The human knowledge and practices of the sharia, or divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah, are frequently referred to as fiqh (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions).
It is a branch of Shariah that improves and develops Shariah by the interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (ulama) and the implementation of jurists’ decisions (fatwa) on matters posed to them. As a result, Muslims regard sharia as unchanging and infallible, whereas fiqh is viewed as fallible and changeable.
In Islam, Fiqh deals with rituals, morals, and social legislation, as well as the political system. Within Sunni practice, there are four significant schools (madh’hab) of fiqh, plus two (or three) within Shi’a practice in the current age. A faqh is a person who has received training (plural fuqaha).
Fiqh literally means “knowledge of Islamic legal rulings from their sources,” and extracting religious rulings from their sources requires the mujtahid (a person who exercises ijtihad) to have a thorough comprehension of various jurisprudence issues.
The methods of legal interpretation and analysis are traditionally divided into Ul al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence, lit. the roots, alternatively transliterated as Usool al-fiqh), and Fur al-fiqh (lit. the branches), the elaboration of rulings on the basis of these principles.
God’s chosen commands and prohibitions were revealed through the Prophet in both the Quran and the Sunnah (words, deeds, and examples of the Prophet passed down as hadith). As Muslims and Islam expanded from West Arabia, the earliest Muslims (the Sahabah or Companions) heard and obeyed, passing on the essence of Islam (Tabi’un and Tabi’ al-Tabi’in) to subsequent generations (Tabi’un and Tabi’ al-Tabi’in).