Muslims in India – A Brief History
Channel: Adnan Rashid
File Size: 21.48MB
Is that if the Muslim soul ponds did not stand in the way of the Mongols?
Do you know what would happen to India? Do you have any idea what the Mongols would do in India? The Indians cannot imagine it. To understand what I'm talking about this read what they did to land between China and Syria.
In those 50 years, breaking idols was an Indian phenomenon. It was happening in India before the Muslims came. Hindus who belong to different cults are different understandings of the deities, because you know, Hindus worship different deities, they have different deities,
different sects. And for that reason, they attacked each other in the past, and they destroy each other's temples and idols. So when a lot of these islamophobes or Islam haters nowadays talk about Muslim history in India, they point to one phenomenon. And that phenomenon is temple desecrations. Temple desecrations was actually not an invention of Islam and Muslims, it was not. To the contrary, we have evidence that Muslims left those temples alone that had no political significance as such at the time, because temples in India were symbols of power.
The power of the king in the state was directly linked to the deity in the temple. And this is exactly what was the case with the Greek mythology. You see if you watch this movie, Troy, Brad Pitt, when Achilles the Greek,
mythical hero attacks Troy, the first thing he does is goes to the Temple of Apollo. And it cuts off the head of the idol to demoralize the enemy, the army of DNA. This is exactly what's happening in India, in India, Hindu kings would invade other territories, Hindu territories, and these Hindus would be governed, so he would be worshipping a different deity. And one Hindu King would read another Hindu territory. And the first thing that Hindu King would do is to go to the temple, destroy the deity burn the temple down, and that would be moralized the entire army of the enemy has finished game over, you know, God has abandoned us, this is how it worked. And this is one of the
reasons why it was used as a weapon of war during the Middle Ages by Muslims and Hindus. Okay, that temple desecrations is a Muslim speciality Muslims specialized in temple desecrations you know, how did you how to remove the blocks professionally from temple, they knew how to slice the idols. But this was not a Muslim monopoly. It was happening in India across the board. And Richard Eaton is a very good scholar from the US who has written extensively on temple desecrations in India. If you Google Richard Eaton, Richard II, a to N Eaton, and then temple desecrations, Google Richard Eaton, temple desecrations, you will see articles on temple desecrations in India, and you will see exactly
what the reality is. So you need to learn your history, you need to understand these things. Likewise, Mahmud ghaznavi, who came into India who came into India, he was invading this territory to accumulate wealth. And he used propaganda to be successful to recruit more volunteers from surrounding countries. And you know, when the call of jihad was made, many volunteers came and joined the armies and they came into India and not necessarily as far as the King was concerned, for the sake of allow for for the sake of Islam. It was partly because they wanted to accumulate wealth as kings did in the Middle Ages during the Middle Ages, Medieval period, there were no rules and
regulations. There was no United Nations there were no Geneva Conventions or bill of rights or anything like that. These people, they, they did as they went along. Basically, they made the minds of the decided things as they went along. Right. So Mahmud ghaznavi, rated 17 times and he destroyed one particular temple called Somnath in Gujarat in the current day region called woodrat. Okay, so this was the first time when some Muslim armies approached India from the north and Lahore. Have you heard of the city called Lahore? isn't currently Pakistan became the capital, the ghaznavi capital. In India, the first Muslim stronghold in northern India was Lahore amazingly, a lot of people don't
know this pile, okay? Lahore became the first
Muslim stronghold again. Gradually the ghaznavi power declined. And after the ghaznavi another power arose in the 12th century called the votaries. Okay, led by a man called Marisa Deen, Mohammed bin Salman, Shahabuddin. avari. Okay. And he was called voting because he came from a region in Afghanistan call of war. Okay. And of Ronnie's have a long history when when we talk about India and Afghanistan, most invasions from the north came through Aniston, and they came from Khyber Pass, which isn't currently a Pakistan By the way, right. So, these armies came, they defeated some Hindu kings in the north, in particular, a king called Prithvi Raj chohan. He was defeated in a battle
the Battle of terrain and the Muslim power was established in the north, in the city of Delhi. Now, the slave kings came to power literally called slave kings, okay. This is when the real power plate started as far as the Muslims are concerned in India, when the Muslims became real political plays in the political or the military landscape of India. Why did this happen? If you want to take one day, I would say 1200 easy to remember what what date 1200 easy to remember why 1200 because this is the time when the rise of the Muslim power in northern India actually
took a significant form.
And this started with again, a very Shahabuddin Gauri, who had a number of Turkic slaves under him serving as generals. So again, remember the tradition of buying slaves from Central Asia and training them in military arts for them to become expert soldiers, fighters, generals, tacticians, all these things, right? So these Turkic slaves, who were very good at fighting wars, especially when we look at medieval warfare, they brought a lot of expertise with them. So he had a huge number of slaves bought from Turkic regions, Central Asia, okay, current day it was Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and what are the stands are there? All these stands, right? They were at the time known
as maharana maharana. Har actually means land. Beyond the river literally in Arabic Arabic, like which river river oxus Okay, that separates of ronstan from Central Asia, also known as transect, Sania, the region of transect, Sania, right, so, these Turkic slaves were bought from these markets in this region, and they were trained in military arts. They became so powerful within the military a process that they became Sultan's orange, more is the dean Shahabuddin. Mohammed vory. Hamad bin Salman voting was killed by an assassin in his tent. There's a place called gujar Han, in Pakistan. But many, many people, if you are from the would know what I'm talking about. This is where
Shahabuddin Rory was killed in his tent in 2006. And immediately after his assassination, his slave photo in a book, or iBook, came to power. The name is very Turkic, he was Turkey. And I can imagine if you saw him, he would look like a Central Asian, you know, have you seen Mongols? Yeah. You know, they have long eyes, flat faces, very distinct features. They look like that the Sultan's were Muslims, they look like that. So he was a Turkic slave. Katadyn iBook was Sultan and he governed for four years in 1210. He was playing Polo in Lahore, and he died. having fallen from his horse, and he was buried in Lahore, his tomb is there in law. After him came to power a very important figure,
hold on ill to mesh shamsudeen into the mesh again, a very Turkish name, right? He came to power and he governed for another 26 years from 1210 to 1236, he came to power 26 years. It was in his reign, when the Mongol
started to kill Muslims. When the Mongol invasions started Ganga Khan and his army started to invade Muslim territory from the the North East, okay from the Mongol territory Mongolia, currently Mongolia so Ganga Khan came out to avenge the murders.
Have some Mongol merchants who were killed in the territory of quadrum Shah
Kazim Shah was the king of a very huge territory, consisting of parts of central Asia, Persia and the Middle East up to Iraq, he was a very huge King, who had become so huge that he had killed all the other kings in these territories. Now, because only he remained as the King no other kings remained.
He could fight the Mongols alone, but he couldn't fight the Mongols alone. That was the problem. When the Mongols came in, he was on the run. And when he eventually got killed, or died, the Mongols had taken all that territory. Now what happened? India,
the Indian Islam. What happened as far as the Muslim civilization in India is concerned,
is directly linked to Mongol invasions. Amazingly, if Mongols did not invade
Central Asia, which was predominantly Muslim at the time, the cities of Bukhara and some of them and this is why I keep mentioning it. This will tell islamophobes that no matter how hard you try to spread hate against Muslims,
we have survived Mongol invasions. We survived Mongol invasions. And you don't know what that is. Once you study the Mongol invasions, you will know exactly what that means. And we will survive this. Who will also survived this, your hate your life, your peddling of
misrepresentation of our faith is not going to work. It's going to fail. It is going to fail and we will survive we will last This is the promise of a lot to us. And you know when the Mongol invasions happened, Muslim scholars are saying this is it. This is Mohammed This is your Judah module which is finished, we are finished. But what happened? The same Mongols they became the defenders of Islam.
They became the defenders of Islam. So, from the same people came who Ottomans the Ottomans.
It happened in the 13th century, Genghis Khan came in 2019 and he died in 2027. Having killed almost 10 million Muslims from East Turkistan up to Syria and then an army of Mamelukes sayfudine kotas defeated the Mongols for the first time on that scale. And they advanced was checked. Amazingly, the Mamelukes. The Turkic slaves who were trained in military odds have this honor
to claim in the history.
Both cases where Mongol invasions were stopped and checked. They were stopped by the Mamelukes by slaves, bought by Muslims will find Muslim kings trained in military arts. They were the ones who defended and protected the Muslim civilization from destruction from imminent destruction. Were one case in Egypt, where again, the Mamelukes the slave kings were governing sayfudine photos was a mameluke and baybars after him.
And the second case is Indian. Where photon il two thermische who was governing when the Mongol invasions happened, and after these invasions, you remember when I mentioned that Indian civilization, Indian Islam
owes its existence to Mongol invasions.
Sometimes when you see something some destruction, you see destruction. But Allah had an has another plan. God has a plan. And you cannot see that plan unfold, because you don't live long enough to see that plan. The Mongol invasions made the Muslims stronger, and this is the point I want to make now.
All the intellectuals, all the philosophers, all the points, all the theologians, all the historians from Central Asia,
all the artists,
all the experts in architecture, the cream of the crop, the cream of the crop from Central Asia, and it's a huge region from places like Samarkand and Bukhara
from the Fergana Valley and from Afghanistan.
they migrated they left the region because of Mongol invasions, that destruction and where did they go?
India, they took refuge under the protection of these powerful photons in India and in India, all of these colors
and all of these are
Architects and intellectuals brought the knowledge and the expertise with them. That's why India became such a power that a menace like Mongols could not shake it for over a century. For over a century, Muslims sold bonds from different dynasties governing
North India. We're protecting India against the Mongol invasions.
So first soltana He also been
another Turkic slave slave of Sultan Chavo the university
12 3060 died, his daughter Rebecca Sultana came to power. You know, Razia Sultana is a very famous figure in Indian history and Indians know about her, she only government for years and she was the first Muslim woman, ruler of India. She governed for years, and she governed effectively in facts will bind and took me she preferred her over his son.
He's to say, I wish you were a man, that you could become the Sultan after me because she had all the qualities of the Sultan, but the Turkic
These slaves of bonds are established in India at the time was a very male dominated system. So these Turkic
leaders chiefs did not accept her as the ruler, so she was eventually deposed. And then other sons of intermeshed came to power they were weak links and then came to power. They also have been a very powerful Turkic slave General, again, trained in military art. And he created a huge empire in India, so strong that the Mongols could not break through. He built fortresses in the way of the Mongols. Okay, but one thing Muslims don't know about India, is that if the Muslims will thorns did not stand in the way of the Mongols.
Do you know what would happen to India? Do you have any idea what the Mongols would do in India? The Indians cannot imagine it. To understand what I'm talking about this read what they did to
land between China and Syria.
In those 50 years, you know what they did in Baghdad in 1258, the Mongols in Baghdad, they killed the entire population. They left out the Shias. They left out the Christians, they completely slaughtered the entire population of
the tsunamis above that.
So the Mongols were stopped by the Muslims will tans.
Muslim photons stop the Mongols. And if the daily photons did not die, and the Sultan's were slaves initially and they became kings, so towns, in this case they also been bourbon. They also been bourbon governed from 1266 to 1286 20 years. So we also been Baldwin was a very strong Sultan, his son was killed in battle defending India against Mongols. Prince Mohammed William had was killed in battle against Mongols and then we move on to the next dynasty that came to power the ecologies another have gone family from a grandstander came to power, they fought against Mongols. Then came the tolex also a Turkic, originally Turkic family from slave class who became Fulton's in Kings.
They also fought mumbles and one of the kings among them was Mohammed bin froglog, who governed from 1325 to 1351. For almost 26 years, he was the strongest Sultana among the top looks and who knows a Bluetooth
who knows Tata Tata, the rashleigh of a global Tata the memoir, the travel, the travelogue of evitable Tata is well known among Muslims in Muslim scholarly circles. He was a traveler who came from Morocco and you traveled all the way to India. He visited India at this time, when Hamad bin Pollock was governing why when Governor appointed him as the colony of Delhi on the Maliki fic, and then sent him with some presents and gifts for the Chinese Emperor. So he sent him as an envoy to the Chinese Emperor. And then he was shipwrecked near the south of India. And even Buddha decided to go back to Morocco instead of going back to Delhi because he knew the Sultan will kill him for
losing all the things he was given for the Chinese Emperor. So all this is happening. I will now take on hugely because of the shortage of time, we will go to the Mongols. The Mongols came to power again, a Turkic
Family originally, they were descendants of Taymor Timo, the lame who was a conqueror after Ganga Khan, who conquered a large territory in Central Asia again, following the footsteps of Ganga Khan, and he went as far as the Ottomans and he actually fought against the Ottomans and captured the Ottoman Sultan, Sultan barges, he yelled drum was captured by him and killed by him. Okay, so the moon was very dangerous. He actually invaded India as well in 1398 and devastated Delhi. But from his descendants came a man called Barbarossa. He'll be empowered, who invaded India and the Mughal dynasty was established in India, Persian language became the court language of India. Okay, it was
the literary language of India, all the court records, the letters, the correspondence was done in Persian, and the photons spoke Turkic, they spoke Turkic, but the language of the court was Persian. So, Persian language went through a renaissance in India.
if we study the Mughal period alone, when the government for nearly
three centuries moguls governed parts of India for three centuries, and they made huge contributions, the Mughal Empire, the Mughal civilization was so influential and so powerful that even the Hindus had become patronized, or Islamic FIDE. Okay, so what happened to Hindus in India?
What happened to them, they knew the Sanskrit but they had become so influenced by the Muslim civilization, that they had become Islamic fight. They were using Islamic language. In many cases, many Hindus came to Islam because of the beauty of Islamic culture and Islamic
tradition. In India at the time during the models, I cannot paint all the models as the same, because there were different different kings did different things at different times in different places, right. But generally speaking, the Mughals had a very positive impact on the Indians. You know, I can talk about the Taj Mahal, I can talk about the Red Fort, I can talk about the mobile monuments and the buildings and the art on tombs, and the calligraphy and, you know, illumination of buildings and all that I can talk about that, but the real achievement of the Mughals in India was they tolerance towards the masses,
the coexistence of the Muslims and the Hindus and others. Under the Mughal rule, the Mughals provided that justice, that stability of state, it wasn't perfect, it was never perfect, because those times were chaotic. Wars, rebellions cause problems. But if you look at the norm, people lived in enough to be able to write books like that. And I recommend strongly a book written by a scholar called Audrey thrush. She has written a book titled
The culture of encounters
Sanskrit at the mobile court, or in the mobile court, or culture, or the culture of encounters Sanskrit at the mobile court. And another book she has written, which is a short book on one of the Emperor's in whose reign this particular manuscript was penned on Zeb alamgir, who was the most Islamic mobile King, Islamic, you know, he was the most Islam observant King in the mobile history, and he was the man responsible for building the badshahi Mosque in Lahore, which was the largest mosque in the world, until other mosques are made later on. Even today, if you look at the Indian language in India spoken by the Hindus, it is heavily influenced by Muslim vocabulary, Muslim dress
code Muslim culture for that matter, this cannot be taken away from India.
So, the Muslim civilization in India achieved hugely positive things for the Indians and Indian Muslim contribution to the freedom movement against the British East India Company, and later on the British Empire
will lay the list is so long that we cannot possibly Muslim freedom fighters. Kings like to buscopan people so far. Again, this is another lecture in itself. The man was killed in battle in 1799 against the East India Company forces and he was so sophisticated that his name is among one of the inventors of rockets.
If you go to the American rocket Institute, if that's what it's called, he will see his name among one of the inventors
The British went to India as traders during the Mughal period,
they came when the Mughals were at the peak, the peak of the power the moguls are the most powerful political entity in the world. Starting from an emperor called jalala been Muhammad Akbar, then his son,
Johnny new routine, Jahangir, then his son Shahabuddin
Sharjah Han, the builder of Taj Mahal,
and then his son Aurangzeb RM D, these four kings, they witnessed or they saw,
or they facilitated the peak of the Indian
Empire in the world. During the reign nearly the river the native nearly 50 years reign of orangevale and gear from 1658 to 77. India was the richest country in the world. It has been never so rich, before and after. And orange a volunteer is the most maligned Muslim king in Indian history, because of his because of his Islam, but he made India a formidable power. Never before India witnessed so much power 24% of global GDP 24% of global GDP was in India during the reign of orange a volunteer, this is all powerful, and he was he was the richest man in the world. And yet, he would sleep on a mat.
He memorized the Quran after he became the Emperor. When he was over 40 years old. He would write the Quran in his own hand.
And he would deliver justice personally.
For his subjects, when he would hear one of his sons or one of his cousins or one of his relatives is abusing power, he would personally get involved and you would have
a men's mate.
So orange, a volunteer was done. But then after his death in 77, within 50 years of his death, the moguls went downhill immediately. The succeeding Emperor's or a bunch of, you know, weaklings, they were busy in debauchery, they were, you know, having fun. They harems, the singing and dancing, the smoking of shisha hookah, all of that this is what they were busy in. Okay. And then political power was lost in 1757. The British fought a war against the model then defeated them, and then they woke up to the potential of India, they realized that they can possibly own India, in their wildest dreams, these merchants working for a company or trade company called the British East India
Company, they could never imagine that they will one day become the masters of India, the richest country in the world, what Britain is today, what Britain is today is one of the richest countries in the world, right?
A huge a huge proportion of the British wealth or the gold reserves of the Bank of England. A huge part of it come from India. I tell you that without hesitation, okay, if you don't believe me, read the book of Shashi Tharoor titled The dark Empire, the dark Empire, okay, Shashi Tharoor.
So, the British came to power in 1757. And slowly and gradually by plotting by planning, which anyone would do, we can't blame them for that, okay. British East India Company wanted to get his hands on power and own India, which they successfully did. They could not claim, however, ownership of India until this man called people's will Thorn was killed in 1799. Why he was killed? Who was he? What are his achievements? Please,
either listen to my lecture on him on YouTube, the biography of TiVo Zoltan or read a book on him, called the tiger of my soul, by Kate brittle back cake, brittle bank.
And he was on top of the last giant standing in India until t Bhutan was alive. The British could never claim racial
or cultural or religious or political superiority over the native Indians.
It was only in the 1820s after tables will pan was killed and the Muslim political power was removed completely from the Indian landscape
then the British
But claiming racial superiority, then racism
could be could be seen in the government policies. It could be seen how communications were done between the British official, I recommend two books strongly two books strongly to understand this point by a British author. His name is William Dalrymple. William Dalrymple, has written two books on this very topic to understand what I'm talking about read white models, white models by William Dalrymple, and the last model by the same author, and you will get the end of the Muslim Empire or Muslim civilization in the Indian subcontinent.