Usul Al-Fiqh #08

Ibrahim Hindy

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Channel: Ibrahim Hindy

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So now to go into labor cattle

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spindown

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salatu salam ala Rasulillah who are the early heroes like milioni wala

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rubbish. Shokri sultry wasalam reworked along with Emily sanef Oh, they

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are. So inshallah

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ready to continue with our class. I want to ask you because looking at the contents I need to cover I think maybe there's only four classes left maybe maybe five go a little bit longer but I think around four so I wanted to ask

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Do you guys have something in mind of what you want to study for the next course

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we could do a lot it's for PA which are legal Maxim's which are somewhat similar to soon but a little bit easier to be honest.

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Or we can take a book on Fifth and teach fifth

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but I wanted to see if anybody had something they really wanted to study.

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So how did

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you

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you want to learn Arabic shall long and get someone to teach that some benefit

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with the Arabic course yeah, yeah.

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But I can find mistakes was very good.

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We actually get us a whole bunch of

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extra fish that was particularly fresh. And it was it was an Arabic course or it was no it was. It was English and what was it?

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What was the topic? Was inheritance, inheritance. Okay.

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Mashallah.

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Yeah?

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Yeah?

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I book Yeah.

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For sure.

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Yeah. So there's, there's a book Officer, Mr. serratus, usually what people start with an empty field.

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And it's a good book to go through. I'll have to look to see if it's in English. If they translated it, they might have.

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But in sha Allah, that's something I can look into in trauma. I'll send maybe surveil? Take everybody's opinion inshallah.

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Okay.

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So like I said, last class was very difficult, this class might be also difficult, and then it will get easier in sha Allah, it's when you talk about that a lot. It gets difficult because it has a lot to do with language as well. And so understanding language is very important. But let's do a little bit of a review we talked about, so let's do it even bigger review.

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Quick review here.

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So when we talked about data that's like Siemens that adds, we're talking about the words, right? We're calling it lexical inferences. It's the words like you're, you're dealing with the AI, or the Hadith. What is an error? Hadith? It's made up of words, right? So you're dealing with these words. So how do we understand these words? So this is different ways of looking at it? Right, so this is what we already covered. The words of the AI are the words of the Hadith, you can look at it from this perspective. Either the words have one meaning and cannot have any other meaning. There's no possibility of another meaning. And this will be called data to us. Or it can have one meaning that

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is more likely, and another meaning that's less likely that's a volume

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and the less likely meaning would be and and you can have the words of the eye are the words of the Hadith can have more than one meaning and we don't know which one is stronger than the other both it's unclear which one is stronger than the other and this would be at the moment. So this is one way of looking at the words right one way of looking at the words of the eye or the Hadith. Another way of looking at the words is is what that a or Hadith saying is it monk book, or is it a form? What is the difference between one token a form and you don't want to give me definition?

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Their own words? Yes.

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itself themselves, so like the actual meaning of the words, and

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so what? Beyond

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so yeah,

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I use that mantra because what the spoken word is saying, and whom is what we infer from that word what is implied by those words? Now, why would it be important for us to know if we're looking at an AR Hadith? Why is it important for us to know the month open in a form? Why is that an important thing to figure out to begin with?

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What do you guys think?

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It's louder.

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We can make a judgement about it. So which one would be stronger? Typically, if we have one, somebody brings a hadith and says, the meaning of this as Ubuntu. And you bring a hadith that has the opposite meaning and you say that the meaning of this hadith is in the form, which one would be stronger?

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Montauk would be stronger than the form, right? Because my form were still interpreting more than the Montauk, right. Of course, it's never that simple. There's usually other variables. But just to understand, why do we need to know them on top of them a form, because then on top would always take precedence over the form. Right? What is clearly spoken, will take more precedence over what is generally implied.

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And then we said from them, of whom there is,

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you know, I'm a former animal. Hi, my wife, I'm a former Khalifa. But for more Africa is what is implied that agrees with what has been said. And the former Khalifa is what is implied, that would be the opposite of what has been said. Right? We put this into different conditions that we talked about last time. And we said, there's also conditions to applying the full moon will qualify, we went over this before as well.

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So these are some examples we went over. So now today, we want to talk about that in the beginning when we're talking about

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all the way back here. When we're talking about the different data. That's right, we said you have the right to pneus, which is one, the meaning of the Quran and Sunnah or the Hadith, can only carry one meaning cannot carry any other meaning beyond it. But we said a VAR head is when it is the more likely meaning and not the less likely meaning meaning the higher the Hadith has the possibility of meaning multiple things. And the more likely meaning what we call VA here. Can someone give me an example of

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example of a hadith and what would be the law hit of the Hadith?

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Yes.

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So the hadith of Witter, where the Prophet salallahu Alaihe Salam says elegido Quran pray, which are people of the Quran, what's the law head of that hadith? What would be the apparent of that hadith?

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The apparent meaning is, it's Whadjuk to pray with him. Of course, because of other Hadith,

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the humbly scholars will say, we know the law head of that hadith is that it's obligatory to pray later, but because of other Hadith, we will take them well when we will take the interpretive meaning, right. But that's an example of the volume of the Hadith because that hadith could mean that which it is legit. And it could mean that Winston is Mr. Ham. Right? The more likely meaning if you only have that hadith, you didn't have anything else to look at. All we had was that one Hadith pray, which had oh people of the Quran, we had nothing else to look at beyond that hadith, the volume of the Hadith, the apparent meaning of that hadith is, it's why I urge him to pray with him.

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Right, because there's other evidences, the scholars will take a different meaning of it. So now as we look at the volume, any Hadith has a lot here. We can categorize it with different categories.

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The volume of the Hadith can be categorized as it could be a command, an M, Allah gives us a command or the Prophet gives us a command. Or it could be a Nahai, a prohibition, we're prohibited from doing something. It can also be categorized as arm or hos, arm meaning general. So the I the hadith is speaking in a general form, or it could be speaking in a house in a specific form, it's addressing a specific people

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and or a specific case or a specific situation. And it can be also interpreted as whatnot, or Moca yet, what luck meaning it is unrestricted and will create meaning that the meaning of it is restricted.

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And so we will cover inshallah all of these are these three of them today, hopefully inshallah.

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So, first we'll talk about an M V commandment from Allah subhanaw taala. And the definition of a commandment is

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the calling for an action

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via statement so when we are commanded to do something,

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the Prophet says do this. This is a commandment.

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Right? So it's a call towards action.

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And first we start with Mallya, doula. So what are the things that indicate to us that a command has taken place? How do we know a commandment has happened? In the Quran or in the Sunnah. So the first is the imperative verb.

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So this is why I tell you guys we're going through the most difficult part of the soul, because it deals a lot with language, right and grammar and things like that, which are not usually fun to learn, but important to learn. Inshallah, so, the imperative verb so Allah subhanaw taala says, well clean salah, established sada. Right, this is a imperative verb. So these are words created to create an imperative that gives a command to the person being addressed. Right.

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So a clean slate, an established sauna. These words are created to make an imperative of the command of praying sloth at

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the second is the present tense verb connected to lamb.

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The lamb

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lamb will Amma so this is where a verb there's a verb but the verb begins with the letter lamb

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the letter lamb

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and this indicates a command okay? So examples of this in the Quran

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while your thought with while your thought waffle beta it, Allah says and let them make pull off around the ancient house. There's a lamb before the verb well yet powerful, right? So that lamb before the verb indicates a command,

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Li taught me in OB la he was only Allah Allah Allah says, Lee told me no, there was a lamb there. Lee took me no believe in Allah and His messenger. So the lamb is connected to the verb and this indicates a commandment.

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The third type is in fact, um, which is a noun, imperative verb,

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which is difficult to explain. But when you have a noun, that essentially implies a verb.

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So an example is how yadda yadda.

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So he is very difficult to translate the truly, we usually say Come to Prayer as a translation, but he is not a verb. And the language is not a verb. It's almost like saying,

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I don't know how to say it. I don't I don't know a way to translate it.

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Yeah, like

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it's not really a verb. You say like, Whoa, he's saying if you say Woe to someone, it's not really a verb, but it's implying an action right?

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Another an example I don't give the example but

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further, Dr. Medina Cafaro. For the robbery club. If you meet those who disbelieve on the battlefield, for adorable report, then the striking of the next Allah does not say in the verb strike the next. He just says in a noun form, then the striking of the next, what does it mean? was telling you to fight them to strike their necks on the battlefield. This is in the context of the battlefield, just for the Facebook to know. This is what we're doing. Okay? But it's it's a noun. It's not a verb. But it is a noun, imperative verb, so it's implying a verb of a commandment. The fourth

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thing that signifies a commandment is quote, a Sahabi the statement of a Sahabi so if they said, I'm not gonna Rasulullah sallallahu wherever you send them, the prophet commanded us to this or we were commanded women. Right? We were told we were commanded to do this.

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Like I show the Allahu, she said that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam told us woman that Nunziata Ness, Mina Zillow home, we were commanded to tell the people to leave their homes to come out of their homes. So this is the sahabi is are the companion or the companion the female companion is telling us that the Prophet commanded this. So that is an indication of a commandment from ALLAH SubhanA wa Tada. So all of this indicates a commandment in the Sharia. Notice we're saying it indicates a commandment, because it's not necessary to be it's

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Not necessarily a commandment, meaning that

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the Sahaba could say we were commanded to do X, Y and Zed. And it doesn't necessarily mean that it is Whadjuk to do this, right? But we say the principle, the principle if we read a hadith, the principles that if it says we were commanded that it means

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it's an obligation, right? It means that the commandments it's a command, it's an honor, and it becomes an obligation. And this is where we come into the inferred meaning Adela over here, right? So these indicate a commandment. What do we do with the commandment? Either we understand the commanded by itself? Or we understand the commandment by others? What do we mean by others? The Prophet commanded us to do something that comes in one Hadith, we look at other Hadith, right? Is this commandments?

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Did he mean why did he mean, you know, Mr. Hogg? What did he mean by it? We look at other dedied This is the lady here right? Now, we never see if we took that commandment by itself. What does the command of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi salam or of the Quran mean? What does it imply? Right, what is principally what does it mean? So the number one thing we said, it means I will do obligation, according to most of the schools, and most of the scholars, so most scholars across most of the schools will say, if there's a commandment, immediately a means would you obligation, right? So this is from the principle from point of principle. So for instance, Allah says, well, clean was salah,

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establish Salah. This is a command, right? We establish it's a command, we immediately say it indicates obligation, right.

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What else does it indicate for us? What else does the commandment indicate for us? We say indicates alpha, which is immediacy. Again, with most of the scholars, it means immediacy, what does it mean? Why do we mean immediacy? We mean that when there's a commandment,

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does it mean that we have to immediately do it? Or can we be late? Can we do it later? Can we do it? You know, whatever we feel like or can we do it far off into the future? What does the commandment entail? What does it mean? Does it mean immediacy or not?

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We say principally it means immediacy. Right?

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Yes, principally, it means immediacy.

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So when the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says are uns in Allah catabolite como el Hajj for her Ju, O people, Allah has commanded you to do Hajj to perform hajj, we say this commandment should be done immediately. Right people should try to do it immediately, and not wait on to doing it because the commandment entails immediacy.

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The next point is that the commandment also

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implies repeated pneus meaning

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when a command is made, if we are commanded to do something in the Quran and the Sunnah.

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Do we assume that it should be done once in that's it? Or should we assume that it should be done repeatedly?

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So we say that we assume the repeated nature of the commandments.

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And the evidence of this is that most of the commandments in the Sharia require consistency that require us to repeat it to do it often, and to be done repeatedly.

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So for example, Allah subhanaw taala says, Yeah, you already know it's up Allah. Oh, you who believe fear Allah. have Taqwa of Allah. Can somebody say I have Taqwa of Allah today. So now I don't need to have the law. I don't need to repeat it. That's it. I just didn't want. No we can't do that. Right. So almost all the commandments are like this. Yeah. You know, you believe I mean, we believe, right? Allah tells us to believe it's a commandment. We believe today. We're not complete tomorrow. No, we have to repeat our belief every single day. Now somebody might say, Well, what about how

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are we just talked about hedge? What about hedge? So we say no hedge is not meant to be repeated.

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Why? We say because the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said Alhaji O'Meara had is to be done once. Right? So the Hadith shows us that in this circumstance, it doesn't need to be repeated. So we say principally if there's a command, we assume it needs to be repeated. Allah

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There's evidence that tells us it doesn't need to be repeated.

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The next is an interest, fulfillment. So, this is a bit difficult to explain.

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But if you are commanded to do something,

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and then you do it,

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are you required to do it again, you fulfill the commandment now that you fulfilled it, and you receive the reward in sha Allah for it,

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do you need to make it up to make up for what you did? If you fulfill this

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and we're talking about again, in principle, let me give you an example. Because I'm trying to think of one.

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Let's say it's Ramadan.

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And you're going to take a flight out of the airport's

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Astra method. Okay? So you're in the airport, you get into the airplane, the sunsets, its method of time. So you fasted from Fudger to negative, you drink, you break your fast, then the plane takes off.

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And now you see the sun. Because the plane goes up, and you see the sun again. You're like, wait, I'm still in the day of Ramadan. This is the day because I can the day is when you can see the sun.

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Have I fulfilled my faster? Do I need to make it up?

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You fulfilled Why did you fulfill?

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So the way we could say is once you fulfilled it, we did it from beginning to end, right? Once we fulfill that, then the principle is that it has been fulfilled. Right? The principle has been fulfilled, we don't need to make a law over. Because in principle, the ACT has been done.

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The next point is and now here and the whole that the prohibition of its opposites.

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So for instance, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, suddenly call him and pray while you are standing.

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What does that mean about praying while sitting?

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It's not permissible. Right? It's not permissible unless there's a need unless there's a need for it. It's not permissible. So we say that when we are commanded to do something, principally, its opposite is haram. Right? When we're commanded to do something, in principle, the opposite of what we've been commanded to do is haram. So when the prophet tells us pray standing immediately, without needing any other Hadith without needing any other evidence, immediately we say in principle, praying while sitting is haram because the Prophet told us to pray while standing.

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This six points is would you call a locked in fact that

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a commandment of something which is market now we talked about market a long time ago in this course, what is the thing that is market? And why Japan markets? What did we say about it? What is the definition of

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a time restricted

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obligation, so an obligation that is restricted to time so if there's an obligation, a commandment that is restricted to time, that indicates the need for COBOL? To make it up? If the time has passed, meaning if we're commanded to do something, and that thing is connected to time?

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And the time passed before we did it?

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Do we have to make it up? We say in principle, yes, you have to make it up.

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Okay.

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Now, this is a difference of opinion between scholars. And also this this one category is a difference of opinion between scholars and some scholars, I think in the chef or the madhhab. I could be wrong.

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They say that

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the principle is that there is no code All

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right, what do we mean here? So I'll give you an example.

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This Shediac commands us to pays a cat and fits on the day of varied, correct. On the day of our even even fit, we have to pay the cat and fit.

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If a person doesn't do so, whatever reason they forgot, on purpose, whatever. And they prayed or either federal husband prayed.

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Is he required to make it up or not?

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He remembers afterwards he realizes afterwards Oh, I didn't pay the captain fifth, does he have to pay it or not? There is no Dedede there is no evidence that says whether he does or doesn't.

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So now it's a question.

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So in our method, we'd say you are obliged Swagat for you to pay, there's a Catherine fit, if the time has passed, why, because we say in principle, when there's an obligation, and the obligation is related to time than if the time passes, you need to make it up. If the time passes, and you didn't do it, you have to make it up.

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So we would say it's like paying a lot. It's a Club offers a Catholic fix. So he's sinful.

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Yeah, so. So here's where you get the difference of opinion. So we're gonna say, he is sinful for missing it, he still has to pay us, and he is paying for Catherine fifth. But if you are Shefali, if you're a scholar of Sweden, from the chef, a method, you will say this principle doesn't exist. Therefore, if you miss the time to pay the counterfeits, there is no as a counterfeiter to pay. You understand? Because they'll say there's no codon.

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Know you don't fight to cry, because there's evidence of Kabbalah, you don't apply it to prayer, because there's evidence of prayer. So this comes into play, when there's a wedge of where there's no evidence of the Prophet telling people to make it up. Right? There's no evidence of the Prophet saying, Go make up. There's evidence of the Prophet telling people don't make up your prayers, right? There's evidence in the Prophet and the Quran telling us to make up our CM or fasting, right? There's no evidence about second, third, fifth. So now, what is the principle that becomes the question? What's the principle? So for us, the principle is a lot, right? The principle is the call

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has to be done.

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So if the two are arguing from our from our methods perspective, if two people are arguing, one person says, you have to make a dot, the other person says, You don't have to make a dot? Who has who has the burden of proof, who has to bring the evidence.

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The one who says you don't need football, needs to bring the evidence because for us, even without evidence, we have to make a lot. Right, if there's an obligation, even if there's no evidence, we have to, we have to make a law. But and so if somebody says there is no call doc for this specific action, we say you have to bring the evidence, right.

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And if you're sharing it, that would be the opposite. Right?

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And so this is all based on the command BNF see, based on itself, but like we said you can make between maybe there's another Hadith there's another idea about that issue. So maybe we say based depending on the other evidence, we might say, we're not gonna think that the the commandment is watching or based on other evidence, we think that this commandment does not require us to be immediate or based on other evidences, we think this commandment does not tell us to be repeated. Right like hudge right. So Hajj is a commandment, but based on other evidences the other Hadith, we say it does not required to be repeated. You understand?

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Okay, let's do a little bit of a quiz. I was only able to prepare a quiz for the commandments. The M

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the other ones inshallah we'll do them maybe next week in Allah. So Allah subhanaw taala that says, what to do it Allah hegemony en au Nino La La account of the herland turn to Allah and repentance, all you believers, so that you may succeed is tell about wajib Ormes to hub what is the principle to make your assessment

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and the principles are listed here. So I'm rheology will do the commandment indicates obligation or

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a ticker, the command indicates repeating this, or Allambie of 30 allege that the command indicates fulfillment or ill embryo 30 will follow the command indicates immediacy or alarm establish me I'd rather hear the general includes all of its branches. So what's the principle to be used here?

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Sorry.

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So if there's something

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general

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it would I, let's just ignore it for now. We'll get to in the future we're gonna talk about in a minute.

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So what is the principle to be used here? Yes.

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First one, the command sets indicates obligation. So here Allah is commanding us to make Toba. So we say told us why Jim, because the command indicates obligation. Okay, same verse. What is the

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ruling of delaying Toba after a sin somebody commits a sin and then they wait, they don't want to make Toba right away they wait, what is the ruling on this? And why?

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The so we say It's haram to do this, because the command indicates immediacy that we do the commandment from Allah immediately. So you committed a sin. You have to immediately make Toba

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because of because it is a command.

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Okay, same verse is Toba, required for minor sins are specific for major sins. So now your question comes into play

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is telling you required for minor sins or is only specific to major sins?

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So now your question comes into play. What does that what does II mean?

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Exactly So when Allah tells us to make Toba, he doesn't tell us to make Toba for major sins. He tells us to make Toba that's general right. And the general includes all of the branches of it.

00:31:08--> 00:31:19

Okay, same verse. Someone committed a sin and he made Toba then he sinned again. Does the initial Toba cover the second sin?

00:31:21--> 00:31:21

No Why?

00:31:24--> 00:31:28

Because the command indicates repeated That's right. It's to be repeated

00:31:30--> 00:31:33

Okay, so that is the commandments.

00:31:34--> 00:31:41

Now we have to deal with a Nahai the prohibition what is haram?

00:31:43--> 00:31:46

Okay, what indicates the prohibition

00:31:49--> 00:31:51

so here it's easier

00:31:56--> 00:31:57

if I made a mistake here

00:31:59--> 00:32:08

this is not the translation. So let's have al means the statement or the verbiage of don't do this is a mistake I need to correct it

00:32:13--> 00:32:17

few printed out your PowerPoints you might want to change this

00:32:19--> 00:32:20

the first one

00:32:28--> 00:32:58

so let's have fun. So when there's something that comes in says don't don't do this, while caribou Zina. Don't go near Zina. So don't well attack caribou. Malaviya team don't go near the wealth of the orphan. While are tough to do, I will either come Don't kill your children. So all of this is law. Don't let her fudge whenever the verbiage whenever the statement has to do with don't do this don't then it means now he prohibition.

00:33:00--> 00:33:11

The second thing that indicates prohibition is COVID as a hobby, no Hina Oh, Nahan and the visa Allahu alayhi wa sallam. So we were prohibited or the Prophet prohibited us from doing something.

00:33:16--> 00:33:21

So I've heard of the Allahu answers in the Hina unveil Allah we were prohibited from

00:33:23--> 00:33:26

transactions of uncertain uncertainty. Right.

00:33:28--> 00:33:32

New ina mean, when the Sahaba yet said we were prohibited from

00:33:34--> 00:33:37

It's About agenda is from following the Genesis. Right.

00:33:39--> 00:33:50

So again, this is this mean? Does it necess does it necessitate haram? If there's a statement of we were commanded not to do this, we were prohibited from doing this.

00:33:53--> 00:33:59

We say indicates to him, but it could be a case where it's not that

00:34:00--> 00:34:03

I made another mistake, right? So we are commanded,

00:34:04--> 00:34:06

I should say Father prohibited.

00:34:18--> 00:34:19

Makes more sense.

00:34:20--> 00:34:21

Okay. So

00:34:28--> 00:34:35

when this hobby had said we were prohibited from following the funeral procession, does it mean how wrong or does it mean my crew?

00:34:39--> 00:34:54

So it's actually my crew. Like we said, It's my crew. We mentioned that in another class. Because when they said we were prohibited from going to the funerals, is it possible she meant our husband prohibited us from going

00:34:55--> 00:34:59

she could have meant that it's possible because she all she said is we were prohibited

00:35:00--> 00:35:05

So we have to infer She means the Prophet salallahu Alaihe Salam, right? So that's a possibility. So this is

00:35:06--> 00:35:09

Vahid. Right? And it could be more when it's possible it could be one of the two.

00:35:13--> 00:35:52

If the net he has been established in these ways, by the statement of the zahavi or the statement don't do just like the commandment, we can understand it by itself or we can understand it by others. If we understand it by itself, what is it indicates? So the first thing it indicates is to clean prohibition, that it's haram. Meaning it's haram. So if there's something in the Quran and Sunnah that says law, don't do this. Or if there is something in the Sunnah that says, the prophet prohibited us from doing this or we were prohibited from doing this. Then in principle, it means it is haram.

00:35:53--> 00:35:59

What I tell Hulu riba do not consume River. The principle is that ever is haram.

00:36:01--> 00:36:06

It also indicates invalidity, so that the action is invalid.

00:36:08--> 00:36:17

And example, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, last saw that tell us there is no solder after US employers.

00:36:20--> 00:36:48

So if somebody decides to pray after us now, of course, there's difference of opinion on the types of prayer. Let's assume the person prayed to rock cause nephila moussaka, like disconnected from anything he's not praying to get to the masjid. He's not praying for making pull off. He's just decided for no reason whatsoever to pray to it. Because after us, in principle, what do we say about those two rakaats?

00:36:49--> 00:36:52

It's invalid, right? It is invalid.

00:36:53--> 00:37:01

Because the principle of it is that when the Prophet forbid something doing it is facet, it is invalid.

00:37:03--> 00:37:06

It also indicates Elfo immediacy.

00:37:07--> 00:37:23

So when Allah subhanaw taala revealed, that come, alcohol is haram, what did this have to do? They say, let's just finish what we have with us. And we've got some bottles in our house, let's just finish it. And then after that we won't buy anymore.

00:37:24--> 00:37:39

They spilled it all out, they broke even the bottles, right? They broke even the vessels that were carrying it. So immediately, once they heard about it, they acted upon it, because the prohibition indicates immediacy, it must be immediately done not done later.

00:37:41--> 00:37:45

Also implies the repeated nature of it to crawl.

00:37:53--> 00:37:55

So can someone say,

00:37:56--> 00:38:15

You know what Allah told us tells us not to drink alcohol, I spent 40 years of my life not drinking alcohol. Now I'll just start drinking now. Because he told me not to drink. I didn't drink for 40 years, right? So now I can just start doing it. We say no, the prohibition indicates repeating this, you have to repeatedly stick to the prohibition.

00:38:17--> 00:38:26

The fifth one is B the D. So the commandment of acting with its opposite. So when we are prohibited from doing something,

00:38:27--> 00:38:30

it means acting upon it upon its opposite is haram.

00:38:34--> 00:38:35

So

00:38:37--> 00:38:40

the prohibition, of speaking during slaughter,

00:38:42--> 00:38:47

indicates the command of being silent during salah.

00:38:49--> 00:39:13

This is logical. Everybody's obviously, we can't speak we have to be silent. But this is the principle. Of course, if there is other than even if there's other evidences, it can take us out of the principle. Right? So the principle is established that when there's no evidence, we're sticking to our principles, but when there's other than even, it could take us out of the principle that we have.

00:39:17--> 00:39:18

So I'll give you an example.

00:39:21--> 00:39:24

The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said

00:39:26--> 00:39:29

don't go in meets the care events.

00:39:31--> 00:40:00

Okay, so what would happen was caravans would come to Medina with goods and they would go to Medina to sell their goods. Some people would ride out to the caravan, and they would offer them prices. So let's say the caravan is a day away from Medina. Caravans walk slow, there's a lot of things to carry. So somebody would get on their horse and ride out a day outside of Medina and meet up with the caravan before it arrives.

00:40:00--> 00:40:14

Have dinner with Tina. And let's say they're selling something, whatever they're selling, and they're gonna, they're planning on selling it for $5. So the person meets out and says, I'll give you $5 for it, or I'll give you $10 for it.

00:40:16--> 00:40:49

So the person sells it to him. The Prophet forbade the people from going out to meet these caravans. Why? Because why are the people going out to do this? The caravan coming doesn't know the prices in Medina, they don't know what this object is being sold for in Medina. And the person is thinking, well, if I gotta jump on everyone, and I go out and meet the caravan, I can get a cheaper price. So the Prophet was forbidding people from doing this, so that the caravan comes to Medina sees what the actual price people are paying is, and that way they can get a better price.

00:40:51--> 00:41:01

So the prophet does this, does this mean that if the person went out, they rode out of Medina, they met the caravan, they made a deal?

00:41:02--> 00:41:10

Is the deal invalid? Now normally, we would say, yes, right, because and now he study

00:41:12--> 00:41:27

al facades, right, the prohibition indicates invalidity. But the profits on the long run instead, I'm says in the Hadith, if somebody makes the deal, if they make a deal, if they buy from you, or if you buy from them,

00:41:29--> 00:42:13

then when the owner comes to the market, he has the choice for Holub. And he has the choice. So the Prophet, we have clear evidence in this case, in this particular case, the Prophet gave the caravan the choice. When they came to Medina, and they sort of they saw, hey, I sold it for $10. And people are buying it for 20. He can go to the person and say, I want my money, I want my product back. Here's the money, I want my product back, right? He can do that. Because the profit gave him the opportunity. And if he wants to, he can leave the deal as it is, and the deal would be valid. So this takes us outside of our principle, but we are why are we going outside of our principle,

00:42:13--> 00:42:22

because there's an evidence so when there's another evidence, we might be able to leave our our principle. Another example similar to this

00:42:23--> 00:42:26

is the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says

00:42:28--> 00:42:37

that's a source of evil will don't tie up the Otters of the camel in the sheep. So sometimes people when they're selling a camel or the sheep, they would tie up the utters.

00:42:51--> 00:42:55

Yes, so that's the, that's what the Prophet is saying is saying the person the caravan.

00:42:56--> 00:43:06

He's given the choice. When he comes to the market, he can choose, he can keep the deal that he made. Or he can tell the person I want to cancel the deal.

00:43:09--> 00:43:21

Yeah, because he doesn't know what's happening in the market, once he sees what's happening in the market, he's allowed to choose is what the Prophet said. So we say in this circumstance, is the deal facet. Is the deal invalid.

00:43:23--> 00:43:27

No, it's not invalid, because the Prophet gave the person the choice.

00:43:29--> 00:43:59

So the other example is some people used to tie the utters of the camel and of the sheep together, so that the milk would build up, right. And then that way, when a person came to buy the camera or buy the sheep, and they came to milk it or they came to look at the otters, the others are full. So they're like, Wow, this is producing a lot of milk. Right? And they could sell it for a higher price. The Prophet says nobody should do this. And if it has been done,

00:44:00--> 00:44:02

then one who buys it

00:44:03--> 00:44:47

after two courses, so after he makes it twice, he can hear after the second time, he'll know, right, he'll know, does it really produce that much? Or were they tying it together and making it seem like it's producing more milk than it actually is? He says, in that case, if he found that they're cheating him, he can return the the animal and pay the person a saw, or two sources of data and give them some dates. Why does he have to give them some dates? Because he milked it a few times, right? He took some milk from it. So basically, he pays some dates, but he gets his money back. He says I want to return this so he can return the camel, give them some dates and get his money back for the

00:44:47--> 00:44:59

purchase of the camel. So here again, the Prophet didn't completely invalidates the initial agreement, even though he prohibited the people from doing the thing that they would have done. Does that make sense?

00:45:00--> 00:45:00

was the

00:45:02--> 00:45:03

mechanic,

00:45:04--> 00:45:05

the owner?

00:45:07--> 00:45:15

So I think if he sees that the milk all of a sudden decreased a lot, then he would go back to the profit and complain. And I think that's how it would happen.

00:45:17--> 00:45:18

Okay.

00:45:20--> 00:45:20

Yes.

00:45:25--> 00:45:38

So it's, the prophet is not invalidating the initial contract, but he's adding a clause. Right? So he's saying the clause is, the person has the choice to return it, right?

00:45:39--> 00:45:52

Whereas we would say if there was no Hadith, if the Hadith ended with the Prophet saying, you're not allowed to do this, then we would say the deal to begin with is invalid. Right? But because the Prophet says

00:45:53--> 00:46:06

they have a clause, they're able to return it, then we say this in this instance, we don't apply the principle because there's evidence to tell us otherwise. But if there's no evidence, then in principle, it is facet.

00:46:09--> 00:46:13

In that instance, it would be sinful but it wouldn't be totally invalid.

00:46:24--> 00:46:24

Okay,

00:46:26--> 00:46:34

so now alarm and Al FOSS. So again, as we mentioned, when we look at things that are there, the Hadith that is law here,

00:46:36--> 00:46:37

we can look at it as

00:46:38--> 00:46:46

arm or cos general or specific, I am means inclusive, or comprehensive.

00:46:47--> 00:46:56

So includes everything, right. And hos means specific, or exclusive, it excludes things from it.

00:46:58--> 00:47:05

So when words infer or encompass all of the individuals or all of the entities it is addressing,

00:47:07--> 00:47:16

then the design, right. And when it's in for some things to the exclusion of other things, then it is costs.

00:47:17--> 00:47:21

So what tells us that something is I'm something as general

00:47:22--> 00:48:05

we say and again, now we get into language, a lot of language. How do we know that something is I'm we say different examples. The first one are different possibilities. The first is cool. I will Jamia so things similar to all or every words like this would indicate I am a sagittal Mala into whom all of the angels Prostrate it right so all of them edge Marilyn even so we get both of them Kildonan and edge ameriwood Right So Colin gymea all of them frustrated. So this indicates all the angels not some of them.

00:48:07--> 00:48:15

The second thing that indicates um is the definitive article that are L Alif. Lam.

00:48:17--> 00:48:21

So when Allah says in oil in Santa Fe hosts

00:48:22--> 00:48:33

in el el in San indeed L in San V. Human, the mankind is in loss. That means

00:48:34--> 00:48:36

all humans every single one of them right

00:48:39--> 00:48:54

now, an abuse of Allahu alayhi wa sallam and US Salah that are the last the Prophet prohibited us Salah after us meaning all prayer is prohibited after us

00:48:57--> 00:49:05

okay, I'll move off 11 I refer that which is added to indicate or added to a relative pronoun

00:49:08--> 00:49:13

you know, I'm not going to test you on all the language to be honest but it's good for people to have an idea of this

00:49:15--> 00:49:17

an example of this

00:49:22--> 00:49:26

is Elijah notes if Jeff came to one of you,

00:49:27--> 00:49:28

for death comes to you.

00:49:30--> 00:49:35

So this is added to indicates

00:49:39--> 00:49:40

definitiveness

00:49:43--> 00:49:47

I don't know how to explain it better than that, to be honest. Okay.

00:49:48--> 00:49:50

It's not it's not this is not the translation

00:49:55--> 00:49:56

I'll change it after

00:49:57--> 00:49:59

it's added to a definitive nature.

00:50:00--> 00:50:08

okay and Nikita PCF and FEMA. So fie indefinite in the context of negation or prohibition.

00:50:11--> 00:50:25

So, and then massage that allow you for that for that room Allahu Allah says indeed the massage belong to Allah. So don't make dua with Allah. Anyone else I had. This is a negation.

00:50:26--> 00:50:29

And included in this negation would be what?

00:50:32--> 00:50:35

It's an indefinite statement don't pray to anyone other than Allah.

00:50:38--> 00:50:45

So who was there anyone here? It would include everyone prophets, messengers, angels, everyone would be included in that.

00:50:46--> 00:50:55

So because I had is indefinite, I had a hidden is indefinite, and it's in the context of

00:50:56--> 00:51:03

negation or prohibition. So the indefinite in the context of negation of prohibition. Indicates

00:51:05--> 00:51:07

indicates generality.

00:51:09--> 00:51:12

Okay, conditional statements are the words how to shut up.

00:51:13--> 00:51:25

So for instance, Allah says firming Jarmon with Paula rotten hiring Euro. Whoever does an atom's weight of good shall see it.

00:51:26--> 00:51:28

So the condition is made here of lots

00:51:30--> 00:51:35

of doing an item's weight of good. So who who does the Adam's weight of good we'll see it.

00:51:37--> 00:51:43

Anyone? Right, anyone will do it. So as long as you meet the condition, you're included into it, right

00:51:48--> 00:51:52

and the final one is relative pronouns Esma Elmo Surah

00:51:56--> 00:51:57

So a Lavina Ave

00:51:58--> 00:52:13

Alladhina amanu Allah says in the Quran, those who believe this is a relative pronoun those who believe it refers to everyone who believes right everybody who believes is included in Alladhina Amman.

00:52:22--> 00:52:27

Okay There I am, the general can be understood or it can be two types

00:52:29--> 00:52:33

it can be on my fourth or on muscles

00:52:35--> 00:52:36

and muscles

00:52:38--> 00:52:40

means that the statement is general

00:52:42--> 00:52:45

and it is preserved in its generality

00:52:46--> 00:52:54

meaning the statement the idea that hadith is general and it remains we remain we always understand it according to it being general.

00:52:55--> 00:52:57

This is the principle okay.

00:52:59--> 00:53:08

If we have a general statements, in principle and applies to everyone generally, this is I'm fourth right this is the preserved general.

00:53:11--> 00:53:24

But on muscles the general that is specific is the general statement that becomes specific it becomes specified. So even though the statement is general,

00:53:25--> 00:53:29

we understand it for specific people or for for specific situations.

00:53:30--> 00:53:37

Let me give you an example. We're using this example a lot. No sought after OS.

00:53:39--> 00:53:41

This is a general statement. What does it include?

00:53:44--> 00:53:45

All saunas so

00:53:47--> 00:53:51

to create a masjid is included in it, right? Because the general statement.

00:53:52--> 00:54:06

Now let's say somebody says this hadith does not include targets in Masjid, who has to bring the evidence us or them? They have to bring the evidence. Okay. They have the burden of proof, the one who says

00:54:07--> 00:54:09

it is permissible.

00:54:10--> 00:54:13

So now let's say they bring you the evidence.

00:54:14--> 00:54:25

They say the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said it definitely had a common Masjid. Well, I addressed your Sunday Riccati versus any of you enter a masjid do not sit down unless you pray to it because

00:54:27--> 00:54:28

so they say

00:54:30--> 00:54:33

the hadith of no Salah after us

00:54:35--> 00:54:52

is general. But this hadith specifies it and says to hey, it's a message it should be prayed. If you enter the masjid after us. Don't sit down the secret Torah. Right? I'll be another example veteran one even that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said

00:54:54--> 00:54:59

let him narrow don't prevent people from praying after cloth

00:55:00--> 00:55:35

No matter the time, day or night, so it's more specific. Right? Because the issue of tainted measure, there's difference of opinion. Right? But here, it's very specific, no matter the time of day or nights don't prevent people from praying after fall off. Right. So those say, the general statement has now become specified by this other Hadith that comes and tells us that it is that we can pray if you made pull off after us, you make your throw off, you can pray to it because after right

00:55:45--> 00:55:48

so when things are made muscles, when they are made specific,

00:55:50--> 00:55:51

they can be too tight.

00:55:53--> 00:56:10

They can be more tossin connected, or when fossil disconnected are separated. What do we mean by that? So what does that connected means that connected to the idea or hadith is the thing that makes it specific?

00:56:12--> 00:56:15

So an example in in Santa Fe hos.

00:56:16--> 00:56:24

Man is in loss, which man, all of them because it's incense, first of all of them, all human beings are in lots right?

00:56:25--> 00:56:38

In levena, and unwanted Assad has Allah says, except those who believe and do good deeds, right? So what has made the general statement specific?

00:56:40--> 00:56:50

The verse itself, right, like the next verse itself. So the exception is, if not, is connected to the pneus itself. Right? It's connected to itself.

00:56:51--> 00:56:53

Another example,

00:56:54--> 00:57:04

the Prophet sallallahu alayhi salam said, This place meaning Mecca, it is a sacred place, you may not cut the thorns, you may not cut the plants you may not

00:57:08--> 00:57:22

hunt, etc. It's game is not to be hunted, then even our best said O Messenger of Allah exerpts. He mentioned one type. If, if, if I think one type of

00:57:24--> 00:57:27

it's like leaves, some type of leaves that they use in

00:57:29--> 00:57:47

some type of like bushes and leaves that they use. So the best said except this kind, so the prophets that accept this kind. So the Hadith itself generally prohibits but then the Hadith itself gives us the exception, right, so this is called a person right? Because it's connected.

00:57:48--> 00:57:50

The exception is connected to it.

00:57:52--> 00:58:28

But those are the obvious ones. So now we get to when Foster's the disconnected or the separated types of muscles. So now we have one a a here and one a a there are one Hadith here one Hadith, they're, they're not the same Hadith, different circumstances. And we say this specifies that. So how do we know when things become specified? So the first way to know that something has become specific, is his our senses. So what is an example of that? Allah says about the wind, in the Quran to them miracle Lishui, the miracle, the shape, right?

00:58:29--> 00:58:49

The wind that Allah sent to destroy a people, it destroyed everything to them miracle in the amblyopia, it destroyed everything. Does this mean if we understand that literally? Does this mean that the wind that Allah sent it destroyed the Earth itself? It destroyed the heavens? It destroyed literally everything?

00:58:50--> 00:59:08

No. So how do we know that's not the case? Our senses, obviously, if the wind destroyed everything, there would be no earth to begin with. There would be no heavens would be no sun there would be it didn't destroy everything. It destroyed everything those people had. Right. So how do we know this through our senses?

00:59:10--> 00:59:14

We can see there's land we can see their sky we can see. Right? It doesn't destroy everything.

00:59:16--> 00:59:21

The next way to know that something has become specific, is our intellects.

00:59:22--> 00:59:29

So for instance, Allah says, Allah Who holy poor condition, Allah created everything.

00:59:30--> 00:59:31

Now somebody

00:59:33--> 00:59:34

and I've seen this from

00:59:35--> 00:59:45

missionaries, people like that. They say, look, Allah created Allah says in the Quran, Allah who called the police say Allah created everything. Does that mean Allah created himself?

00:59:46--> 00:59:59

Or does that mean that Allah had to be created? We say no, because in by our intellect, our intellect tells us that the Creator cannot be created, right? So that specify

01:00:00--> 01:00:06

Why is the statement of of the last panel to address will lock me in in everything other than the Creator because the Creator cannot be created doesn't

01:00:08--> 01:00:08

exist.

01:00:09--> 01:00:12

Exactly because it's illogical to think that right?

01:00:13--> 01:00:14

Sorry,

01:00:15--> 01:00:16

chicken or the egg Yeah.

01:00:18--> 01:00:34

The next way we specify things is through HTML. So, if there is a GMAT, we mentioned the GMAT, we talked about it before, if there is consensus of the scholars, that a general statement is to be specific, then the GMAT specifies the statements

01:00:39--> 01:00:42

so trying to think of a good example

01:00:47--> 01:01:09

Okay, in this example, we're leaning into iPhone Amin comm where the owner is waging a thought of Muslim investing in Arvada should unwashed Allah. So Allah mentions in one verse, that the widow, her Aida, is four months and 10 days. Okay, that's one verse. Then there's another verse that says, What would I say? Well, that's

01:01:10--> 01:01:52

Mary Angela, one, a Ivana from the one that asked for those who are pregnant, their idea is their birth. So a pregnant woman, what is her idea? Right, that is the pregnancy until she gives birth. Right? So we say the first statement has become specified by the second statement, the first statement is speaking to all widows, any woman that loses her husband, the idea is for months and 10 days, the second area is always speaking about the ones that are pregnant. Right? So if she's pregnant, and her husband dies, what is her until her pregnancy, right until the pregnancy and she gives birth, then her idea has ended.

01:01:56--> 01:01:57

And this brings us to

01:02:00--> 01:02:02

the next category.

01:02:05--> 01:02:11

So this is the next category, sorry. And nothingness. So I didn't give you an example for HTML.

01:02:13--> 01:02:17

An example for HTML is you see Kamala houfy? Allah, Allah

01:02:19--> 01:02:27

instructs you about inheritance in relation to your children. Okay. So this means your children are allowed to come, your children,

01:02:28--> 01:02:30

generally all your children.

01:02:31--> 01:02:35

Why is this the Sahaba agreed by Jamal by consensus that

01:02:36--> 01:02:41

if the child is a slave, they don't have to, they don't inherit.

01:02:43--> 01:02:43

Okay?

01:02:44--> 01:02:49

If the child is a slave, only the free children inherit the slave children do not.

01:02:50--> 01:03:16

So if somebody happened to have a child and that child was a slave, they don't inherit from it. Let's say a father and a son are slaves or slaves, and the father becomes freed, he gets his freedom and the child is still asleep, the child does not inherit from him. This is what the biology amount is to have agreed on this. So we have the general statement, what made it specific, the huge amount of the sahaba.

01:03:17--> 01:03:40

Now the second one what we mentioned right now about the idea, this is a nurse and costs so other scripture is specifying scripture. So the one Isaiah says the idea for widows, the other Aya comes and gives us the idea for pregnant women who are widows, and this is an example of the Quran specifying the Quran.

01:03:42--> 01:03:45

The Quran can also specify the Sunnah.

01:03:48--> 01:04:09

An example of this, ALLAH SubhanA. Allah told us we said, you will see qumola houfy Allah, Allah Tala instructs you to give your children inheritance your children are to inherit. The Prophet said, Allah Almighty rule is the one who kills their parents does NOT inherit.

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So here are the Sunnah is specifying

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the Quran

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as this Sunday specifying the Quran

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the Sunnah can specify the Sunnah as well.

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So

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no prayer after us and the Hadith don't prevent people from praying after the wealth. So this is the Sunnah, specifying the Sunnah.

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And the Quran can specify the Sunnah.

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The Quran can specify the Sunnah.

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So for instance, the Prophet said the sought out the salah of any of you will not be

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accepted unless you have although you can't make your site that will not be accepted without will do is a Hadith. Right?

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The Quran mentions for us what

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TM the AF TM when we're making TM. So the Quran specifies a scenario where the person may not make although they might make Tamil and it will be accepted right? So specifies the Hadith. So the Quran can specify the Sunnah and the Sunnah can specify the Quran, this is different than NASA.

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Be aware of that.

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The next category is adding a form we already talked about nontoken the form right? So my phone can specify the general

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What is an example of this?

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We spoke about this example from the very first class.

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The Prophet said, water is tabular and nothing will make it an address. And the other hadith of our Prophet salallahu Alaihe Salam says, If water reaches the level of two pillars, then nothing can make it Niger's. So what is the form of that hadith?

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What is less than two colors can become Niger's, right? So here are the Imam is specified by them a form

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by the implicit

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the next is the statement of Hobbico Minister Harvey, shallower ending on the slide. So don't worry, I know some of you are feeling a bit tired. Randy here in

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the statement of the sahabi so

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I will Herrera Radi Allahu Allah and Allah even if he thought about the Allah Well, I know that both of them narrated different a hadith which said that the Prophet did not. Or told people they don't have to pay Zakah on their horses. Okay, so I will hold on and I said, the Prophet said, you don't have to pay zakat on your horses, if not best for the Allah or unsaid. This was the prophet only did this or this was because they were using those horses for jihad. And any horse that is not used for the sake of Allah. You must pay the cattle for them.

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So we have the statements of the prophet that he's not taking the cat from horses. This is a general statement. And the statement of him in our best specifies them. He says, No, that's specific for the horses used for the sake of Allah subhanaw taala.

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The final one is if it's specified based on the Yes.

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So

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an example is the Prophet said that he had the punishment of the slave girl is half of the punishment of the free woman. So if a free woman does Zina, and she's lashed 100 times the slave woman if she does Zina, she's lashed 50 times she gets half right? But the prophet did not say anything about the slave man.

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It didn't say anything about the the male slave. But the scholars using PS using analogy. They said if this is the ruling for the slave girl, it's also the ruling for the slave man. So both slave girl and slave boy, our receive half the punishment of the free men and the free woman. Right? So a general statement of the Prophet What did we make a specific vi vi Ts by analogy?

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And I wasn't able to do any quiz questions for these. Maybe Inshallah, next week, we can take some quiz questions, you know, that's

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louder?

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Ah, good question. So, analogy is we're going to talk about PS, can maybe in a couple of classes, maybe next class, we're gonna talk about PS PS is based on one evidence, right? You are making an analogy on it, right? Whereas intellect is not necessarily need that when we say based on our intellect base or our logic, right, so just based on logic, there can only be one Creator, right, based on logic. Nothing can create the Creator creator has to be uncreated. So that doesn't require necessarily a ruling and then we make an analogy based on that ruling.

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Principle when a law

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is applied to a normal sentence. Likewise, when he predicts what's going

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on

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Oh, yes, exactly. So in principle when the Prophet is commanded to do something, in principle that applies to us, we talked about this when way back when we talked about and McDuffie right when he talked about the category of the Sunnah of the prophets of Allah Islam. We said some things are specific to him, right? Like he would fast song we saw, like he married nine women. So these are things specific to the Prophet, nobody else can do. But we said in principle, if the prophet does something, or is commanded to do something, in principle, it applies to all of us, unless there's evidence that tells us it's specific. Right? So all those things that we say are specific to the

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Prophet. There's evidence that says this is only for the prophets of Allah Islam, and no one other than Rasulullah sallallahu. But if there is no evidence of that, then we assume principally it applies to everyone. It's a commandment upon everyone's obligation upon everyone it seems to have for everyone depending on what the thing is.

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Yes, so that goes the same way. If the Prophet command is his wife or the wives are commanded, it also applies to her.

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Okay, Inshallah, thanks, Zack and lock in. And we'll continue next week be in The Now.

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If the brothers can stay back, help us back up shall be great.