From Morocco to Spain to the Americas – Part 2 Introduction Class #1
Channel: Abdullah Hakim Quick
Series: Abdullah Hakim Quick - From Morroco To Spain To The Americas
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Episode Transcript ©
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Bismillah R Rahman r Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salatu salam ala Salle overlain will act in in the Vienna Muhammad wa ala alihi wa sahbihi with radical Salam. Our prayers are due to Allah, Lord of the worlds and peace and blessings be constantly showered upon our beloved Prophet Muhammad, the master of the first and the last, and upon his family as companions and all those who call to his way and establish his sunnah to the Day of Judgment. As to what follows my beloved brothers and sisters, to our friends, to our viewers, salam Wa alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Alhamdulillah we are beginning the second part of our series in looking at Morocco to Spain. And in this section, we wanted to extend it
Our topic from Morocco to Spain, to the Americas. And this might seem strange when you think about the history of that region. But as we will see, as our lessons unfold, we will see that what happened in North Africa and Spain actually influenced the early Americas. And up until now, it is having an influence on the spread of Islam, and the peoples living in North South Central America and the Caribbean region. Recently, information has come to the surface to show that Latino Muslims, these are Spanish speaking people living in the United States, in Latin America, meaning Central America, Caribbean, South America, Latino Muslims, especially in the United States, and in Central
America, are the fastest growing group now in the Americas. And percentage wise, they have actually gone further than African Americans, who for decades, were the fastest growing group.
And this is very significant. And the question is, you know, what would Spanish speaking people have to do with Islam, you would expect it would be the opposite, based upon the negative relationship and based upon the propaganda. But as we will see, there is a cultural connection, there is a religious connection, and sometimes even a physical connection, DNA migration between what happened in Morocco, to Spain and Portugal, Al Andalus, and right to the Americas. So we want to study this phenomena, and to go into different aspects of it, that are relevant to us, as Muslims, and Inshallah, this would give us a broader look at the history of Islam, and also the direction that we
are going into the future.
This topic also became important after the last World Cup. And that is where the Moroccan team did so well. And they turned out to be representing the whole Muslim world. And when they defeated Spain, and then Portugal, it was an epic victory. And it was a resounding victory. And the information spread around the world and the joyous exhilaration that the people of Morocco had was something to be witnessed. And we need to understand this, because there is more than meets the eye. And the more we become familiar with this history is, the more we will be able to understand the people of North Africa, the people of Spain, and the significance of what happened in the World Cup
and the significance of what is going on in the Mediterranean region. That stretches, of course, right over to the Americas.
And in order to do this, we need to go back to the early spread of Islam.
And for those who are new students, and those who have been in the first section, we need to have the whole picture. And it is important to be able to string together historical events. Generally, when people look at history, they tend to look at it based upon an individual, say, a king and a queen or an event happening, but not look at the trend, not look at what happened on the ground. And this is where the Islamic historians and the more neutral, open minds that historians of the West have tried to understand history, from the position of other people, and not just the conqueror.
And so this is very important. And I noticed when I first came into Islam as because many years ago,
and this is in 1970. So he talked like, you know, 50 years, when I first came into Islam and started studying about the history of Islam, and generally they spoke about Africa. They showed just North Africa and that Islam did not spread below the Sahara.
It did not have much influence in Europe at all. Generally speaking, when we talked about Islam when we looked at the history of Islam, it was generally in the heartlands of Islam, meaning in what is now known as the Middle East, and then Asia and then parts of North
East Africa, meaning Egypt, Sudan,
In Somalia, sometimes the Swahili coast. But we are now recognizing because of the presence of individuals in from other parts of the Muslim world significant contributions that are made. Now today, people are familiar with Chechnya. They are familiar with Dagestan. And you know what happened in those regions, the North Caucasus regions, and it's shocking for people to note and there was a recent picture that came out that showed Eid, the Eid Salah in Moscow. And it was a shocking picture because it's like a million and a half people making salata eat in Moscow.
And that's something that you'd never expect. In that part of the world, you would never expect millions of Muslims to be living in China. You'd never expect now that probably the largest Muslim group is not just Indonesia, but in India, the amount of Muslims in India, although we think of India as a Hindu nation, but it is a huge section of the Islamic population.
People are also recognizing that Timbuktu was not just a mythical city lost in space, but it was a Center for Scholars below the Sahara Desert.
And by the 16th century in Timbuktu, the sankofa University had over 25,000, black African Muslim students who was studying not only Islamic Studies in the formal sense, but also astronomy, medicine, biology, so many different, you know, areas were being studied by African Muslims there in West Africa. And so now, we are understanding the extent of the growth, and then Islam in the Americas, that there are hundreds and 1000s and millions of people in the Americas who have been experiencing Islam for centuries. So this is an expansion
and expansion of our minds, and expansion of our understanding of the world of Islam. So this particular map here, this chronological historical map, is showing the early spread of Islam. And you'll see that the green there is showing you the spread of Islam within you know, the time of the Prophet SAW Salem, and the time of the holofoil rush 18.
Really, you could say, the first 100 years or so, of Islam, especially the first section, and then you have the different colors,
the brownish golden color.
And you can see Islam spreading and this map opened up you would see that within 100 years, Muslims had reached China and entered into China. And they said that in Canton, there is graveyards of Sahaba that actually reached into China, far north into the Caucasus, deep south in the Swahili coast. And as you can see, with the map all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, and so the heartlands of Islam was not only Mecca, Medina, Iraq, Damascus, and then later on India, Yemen, and the classical Heartlands, and of course, Egypt, Cairo, Egypt, but it spread further. And we recognized that the Western capital of Islam was not Cairo. The western capital of Islam was beta one. And that is where
the black circle is on your map, present day Tunisia
and pay the one it was there in the masjid in beta one that said noon.
And the Maliki scholars put together a Madona al Cobra, the writings and sayings of Imam Malik Rahim Allah, the great Imam of Dar Al Hijrah.
It is in North Africa. It wasn't in Medina, although he was based in Medina all of his life. But actually his teachings took hold in North Africa, from Cairo all the way across. And it was centered for a long time in Pedro, Juan itself, and you can see in the early movement of Islam, that it goes into what is now known as Spain and Portugal.
And we want to look at certain significant events and significant individuals who came into
Islamic history. Now you can see with the green here that right after the death of the Prophet so seldom when the Muslims were attacked by the Romans in the north. And then by the Persian Empire in the east, they responded, the Persian Empire fell. And with that, so many lands in the East east of Mecca and Medina, Iraq, and way going up into Russia, and those areas started opening up. When the Byzantine Romans were defeated,
in Jerusalem and in Syria, and these regions there, the Muslims decided to take back the holdings of the Byzantines, they were oppressing their people. And they were looked upon as a foreign entity within these countries. And so Muslims then began to take back Byzantine holdings. And that took them right across North Africa. So this green, that you see that goes, stretches from Egypt, all the way across to Morocco.
This was part of the movement that Muslims made into North Africa. And it was to to lift the oppression off of the people, because we have to recognize that the early companions, they were not about conquest, like the Roman Empire, just to have physical land and to consider yourself to be the capital of the world. They were not conquering like the Mongols, who just can't get to take the world, were Ganga scan wanted to be the ruler of the whole planet. And they would conquer the area, kill the people, you know, whatever is left, you know, assimilated into their kingdom. But they didn't really add much to the societies themselves. And that is the reason why now, when you think
about Mongol people, or Mongolia, it's something far off. It's something distant, most people don't even know where Mongolia is today. But the blood of Ganga scan the blood of the Mongol people spread throughout the world, and actually had an impact on you know much of the world. We'll just fix the fix the background as we continue.
focusing on the spread of Islam, we recognize that the great Tabby II walk by Ibn Nafion Rahim Allah,
that he took the word of Islam right to the Atlantic Ocean, and established Peter one as the base of operations for North Africa.
And Akbar was a strong person, he was an initiator. He initiated the spread, tireless leader, and that is in the story of Islam. We have many tireless leaders who just move and move in. But what is needed is a consolidator. Because if you have an initiator and no consolidator, you can't maintain what you have done.
And this is very significant for our communities as well. Because in the big cities, we can see especially in the Western countries, New York City, you know, Toronto, Chicago, Euston, you will find that Muslims will spread to many areas. But unless there are consolidators who come along and consolidate the communities, then the community sort of fizzles out.
Okay, so initiate it and consolidated. So in this case, when Islam had spread across, it encountered the indigenous people, the Amazon, people,
there was a need to consolidate. And so the Omega dynasty that was ruling the lens of Islam at that time, in seven or eight, they sent Musa Benazir and this is an important name. And many people in other parts of the Muslim world are not familiar with. Musa Bindo ser Rahim Allah, but he is an extremely important person. His father was a Christian.
And he was studying to be a bishop. And when the Muslims took over Syria, the Syria bill as a sham,
he was captured and made a servant of God that had been Walid Khalid saw his his great potential and freed him. And he became a very strong Muslim and actually rose into leadership. So that's why the word new says it
is being used Nasrani
Okay, so as far so So Musa being his son was raised with the leadership of the roommates, but he was sensitive to other religions. Because Father, right, so he was sensitive. So Musa was set
to be the Emir of the western lands of Islam. Remember, now get the Western East straight now, right? It's west of Mecca. See the way we think. When we say the east, we think east of London, right? The Far East is East of you know, far away from London,
with the British Empire. And you can see now the monarch is crowned
of the British Empire, but there's nothing left. But there was a time when that empire was influencing, you know, a good part of the world.
Okay, so they affected the way people think. And we still say the Middle East and the Far East. We're turning it around.
So the Western lens of Islam is actually North Africa,
because west of Mecca, and we have to change our thinking as well. So we're not thinking in a Eurocentric fashion. So Musa Ben No se Rahim Allah, He consolidated. The work done by Akbar bin Navya. And he presented Islam to the people. In a different way, Akbar is moving through the territory, defeating the Byzantines, the rebellious imagine defeating them establishing your Islamic rule, but not having time to consolidate. Musa now presented Islam properly, to the masses and people. And these are the people known as Berbice. The Berber people. And again, this is an area and I'm putting out certain
groups and names to you to do your own research about this group is extremely important.
That's the Berber spirit, the amazi spirit that you saw in the World Cup. That is Hakimi and with his mother and all the different players and the power and you know, simplicity that they had the love of Islam, that is a massive in people.
So, this is a very important group, which is not really mentioned in the way that it should be understood.
Musa Mendoza opened up for them. And they entered Islam in crowds. And what is important for us and we had looked at this in our previous study is that many of the Mexican North African people from right across from Cairo, from Egypt, Alexandria, all the way across were actually Aryans. They were believers in one God, because Arias, who was the rebellious Christian bishop, remember, let's go back in time 325 Ad Council of Nicaea.
Christianity is being formed in Constantinople. Right Emperor Constantine.
That's where they established the Trinity. Arias was the leading rejecter of the Trinity.
He was a Libyan but he was based in Alexandria.
So his teachings were across North Africa.
His followers were eventually persecuted.
We ran into some of the followers, even in the life of Prophet Muhammad, Salah Salem, when he was traveling on the caravan. And you know, Mahira and the store, the monks that were on the road, believed in one God, they were not Trinitarians. So there were people like this all over the Mediterranean region. In many parts of the world, they were waiting for the last message.
And that is extremely important when you deal with North Africa. Because if
the Muslims conquered that region like Mongols, and this is what is being said, the curve sword except Islam or die. That is what is being put out there. If they did this, then you would see no trace just like the Mongols. The Mongols have their DNA. And they say if you look in the DNA of a lot of people do their DNA. They're going to be shocked to see Mongolian blood inside of them because of the intermarriage and the conquest. But otherwise, there's no Mongol culture.
There is no among all God's Tengri and it is God's none of it.
So if the Muslims had conquered in a way, similar to the Mongols, there'll be
no trace. But because they were bringing a toe heat monotheism in its final form.
And that is what Arias was struggling for. You could say that arias in a sense, and as follows they were the Muslims before Prophet Muhammad Sal Sal.
So when the people of North Africa who are already familiar with monotheism, and did not necessarily accept the Trinitarian belief of Byzantines, because Romans are bringing in Trinitarian, right Father, Son, Holy Spirit, no,
they rejected the so when Islam came.
They accepted this, once they felt equality. They accepted it in large numbers. And up until today, if you go right across North Africa, you will see that the overwhelming amount of people, maybe 90 95% of the populations
going especially from you know, Egypt, but especially when you go Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Spanish right across,
you will see like 95% of the people are Muslims. Even if they become communist, there's some people become socialist. But if you disrespect Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, even though he's a socialist, he will fight you.
They did not drop their Muslim identity, because it's connected to their roots as Aryans. And they entered Islam in large numbers. So here we have an our map. This, again, is where, you know, beta one was, and North Africa is really important place to understand. Again, it's one of those untold parts of history, that people do not understand the significance of Algeria,
they do not understand the significance of Tunisia, and Morocco and these parts of the world and how important they were in previous histories. But across the streets, was the Iberian Peninsula. And this gives you a topographical map showing you what the peninsula look like. And this is a very important place, its strategic place. Because it's like the mouth of the Mediterranean.
So your whole Atlantic area, you go outside of there, if you go north, then you can go to the British Isles and go south, your land your land, you will on the African coast. If you go west, that's the Americas. So this was literally the mouth of civilizations, early civilizations that spread from that area. And we recognized, and we use the word Al Andalus. That came from the vandals, who was one of the leading groups living in the Iberian Peninsula at the time, and they had spread to North Africa. So van de Lucia, you could say the land of the vandals. And that becomes en de Lucia.
And then an Arabic Al Andalus. This is an actual picture of Spain. And you can see it's a beautiful part of the world if you get to visit it. And you see fertile lands that are there and, and planes. And you know, it is an amazing part of the world. But Musa Mendoza was busy with North Africa. He had plenty to do.
Because look at the land that he had millions of acres of fertile land, there was enough that could have actually this had been could become the breadbasket of much of the Muslim world if it was connected properly.
But the Iberian Peninsula was still there across and it didn't become significant until the oppression of the Visigothic ruler named Roderick. So Roderick is now representing the Roman Empire.
Byzantines are still there.
Rome is still there.
And they were actually rebounding themselves.
And that rebound is a famous historical phenomenon called the Crusades, the Crusades, this is another important part of history that Muslims need to understand, to understand not only the past, but to understand today
because we could say that we are living in a new crusade
you know that is happening again another wave
Coming into our lands in different way now. So the crusades, and so not only did the Crusades go East of France,
it also went west.
So that their representatives
not only into Syria and into those regions, but also went into
the areas of, of Spain, the Iberian Peninsula.
And so this is an important move.
And Roderick became their ruler, and he was introducing the Trinitarian, or he was forcing Trinitarian belief on the people. Now, again, the population of the Iberian Peninsula.
Okay, it's important to understand keep these things in mind.
When we are thinking about, you know, Spain, Al Andalus, Portugal and Spain, that at the time, and you have to think chronologically, right? At the time the population was made up of Unitarian vandals. Now, when I say Unitarian, I mean, people believed in one God.
Okay. Unitarian Visigoths, there was some of the Visigoths, God Gothic people like germ Germanic type people. There were some who believed in one God also.
Then there were the Jewish people. And you'd be surprised how can Jewish people get to this part of the world. But we recognize that in 586 BC, when Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians sacked Jerusalem,
that a group of the leading Jewish people went west.
And they ended up in the Iberian Peninsula. So their foothold in this part of the world is old. And they establish themselves and establish centers of learning. And you could say that some of the greatest intellectuals actually came from this part of the world, not from Jerusalem. Not from what you would think, because this was the base, to a great extent. And if you study the history deeply, and this affects even today, you'll see many of their roots go back to Spain, to Amsterdam, and to parts of Europe, as opposed to their roots going back
to the Middle East. Okay, so these are the people who were living under this rule. And it was terrible.
They were being oppressed. And to the south of Spain. And the north of Morocco, is where the tip of Morocco meets the tip of Spain where Gibraltar meets what is called SUTA or an Arabic We say sub tab.
Okay, so that area there was underneath the rule of Islam. But the leader of the governor was a Christian. And that's permissible, because the Christians, the Jews, people are the book, other people are allowed to pay Jizya. That is that is the tax, it's less than the cat, by the way, our own tax, but they allowed to pay that for maintenance. Like any country, you have your income tax, and you pay tax on goods and services. So in the same way, the tax was being applied to the people. So the leader of Zuta, whose name was Julian, or alien, they would say in Arabic.
He accepted Amir Musa Mendoza.
And it is reported that he sent his data for studies in Toledo. Now, Toledo, which is in Spain, was the educational capital of that region and at one point, the political capital sort of in the center of the country. He sent her there and when Roderick heard about this, he found her he humiliated her, he defiled her and Eliane wanted revenge.
And so, he appealed to Musa Mendoza,
and Musa then it's a long story that we covered in the previous series. Musa sent his general todich ibn Ziad Rahima. Hola, was MSF, right but he could speak Arabic as well. Tireless leader,
and Tarik went across and defeated the Visigothic army of Roderich. In an epic battle, Visigoths had about 100,000
the Muslims had about 17.
Okay, but Muslims had Eman at that time, Allah's help. And it was in Ramadan, last 10 days of Ramadan. And so they defeated the visie got Roderick disappeared from history.
And todich went forward.
He continued. And when the Jewish people, and the people who believed in one God heard about the presence of Muslims, and that Muslims were establishing the belief in one God, they were opposing the Trinity.
They opened up their gates.
And the Muslim would would allow the leadership to say to stay, if they accepted that the rule of Islam, they would allow them they will not be killing them and maiming them and torturing them. They allowed them to stay. And so they opened up their gates. And Tarik and then Musa went north, until dawn, just about the whole of Spain and Portugal was taken over by the Muslims. But this area of land
needed central rule. At that time, the leadership was coming either from Badewanne right, that's your western capital of Islam or Damascus. And there is no internet. There is no telephones, there is no Telegraph's. So to get information from Badewanne to Spain, is a distance from Damascus, this could take months
for solid connections to happen. So therefore,
they needed central leadership. And Allah subhanaw taala, then raised up
important individuals. In particular, the most important person is Abdul Rahman Ibn Maya Rahim Allah Sokka Pradesh. And this is an extremely important person, again, put that name on the site, as a name that you need to study. After you when you're studying the great leaders of Islamic history. And we will look at Selaginella up we will look at
Muhammad Al fattier of the Ottomans. You will see great the orang Zeb you know in India, you will see some great leaders that stand out historically, this is a person that I believe we should study,
and especially our leadership today,
not only because of the fact that he came from an authentic background of the other domains, but really because of who he was and his life. His life is an epic story. And this is where Muslims need to.
If those who are into movies and they want to spend their money, they need to stop, you know, supporting Disneyland. You know, and you know, the Western madness that is coming to us and even, you know, ruining, you know, televisions and our youth in the Muslim world. They need to invest in Islamic films. And at one point, I believe it was the UAE new they invested in a film called OMA, it will look at top. This was a beautiful series done on the Khalifa OMA
and this is a person whose life needs to be studied. And, you know, his journey took him from Iraq all the way across North Africa.
And right into an endless
and what is important about him is that not only was he part of the Omega dynasty, and there was a power struggle between the ambassador and the will may it's okay, we're going back over a history.
Now only was he what was left of the Romanians, but his mother was a mozzie.
His mother was a Berber. So the father was Kurdish on Ben omega. But the mother was Berber, Emma Z North Africa.
And so he escaped from the Middle Eastern area. He went across all over North Africa.
And he was told by the scholars in grade one, Al Andalus need you?
So he went across into Al Andalus. And he established
the Romanian dynasty but he also really established the base of Al Andalus. And the Allama would say Lola Abdul Rahman, led to hell Islam philatelists if it was not for Abdul Rahman, Islam would have been finished. In an endless could not have remained. But he set this space because he led by x
He was a tireless leader. He would go amongst the people, he would deliver the Juma he would call to the good forbid the evil.
He allowed Christians and Jews and Muslims to study together. And he gave, you know, equal attention to all youth.
Right? He did not, he did not give only to Muslims. He opened up trades. They opened up education.
Unions with weavers Weaver's unions and all types of trade groups were developed. He had his scientists study the land, and they brought in products from North Africa.
And so you'll see citrus fruits,
Some of the best are now coming out of Spain and Portugal. But they originally came from North Africa, not from that area.
And so they studied it.
And they also use the Roman aqueducts. These are the structures that would bring water into the cities built by the Romans. And they were able to
to a high level.
And so he ruled
for a long period of time.
you could say that this is a map it may be a little bit more to the north, but basically, during the time of the mayor, it's because he based himself in Cordoba quarterback, so it's not Toledo anymore. It's a little bit south quarterback that became the capital.
Okay, in his famous Jami Masjid there in Cordoba is a place that you need to visit if you get the chance. And so
up there are men
and the philosophy or what was at that at that time a Meerut was based there in
Cordoba. So after Mary ruled for 33 years and four months, and
he exemplified the teachings of Islam, he laid the foundation for Al Andalus. But a mistake happened, that we have to be critical of ourself. If we're not critical of ourselves, then we can understand what's happening in the Muslim world today.
Okay, because you look at the situation in many of the Muslim countries, the recent situation in Pakistan now
is confusing to a lot of people, because everybody's Muslims, right? The Hanafis. They fast as in Ramadan. They speak Urdu
as a base language for all the different meals, smaller languages. So why are we fighting each other, like what actually happened? This is what this study can give us. Piercing information, clearer about what happened in the past, so that maybe if we or our children have a chance to establish Islam, we don't fall into the same trap.
His mistake was that the successor was chosen from his family.
And it was not based upon merit. It was not the best most suitable person to be the leader, but it was chosen from his family. So now remember, that a lot of it becomes a dynasty.
Okay, they weren't even using the word the name Khalifa at that time, but it becomes a dynasty. And there's a little mistake that's in it.
His sons, the ones that followed him when not that bad. Some weaknesses were coming. They were surrounding themselves with a lot of bodyguards and starting to get distant. But it was a 912 that Abdurrahman, a NASA Dini lab, put his name on the site,
is another person you need to study and to know about what he accomplished and who he was. He was up there man, the third, you could say, and he took over leadership. He ruled for 50 years.
He abolished the out of the wrong taxes. He encouraged Agriculture and Trade.
And what he did though, which was different, he claimed to be Khalifa. No longer and Amir. He claimed to be a mirror meaning for the whole Muslim world.
And that is because at the time the Abbasids were in Baghdad, their leaders were a mirror of leadership. They were weakened. It was the Seljuks and other people who were actually holding the
dynasty together and then the Shia
establish their rule in Tunisia.
And then it moved over to Egypt in what is called the Fatimids the Fatimid Shia dynasty.
So these people are so there needed to be the Alessandra will Gemma, the overwhelming successes of Prophet moments are seldom needed a leader, just like we need one today. They needed a leader. And so he established himself as the Khalifa. Now, what is important here, and again, look at the map and see where he is.
Okay, Abdul Rahman en Nasir, he's Khalifa. And you have people from Rome, see Italy, it's to the east of him to Germany, all those European countries, they're not going east.
They go going west.
So the Khalifa at that time, was in the West. You see the thinking now that we have Eurocentric Islam is always in the east zone. No. Islam here is in the west of Europe.
Very significant point. For those who understand geography and history.
One of the problems, again, that develops is that in order to establish his Lafayette, he wanted to do something that sort of like gives him you know, a mark. And so he built Medina to Zara, which is what it was one of the wonders of the world at the time. And if you get a chance to visit Spain, and you go to Cordoba, Cordoba, there's an archaeological site there, visit it, it's worthwhile, is amazing museum. And it's actually they're digging now, and seeing the extent of this
that was built by Abderrahmane and Aucilla de la.
This, of course, is a weakness, because you're establishing yourself based on a material thing. And that's not a real classical leadership of Islam, not based on materials, Prophet Muhammad, Salah Salem, when he died, he had very few physical possessions. When the gold came into Medina, he would give it all away and then go to sleep.
You see the great leaders of Islam, generally speaking, they lived a fairly balanced, simple life.
Right? They were not surrounded by all this wealth, and all of these riches. Okay. So
I want to at this point, again, make an emphasis on a great thinker, Abdul Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldoun Rahim Allah, he's known as Ibn Khaldoun. And he is from the area of Tunisia. He lived route 1332 to 1406. Okay, he was a great historian, diplomat, thinker. He's actually considered the father of social sciences. And he wrote an introduction called Alma Kadima,
which tried to get this if you can, it's an introduction to World History is an extremely important work. And he served in North Africa and Al Andalus. So he actually went to an endless and he served in Cairo, Egypt, very famous person in the Muslim world. And he went north and he actually met, he met timberland. And terma. Lang was a Muslim leader from Mongolian origin, who, although he established some observatories, but he was a butcher as well. And, but you know, he did a lot of epic things. If you go to his Becca, Stan now, then you'll see what is left of Amir Tamio. Timberline,
even called don't even met him.
Very significant person. But the showerhead here the witness for us, is the concept, the psycho cyclical concept of history, five historical stages of leadership.
And think about these stages. It's very important for those who want to understand not only history, but politics. If you want us to understand the social relationships of people and societies, this is what Evan Khaldoon was doing. That's the reason why sociologists base a lot of what they do their theories on his work.
So what did he say? He said that generally when you have a leadership and he was studying Islamic leadership, as an example, especially in Al Andalus
The first stage is the foundation
and that is the success. The conquests, heroism, unity.
You have your principles that are
set. And you see this with Tata cubed, Ziad, you see this with Abdul Rahman Ibn Mahalia, you see the the foundation, that is their solid foundation that comes in the first stage, okay. But the second stage becomes the personalization of power. And that is that the leader becomes absolute leader. So he has absolute power.
This is what happened. Remember, after I met him in Maui, that's what happened with his sons and start going down. Even when it reached up there man and NASA, they had a professional army was not just volunteers feasability law, you have a professional army and that's okay, you got to have organization. But when you have a group of soldiers that your personal bodyguards, 5000 10,000 personal soldiers, who have only allegiance to you,
not to the state,
not to the people, but to the leader, something changes. But still, in the second stage,
Islam can be practiced, you know, a lot can go on.
But it's a weakness, the third stage growth and expansion. Achievements. And this is what we saw, we're going to see happened in Al Andalus. Achievements in architecture, science, there was urban life.
You know, there's a state of this a strong economy is a little bit weak on the top right. Because the absolute authority, but is enough space left, and this is what happened, it'll ended us. Okay, the next stage because you go on second, third generation. So these leaders are not born when the main struggle happened. They're born in the palace, with a spoon a golden spoon in their mouth. So the satisfaction, luxury, incompetent government, right, that stagnation.
This is the cycle that many dynasties go through. This is a deep study for those of you who want to get into political science as well. And the fourth is decline and dissolution. So that is they will start wasting things. Unfaithful soldiers, immorality sets in
and they start blaming their ancestors.
Okay, you see, look at this mentality, they start blaming their ancestors. Okay, and, and then they fall. So this is urban called dunes cycle. Now, getting back to our topic, we've reached the point of brown 1000 1000 ad, Cordoba has over 200,000 houses 600, masjids, 900 public baths, 50 hospitals. It's one of the largest cities in the world. Okay, at that time, the streets were lit for 10 miles in any direction, running water.
Even in your house, you got running water. That's something that London and Paris could not do for 700 years. Now, think about this, when you think about the history of Europe, right? They just say the Moors. These colored people came in from North Africa took over and we kicked them out. Look at the achievements that happened.
This was the light of the world, the jewel of the world at the time.
And it was Muslim capital.
but even while dunes theory starts kicking it
and the dunya
the five course meals,
the luxury, the incompetent leadership, tribalism starts coming in, people start fighting each other
error versus Amazon versus African versus Persian, versus the native Spanish people. Because 1000s of Spanish people, the vandals and they accepted Islam, they will call more wallets. So they were actually part of the Muslim society itself, white people, blond hair and blue eyes. So but when the unity of Islam goes, then fighting comes in. And when this division comes, you leave the Sunnah of the Prophet SAW Salem, then destruction. So that's what happened there. And, of course, because the Crusaders were waiting, remember the crusade not just to the east, but to the west. So the crusade starts coming out of France, and that northern part of Spain and Lyon and way up in the north, they
start coming back.
Got it, it breaks up into the terroir if the tar if kingdoms
and so, when you look around 1031 And you can see the different setups, you know Kingdom some say 22 Different Amir's. And then a major crisis happens in 1072 Alfonso the sixth invaded
and he conquered Portugal.
He came out of Lyon and then he conquered Toledo
and Toledo was one of the centers of Al Andalus and the wrightessay When When Toledo was conquered, it was like your Mopria
This is like the end coming to us, because Toledo is so important. And,
because of this,
a major council meeting was called with all the Amir's with the leaders, they call the council meeting in Seville and the leader of Seville al more timid Billa they decided finally, to call in a Morabito and Almora be tune, again is an important group put that name on the site. This is an important group. These are coming out of the sinharaja out of the Amazon, people of North Africa. And the mugabi tune at that time, had had controlled
much of North Africa and all the way down into Senegal, and right across almost to Egypt. The famous leader at the time was Yusuf ibn Tashfeen Rahim Allah. Okay, so the people of Spain now they're in trouble. The Crusaders are coming. So they call the Morabito and the Morabito and that went across to feed the Crusaders. And based upon their agreement, they returned to North Africa, because they did not enter the dunya. This is a very important group to study as well, and the Marathi tune.
They respected other leadership in the Muslim world.
When they did the football, in the areas that they controlled, they would say, whenever you when you make a duality, and for the leaders, then they would say they will call the leader a mirror Muslimeen.
They did not say a mirror meaning that's, that's very significant. Because it means that you recognize the Khalifa somewhere else. So they recognize that they wanted unity, right? They could have said a mirror, meaning because they had 100,000 horsemen in the field. Nobody could defeat them in North Africa. But they didn't do that. Okay.
when they eventually drove back the forces of the Christians, you could say that their territory, it looks something like this in the Greek, they call them in English elmora VT. And
at some points, they went higher than this map as well.
But then it started coming down. And you could say that this was what was left of the territory. It didn't include Toledo. Okay, but they went north and took back a lot of the areas and they consolidated the rule of the Muslims, especially in this area, this is the heartland really of Spain, where a lot of the products are produced and you know, whatnot. And so that was the territory. But the problem developed after like 100 years, it's like the cycle Ibn Khaldoun
the cycle starts kicking in on them dunya comes they're no longer Bedouins coming out to desert eating oatmeal and drinking milk and dates or you know every day they're now in the Lucia five course meals. dancing girls. The word guitar comes from Arabic that Tara
right so they you know, luxuries that even the West never understood came out of Spain, right? They really came from Baghdad, right? And there's a famous person who
is in Riyadh who brought over these things from Baghdad.
Luxury starts coming,
fighting difference of opinion.
They went down
and at the time, a new group rose up. Now you would say Muslims are some crazy people, right? But we're talking hundreds of years right? So this is a long period of time. But after the Morabito when they were going down, a new group came up and this is Elmo. Hey dune.
And you will see them ruling from 1121 to say 1269 Okay, their founder Abu Abdullah Umrah even too much
They were from the mus muda clan. They were Berbers as well. They were amazi but they came from the High Atlas Mountains. Okay, so you have Emma Z who live in the deserts, Emma Z who live in the mountains, Emma Z who live on the coastlines. And they're slightly different in their cultures. Okay and even there's different dialects within their Tama shack and different images of in dialect.
Even to Matt was a genius. He was what you call today a polymath
and that is that he had a photogenic memory. And he was a master in Islamic sciences, good debater. And he got famous throughout the Muslim world, debating people putting them down. And he was so powerful when he came back to North Africa, who did not have the scholars maybe on the level of Baghdad or Damascus or Cairo.
He you know, stood alone. And this is where the shaytaan will either be lacking come to a person, even somebody deepen knowledge. This is a warning for those of you who might be studying knowledge, never become arrogant. Never think that you know, and you're not learning.
See, so it reached that level. Until he said his name to Matt actually means good luck. His father's actual name was Abdullah and his name was Mohammed. And then he called himself alma de.
Now this claim of being the muddy
very seriously, because we're expecting a leader near the Day of Judgment at the time of digital and the confusion in the world to lead the Muslim world right before the time of Isa Lisa, he made this claim that's a big claim, right? That's a big jump for being a scholar to be in the muddy. But because the Morabito and were weak at that time and start being corrupted, he organized his people. And they were defeated first by the Morabito. But then they came back. And by 1159, they had conquered all of North Africa, up until Egypt
and by 1192, most of Al Andalus fell to a mojito.
His successor was Abu Yaqoob Youssef, who became the Emir of Seville now they made their capital
there in Spain and the whole of their,
their leadership in Seville and Seville, you will see the map is more toward the southern part of Spain. And you'll still see the huge movie dune minaret that is now converted into a cathedral. Right? It's one of the main tourist things that huge and it is so big, that when you when you want to call the Athan from the top, you ride a horse all the way up the minaret, there's literally a path and you ride your horse to the top and then you can call the event.
Right so this is how,
you know big day where you can see what's left of the minaret that's there in Seville
and because the Marathi tune were defeated by the more hidden and it was back, when you look at the the traces of the previous groups in Morocco and Spain, you don't find that much of the Morabito. You will find more of the mojito. Okay, that's there. And even to that date, and the leadership then changed. He was no longer just the mahadi but it was really abusive. Yeah. kugelman. So he brought it back to balanced leadership. And the Sunday will Gemma know Maddie, you know, good Islamic movement. And he brought in a golden age. He defeated the Trinitarians
and he defended, you know, the borders. Okay. But
a decline happened.
And one of the most decisive issues that happened was a major battle. And this was in the year 1212. Okay, and Abu Abu Nasser Mohammed have the more he doing, he brought over 500,000 men into the battle. Could you imagine? And this is not no this is hand to hand combat right. He lost over 500,000 men.
This was a major route. And the men had had to come from not only Spain, all over North Africa. All them away doings. It was amazing.
Did your fight with with the Christians, and he lost.
And they say that at that time, in Spain and North Africa, it became like a desert.
Everything started going down, because most of the of the men who were the leaders were killed.
So it becomes like a desert. And the cycle of Ibn Khaldoun comes in.
And then the wife come again, you know, these types of groups. It started in the beginning that we saw, and we saw, then, when the Manabi tune fell, it was the second time for groups, Amir's like your Emirates. And then after the decline of the movie, Dune was the third emirate division of the Muslims.
And Trinity Trinitarians took over.
village by village, they started to conquer.
By the year 1236, Cordoba fell
Valencia, and then eventually Seville fell in the year 1248. So this is a major decline of the MOBA. He don't move it falling apart. And then if you look at what is left there in Spain, you will see and this is a general map, the under the more he do the territory around 1200
looks something like this. So you can see how it started going back down Elmo holidays, is what they say in English.
So now, because of this decline
that happened, and the destruction that started going on the creek Trinitarian forces now took over most of Spain and Portugal. The only thing that was left was Granada. And when we say Granada, it's not just the city of Granada, it's the province of Grenada. So you can see the green on the map. And for the last 250 years, the Muslims lived in Grenada. So Muslims who could flee from all the areas of Al Andalus, whether it be Portugal, whether it be the North wherever it was Toledo, Cordoba, Valencia, wherever it was, they ran to Granada. And what is important about Granada, is that on the northern part, all around there, it's surrounded by mountains.
Okay, because if it didn't have a natural barrier to Christians would have come right. But they're huge mountains, huge mountains. So all you got to do is protect the mountain pass.
Okay, so And there's three states within Grenada in next class, Inshallah, we'll be going, you know, a little more into this, but there is the section called Grenada, and then there's a section called Malka. That is today called Malaga. So, if you know, Spain, Malaga, right, it was called Malka in Arabic and El Maria. So these are three states within Granada, about 15% of the land of a landless. Okay, that's what was left.
And the leaders at that time, and we'll look a little more at them the next class, this is the Bendall Atma, and that is from the Nasrid dynasty.
And they were the rulers and the founder of this group was called Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Al Akbar. And they say evil, because like his father, you have like a red beard.
So they call them evil Akbar. And they are they are descendants of sad EBA and EBA ready Allah when he was one of the answers of Medina. So they have on Saudi blood, so they're not like Kurdish. Right. But they did like, you know, on Saudi blood. Okay, and
what the problem was, in order to keep the Christians back, again, this is a weakened state.
This is independence under subjugation.
So what did Abel ACMA do? Number one, he paid tribute
150,000 dinars per year, he paid to the Trinitarians that's like a baksheesh this is like, you know, it's like Gija you pay into the Trinitarians. He also surrendered strategic forts on the coastlines.
And three, and this one is hard to come to grips with. He promised to assist the King Ferdinand in his battles against other Muslims.
This is weird, right? This is really strange, but I'm going to be straightforward. Look at the Muslim world today.
Look at when the armadas were coming in to fight Iraq. Look at you will see in many times when a Muslim country is attacked, the Western powers got Muslims with them.
The same thing that happened under this time. So this is what they did. They paid gold dinars. Right. And they even said, you know, sorrowful Muslims to fight against other Muslims who would fight back. So this was independence under subjugation.
Now, the South, you would say, What about the coast? The coast at that time, the Spanish they're coming from the north, right. So they did not have a significant Navy.
The only place where the Navy actually began was in Portugal. Because remember, Moslems their naval base was Lisbon. Lisbon is now the capital of Portugal.
And so that's where the Navy actually came, Spanish did not have much of a navy. So the South, the Muslims did have a navy, which is coming from Morocco, in a group called bento money. And we will look a little more at the Bedouin buddy group. They're from North Africa. They found his name was abdulhak. And they ruled for about the 13th century to the 15th century. They originally from Algeria.
And they were Berbers as well, the Zanatta tribe, and they eventually took over what is now Algeria, Tunisia. And they made their capital fests. So they did a lot for Fez, which is a beautiful city in Morocco. And you'll see a lot of the traces that are still there in Morocco today. And one of their great leaders, their greatest leader, yeah, kugelman saw Al Marini.
He led the marinade forces there to protect the South. So the Muslims, so the Muslims could stay in this area for 250 years. This was the base of Islam.
The question is, what happened to the rest of the Muslims?
Al Andalus, stretched all the way up north, right? What happened to them? What did they go through? This will be part of our topic next week, Inshallah, to see what happened to the Muslims under this rule, and to see what was the impact, you know, of this rule, you know, on Muslims up until today, and as I did, if anybody's No, these are a few books for suggested reading. And that is I met Thompson, and Uttara men, Muhammad, they have a book called for Christ's sake.
Ahmed Thompson Islam and Al Andalus. Taha publishes you'd have to go to and then of course, Michael Barry did an excellent work, homage to Al Andalus. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Spain.
Okay, you may be able to get these online. Al Jazeera at LSE, Al Jazeera at the Golden Age and decline of Islamic civilization
at a small work Ferraz Alkhateeb last Islamic history. And if you get a chance, look at the documentary film when the Moors ruled in Europe, with Bettany, Hughes, and you can go online, even today. As you can see, this is an excellent documentary, which is going to, you know, solidify a lot of what you've heard me say, because it may sound strange how I'm teaching this to you. And this is a European British journalist who's bringing out this information.
So I want to open up the floor for any questions that anybody may have. Concerning what we've study today. You can write it into the chat room, you can forward your questions, floor is open.
that says, sadly, European and left Islamic legacy that wants prosperity in Iberian Peninsula. This lecture is eye opening over the history of and listening to lectures, because the ideas of different perspective. Can we have access to the lectures and Milton books? Yes, so you need to go to islam.ca. And you need to register and so you can get access to this information. You can even get the first part if you were not here for our first series. You can actually get you can download this series from the Islamic Institute of Toronto's website.
And you'll get the information there and yes, you can get all of this information and these
These lectures are streamed online, and will be available. Now. Any other general questions anybody has? Yeah, floor. So you mentioned Sorry, I'm gonna
be held together and stuff in Spain when you first came, right? I want to ask like,
why don't you wanted to get into like what was happening in Spain at the time that you
need to do it single handedly? Yeah, so the question is, how did up there man even Wow, yeah. Rahimullah, how did the whole together Spain from the beginning. The problem was, is that, you know, Muslims control the area, but they had no central leaders. Because Musa Bindo, Sarah and todich will call back to Damascus, there was some lot of political things going on. And so they they left, so there was no central leader, the leader was either in the beta one, or in Damascus. And that's too far away. So for 40 years, they had independence, but now things start getting shaky, and it was falling apart. And they needed a central leader. So number one, he provided a central leader, and
because he wasn't obedient, and they lived under the yo maids Musa Bendis, there was a maid, it was continuity. So so he provided stability in terms of leadership. And secondly, he ruled by example.
So he was a tireless leader, he provided economic mobility for the people, he provided free education, he provided, you know, purification, water, and you know, civilization. And so therefore, you know, people were benefiting from his rule. It wasn't just the tyrant on the top, you know, he was with the people. And so by this, he was able to set the pace, and consolidate, of course, I mean, he, you know, it's not 100%, you have to read his life, he had opposition, the Ambassade sent people against Him. And He defeated their assassins. There were also some people in Spain, from different groupings, especially the Arab groups, there were some who disagreed with him. And some of
them rebelled against Him. And He put down the rebellions. So so he literally consolidated and brought peace in the land and stability. Underneath that the main rule.
Any other questions? Anybody has floor is open for any questions?
Here, you're sharing? Is there any left a legacy state province in Europe that still lose like civilization?
Yes, we're going to see what happens. You'll see the next class, the Spanish, you know, succeeded in complete genocide. In other words, they wiped out Islamic presence in Spain, not completely because the buildings are there, and all the agriculture but in terms of human beings, and in terms of cultural influence, they wiped it out to the point where, in the 20th century, when they did a like a census of Spain, there were no Spanish people who must zero.
In the educational system, nothing. Only the Moors came in from North Africa conquered, it stayed a little while we checked them out. Nothing. So therefore, there is no trace of of anything like that. Alhamdulillah, we're going to see as we go along, that they're actually Spanish people embracing Islam now, returning to Islam, and we're going to see this as we go along. There are Spanish people returning to Islam.
But no, there's nothing like this. You have to realize that this was the height of the civilization of the world, not just Spain.
This is where the Renaissance came from in Europe.
So we don't have anything like that now, because we're coming out of a colonial period, where our countries were conquered by, you know, European colonial masters. So we're just coming out of it, who still suffering and under attack. So there's nothing like that. But once we know it was there, and we see how we rose, how it fell. We can come back again. That's the difference between our civilization and the civilizations that came before us is that we have touched dete we have Islamic revival.
And this revival can come if we follow the sunnah to Allah, the way that Allah subhanaw taala has shown us through the history of the people who came before us. No question.
So inshallah we will be continuing. The question is what happened to the Muslims? This is a big question. And we want to unravel this. And to show you what some, you know, one of the most difficult periods in Islamic history, you know, in this part of the world, you will see, it's very important because it still has an impact today
So I leave you with these dots. And I ask Allah to have mercy on me and you will SallAllahu Taala say that and Muhammad Ali, he was happy he were bad. It was seldom where I could adapt one hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa salam Wa alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh