craftsmen that this is exempt. Some jurist also make an analogy to that with the machinery if you haven't factory, you don't pay account machinery if the machinery are used not to buy and sell but machinery to produce goods and services.
So this is also exempt for women, their jewelry, particular like you know, gold, silver, others is not also the catapult
to the amount that is acceptable as a good norm or a reasonable norm for personal use for adornment. But if those jewelry are used as saving, a method of saving, then it could be or that amount would be the category. But if it's just a person that use reasonable amount, that's not subject to two seconds. So this is doesn't mean that all acids that everything from your garment to
more or less in the jargon of the day, you might say the luxuries, what we would consider to be luxuries over and above what would be our basic needs. Right. Such an extra like some jurist divided they say it's the cause you in terms of assets in basically four categories. One is the produce, that's the produce of the land.
Secondly, it's also on cattle. And there is a whole detailed system, what kind of cattle the age and so on, and how much you pay out of each.
It is also due on so called articles of trade,
like the inventory, let's say that you
buying and selling in a year. And also on gold and silver, this has been a classic classification that you find in jurisprudence book. But of course today, instead of using gold and silver as coins, we are using money. So again, the same analogy applies to property that we have by way of money, like cash savings in the bank, or
even stocks that you're buying, because that's also could be analogous either to saving or two sort of investment which would fall under Zakah on articles of trade. But what about the amount of cycad required now,
this varies, you know, there's a big body of literature detailing all this issues. But to give it an a very brief and summary way, it ranges anywhere between two and a half percent
to 20%. Maximum.
And that varies with the type of assets and the difficulty with which you acquired this asset. So there's an event in session system of equity and justice example, for money for example, or savings or gold or silver, it's two and a half percent
on land or produce of land,
it is 10% if the land is irrigated only by rain, so you're not spending so much investment or effort on that. It is 5% if you're using equipment,
like you know, to irrigation equipment,
like motors and all that fun.
Some tourists also said that if it is irrigated combined a little bit by machinery and a little bit by rain, then it could be seven and a half percent. Some tourists even added that if it is just
if it's using equipment, and lots of effort and lots of expenditure that you have to put and then it comes two and half percent. So it varies anywhere between two and a half to 10% depending on again the method on treasure suppose
you walk next day in some Island and discover a treasure or something or mine without much effort. If you just face it like that without much expenditure, then you pay 20% out of that. So it varies like I said, but the most common of course is the two and a half percent in the
comment most common ones that most people look at in terms of cash value. That just we shouldn't be really carrying along the parallel between the taxes that we normally are familiar with in circuit but here for example, we know that I think it's March 31 is the magic day when we must pay the IRS or the national roads or else so what about the cat is there any particular time when the cat has to be paid? Okay, the most common rule is that it should be paid at the end of every year. But there are exceptions to that. If for example the treasure that you totally should find the treasure, treasure or mine Venza
And this would be due immediately after you find it because you haven't spent much effort
on produce of land that you did is the date of harvest, which is fair, because you don't pay it before the harvest is ripe. And it might not really turn out to be good harvest. So you pay when it's ripe and ready.
And all other cases you pay at least once a year. So you find out how much did you have beyond your basic needs for a year. And then you pay the account that
it is recommended, however, to pay the car during the month of Ramadan, the month of fasting, because this is a month where charity would be rewarded many faults.
But of course, if you decide not to wait until the end of the year, and you want to pay in installments, over the years, subject to final adjustment at the end of the year, that also would be acceptable. So basically, it's it's funny, and there's a good wisdom behind that. If the guy is paid every week or every month, it becomes quite cumbersome to those who paid it. If it becomes too long, then it becomes too hard on people who need to receive this account. So there's also a balance of the needs of individual and society. Which brings us into the next area who is entitled to receive this attack. This is specified in the Quran. There are eight categories in chapter nine verse 60. In
the Quran, which includes, first the poor, second miskeen, which means needy, who do not ask people who are so dignified, they don't even want to ask. Third could be the employees appointed by the government to collect the care if needed. Firstly, people who embraced Islam recently and have some difficulties settling until they also fought by the same token to prevent harm being done to Muslims. The fifth category to free slaves or prisoners of wars
set by the grandson, six for those who are in debt as a result of disaster, but not just squandering money on illegitimate means that expenditure,
seven in the way of God, which is an option, either for defense or propagation of the faith or bringing its message to others terms of education. And the final or its category in that chapter, is the wayfarers who are standard in foreign lands and don't have what is sufficient for them. And of course, it is recommended to give people who are in more need and to start first by your own
township or environment going gradually out. Of course, for those who are living in places where there is a large degree of affluence, many jurors said that they could send or transport this amount of charity to places where it is most needed, like places where there are lots of famines in the world today. And there are a lot more observant than what you might find in an immediate vicinity, then you could do that.
Just before we close off the this program, dealing with the cat is interesting.
At least we're carrying about before we started today's program for those people perhaps who may not be in a position to be able to make a monetary or some other payment of Zakat on a spreadsheet just might share that saying Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon them on both an act of charity about what you should really about the spouse? Oh, yes. Oh, yes. Actually, the word soccer which is used also for Zika and the monetary sense, right? He says that when you smile in your brother's face, this is charity. When you are then the good and forbid that even, that's charity. When you remove something from the way of people that might hurt them, that's charity.
When you help someone who is looking for a place and getting lost, that's charity, when you help someone who is blind or has bad sight, that is charity, when you give out of the water that you have in your bucket and put in your brother's bucket. This is also an act of charity. So it's much more than just money, much more than just money. But thank you, brother Jamal, for doing this program. we've exhausted our time for today. We want to invite you back to the Islamic focus program next week we will start another pillar on Islam. Thank you for watching Assalamu alaikum