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(Tafsir) Surah Al Mai’da Explanation The Table Spread
Channel: Youssra Kamel Kandil
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rahmatullahi wa barakaatuh May Allah subhana Tallis peace and blessings be upon you, and welcome to the proof to our program on behalf of ICG Inshallah, we'll be discovering a new chapter of the Quran every day. But unfortunately, we cannot go into detail of each verse, but at least we can get a little taste of the main theme of each surah and get a look at how all the verses are relevant to that main theme or subject. And not just that, but also for you as a Muslim, you should be able to try to relate to the source and act upon the rules within it, putting in mind that the Surah or the chapter name is always linked to its main subject or goal. Now today inshallah we will be journeying
with certain ADA. And I have to go all the way to the beginning in order for me to build or explain to you how it's all linked together. Now certain that it is the only Surah that begins with all you who believe, you have Latina Amman. And what's really interesting is that it is the most Surah with this phrase repeated, all you who believe this verse is repeated ad a times in the Quran 16 times out of the 88 is uncertain data. And the very first verse of this chapter is its main theme. And before I go on to explaining this, the verse O you who believe, needs to stand from us, we hear this verse or phrase so many times, what does it mean? Or what does it imply? It means all you who
believed in me as a god, and all you who accepted to submit or enter my religion, and all you say, you are true believers, obey my orders. Do you see what oh, you believe here implies. And that's why I'm delighted my solidarity. Allahu says, if you hear the words, Oh, you who believe in pay attention. That's what the Companions would do. For it's either good that you'll be ordered to do or evil that you will be ordered to refrain from.
So certain maybe there is more than in your imagination. It was revealed in Medina, one of the very last or is revealed. And you will see that some of its verses were revealed after the Farewell Pilgrimage, which was shortly after the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Semmens death, and that is why I shot on your lawn, he says, it is from the last was revealed. So whatever you find it to be permissible than allow it, and whatever you find to be in it to be forbidden, then abandon it. So what is the theme or the subject of certain metadata or the table spread? The subject of this surah is found at its very beginning, the very first words, all you who believe, fulfill the pledges or
contracts, fulfill your obligations towards Allah subhanaw taala Do you see how the Quran is flowing? First, Allah subhanaw taala sets the Islamic rules and certain Bacara and he subhanaw taala tells you to cling to these roles in Saudi Arabia and Iran. And then he subhanaw taala tells you in order for me to give you the set of rules and assign you as a vice chair and on earth, be aware of oppression and be just with people. And then finally he comes to the surah and tells you after I have told you all this tight and cling on to your pledge with me. Sudeten May the stresses on the importance of fulfilling your obligation towards pledges or contracts with Allah subhanaw taala. And
I know, once Ramadan approaches, a lot of us have the intention to draw closer to Allah subhanaw taala. And we have that enthusiasm inside of us. But I wonder, will we really fulfill these pledges. So this is the main theme of America, fulfill the pledges. And there will be 16 calls to the believers. And each goal will stress on the fulfillment of a certain pledge, this pledge fulfilled and that pledge fulfilled. And then in between every couple of verses, you see Allah subhanaw taala, stressing, again on the importance of fulfilling pledges. So let's look at the first call to the believers. All you who believe fulfill all contracts lawful for you are the animals of grazing
livestock, except for that which is recited to you in this Qur'an. So what is the first command fulfill the pledges? And the first pledge mentioned here is a very strange one. What is the pledge eating lawful or halal food do not eat except what has been made lawful or lawful, sorry or halal for you. And since Allah subhanaw taala has provided us with what is halal or permissible, then do not recite what is prohibited. And you see how Allah subhanaw taala had his merciful here, he subhanaw taala did not start by forbidding some foods, but by making permissible most foods, the origin is that we want to make permissible not that we want to forbid and make things difficult upon
you, because you might get the impression that there is a pledge and is the first thing in the first so it must be a set of strict orders or commands but no fulfill the pledge is done right away. It has been made lawful or permissible for you Subhan Allah you see his mercy.
So the first and first is about lawful foods. So he's had it all started with what with our life necessities, and you'll see the source
starts with pledges dealing with our life necessities. And it will end all the way at the end with the aspects of Islamic laws. So he subhanaw taala takes you step by step with these pledges. And you'll see directly in the second verse, right, obey again, the second call, all you who believe, do not violate the rights of Allah, or the sacred month, or neglect the marking of the sacrificial animals and garlanding them, or violate the safety of those coming to the Sacred House, seeking bounty from their Lord and His approval, and cooperate and righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is Severe and penalty. So you see
Allah subhanaw taala is setting up noble human values. Do you see the jump, as if subhanaw taala is telling you the pledges that you committed to fulfill, start all the way from the fruit you will eat to human rights and values by Justice and cooperating in doing good and enhancing social unity. All this in just verse number two. And then he subhanaw taala goes to the third verse, and starts all over again. What has he prohibited,
prohibited to you is dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah subhanaw taala. And he lists to you in detail what has been prohibited. And you'll see that it's a very important statement coming here in verse three. What does he say in verse three? Today, I have perfected for you your religion, and completed my favor upon you, and have approved for you Islam as a religion. Now, if we come to think, why would the statement come here? Because committing to a pledge cannot happen without completion. You cannot commit to something unless it's fully completed. So you know what you're committing to right? You cannot commit to
something that is unknown to you. So let's peloton is telling you the religion has been completed, it has been perfected. So now you can commit to it and keep your pledge. My dear brothers and sisters fulfill your obligation towards most Panatela and stay steadfast not only in Ramadan, but also after inshallah. Now let's move on to verse five. Allah subhanaw taala moves on from what is permissible to eat, to who it's permissible to marry from chaste woman, even if it's from the people of the books, as long as they're chaste and decent. And after studying what is permissible to eat, and who is permissible to marry his Panatela moves to verse six. And states a very strange point
starting it again with Oh, you who believe? What does he say to you? He says, All you will believe when you place to perform prayer, washed your faces and your forearms to the elbows.
Now, you start thinking to yourself, why would salah or prayer be mentioned here, and it is if as Allah subhanaw taala is telling you, this is what you can eat from the goods of this dunya and this is who you can marry from the studio, the goods of this dunya or this life. Now come to the goods of spirituality. Come let me show you how to purify your soul. How you can attain the goods of the soul. We do host an entering Salah.
So Allah subhanaw taala mentions the goods for our physical needs food and marriage, and then our spiritual, spiritual needs solid. So you have good food, good spouses and good spirituality, you follow the sequence here. And remember how every five or six verses his pattern to how it goes back to reminding you to fulfill your obligation towards pledges. And I'd love for you to go back after listening to this explanation and read certain methods again, after having this explanation in mind and trauma. Hopefully it will, you know, have you know enlightenment for you a little bit in a better way. Now, looking at Verse seven, and remember Allah's blessings upon you and your commitment
to worship Him alone. When you said we hear in your vein. Do you read the ending of sutra baqarah he subhanaw taala is reminding you what did the believers say? Called Luciana Wattana. We hear and we obey they don't sit and think about it. No, no, no. We hear something we obey right away. So will you say we hear me obey. Now moving on to the next verse and go for
and if you realize that the 16 goals are like pauses, and after each goal is a set of divine orders. And then he reminds you be careful fulfill the pledges. This chapter was a very serious chapter. And that is why the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Sallam says teacher men certain medida but why your Rasul Allah so that they can turn out to be real men, men who can keep their word and keep their promises. Now moving on to the following verse. Oh, you have oh sorry. Oh, you who believe. Be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses injustice and do not let the hatred of people prevent you from being just be just there is new to righteousness and fear Allah. Indeed Allah is
acquainted with what you do. So Allah images, food, marriage souls, and then what just
It'll be just what is part of your commitment be just, even if someone oppressed you. And then he subhanaw taala says, If I myself fulfill my obligation towards you, won't you fulfill yours towards me? Listen to what the verses says. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds, that for them there is forgiveness and great reward. And then he moves on to the fifth call, or you who believe remember the favor of Allah upon you, when a people determined to extend their hands and aggression against you, but he would held their hands from you, and fear Allah and upon Allah let the believers rely, again, he's stressing on fulfilling pledges. And then you see he subhanaw taala
how we started talking about Bani Israel, or the children of Israel. But we think to ourselves, why here in particular,
because they breached covenants or pledges, they broke their promises. Listen to what the verse says, a large take a covenant with the children of Israel, and we made from among them 12 leaders, and Allah said, I am with you. If you establish prayer and give us the care and believe in my messengers, and support them alone, Allah a good the good the loan, I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever if you displease after that has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way. And then the next verse says, so for their breaking of the Covenant, we cursed them and made their hearts hard. Can you imagine the punishment,
hardened hearts and cursed by who? By Allah subhanaw taala Wow, that's intense, Subhan Allah. And then the last panel to how that relates to the story of Musa alayhis salaam, with the children of Israel eel, when he tells them to enter the sacred land or Palestine or Jerusalem, and how they fear to do so. Listen to what the verse says. So it shall be forbidden upon them for 14 years. In the beginning, he said, I made permissible for you the goods of this dunya why? Because you fulfill your pledges with the law. But if you break your promises, then it should be made shall be made difficult upon you, forbidden upon you for 40 years. So think to yourself, why is the story of Prophet Mousavi
Salah mentioned here. So it can set an example and remind us of what has happened to those who broke their promises from those who came before us. And that's the last panel, Johanna moves on to another example of someone breaking a pledge with Allah subhanaw taala, the sons of Adam,
and the rate upon them the true story of the two sons of Adam. And the verse goes on until Cain or Cobian killed his brother, Abel, or hubby. And there is a very neat point here. If you realize the first is talking about the children of Israel, refusing to enter jewel Jerusalem, which is our verse, I think, 20 to 26, are directly followed by the story of Adam sons. What ties these two stories together? What's the relevance between refusing to enter the sacred land and the sons of Adam? If you look in both stories, they both broke covenants. But in the first story, the Jews broke their covenant out of cowardice. While in the second story, Adam son broke his covenant because he
was reckless or impetuous, he killed his brother hasty. So we have two different types of breaking breaking covenants, one out of covenant cowardice, sorry, and the other art of recklessness. So let's pelota here is displaying to us in two stories, two different types of breaking promises and covenants, so that we have different examples. And then we look at verses seven and eight are the Sonata not verses, but the seventh and the eighth call, where you as a Muslim are required to fulfill new pledges. Listen, what the first says, Oh, you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. And I want to stop here for a minute. And I want to point out something here.
This verse here is not an insult against most non Muslims. So for if you look back a couple of verses, it says, Muslims can marry chaste Christian and Jewish woman, this person is not culture rejecting. But there's a big difference between tolerance, treating others well, and between blindly copying and imitating them and losing your identity. These verses are not insulting, but they're reminding us as Muslims of preserving our identity. Then we move on to the night call and Allah subhanaw taala says, all you who believe whoever you should revert from this religion, Allah will bring forth in place for the people he will love and who will love him? And now this is really
beautiful verse here. Why? Because this verse should have said, what if you don't follow my path, in a way to torment or what or punishment from right? You don't follow me you get a punishment, but No, Allah subhanaw taala says, If you don't want to follow my path, then other people who truly love me, will come forth. And not just that, but people who are Allah subhanaw taala.
Can you imagine he's telling you, if you break your covenant, your punishment won't be torment? No. But instead he makes you eager by telling you I will replace you with those who love
To me, and who I will love Subhan Allah, could you accept that upon yourself? Hold tight guys, we're almost there. Ramadan is almost over and you can keep that pledge and keep holding on to Allah subhanaw taala in order to how can we tolerate being, you know, replaced with other people who Allah subhanaw taala will love.
And then the call keeps going, the calls keep going on until we reach the 12 one, which is a very strong one where Allah subhanaw taala says, all you who believe in deed and toxic and gambling, sacrificing on stone altars to other than Allah and divining arrows, or button abomination from the work of Satan, so avoided that you may be successful. So how can you come you're drinking a fortune telling, after hearing these verses he put drinking with the pledges? Do you see how serious it is? And then the calls go on until we reach the 14th and 15th call. And both are very significant as well. Look what the 14 call says. All you who believe do not about do not ask about things, which if
they will reveal to you will just stress you. But if you ask about them, while the corral is being revealed, they will be revealed to you. Allah has pardoned that which is passed, and Allah is forgiven, and for.
So what is the value of the school? You see after loss pinata Hala keeps stressing on fulfilling pledges he puts for you a standard regulator to follow what is that? Don't be harsh on yourself. Yes, fulfill pledges and be careful of what is prohibited, starting from what is permissible from foods all the way to intoxicating, gambling. And then he sets a standard for you and says What, don't be hard on yourself. Don't ask about things that Allah does not mentioned, perfect were revealed to you it would only just stress you more SubhanAllah. And then his Panatela sets another standard for you in the following call the 15th divine call, or you who believe upon you as a
responsibility for yourself. Those who have gone astray will not harm you, when you have been guided to Allah is your return altogether. Then he will inform you of what you used to do. You know what the rules to follow is here. The first was not to be hard on yourself by asking about matters that Las Panatela mentioned. And the second he says, if all those around you deviate from his path, keep steadfast, steadfast, your vows to almost Huntington. If everyone turns away, hold on to your promise and pledge to Allah subhanho data. So very strong message from Las Panatela. To all of us. Keep your covenant with Allah subhanaw taala. All right, so let's summarize Now certainly at the
table spread, speaks about what he spoke about divine penalties regarding technology. It spoke about sticking to applying a laws or God's rules, laws. It spoke about pledges and eating and drinking. It spoke about imitating non Muslims blindly and aligned with them. This reminds us of all types of pledges. And what is interesting here is that the scholars say that the objective Islamic law are summed up in five points serving the aims of Islam itself, what are these five points, protection of religion, protection of one's mind, protection of wealth, protection of life, and protection of honor, these five points are all covered in certain metadata.
And then the surah has a beautiful ending, saying on the day when Allah will assemble the messengers and say, What was the response you received? They will say we have no knowledge. Indeed, it is you who is the Knower of the unseen. The beginning is all you who believe fulfill your pledges, and the middle, all messenger convey that which has been revealed to you. And the end, on a day when Allah subhanaw taala should assemble all the messengers. The best way to conclude all you who believe fulfill your pledges is you will all meet on the Day of Judgment. Beware of Gods reckoning on the Day of Judgment, for it is grieve and severe. And then we look at the final versus when the last 100
Allah says, This is the day when the truthful will benefit from the truthfulness. Now related area to fulfilling touches Subhan Allah, only if you can make to the pledges. And you're honestly truthful, that's the only thing that's going to benefit you on the delivery.
Now, one question remains, why is the surah called the table spread? Or I married? Is it because what happened between Isola Salam and the disciples how they asked him for a table to descend upon them from the heaven for food? But even if so, what does this have to do with the theme of the circle? What does it have to do with pledges? You see before this people was sent down upon them? Allah subhanaw taala told them what I will send it down to you. But if any of you disbelieve after that, I will punish him with a punishment that I have never punished any other in the worlds before. If you break your covenant or pledge after such a miracle, your punishment will be one that no one
has endured ever before. That's why it was called the tablespoon
because it had to do with vassal Allah subhanaw taala. You see Allah subhanaw taala says In the Surah today I have perfected your religion for you. And as if the message is what your disciples asked for a heavenly table and you got it. So if you break your pledge after that your punishment will be severe. And as for you, Islam has been perfected for you. So if you break your pledge or go astray, then the punishment will be severe.
omits Muhammad, fulfill your pledges and stick to the path philosophy no to Allah, and follow through with what you have submitted to the day you said, I bear witness that there is no God except Allah, and that Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is his messenger. The day you said eyeshadow and La ilaha illa where should you know Mohammed and Rasulullah sallallahu Salallahu Salam aleikum wa rahmatullah wa barakato. May Allah subhana talent Allah bless you in this holy month. Salam aleikum.