Uloom Al-Hadeeth – 05
Channel: Bilal Philips
Series: Bilal Philips - Uloom Al-Hadeeth
File Size: 41.28MB
Shaykh Bilal Philips, Uloom Al-Hadeeth recording on 12-05-2001, Episode 05
memorized, but something which they had in written form.
And it is on the basis of that also, that books were developed, which we spoke about the books of regional quota by region or a small region in which these, all this biographical information was compiled.
And on the basis of these biographical works, then Hadees were analyzed, and the
various narrators were classified.
And looking at the conditions for the authentic hadith, we looked at five conditions. And we mentioned that we had previously
looked at three of them in our early presentation of the material. And
presentation, we looked at an additional two, which will now come out in more detail that was the later shot. You said this was the fourth condition, after looking at it dissolve the Senate, which is the continuity of the chain of narrators. And then we looked at the Bob, or soundness of memory, or have read writing. And we looked at Adela, which was the
character of the narrator's and they were known to be reliable individuals practicing with practicing Muslims etc.
So, we said that fourth point was made a shot that it did not contradict, more authentic narrations of the same text or similar text. And the last point, the fifth point was Laila, but it didn't print it did not contain in it, some hidden defects. And in this session, we will be looking at some of those defects. Now, the Hadees, we said, which did not fulfill these five conditions were generally referred to as Heidi's wife,
or the week ID.
sometimes they're referred to as cover Maradona, or the rejected narrations.
And these, when we look in terms of the causes for the rejection of the Hadees, we'll find them divided into two main categories either a break in the chain,
discontinuity of the chain, or there was a defect in the narrator himself
an internal defect and that Narrator And the breaks in the chain may be either obvious
or they may be hidden. And when we talk about Lyla Ella is hidden defect this is these are the categories of the in defects and the other which is defects in the narrator. And it goes back either to his Adela, this is integrity or to his his memory or ability to narrate accurately. So, if we look then at the first category, that is the breaks in the chain, the obvious breaks are
are the breaks which are result of narrator's not coming in contact with the person they're generating from somebody is missing from the chain of narration.
And this is determined by the biographical works, which identify the areas in which they lived. And they will also identify the people from whom they studied, and those from whom they were authentically reported to them narrated.
These books have that kind of information. So, one may identify where, where they were, who they studied from. And if we find a narration, which indicates that they're in a location where they didn't live, or they weren't known to have gone, or that they were generating from somebody who they were not known to have met, and this is an indication of a clear break.
lived in an era other than the one in which that person they're inheriting from lived, they died before they were born or they were only two or three years old, when the individual died. So, to be narrating these from him is just obviously incorrect somebody's missing and that chain
and the obvious breaks have been divided into four basic groups, the first being more luck or hanging by luck meaning hanging Allah, which is your hanger comes and unlock
new frame to the clinging thing for to the fetus clinging in the womb.
This is mentioned as is the same root comes from the same root. So, my luck and the first category of obvious breaks, what it refers to is a hadith in which only the tail end of the
of the narration exists
the normal pattern over heavy will have
first and foremost will have it will start from the person who narrated to
the compiler say Buhari whenever you see the head is the person the next person which would say and say I had death or not somebody or the other right, that person is the last person to from whom alcohol contains howdy then he will mention the person from whom he got it and from whom he got it till it goes to the Sahabi then it goes through a soul loss Allah so when we say the last end of the chain is missing, we mean everybody after this a hobby. So just as a hobbies name alone as mentioned, this is the typical way that we find hobbies today, we'll just say my boss said so and so if it all makes sense on so I will rarest and so on. So, this format of heavies is referred to as
I mean in the in the days of the
the early days of the Hadoop compilations, that was considered to be a weak Hadith and inauthentic and is the way in which we narrated today, it had to have the complete chain of narration for it to be classified as continuous chain. Now, these
heads in which we have the last part of the chain missing, as I said, is generally considered to be a weak Hadith. However, when we find such Hadees and collections like Bukhari and Muslim, they are not looked at in the same light as when we find them in the, in the lesser connections. In Bukhari and Muslim for example, there's a hadith in Bukhari,
in which I will Moosa
said that the prophet SAW Selim covered his side when Wolfman entered and he was mentioning that he was sitting and part of his thigh was exposed in Abu Bakr came in and sat with him and talk with them. Omar came Southern talk with him. And then offline came in and he adjusted his clothing and comedies, by actually the narration mentioned side, but there are some other narration was mentioned. Shin
ready, and that is the more authentic narration.
And that is really it was really chin and not tie. And really, because on the basis of this, you do find some scholars folded in on the thigh or parts of the thigh is not considered to be our but actually, as I said, when one gathers all of the narrations concerning this particular incident, the greater
likelihood of what was actually generated was that it was the shin on the wrong
side. Anyway, the point is that this narration is mentioned
when we're Bokhari quotes directly from Abu Musab without mentioning the rest of the chain, so on the basis of that it was classified as life but and that's why you will hear some people say, and some people get shocked when they hear this, that there are life had these are weak IDs inside al Bukhari
that these are these which are considered to be weaker these
are in this category. The category of the more I look at the same thing anti muslim. In fact, there are more such IDs inside Buhari than they are in Sahih Muslim. This is why some scholars did considers a Muslim to be more accurate or more authentic than Makati. Though the general generality of scholars have
is considered to be more accurate because of the
the more stringent criteria, which Mr. mcquarry used for collecting his hobby.
Anyway, the point is that these various holidays which are found in the mandala form and Bukhari and Muslim other scholars have after the title Bukhari and Muslim tracked down these Hadees, and identify them and collected form of thoughts and forms in other books.
A vast majority of them are in connected forums and other books of handy.
So, though they are technically speaking life, the vast majority of them are, in fact,
authentic person, or even something.
What wasn't happening here was that both Bukhari and Muslim would use certain Hadees as headings for chapters, or sections. And since it was being used as a heading that didn't bother to bring the whole chain.
Wherever you find such IDs, they're not being used as the primary evidence. They're only used as like a heading a notation, whereas the real evidence will be in the chapter itself, right, which are connected with Haddad's.
Among those ideas, for example, is the one
also found in Bukhari. There will be among my nation, people who will make lawful fornication, silk intoxicants, and musical instruments.
Right. And, you know, some people in justifying or trying to justify music, musical instruments, you know, argue that this hadith was life in Siam Bukhari, as it was in the Moloch form. However, it is found Mutasa are connected, and the collections of Albay hottie Bharani, and even asaka. And also in the sadhana Babita wood, but from another narrator, instead of being from Abu I'm Amir sorry, it is from a black man isn't easy. So
it is, in fact, an authentic hadith, though in its form, as it exists in Bukhari, it falls under the heading of Moloch these which are not in fact, authentic.
So it is not authentic based on its form.
But it is in fact authentic, based on its contact in its content and supportive evidence, right where it is found in a connected forum and other books of Hadith.
That is the wall up so, we understand from this, why it may be said
that there are weak Hadith in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, which we consider to be the most the two most authentic books after the Quran.
The two most authentic books in Islam after the Klan, as Al Bukhari Muslim so the fact that there are weak IDs informed in those books don't change the status of the books of being the two most authentic books after the why.
The second category is that of motorcycle and most of these may be
translated as a generalized Howdy. And this is
referring to the fact that the
narrator you know has been deleted from the chain
the most common form in which it comes is the deletion of the Sahabi himself, meaning that a Tabby IE a student of the Sahaba quotes, the problem is I sell them directly
and it is known he didn't meet the problems and solve them. So we have a hadith in which a link in the chain the final link in the chain is missing.
An example of that can be found in Sahih Muslim
in the chapter on business transactions
Where he has Mohammed bin raffia told me that her Jane told them that a lathe reported from appeal from the oven she had from side to side Yep, that allows messenger for made it Musab Anna.
side note Messiah was a Tabby
a student of the Sahaba who did not meet the prognosis Allah.
So such a narration would be considered weak, because
the heading given to it is more sell, because of the fact that the Sahabi has been deleted. So rarely when they use the term or sell they mean more sell a Sahabi.
They make a distinction between this and other
gap gaps in the chain. Because one could say, well, why later on down this is not also considered to be more than Why do they refer to monsell? Only at that level? Why did they make a stress particular point here, because this represents a part of that first three generation right, which farmers are selling spoke the best of generations, as he said was my generation. So how about somebody in a Alona home, then those who come after them for millennia alone, then those who come after them. So the gaps at this point at the end of the chain in the best of generations, these gaps are given a special consideration not given to gaps later on in the chain, because of the promise ourselves
witness to the superiority of those three generations.
May meaning that the Sahaba, for example, who narrated Hadees all of the Sahaba are generally classified as I do, they are all trustworthy. And those who narrated Hadees, Ramon Saba, they're all classified as trustworthy as automatic. So, those who narrated from the Sahaba these individuals who had
a high reputation they're dropping is a Hobbes name
was considered differently from later scholars dropping other intermediaries from the chain.
However, such a handy in general is still considered to be a weak ID, but if it is the
Morison or the dropping of the final Sahaba by certain scholars, people like aside and I will say him, it is well known, for example, then he never narrated from other than the Sahaba.
So, it is assumed that if he dropped a person, it was as a hobby we dropped.
Others who narrated and who were known to narrate from other than the Sahaba, because it Tabby may have studied under another Tabby. So sometimes you may narrate from a Tabby that is a student of the Sahaba. And sometimes he may narrate as a hobby. And so, those who are not known in that way to him only narrated from Sahaba such that when they dropped somebody, then there had these would be considered life
which could be elevated if they were supporting narrations found, because they are from that generation of trust, you know, unreliability. So if supporting narrations came such a happy Morrison ad, could be elevated to the level of Sony or has an ad.
And if the person
dropped, who dropped the final narrator was a Sahabi himself.
the person who dropped it was the Sahabi itself because you had cases where there were young Sahaba people like I'm delighted not by us, and I'm delighted and Omar, and others, Anna, Sidney Malik, these are all quite young Sahaba and they used to gather headaches from other Sahaba, who had been with the promise of Salah from the early days. So they sometimes narrated directly from the problems and solve them and sometimes they narrated from others.
So if they narrated an incident, for example, how will you know?
We said he's a Sahabi
How do we know that he is not in fact narrating directly from the bathrooms or sell them? Well, if we know for example, say Anna Sydney Malik, he was gifted by his mother to power mom's
own surname. Shortly after the Hendra image she took me was about six years old. And she gave him two problems, I sell them as his personal servant, and he would be with him just grew up in his household. And wherever the prophet SAW said that when he was there with him, other than hard nerdiness mentioned when he would go to the bathroom, he would bring the water for him, whatever it was at us, growing up with the process. So if Anna's narrates that incident, which took place in Mecca,
he was only brought in contact with the process, Elena Molina, he obviously must be narrating it from another zombie because he wasn't there to witness it. If he's quoting fundamentals, that's me, that's a different thing, because of course, the problem is as and I'm going to write, but if he's narrating an incident, it will be assumed that he is narrating it from another Sahabi. So, these are the ways and means by which the Sahaba and Herrera For example, He also because he only joined the prophet SAW Selim company for three years towards the end of his life.
So if he was narrating incident, which took place in the early days in Medina, or in Mecca, obviously, he got that information from others.
But if we find a case like this, it is assumed, since all of the Sahaba are adaptable, or have high level of integrity, we trust whatever they narrate, then for it's a hobby to delete the mention of another Sahabi, from whom is narrating doesn't affect that handy. So Marcel, from the Sahaba were Sahabi is the one who drops another zombie that doesn't make that Hades classified as die. It's not it will not be classified as life.
Because it was inconceivable, or we would say it was not the practice of the Sahaba. To gain Holidays from the time he decided to go down to come back up again that he got it actually from a Tabby who got it from Sahabi, who this was not their route whenever they narrated, they narrated from other Sahaba.
the third category
right, so basically, what we're saying is that the motorcyle, which is questionable, is the motorcyle which comes from a tablet,
a tablet a dropping the mention of a Sahabi
it is considered weak if that tabea he was known to narrate from other DVDs. But if as in the case of upside of none will say yeah, he was known only generate from Sahaba then his narrations was still accepted. Because if a tie bear he said, for example, I heard from one of the Sahaba, that's also and so on. So, it without mentioning the name of the Savi. This is still considered to be an authentic narration because all of the Sahaba were accepted as being reliable witnesses. So therefore, whether you mentioned the name of this hobby, or you just mentioned I heard from as a hobby, as a hobby and of course, the reliable tabbies then that was still an accepted mode of
narration accepted as authentic. So therefore, a Tabby who was known only to narrate from Sahaba. And he narrates directly from azula salaam, it is assumed that he was narrating from a Sahabi and dropped the name. And one may ask why would they do that?
But why would they do that?
The point is that in the course of teaching,
scholars, especially that early generation, I mean, they're relaying information from azula.
Sometimes they're teaching the generation after it. Sometimes they will mention specifically when I heard it from such and such as a hobby and so on. And so, or somebody asked, you know, what do you do in this case? He said, Well, the problem is, I said, I've said so and so it's not that he's deliberately dropping out who he heard it from who said to the Broncos, and I'm said, but just for responding to a particular question. He responded the prompts I said and said the process and did when in fact, he didn't see or hear it from the back of my salon. So it was not a deliberate attempt.
to falsify information, but in the course of teaching this kind of lab, these kind of lapses will take place for speed of conveyance of information.
Now, the third type of obvious breaks is called move up there.
Up there, from Papa which means to cut, or to break.
Out of Center, which means to send
yourself cell comes from the verb, our Salah, which means to send or our soul comes from the same root
rissalah comes from the same root, something which is sent
to someone who was sent.
So we'll start there. This is the next category, where we have a break in the chain, where one or more of the narrator's have been deleted, at random in the middle of the chain, right, and maybe one, maybe more when they're broken, it's considered to be broken, we don't call it more subtle events in the middle of the chain, and towards the end of the chain. For example, we have an aeration.
Above the Rosa, from authority from a voice hop from Z to A new shot from the process lm that he said it would be good if you made abubakr your leader for a strong and trustworthy while it is known that the narrator Shrek who narrated from the result had deleted from the middle of the chain between authority and I was harmed because authority did not hear any narrations from a boy's heart directly.
But used to hear them through Shrek who studied under attack. So these are on the science and you go back to who they studied from who they studied with. This is what's going to reveal breaks in the chain.
Now the fourth example,
for example, is called more abundant more and more.
And these are just names for different types of bread, right? More or less, in the case of more than that you have to narrator's dropped at any point in the chain. They call that mother but it's really just another version of one out there. But the scholars have had these gave it when they were two, they gave it another title. And
two or more generators are are dropped from the beginning of the chain,
then this is referred to as one luck. So really what I love is a form of more than
two or more generators dropped
from the chain is the general category. But if it's from the beginning of the chain, then it's considered to be more luck.
If it's in the middle of the chain, then it keeps just the name.
And we can find in Harkin, for example, in his book called modified the aluminum Hadith that
Robbie reported from Mali that report which them from Abu huraira
that is that the foxes element said the slave should be given food and clothing according to normal standards and not burdened with work beyond his ability.
Now this hadith is classified as moral love, because Malik
has deleted here to narrator's between himself and I'm aware Malik
was not a tiger is studying under the
Sahaba but the tablet
so that covers our basic grouping through of breaks in the chain
and budget if the break is at the beginning of the chain and is going to the Sahabi that is called in general
If it is the latter part of the chair chain leaving only the last narrator is a hobby that will not be called Mala.
If it is
I break in the middle of the chain, one person missing at random throughout the chain or in any place of the chain. That's what we call Moncada.
And if it was two or more people missing in the middle of the chain, we call it Mama.
The other type of break is the hidden break.
Right and this is where we come into the issue of the fifth condition for
or the fifth condition for authenticity, that it does not contain any hidden defects. Among them, the hidden breaks. The first category of the hidden breaks is called mandalas.
mandalas coming from Dell Lhasa, which means to fake
that lease means faking,
or Moodle, as you may call counterfeit.
the lessor which means basically means to hide something right? Especially when people are selling things to hide it the defects of a product from the buyer, they call this Vanessa.
This form of defect
may be in either the chain itself they call the Lisa Senate or it may be in the case of the
person who is narrating the call, at least, I should note at least the Senate
has two basic forms. The first is where a narrator narrate something which he did not hear from someone who he studied under in an ambiguous fashion.
he narrates something he didn't hear
from somebody who he actually studied under. And he uses an ambiguous fashion to narrate.
Meaning he uses among the terms
a narrator narrate something which he didn't hear from someone who studied under
and in an ambiguous fashion when we talked about people finding books,
right. So somebody may have studied under this teacher, and he found a set of books on the teacher
control containing information which you didn't hear from the teacher, but he narrates it in an ambiguous way as if he heard it from the teacher. This is called that lease, a Senate in the actual chain of narration there is
we could say some falsification, some falsification is taking place in the senate itself.
And how are these things were known?
where a a narrator narrates,
people would sometimes question them, if they had doubts. So people would ask for the details to clarify, did you actually hear this as in the case of Ali bin ashram? Who said that even Ariana related to us from azhari. But when he was asked, Did you actually hear it from azura? He replied, of the result, and for me, from Lamarr from a delivery
and the way in which he was first narrating it, he mentioned it as if as Dory actually said it, but when he was pinned down, did you actually hear it from Missouri? Then he clarified? No, actually, I heard it from
these other two people after azopt and Mama watching her in a trauma zoning.
And again, this
was not necessarily a deliberate attempt to
falsify the chain. But in haste of narration, people might do this because the people who dropped the result and mamajuana people will necessarily weak narrator so by saying I heard it from others up, he was actually strengthening the narration that he was giving.
Now, the other way in which this form of 10 leads in the Senate or the is not in take place, is where a robbery or a narrator
From his teacher, deleting from the chain, a weak narrator, between two strong narrators who met each other.
Right, he is narrating interchain.
He mentions the name of two strong narrators who met each other. Right. So a person hearing that would assume this is a continuous chain and an authentic chain. However, between these two strong narrators, there was, in fact, a weak narrator.
Who He doesn't mention.
This is another form of Ted Lee's a Senate.
this, of course, is much a much more dangerous form, because it does give the impression that the stain is actually in fact, authentic. And this requires, you know, really deep research to catch it. This is why when we talk about the holidays to be so here, it has to be free of hidden defects. Some of these hidden hidden defects are more obvious. Others of them are much more hidden and requires some serious research.
Now, the other form of dudleys is called at least a shadow.
And this is a key this is the case where a narrator narrator from his teacher, would you heard from him,
but he uses a nickname
of that teacher,
which was not the name that he was well known by.
In doing so, he may have mentioned a name, which is of another teacher, which is also known another teacher was known by it. A person looking at that narrow chain of narration may think that this chain is a strong chain, because the name that is used is that of somebody who has been classified as the highly reliable arrangers. But in the biographical works, it indicates that this individual, in fact, did not sit with that strong narration but the one we started with was with this other narrator who was weak and who was also known by this nickname, which they call punia, which happened to be similar to that other mages name.
So again, when we're analyzing a chain of narrators,
right, we want to know, is this an authentic chain or not?
In one merely lists, the narrator's goes to the books to confirm that the people who are narrating are all reliable people,
you make a clue that that chain of narration is authentic from the basis of However, if you check in terms of the biographical information about who they narrated from, then you may discover weaknesses in the chain which would not have been obvious had you only judged according to their level of
authentic authenticity or level of accuracy
confusing enough for you?
ways by which
they're able to identify the studies
one, either by this the scholar or student himself, admitting when he was directly question, so it came to be known
for by the statement of his contemporaries,
those who studied along with him and we have a scholar like Alan katiba, Baghdadi. He put together a book called
to be an Li Asma al Moodle is in
a Debian a smile with deadly sin. He just his study, he just made a specialized research, where he went through and just collected of all of the people who biographical information, their admission etc.
Put them in the category of modality
Such a book. So now modern researchers in going through to analyze will, after analyzing, identifying the people in the chain, this is a good reference to check to make sure none of these people know they in and of themselves are authentic, they may have been known for that list, this will be useful to make that clarification. And a well known will delis
whose work is one of the most popular works
is abundance hop
is hot, who wrote or compiled what is known to be the most classical Syrah book on zero, right translated into English by gulia, all the life of Muhammad as a big thick book with all of the narrations there, you hear all the tea, all the chains and everything. And it's a well known book, it's been condensed etc. And it's the most popular book on the life of problems. But eminence hack, right. And it's also known as Syrah and been a sham, because even a sham is the one who condensed it from the work of eminence Ha,
ha, was known to be a modality.
It was known to be evidence.
this is why, for example,
the vast majority of material on the biography of the problems are solved. And that is available in the market.
The vast majority of the material contains a lot of inaccurate information,
a lot of inaccurate information.
And it wasn't until very recently, that scholars actually focused on the serum
to identify the authentic narrations on the serum. And so, you now have a couple of books on the market,
which are called Sahaja, Sera Rasulullah, sallAllahu Sallam he went to scholars have used the methodology of the Mohammed defense scholars, I'm happy
present the life of problems and solve them in a, an accurate format.
so common, some of the stories that, you know, people are quite familiar with about the time when the pasta salad was being born, that the light shun from the
parts of his mother, I mean, and lit up the horizons, you know, and that
the temples, you know, the Zoroastrian, the fire in the temples of the Zoroastrians went out, and then the
horizons, you know, and that
the temples, you know, in the Zoroastrian the fire in the temples of the Zoroastrians went out, and then the, you know, in the temples and for the Christians, and that
there's all bunch of information this is all fable.
This is all fable, though it is commonly narrated, and we, you know, we pass it on to our children, and the books that we're reading are in fact, these are not authentic tales.
And even that, you know, the angel came to his mother Amina, prior to birth.
The vast majority of that information is not authentic at all.
The other category, after we looked at the model less than less or con con counterfeiting, the next category is called more than coffee.
We looked at more or less obvious breaks is obviously this is the more style where it is obvious that your style is taking place by the morsel coffee
is a very great fine distinction between what we call at least a senate and this most of coffee is very fine. The difference is basically
within wholesale coffee is that someone narrates something he did not hear from someone whom you
meant or was this contemporary using a terminology implying that you heard from him? This sounds just like that Lisa seven.
The difference is
in the Lisa Senate, the person who is doing that is narrating from somebody we studied under
the case of Watson and Luffy is not narrating from somebody who has studied.
This is the difference between the two.
Now, how do we know how can we identify this?
One, the statement that one of the scholars that such as such an arranger never met the narrator from whom he is narrating, or that he never heard anything from him, his contemporaries expose him.
That's one of the ways.
The second is that the narrator informs on himself. He admits he didn't hear anything directly from the person is directing and their records.
Or if the Hadees itself comes along a chain, in which people are added between the narrator and the one from whom he is narrating
that it comes along a chain in which people are added between the narrator and the one from is narrating. By analyzing the chain, this person is a contemporary of somebody else, he adds people in between himself and the person who shouldn't be there.
The third, and last category of the hidden breaks is that of the most unhappy
and the most, and
I've only put them on here, that is the date in which
is used. The person says, you know he heard using it from so and so and so on so and so we've seen throughout the chain.
And as we mentioned before, remember we talked about the terminology that was used the technical terminology used by the narrator's of headache, and the stronger forms was to say had definite and he told us
he informed this by that he informed us another version, but he said it meant ready when he received the books in his hands. And semirara. I heard these were the strong terminologies. But whereas when the person says I'm
I know and is being used from it implies that he got it but it doesn't clarify what route he got it from.
So I had he which has added throughout it
will fall into the category of vive
if the person who was using the term was known to be more than less isn't the point.
And the person was a known solid Narrator And he uses that
then it is accepted.
As long as the people
who he uses the term I'm from were people who lived in his say in his in his own
time period, they were his contemporaries.
So the chances of him actually meeting them are extremely high, very strong. They're his contemporaries, he uses this terminology. But when he uses it from somebody who is not as contemporary, then that will cause it to be classified as weak, unless he himself is of a high level of reliability.
Today, and he says and it's a hobby, don't accept it.
But if he's later on down the chain is
of the lower levels but still acceptable mockable saduak these terminologies they use frame and he uses the term and from somebody of a level above him, then they will consider it to be weak and they won't accept it.
we come over,
you know, is using the, the conjunction and not that
but it is considered the same as
following the same conditions, same principles governing it as just another version.
Let me now go over two defects in the narrator himself, we said that they were either related to $1 or trustworthiness, integrity or they're related to bugs
reliability in terms of
short material and they were narrating
under the heading of, I don't know,
if a narrator
was labeled either a liar
or he was accused of lying
or he was known to be immoral, drank on alcohol,
he committed any of the major sins
all he was known to be an innovator
he's introduced principles into the religion which are another part of it
or he is himself an obscure individual not know
all of these defects obscure the time is right release module, all of these defects will automatically cause the heavy to be classified as by
the reason that
the individual due to Adela is classified this as weak is due to the fact that he is much rule is unknown obscure individual then this narration
this narration may be
mainly reclassified as
is initially life if there are supporting narrations through other channels which confirm the same statement
because he was just module unknown and he still remains a module individual whenever he is found in a chain
that needs to be automatically classified as by
in supportive narrations comm, it is elevated if no supportive narrations comm is left as like.
Similarly, if the individual is an arranger with an innovative we said, If what he is narrating is in the area of his innovation site, for example, he was individuals among those who said that we are what they call magic ball
that we have no choice.
We are we have no free will.
There are those who made this claim. And
people, a number of people accepted it's because there are narrations if you take them by themselves, they may indicate for example, the Hadith is a Muslim, in which province lm said that a person will do the deeds of the people of Paradise throughout his life.
And shortly before he dies and would go to Paradise,
the destiny would catch him and he would start to do the deeds of the people of hell died doing those deeds and because Intel because of it.
And vice versa. A person will do the deeds of the people of health
throughout his life until he reaches a both length away from health just before he's gonna die. The destiny catches him he starts to do the needs of the people on fire dies he dies do those needs an environment?
What does this imply? It implies when we have no control. We are
we are without free will.
implication is there. But if we take the many other Haddad's
Which I address issues of choice. And a lot of attributes of being just
that he is not going to punish a person
if they are not held accountable.
Right, if they have done a mistake for which are not held accountable, they're not punished for it. So, when we put all of that together, then we realize that we must have a choice here, the whole issue of judgment only makes sense if we have a choice. And we have no choice and what is the point of the judgment, along with destiny destined for us to do wrong, and then punish us for doing wrong?
So anyway, the point is that some people got caught up in this idea that we have no choice.
It's blind destiny, as they say. And you will hear people saying that today, inadvertently,
when they will say for example, you know, marriage is just no see, something happens in their mind to say not see me, it's just my destiny.
But in other words, then talk about the person that you are going to marry was already written, and you have no choice but to marry that person.
To a certain degree, there is truth to it. And that's everything which will take place was written. But what is written is the choices that you're going to make. Not that a lot put in the book, you are going to marry this person, and it's going to force you to marry this person.
What's the difference?
The difference is that one indicates the knowledge, the pre knowledge of a law of everything.
And your freewill is intact. And the other one indicates that there is no freewill. And we are just puppets doing what the law is forcing us to do. And he will then judge us and punish us.
For things we had no choice about doing.
This is the difference. Practically speaking, we can say in both cases, it's written and what is written happens. But when you get into the defining difference, there is a distinction here because in one case, we make a law unjust.
Of course, their argument is that justice is only applicable to the creation. Since everything is a laws, he can do with it as he pleases. Who can say is unjust or is not right.
This is the argument because there was other arguments that come along with it. But the point is that this was considered to be an innovation. The Sahaba the capacitor by Mozilla did not understand destiny in this way. They recognize we had a choice, you know, and they recognize destiny at the same time. And as Omar,
on one occasion, when
are you? Why are you going to cut my hand off? When it is Byelaws destiny that I stole
a lot of destiny that I would steal, and
so now you're going to cut my hand off. So Amara de la mano stop for a second. And then he replied to him. Yes, it is Byelaws destiny that you stole, and it is biolog destiny that I'll cut your head off.
Yes, it is written, you made the choice to steal. And it is written, that I apply the laws law on you to cut your hand off. Because otherwise it doesn't make sense that a law would have the law to conduct the hand of the thief, and the thief didn't have any choice, instinct.
So a person who was known to follow this line of reasoning, where they're looking at the whole affair as being
not having any free will, it's just blind destinies, another way they call it blind destiny. Such a person is classified as an innovator
and such a person if
he or she is narrating something about others,
then their narrations are not exempted.
But in generating about something not related to each other at all. Then then aerations will be accepted if they have the other conditions of
authenticity, that they were not known to be moral, that they had good memories or they narrated from their books or whatever, then generations are exempted. So, this principle of not accepting what they narrate in the area of the, the the era in which they innovated, this is just a
he would say a precaution, the scholars have had these took, even though what they are narrating may, in fact be true, but just the fact that they deviated in this manner, you know, and there is a doubt here that maybe they're
presenting something to support their deviation, then actually quite like it was then just because the Dow was there, they will not accept their narration.
So, those who narrated So, for example, this narrator may have narrated something on other and they
had AIDS is classified as life, but then we find another chain
in which that same information has been transmitted by people who are not known to be innovators, then that adage which was initially classified as life becomes elevated to the level of
has a lady possibly too handsome depending on the strength of the chain, the rest of the chain even up to site, it could go actually from life all the way up to
However, if the person
was known to be a liar,
and another case, person was a known liar
or he was accused of lying,
then his narration is given a special title under the heading of life, but is given another time which is called
classified as fabricated.
under, under, it's under the general heading of life, right, because all these are weaker decision factors for the dollar here. It is a weakness a defect in $1. I don't look at $1 as being the factor for weakness, it is the weakness in the dollar, which then makes the Hadith classified by
now, if it is due to the fact that the individual was a liar, then that individuals narration is reclassified as an under the general heading of bife is reclassified as mo lor. Now, once I did this glass dividers, mold or fabricated then it can never be elevated.
Even if another chain comes along, which is in fact carrying the same information that had been remains mogador and cannot be used.
This is the special class of dice which cannot be elevated cannot be raised
standards because of the seriousness of that weakness.
And there are a number of such hobbies which people quote regularly
among them is the hadith of global l officine.
seek knowledge even on to China. This is a mold door
seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave.
Even though the idea the concept may be very good, but it is a fabricated
and should not be ascribed to problem.
There's another one a popular one which is people who go to that
supporting one's country or once.
A No. Yeah.
Yeah, love of one's country is from faith.
Hope and what I
mean an email women. Loving one's country is from faith. This is fabricated. In fact,
nationalism, which is love is strongly opposed to.
Now, the other
area of weakness, which relates now to dot
this can, this can take place in about in five different ways one, if the person made an excessive amount of errors and their narrations
winning, they narrated the same information, a number of different times and a number of different ways. The wording is changing, he's making errors in his narration of the material. And how do we know that we know that from the many narrations of people who narrated from me comparing what they inherited from him, it becomes evident that this person is changing his wording every so often, meaning he's making a lot of mistakes.
Secondly, he has a weak memory
he forgets elements from the handy etc. He has a weak memory currently is negligent
negligence, meaning that
he drops for example, you know, people in the chain, sometimes he narrates a chain completely sometimes in companies negligence, is,
you know, is known as the woundedness. And a lot of his
narrations, right? This is a sign of negligence where he's not known to really be a corrupt individual, but it's just out of carelessness, that he has ended up doing this
also is known for misinterpretations, he narrates
information, but he misinterprets that he gives explanations because those who are collecting narrations from their teachers, they also listen to their interpretations. There will be words in the Hadees which they would clarify the implement the implications of the headaches which they would give, that,
due to their
lack of knowledge, they made misinterpretations of the idea such a person who is known to make misinterpretations is then classified as weak because of his box, his
accuracy is questionable.
And the last issue is that he was known to contradict reliable reporters meaning that oftentimes the narrations which he conveyed they were shot.
And once a person is labeled with that is known in a number of innovation to contradict stronger narrators, then he is then classified as a weak rater with regards to his accuracy or not.
Now, what is the position on the happy life? How can we utilize this hubby?
The general position is that life is an inaccurate
narration or report. It's inaccurate, meaning that we cannot accurately attributed to the Prophet Muhammad Salah.
Meaning as a result, that it cannot be used to establish some point of Islamic law. Any point of Islamic law, which is based on a weak narration, then becomes an invalid point.
in the Hanafi madhhab.
The position for a man in prayer
is to place his right hand over his left hand below his navel.
There is a narration which is attributed back to alley or the llamando on which this practice is based.
However, in the chain of narration is an individual by the name of Abdul Rahman, who is in fact known to be weak. In fact, he was known to be a liar. So that narration is not an authentic narration and that point of practice are displacing the hand right hand on the left hand below the navel is not authentic. It's not an established practice unless one can bring some other evidence.
To support this practice and in fact, in the Hanafi school, there is no other authentic evidence, all of the headings which are used in regards to which are weak. And in fact, the only authentic narration with regard to the placing of the hands is to place the right on the left on the chest, which was narrated by Paul who's one of the students and in that bass. This is the authentic practice for both men and women.
These which is narrated, have placed in the right hand and the left below the navel, navel, this is attributed to alley, Roger luevano. It's attributed to him. But because there are breaks in the chain, there is the individual in his abdomen is his week,
known to have been a liar, that attribution to alley is a false attribution. So it's not blaming Ali, not to say Allah narrating something we know, was that individual who attributed to Ali, who is in fact,
making a false narration. So that's
the main ideas on which the Hanafi school builds the practice for men to place the right hand on the left hand under the navel. This practice then becomes an invalid practice, according to Islamic law, because of the fact that it is not supported by authentic evidence. And the only authentic hadith on the subject is one narrated by towels. And the interviewee one of the leading scholars, students amongst the Sahaba of the Sahaba, who narrated from him about that the correct position of the hand insula is the right hand on the left hand, on the chest. Right now, the right hand on the left hand, since there are various narrations describing it, whether it was right hand over hand, right hand
over wrist, right hand over forearm, these are all related narrations, whether the hand is placed, or whether it is held. I mean, these are all variations among some some did.
But the place in terms of positioning on the body is correctly on the chest. And of course, it just doesn't necessarily mean somebody will have taken it to mean that they're going to put it up here, you see, you know, they feel like this is placing it on the chest. Well, yes, it is on the chance. But I mean, if that's how you feel comfortable and praying that no harm, but to insist that this is the way No, because the chest is that region, which starts on where your stomach ends, you know, when the rib cage, everything about that whole region, there is considered to be just so wherever you put it there, you know, it's fine. Now you'll find the Maliki's, for example, in the Sudan,
they may place it over, there's this someplace a percent sign that is definitely not the sign towards substantiate. But those who plays right and left in prayer, you will find many of them they will do it this way. Right. And you ask them, why are you doing it this way? They say, Well, you know, it's covering the heart, right?
This is the rationale behind it.
People when they greet and they shake hands or summer they come and then they touch it on the exam taking this allowance to the heart. So these facts, of course, we don't have any authentic narrations to support this.
I mean, if you as an individual, you know, did it on an occasion that's one thing right? But once it becomes a practice standard, then we have involved ourselves now in innovation.
This question is concerning. I will identify himself and how he could possibly have conveyed this misinformation, he would have
misunderstood it to me he would have been conveying wrong information. Well, I
was not a known who had this.
Right. In fact,
when you look at the setting up of the madhhab, or his mode of teaching, he relied to a large degree on chaos.
Over these narrations, because of the fact that in Iraq,
the majority of the fabrication of ideas began there.
So he was wary about the use of many of the narrations available in Iraq word themselves.
But anyway, because we
Have a practice in this school. And
it doesn't necessarily mean that this was the position of Abu hanifa himself. Because
as we use, and Mohammed Shivani pointed out towards men to students,
that they vary with Abu hanifa in more than 50% of his rulings.
And their rulings have become
the rulings of the month have also.
So, what and as scholars down through the centuries, took positions, these things became added to the, to the man tab over the over the years over the centuries. So, when we speak about there might have been a position in America, it doesn't necessarily mean that the leading scholar on that might have held all those positions. It could just be the common or most
popular practice amongst the followers in that particular matter, in our times, or in recent times.
Anyway, the point is that with regards to IDs, which is considered to be more lore, or life,
we cannot use it for a point of Islamic law.
We cannot narrate it especially if it's not it was Moldova we cannot narrated saying in this farmer Sula, la sanlam because if we do so, then we fall under another heading, where problems are seldom stated. Man can the ballet Madame Milan, forget about one other woman or not? Whoever
lies about me deliberately will find it sitting place in the hellfire. Severe warning, when Gibran saw Selim repeated under a number of occasions. And as a result of which, when we talked about those who narrated from problems, as well as the total number of companions, who narrated from problems SLM, we
pointed out that their numbers are quite small 1060 or so in relationship to the 10s of 1000s that actually, were with him in the last pilgrimage or, you know, as his companions, a very small portion amongst them. They were well aware of this, these Hadees as warnings, so they were very
careful not to narrate anything that might
inadvertently or mistakenly the activity department around me.
What time was it that you said you wanted to ban?
What was it?
in 25? Well,
we can stop at this point. Here is the metro pointed
pause. And as I said, we'll save our questions for the end of the second session, chama
All praise is due to a lot
of recent lessons on the last messenger of Allah
and the previous session
we completed looking at
rejected narrations rejected reports, cover module or the dive hubby's
except that the very end of it
when we're talking about
the fabricated IDs
and how such handys can never be elevated.
We also needed to look at the reasons or the ways by which these fabrications may be identified. One which I spoke about most commonly was that of a liar being in the chain. So how does one know that sometimes a person is a liar?
One may know so either by the confession of the individual himself.
And there are cases of certain individuals well known one is a boy Esma nor can I be more young
to fabricating Hadees about the various chapters of the Quran.
And attributing them to I've been at bass.
When he was questioned about this,
he said that, you know, he found that people were getting so much involved in this.
And they were neglecting the Quran. So he fabricated these Hadees, about the various chapters of the Quran to encourage people to
read the Koran more regularly. And he admitted it on his deathbed.
The second way
is where we have an indirect that's a direct confession. The second way is where we have an indirect confession.
When a person
is asked about his date of birth,
and he gives a date of birth,
which is after
the death of his teacher,
the person who's supposed to be narrating
it didn't meet this person. To me that is like
Eli is considered to be an indirect confession.
The second method, first method was a direct confession, where a person on his deathbed or whatever, trying to clear the record before he passes from this world, and only on people number of people did that. They admitted fabricating, it said among them, of course, it's Sorry, I've seen
you know, all of the ideas, which talk about the virtues of reading, sorry, I said, they are all fabricated. every last one of them, we are seen as the most popular chapter, you know, the grinds were in the grind for the mass of people. And you have all kinds of ideas. One of them is say, for example, everything has a heart and the heart of the grind is YesI complicated. It says it really, really I seem to be dead, and people are dead, right? If we're dead and dying, really, I seem to them in order to ease the passage into the next life fabricated.
So on and so forth, all the rewards that are mentioned about reading as in there is nothing authentic on Soria
either it is weak or it is fabricated.
The third way
is what we refer to as circumstantial factors about the narrator
which indicates that the individual
is a liar in that a for example, maybe a Shiite
and he's narrating information about the descendants of the Prophet Moses Allah
exaggerated claims about them.
And it's a expose comes in on the tears amongst the Shiites, these are among the signs which indirectly point to a liar.
And there may be circumstantial factors in the hobbies itself.
wherein the text which is being narrated, has in its grammatical errors
inconceivable, and problems as well, you know, made these statements because they're grammatically incorrect, right.
they contain information, which contradicts
the basic senses.
You know, what I said to tell us, quite obviously,
and misinformation contradicts the most basic senses.
And thirdly, where it contradicts the obvious meanings of the blind
is among signs of complication. And
now, when we look at the reasons for fabrication,
four main reasons.
The first one is referred to as false piety
falls by it, this was the case of those who fabricated a nice about the coroner
Other things about Islam which was
in order to encourage Muslims to do these things,
you have ideas which are fabricated about different locations going to different places.
These fabrications our to encourage people these locations may have special reward or reward attached to them. So they fabricated to further encourage people to come. And these people
when they were
questioned as to why they did it, and about one Solomon said, Man, cassava, Elijah Muhammad and man cassava and a woman tells a lie about
they said, We weren't lying about him.
We were lying for him.
Can that nyla
don't draw a line for him, you know, supporting the religion I'm lying about.
But of course, this was a
major error. You know,
we don't have any justification for this, no matter how
good our intentions may be. This is actually promoted the idea that the means that the ends justify the means. Right. And then for example, that well known book w in Islam.
You'll find it many
people have argued that you know they're encouraging people to do for writing about that.
And there is a point which concerns we cut these were some of the scholars differ, right.
Imam Ahmed, for example, he preferred using a weak hubby's over using the US. We have choose between us and Piazza this deduction by analogy, we'll go into that in our next session, a month and a half to two months from now, when we do the course on
the next course,
This principle of the US
where we deduce rulings based on earlier rulings, on issues that we don't have information about, we don't have a ruling on when we have issues which there is already a ruling on and they share in some characteristics. So we take a ruling from the past and apply it on something in the present we call this gas right now.
Mr. Othman, he preferred to use a happy life over using gas
was superior to a gas because gas was human reasoning.
has the possibility of being
obviously which had his defense he talking about the model
in which I just totally off the list, talking about ideas which are naive, because one of the narrator's memories was not very strong. So it's classified by such a happy knowing let generally call it inauthentic. There is a possibility that it is often and if we find supporting narrations, then we know and it's elevated. But if we don't find support interactions, we avoided out of precaution.
But there is a possibility that it is in fact
inflation is fine to correct that possibility exists so am I'm admitted the humble prefer to use something with that possibility, then to rely purely on human reasoning
to rely purely on human reason.
Other scholars they did permit to be you