Channel: Jamal Badawi
Series: Jamal Badawi - Pillars of Islam
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The name of God the benevolent the Merciful, the creator and Sustainer of the universe, peace and blessings upon his servant and messenger Muhammad forever. I mean, I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except for the one God. And I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger and slave servant of God. I greet you the viewers of the assignment focused reprogram with the universal readings of peace, a greeting that has been extended in many languages, but means the same irrespective of the medium chosen assalamu Aleikum, which means peace beyond you. Welcome to the Islamic focus program. I'm your host hamat Rashid. In today's program, we have our 11th program and
the series of Pillars of Islam. We'll be continuing our discussion of the hash or the pilgrimage to Mecca. And more specifically, we'll be reviewing the various rites of pilgrimage. Joining me on the program, as usual is Dr. Jamal betawi of St. Mary's University. Welcome brother Jamal, I should say,
May Allah forgive me, I should say assalamu aleikum wa alaykum.
I wonder Fraps See, you could just take a few minutes at the beginning of today's program to go back and just review the first two programs in the series on the pilgrimage of new the highlights branch. Our basic emphasis in the first two programs was on the historical aspects and the importance of the holy city of Mecca.
And the main points raised is that, first of all, the importance of Mecca goes back to the days of Prophet Abraham, peace be upon him. And we said that upon commands from God, he took his wife Hagar, his second wife, Hagar, and her son Ishmael was also a prophet, to the wilderness of Makkah, where they dwelt there.
We give that story and compared it with the story that appears also in the biblical tradition, and we have seen some of the points of similarities and differences. We tried to point out also that this is very significant city, in a sense that through Prophet Abraham came on monotheistic prophets, at least, who came after him came from his descendants. Through his second son Isaiah came on this route I prophets ending with Jesus peace be upon him. And so his first son Ishmael came the last prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. So we tried to make this connection between the so called three measures, monotheistic faith, as they are called the many writings.
We also described some of the places which are like historic sites, and Mecca, they will have Zamzam which gushed under the feet of Prophet Ishmael when his mother was looking for water, the hills of safa and marwah, between which Hagar was running in search for water. But more importantly, the car by itself.
We have some slides will be shown later in the program, the first house on earth to be built for the worship of the One God as a monument for monotheism, which was built also by Prophet Abraham, with the help of his son, Prophet, peace be upon him. In the last program. We touched also briefly, on the story of sacrifice, which took place according to Muslim beliefs, also near Mecca. When God directed Prophet Abraham to take his only son at that time, and of course, his only son was his first son, for 14 years profit, Ishmael and offer him and sacrifice we discussed that also, with some comparison with the biblical story. Just for purpose of clarification.
I perhaps should note our viewers will note that you have a very special wardrobe on today and actually just mentioned that now instead, we're going to later in the program will be explaining the your wardrobe for today.
I understand that. Millions of people travel and make this make the pilgrimage to Mecca from all over the world. What reflections did you make on the scene regarding this extensive travel that's associated with the with the pilgrimage
Understand people come from on camel by air by car on foot to
It's when you reflect on it First of all, it's really
is a fulfillment of the prophecy made in the Quran. The Quran describes that when Prophet Abraham did that how is God ordained him what had been finesse if it had to carry Jalan proclaim on people to come for pilgrimage they will come to you on forth on and on every source of our means of transportation. That was about 3000 years ago.
For about 1600 years, the this notion of pilgrimage was not to be perfected until Prophet Mohammed this weapon ham came. And that prophecy and
made by Prophet Abraham, or the good news given to him has been finally fulfill. But also, when you look at it, when people travel all the way from Indonesia, to South
Africa, Central Africa, from Europe, from the United States and Canada, from all parts of the world, in itself,
is a reflection of devotion to God. In a way it is a reenactment of the frequent journeys and travels as I think of it, of Prophet Abraham, as you know, Prophet Abraham, as the father of monotheism kept traveling in so many places. He took lots of troubles and difficulties trying to spread the true face of God on a theistic face. And in a way, when the pilgrims come from all walks of life, from all parts of the world, they are almost like following the steps of their fathers, if you take Father, father and faith, Prophet Abraham, in devotion to God. The other thing that might be a reminder also is that the journey to come to the holy city to make the pilgrimage is in itself,
a reminder for us as humans, that our entire life is nothing but a journey.
A journey which might be a little longer or a little shorter, God knows. But we have to realize that also we're passing through a journey in our life, that this life has an end has an ultimate destiny and that destiny is to go back to God to account for our lives. These are some of the reflections again, especially on this issue of moving, taking all the trouble and difficulty traveling to the Mecca. Would you explain when the Hajj or or the pilgrimage is made?
Okay to answer that question about how would you have to make a distinction between
two aspects of pilgrimage there is one that's called ombre,
translated in English roughly as the lesser pilgrimage.
This could be performed at any time, year round.
But this is not a fulfillment of the full duty of making pilgrimage. In other words, it's just a lesser pilgrimage.
This one, like I said, makes it easier for many people who are not available or not able to travel during the specific period of pilgrimage in one year or the other to visit at any time. I know for example, some people in North America who are visiting back home like some traveling from North America to Indonesia, or Africa or some other places, they make it a point to stop on the way to make this less African. This is a very simple one. It could be fulfilled actually, in a couple of hours, no more, just all in the confines of Makkah, itself. This is one but the measure pilgrimage, the one that is mandatory on every Muslim male and female who was able to do it, to do it, at least
once a year must be performed within a specified period. It's usually about one week from the eighth day of the month of the hedger to the 30th day. So it's about six days, the real thrust of the major pilgrimage the month of the hedger is the 12 months and the Islamic lunar calendar. This calendar is based on the moon. And as such, it's about 11 days shorter than the solar is that's why the pilgrimage as you notice from the media, keep changing between different seasons, just like the what you mentioned before about
In either cases, whether you're doing the lesser pilgrimage or the major pilgrimage, it always starts with a state called the state of Ashram. That is a state of intention and really going through certain rites
to mark the beginning and intention to do the spirit connection. Now at what point is the prevalence supposed to make the
Or to begin the state of a crime or, or the to make the intention is he does he do it before or after entering Mecca, it is out of the compassion of God that he did not require beginning that state of
at least the procedures and restriction that you have to follow during this period. From the moment you leave your home, that's not required. Because if this is so some people might be traveling for a longer period of times, and it's quite restrictive. As we'll be describing later, there are certain things that you should do or you shouldn't do during that period. For that reason, the
stage where you should really be fully in the state of SRAM or intention begins in specified locations called the market ranging between 100 to 500 kilometers outside,
depending on which direction you're traveling from, whether you're coming from north south east west,
you cannot pass that point which is very close to Mecca without really being fully in the attire and the state of intention to perform the
the pilgrimage. Of course, if some people are traveling by plane, you could start that state or right while you're in the air. Some people will go to the airport in Jeddah, which is step south of Mecca far enough to start making again or initiating the process of pilgrimage. Now, how does it does a person expressed the the intention? Or how do you enter the state of rum? I mean, is there any particular thing that an individual has to do any particular right or any particular observance that's that's needed or necessary, what is more important than right is the intention. Because in Islam, every deed really should be preceded by intention, a person before doing anything should
always think why he's doing that and get it get it in his heart, he doesn't have to utter certain words, but he has to have the clear intention in his heart of why he's doing this. In this case, then one would have the intention that he is beginning to perform this required worship, out of obedience and submission to the will of God and in the pursuit of his of his pleasures.
But in addition to this, it's also desirable, before the person really put on the Haram clause, or a child that you see on me today is to take a bath first, clean himself thoroughly herself.
And then after that a person should put aside, put away all his regular clothing, because during 30 minutes, at least for the specific period, where you're really in the state of performing the rights,
Muslim is not supposed to wear his normal or usual clothing. And this is a very simple thing. It's basically
like two pieces of towels, just two straight pieces. One of them could be wrapped around the waist,
like this, you can just wrap them around you a couple of rounds, and then twist it. So that it may hold. There is nothing wrong also using a belt if need be, to hold it, but a person I didn't use, it will just grab it and twist it. And then the second sheet is just like this one, which is held on one side and put on the right shoulder leaving the left shoulder
exposed, in addition to this person also should not wear his regular shoes. Anything that is used to getting away from that routine, most people would wear something like sandals, pair of sandals.
But in any case, the heels should always be exposed. And also for the male is not supposed to cover his head during the period of Falcon unless of course the person is sick or some years of dire need. But otherwise,
this is all that one. And there should be nothing Warden or sun closing underneath this. In other words, just one depth around the body and the other one covering the upper part of the body. Very simple, very
straightforward. Now how about the ladies, the women do they wear the same attire is the is the male? Well, for women, they have a concession because as you know, for women, there's an Islam requirement for
more modesty than men and competitive terms. They can for example, that part of the body being exposed a Muslim woman is supposed to cover her body except for the face and and so they're giving the concession they are not restricted by this because as you know, if you have unsigned clothing, you can't really have proper and complete cover of the body. So they can wear anything.
but they're not supposed to cover their face or Hendrik In fact, Islam does not make it a requirement in hajj or pilgrimage or otherwise, that the woman cover her face or hand this sometimes our customs with, that's not
required, and more. So in the case of pilgrims, she's not supposed to do that.
But she can't cover
her head. But still in keeping in the spirit, of pilgrimage of simplicity, it should not be clothing that show off either the body or show off of wealth,
in other words, has to be a simple garment loose, that covers entire body except for face and hand, and preferably even just simple white material. So that the sense of equality would be felt by all those who are doing pilgrimage. I wonder if perhaps you could take some time to explain the significance of this tire and why it is that a pilgrim is required to take off his ordinary clothes. Okay? First of all, when we talk about clothes, usually we use that as a symbol of our individuality,
a symbol of our personal ego.
Clothing, in a way also is regarded as a symbol of authority, you know, various attire as authority, power, wealth, and all of this, when the person is going for pilgrimage, which is a very high and pure acts of worship to God, of devotion to him, this kind of egotistic things really should be forgotten for the time being, it's a training on the individual. Remember, a reminder for him, that you could be a king or a common man, you could be rich or poor, it could be male or female. But don't you forget that the essence of you is your humanity, you're a human above all. So by casting away, the normal clothing that you have the symbols of this, all this
you know, false symbols that some people usually take as expression of superiority or put that away, and just be a human. This way you find everybody the rich, the poor, people from different professions you can get the professor, medical doctors, telegenic lawyer would have to take off is exactly what a sleepy suit or whatever, everybody's the same, and everybody wearing the very same simple material. This is really an expression in a practical
manifestation, practical way of the true essence of human brotherhood and equality. Now over and above the observance of the of this attire, are there other things which have to be observed? Certainly, that's why I mentioned earlier that the specific restriction are limited, in fact, because you can do things only when you're entering the state of consecration the stated intention. That's why it's not required from the moment you leave your home, at least some of them are not. But the thing that are especially emphasized is that one should abstain from any disruptive act, he should always watch himself or herself. In fact, one verse in the Quran describes that beautifully.
It says that pilgrimage is done in certain or appointed times. And whatever is going for that pilgrimage, he should totally abstain from any indecency
and words or deeds, actually, that's acquired also outside of head but again, one has to be particularly careful during that period, it shouldn't get into any arguments or violence.
But it is not only limited to how men or mankind using death in generic term relate to other human beings, but even relating to the environment relating to other creatures, he has also to be a perfect piece. During that period, for example, when you start the rites of pilgrimage, lesser or minor, I mean, lesser or, or major. I mean,
you're not supposed to engage in any hunting, for example, you can't, you can't kill an animal, you can kill even an insect. The only exception of course, if there is something that threatens your life and you have to defend yourself but otherwise you have to be a perfect peace with the rest of the creature, but not on the living things is in threes.
You're not supposed to cut you can't cut even a twig of a tree while you're in that state and there are penalty for that.
even trimming your fingers, your your nails. You can't do that. Cutting the hair you can touch can't touch it, but you can still cut your hair in this video. In addition to that, also
A person for example, who is married, he cannot have any close relationship or intimate relationship with his wife.
During that period, one cannot any perfumes, in other words, all this worldly masks and pleasures that we are used to you get away from it and just come back to your fundamental and basic simple humanity.
Now, when we see films and and other
things reflecting the pilgrimage, we noticed that people are chanting on their way to Mecca. What what are they saying? What are they? Okay, one of the highly encouraged acts in particular is that once you start the state of Iran, outside of, of Makkah, that's before you enter Mecca.
You're supposed to repeat certain prayer or supplication to God. In Arabic, it goes like this, that the combo met a bake, that Baker Sheree cannot bake in 101. Now matter that government Sheree cannot, the draft translation in English, even though we capture the beauty of it really. It says here I stand in your service, or God, here I stand.
There is no partner with you, here I stand verily us is the praise, the blessings and the majesty, there is no partnership with the. So it's a kind of like a response to the call of God a response to the call made earlier 3000 years ago by Prophet Abraham, that everybody should sanctify and purify that house and use it for the worship of the one God. So it's a kind of response to that code. But this
chanting, usually have to stop once you enter the holy house, you're the executive, place the cover, and then you can start and then there are other proceedings. But it's beautiful to see that happening.
While people are traveling, I've been in that situation myself, for example, in the plane, for example, when they're getting close to the Jeddah airport, people repeating this or somebody leaving and the whole plane.
The Pilgrims are repeating after him. I've been also sometimes in cars, buses or others will again people keep repeating that until they reach the carpets and it's really beautiful. Now, if you pass along some slides, I wonder if perhaps you could give us some description of what the cab is like what it looks like, and perhaps some explanation of its of its significance for sure. Certainly, his first
aerial view of the Kaaba, as you notice here, the right in the middle, there is the structure of the cabin itself. And then you have this shape around it, which is just, you know, like building and I can see some of the minarets also. And of course, the rest would be the some of the buildings around. So this is just one broad aerial view. And this slide again, we find another aerial view, it's just a little bit closer. You can see there some of the minarets around the building.
Here's another shots of the cover a little closer, showing the again the number of people inside
another view of the Kaaba, Big C one C of humanity of people, they're all Yes, it's amazing, really special during the major pilgrimage season when there are
hundreds of 1000 people actually about 2 million annually make the pilgrimage, listen to yours.
Here's another view of the car back at night.
And by the way, day or night, this is another view day or night. There are always people in the cabin. I was there once in winter, which was too far away from the pilgrimage season. I went there about three and 330 in the morning and said there were multitudes of people it never never at any moment
was the empty
space on the cover all those people there.
Here's another shots of the door, one of the doors of the cabin.
At night again.
This is during the day.
Some of the minutes.
It is another SHOT Show you since you're talking about people that even might show the extent of
number of people
and say this is a little bit of a close up. You'll notice there that's the comma. Just a very simple
cubical structure, it's not required to cover it with this clause that we deal with. It has been just a tradition that they have
some material around it with some verses from the Quran inscribed on it. But that's not required. It's simply just, but it's a very simple structure.
This is another closer look
at the camera.
This is a door
that you see, in the far end of the slide the door to the Kaaba, of course, you might wonder what is inside? The answer is nothing, it's very simple
structure, it's just empty from inside. Because as you know, in Islam,
there is no image that one should take for God, physical or otherwise, it should be no image at all.
So it's very simple structure. There's nothing nice not in description, even in the building itself, or the car, just pure bricks, this is just a cover that people have
is another entrance.
One of the many emphasis of the carbine has been expanded greatly to accommodate the increased number of increased number of people who go for pregnant but its main significance really is that you go there. And it's very difficult to describe the feeling and the excitement when you see the cap. You see here Now am I am I on I am on in front of the first house on Earth, before any other temple that connects to the worship going up here I stand in response to the call of God, you feel very much attachment and closeness to press it Abraham
who built this car originally, this is another you see the
another shot of the door of the camera. So you feel very much identify with the whole caravan of believers of monotheistic prophets who preach the Word of God throughout history. It's just indescribable feeling. And the strange thing and I'm speaking again from firsthand experience, once you enter inside the Kaaba, you have a very peculiar sense of tranquility and peace
and discovery. Right? And when a person or when an individual pilgrim reaches the Kaaba, what are they supposed to do when they reach the cabinet? Okay, once you reach the Kaaba, as I said before, first of all to start the chanting that used to do and then the person is required to make seven.
circling around the Kaaba circumambulation are just to go on to cover seven times with the Kaaba as a structure being on your
left side. Now, in order to have it organized, not only are you required to keep the carbon on your left hand so that all people will be moving in the same direction.
But also, it starts from one particular point and that is the corner and the Kaaba, where the black stone is housed. We can talk later on about the black stone, its origin and significance. But this is just like the cornerstone, where you start counting your seven
rounds around the Kaaba while you're doing this rounds, you pray earnestly to God for forgiveness for guidance and support in your life and salvation in your head.
Does the circling of the Kaaba have any particular significance? Many people make their various interpretations of that but first of all, the rites of pilgrimage should be emphasized or done out of full obedience and submission to God to do it exactly as he ordained as he communicated through His Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. But there have been lots of people who are have been reflecting also on the significance of that one of them is an Australian who embraced Islam. His name was hammered ESET Dr. Muhammad Asad. And he likened this going around the Kaaba as just like the atom when the electrons and neutrons keep circling around the center. And just like the solar
system, again, weather is always the center, and there's rotation. And he says, in a way, as human beings we are keep moving. There is always dynamic change, just like certainly, but still, as humans, we should always have one clear, objective and life one center in our lives, and that is to worship God to seek His pleasure in this life and his
Felicity and rewards in the hereafter. Well, we want to invite everybody to come back next week we will continue our discussion on the hash of the pilgrimage. we've exhausted our time for the day. Thank you for watching. Assalamu alaikum peace be unto you