Title: The Conquest of Makkah ~ Part 3
Study the biography of the single greatest human being that ever walked the surface of this earth, whom Allah sent as a Mercy to Mankind.
This lecture was recorded on 5th March 2014
Title: The Conquest of Makkah ~ Part 3
Study the biography of the single greatest human being that ever walked the surface of this earth, whom Allah sent as a Mercy to Mankind.
This lecture was recorded on 5th March 2014
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How many uncles of the prophet PBUH play a role in the seerah? 4: Humza, Abbass, Abu Talib and Abu Lahab. As for the other uncles they are not alive when the da’wah phase begins. Only four uncles lived to see the prophet PBUH as a prophet. One of the them, Abu Lahab, the worst enemy; another, Abu Talib, the best non muslim EVER. This is the kudr of Allah; two blood brothers – one of them is the worst of the non muslims, the other is the best. And then we have the muslims Humza and Abbass and again there is a difference. Humza converts earlier in the middle of the Meccan period and becomes the sayyid of the shuhada. Abbass is the very last muhajir. After this “there is no hijrah after the conquest” as narrated by the prophet PBUH. There is a huge controversy among the scholars of the seerah. When did Abbass accept Islam? Scholars have written pages and pages on this. There are varied opinions:
1) One is that he accepted Islam even before the prophet PBUHs hijrah. But there is not any evidence for this.
2) He accepted Islam right before Badr. The evidence for this is that the prophet PBUH said “do not kill three people because they have been forced to come: number one Abbass”.
3) He accepted Islam post-Badr. He was taken a prisoner of war along with his sons and nephews and when he had to randsom himself he accepted Islam. Remember after Badr, Abbass said “do you want me to become poor I don’t have the money you want!” The prophet PBUH said “what happened to the money you buried at such-and-such a place the night before you left for Badr and you told your wife ‘I will hide the money here'”. Abbass said “HOW did you know? Nobody was there except for me and Umme Fadl”. So the prophet PBUH said “Allah told me”. And then Abbass said “there is no doubt you are the messenger of Allah”. This phrase has been interpreted to many scholars as an acceptance of Islam.
4) He accepted Islam before the battle of Khaybar. What is the evidence? When the news falsely reached Mecca the prophet PBUH has been defeated at Khaybar (it was a tactic that one of the muslims said ‘defeat has occured’) – when this news spread Abbass became distressed and extremely grieved. So the sahabi went to Abbass and said “ya Abbass it’s actually the biggest victory the muslims have seen”. And at this he shouted ‘Allahu akbar’. So for him to be happy the muslims have won at Khaybar shows he is a muslim.
5) He converted right now where we are.
Opinion 3, 4, 5 say he remained in Mecca as an informant at the command of the prophet PBUH. The evidence is ambigious and you cannot say for certain when he accepted Islam. Ibn Abdul Baar says before Khaybar. Ibn Hajar argues right now (this incident). Ibn Kathir argues he remained in Mecca as a muslim obeying the command of the prophet PBUH. So we have three great scholars with three different opinions. One thing for sure we can say without a shadow of a doubt: after Badr, his heart opened to Islam. Whether he accepted or not Allah knows best. After Badr he knows Islam is true. That is why he’s helping and informing the prophet PBUH. And why he was so happy at the conquest of Khaybar. Perhaps the best thing to say is his heart was a heart of Islam post Badr, and he was a believer, but he publically declared it now. But Allah knows best. Also in a non authentic hadith the prophet PBUH said to Abbass “you are the last muhajir just like you are the last prophet”.
Abbass was the only elder of the Banu Hashim to live after the prophet PBUH death – he lived for another 20 years (died in 32H in Uthmans khalifa). And the sahaba respected him an IMMENSE amount. After all, he is the brother of Abdullah and the uncle of the prophet PBUH. Once when someone irritated Abbass the prophet PBUH gave a khutbah and said “oh muhajir and ansar, verily the uncle of a man is like his father. So do not irritate me though Al Abbass”. SubhanAllah. And it’s mentioned whenever Abu Bukr or Umar or any senior sahaba saw Al Abbass, they would get off their camel as a token of respect and not ride at a level abpve him. In the hadith of Bhukari when the muslims were suffering the drought in the 18H, Umar RA gathered all the sahaba to perform special salaat to stop the people dying from thirst. Umar RA finished the khutbah by saying “we used to go through the prophet PBUH to get to you. And now we will do tawasul through the uncle of the prophet PBUH. Stand up oh Abbass and make dua for us”. This is a great honour. When there are badrioon and many senior sahaba, Umar chooses Abbass to make dua for the entire community for rain to fall. And Abbass lived a long life; he became blind towards the end of it and is described as being very handsome and loud voiced. In Hunayn when the people fled, the prophet PBUH told Abbass “oh Abbass call them” and it’s said Abbass had a slave who was a shepard. And when the slave was grazing the flock 3 miles away Abbass would just shout out from 3 miles away and the shepard would hear. There is a famous question that someone asked Abbass “who’s bigger (older) you or the prophet PBUH?” So al Abbass smiled and said “RasulAllah is bigger than me (in status), and I am more ‘aged’ than him”. Subhan’Allah look at the intelligence of Abbass. And one of the biggest blessings Allah gave Abbass is that one of the longest reigning dynasties of Islam were the ‘Abbasids’. Direct descendants from Abbass. They ruled Islam from 750CE–1510CE. So for 750 years they were the khalifah of Islam.
So Abbass accepts Islam and reaches the army and proceeds with them to Mecca. Todays lesson is about conversions before the actual conquest and two very more important conversions take place. The army is coming close to Mecca and the news has spread and reached Mecca that the prophet PBUH is coming; but they don’t know when. Of course the news will reach there since you cannot hide 10,000 men in one caravan. So the Meccans were taken by suprise however, two people out of panick and fear decided to exit Mecca and try to embrace before the prophet PBUH conquered Mecca. This is another two famous conversion stories: but note these two weren’t muhajir, they are simply converting outside of Mecca. And they precisely convert around 20km outside of Mecca (1 day journey).
The first person was Abu Suffyan ibn Al Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib. The first cousin of the prophet PBUH. And his father Al Harith is the eldest son of Abdul Muttalib, and Harith died before the prophet PBUH was born most likely. And he was the only son present when zamzam was discovered. And that was the time when Abdul Muttalib said “oh Allah if you ever give me 10 sons, I will sacrifice one of them for you”. And another cousin of the prophet PBUH, Abdullah ibn Ummayah ibn Mughira. Abdullahs mother is Aatika, the aunt of the prophet PBUH so the daughter of Abdullah Muttalib. So Abu Suffyan ibn Al Harith is a first cousin to the prophet PBUH from the fathers side (fathers brother) and Abdullah ibn Ummayah is a first cousin to the prophet PBUH also rom the fathers side (fathers sister). By the way Aatika was alive when Islam came because she saw the dream of Badr – we don’t know what happened to after that. Nonetheless this is Aatika’s son, Abdullah ibn Ummayah. So both of them are first cousins to the prophet PBUH, but they are also open enemies and mockers of Islam. And they caused alot of pain to the prophet PBUH. As for Abu Suffyan ibn Harith, he was known for his poetry. And he composed many poems mocking the message of Islam and ridiculing the prophet PBUH. And in those days this was the worst type of slander; to write poetry against another. As for Abdullah ibn Ummayah, an incident occured in Mecca in public. That, Abdullah ibn Ummayah challenged the prophet PBUH in early Mecca that “Oh Muhammad, your people have given you so many offers yet you’ve refused them all, and they have asked you for wealth from your God and you have not give us it. So I swear by Allah I will never believe in you until you climb up into the skies in front of me with a divine ladder, and bring down a book from Allah (note this exact phrase is mentioned in the Quran), show us the angels; and even if you do so, I still won’t believe in you”. So he is showing the height of arrogance and he’s doing this in front of the naadi (parliment of the Quraysh) to embarass the prophet PBUH. And no doubt can you imagine how the prophet PBUH felt? These are first cousins with whom the prophet PBUH has grown up with. But now they are mocking him publically in a vulgar manner.
Now Abdullah’s father is the father of Umme Salama, the mother of the believers (so they are half sibblings). So Abdullah goes to his sister Umme Salama and begs her “can you go shifa’a to the prophet PBUH?” So Umme Salama feels pity for him and enters in the tent of the prophet PBUH and she says “Ya RasulAllah your cousins are here, can you help them out?” The prophet PBUH said “I have no need for any of them”. Subhan’Allah. When people hear these types of incidents for the first time, it clashes with their perception of the prophet PBUH. They say “how could the prophet PBUH say this? Wasn’t he a mercy for mankind? Wasn’t he someone who spared Ta’if? Didn’t he forgive all the people of Mecca? Didn’t he, didn’t he etc”. So their perception of the prophet PBUH seems to clash with this harsh side of the prophet PBUH. So people are shocked when they hear such phrases that “I don’t want to see them” which is a very frank and blunt way of telling them to ‘get lost’. However the fact of the matter is that, “you have in the example of the prophet PBUH the perfect methadology”. Yes he was the mercy for mankind. Yes he forgave and forgave. But you simply cannot establish politic rule and firmness by ALWAYS turning the other cheek. You cannot forgive and forgive without once in a while showing harshness. Thus any religion that preaches ‘turn the other cheek’, they cannot live up to it as a society. No society cannot follow this ruling. Because people WILL take advantage of you, and that is why we see in the prophet PBUH that the general rule is mercy and forgiveness, but there is a line. And both of these crossed the line.
Also we notice the prophet PBUH treated people according to who they are. The bedouin are not treated like the senior sahaba. When Mu’ad recites a long prayer the prophet PBUH gets angry “will you cause fitnah for the people?”. When Usama ibn Zaid kills a person who said ‘la illaha illalah’ the prophet PBUH is furious and kept on repeating “what are you going to with ‘la illaha illalah’ on the day of judgement?” until Usama said “I wish I could obliterate my good deeds to be a new muslim so all my sins are gone and the prophet PBUH would treat me with forgiveness’. Indeed when Usama killed a person and the prophet PBUH kept on telling him “did you open up his chest? did you see why he accepted Islam?” What did Usama say? “I wish I was a brand new muslim – because of who I was, he was so harsh with me”. Therefore we understand why the prophet PBUH said what he said. These are cousins. They knew better. How could they have done this to their own cousin, someone who they grew up with, loving, playing with each other. How could that have betrayed him when he the most in need? So yes strictness must be demonstatrated and so the prophet PBUH said “I have no need for them” meaning “just tell them to go back I don’t even want to see them after what they did”. And there’s another wisdom that in this harshness there is a test for them. This is the test of their sincerity. If they’re half sincere they will reject Islam and be arrogant. That “ok fine you don’t want to see us, we don’t want you either”. But if they understand what Islam is, and WHO the prophet PBUH is, they will insist, beg and plead. Just look at Adam AS and Iblees. Iblees is arrogant but Adam AS begs Allah for forgiveness. So this harshness has wisdom to test.
So as soon as Umme Salama tells them “sorry no audience”, immediately Abu Suffyan begins raising his voice begging for an audience. And he has with him one of his younger sons, Ja’far ibn Abu Suffyan who becomes a famous sahabi later on, and he raises Ja’fars hand and says “If you don’t let me come in, I swear by Allah my son and I will leave here, go into the desert and die a miserable death”. So the books of seerah say “the prophet PBUH felt softness for them”. Subhan’Allah at the end of the day they are his cousins, and this child is a nephew. So when the prophet PBUH hears his cousin begging and pleading with his son (almost emotional blackmail), the prophet PBUHs soft heart opened up and he allowed the two of them to come in. And Abu Suffyan had a poem prepared and it’s a beautiful poem. Note the seerah is FULL of these profound poems in Arabic that we lose in English. Even if we were doing it in Arabic, the arabs need a translator. These poems are very high level classical Arabic. Even the sheikh needs a translator. So Abu Suffyan recites a one page poem mentioned in Ibn Ishaaq and others. In it he says “a guide other than myself guided me to Allah (meaning the prophet PBUH); a guide whom I myself repelled at every opportunity but he continued to guide me to Allah”. So he said this long poetry, and when he came to this line, the prophet PBUH hit him in the chest and said “you repelled me every time you could” i.e. it’s brotherly joking. Subhan’Allah it shows us the prophet PBUH is no doubt a human – he’s hurt his brother has done this, so when Abu Suffyan says this, the prophet PBUHs grief comes out and says “yes walahi you repelled me”. And Abu Suffyan showed many brave stances after this, especially in the battle of Hunayn. We will see the imaan of this Abu Suffyan, the cousin of the prophet PBUH, we’ll see what he did and said and how he chastised the Quraysh for fleeing. And the prophet PBUH accepted their repantance.
Now we move on to the fourth conversion story. So the muslims continued proceeding onwards and they are less than one days distance to Mecca. And the Quraysh are expecting some attack but they don’t know exactly when nor do they know how far the army of the prophet PBUH is. And the prophet PBUH camps outside Mecca in a place called Mara Dhahraan. And this is the final camping station; after this you get up and march straight into Mecca. And so he tells the sahaba “we will camp here, so go ahead and light your fires” i.e. showing they aren’t scared. How can the people of Mecca fight 10,000 people? Mecca only have 1/6th people left. It’s now almost desolate and more than 3/4 of the tribes and allies of the Quraysh have accepted Islam. Whoever is left in alliance will not fight the muslims. There is no question or doubt the table has fully turned now. Honour belongs to the prophet PBUH and His messenger. So the prophet PBUH tells the sahaba “light your fires” and can you imagine the scene of 10,000 people lighting fires? Subhan’Allah. And Al Abbass ibn Abdul Muttalib, the brand new convert who feels sympathy for the Quraysh, he begs the prophet PBUH “let me go and negotiate without an attack”. So the prophet PBUH gives him his own ride and tells him “go and see what you can do”.
So Al Abbass goes to Quraysh and he narrates in the first person. “I said to myself ‘oh what an evil morning it is for the Quraysh if the prophet PBUH enters Mecca by force; it shall be their destruction for all eternity'”. Meaning if the prophet PBUH conquers Quraysh in this manner through a bloody war, there shall be no more Quraysh after this. And he’s worried and he’s walking he sees three people. So becomes queit and figures out who they are. It turns out they are three senior leaders of the Quraysh. Abu Suffyan ibn Harb ibn Ummayah, THE Abu Suffyan, the unified leader of the Quraysh. Along with Hakim ibn Hazam and Budayl ibn Warqa. And they’ve been on a nightly basis coming out to see where the army of the muslims is. And they are worried when the prophet PBUH will attack. And on this night they see the entire plane lit with 10,000 fires. And they are wondering “what is happening?” In their minds they simply cannot imagine their muslims are that large. So Abu Suffyan and Budayl have a conversation “who are these people?” It dosen’t even occur to them it’s the muslim army. Budayl becomes happy and says “it must be the Kuza’a; they are here to defend us”. And Abu Suffyan said “they neither have the guts nor the quantity for it to be them”. And while they’re discussing, Abbass calls out “Ya Abal Handhala” (Handhala is Abu Suffyans oldest son). And Abu Suffyan recognises this voice so says “Abul Fadal?” Note they addressed each other by kunyas (i.e. son of so-and-so). So Abu Suffyan says “what are you doing here?” i.e. they don’t know he is a muslim. So Abbass says “woe to you, this is the army of Muhammad PBUH. And if he conquers you tomorrow, know you shall be executed”.
Now, by now we all know who Abu Suffyan is. There is NO leader that competes with the seniority of Abu Suffyan. They’ve all died at Badr and Uhud. The only senior leader than can claim to rule and represent all of Mecca is Abu Suffyan. And according to Abbass there is NO way he will be allowed to live. So Abu Suffyan says “what can I do, what do you advise me?” So Abbass tells him “come with me, I will intercede on behalf of you in front of the prophet PBUH”. So he agrees and he cannot see any other option. And Al Abbass puts him on his own mule, and it’s not his mule, it’s the prophet PBUHs mule. So Abbass and Abu Suffyan in the middle of the night walk back into the army of 10,000 strong. And everytime someone stops them and asks “who is there” Abbass said “this is Abbass on the mule of the prophet PBUH”. Of course if this person has the mule of the prophet PBUH, there are no questions asked. So wondering directly into 10,000 strong each one of whom would love to kill the prophet PBUH. But in front of him are Abbass and both of them are riding the most sacred animal, the mule of the prophet PBUH himself. So no one dares to ask anything. And they get closer and closer to the tent of the prophet PBUH, and as they get closer the seniority of the sahaba rises, until they pass by Umar RA. And again it shows you the love the sahaba had for the prophet PBUH. That all the sahaba are protecting and guarding him. So Umar jumps up “who is there?” and he dosen’t even ask any questions, he recognises from the eyes. “Abu Suffyan the enemy of Allah?! Alhamdhulillah Allah has given you to me without any covanent or treaty”. He is saying “Its a gift”. Meaning “you are wondering in with no protection?! Allah has blessed us”.
Now, at this, Abbass says “Oh Umar he is under my protection”. Recall ANY muslim who gives a protection to anyone they are protected. The prophet PBUH said “all muslims can give personal amaan (protection)” even small children – this is classical Islamic law. But Umar does not let this go. So he accompanies Abu Suffyan to the tent of the prophet PBUH, and no matter what time of the night it is, this is Abu Suffyan so they are granted an audience with the prophet PBUH. So Umar immediately asks for an execution. He says “Ya RasulAllah this is the enemy of Allah, and Allah has given him to us without any covanent or treaty”. And Abbass begins arguing “no he is under my protection”. But Umar insists, and then Abbass insists further. The prophet PBUH is silent. And then Abbass says “stop it oh Umar! For walahi if he was from the Banu Adi you would not want to kill him. But because he is from the Banu Abd Manaf you are brave enough to do this”. Recall the Banu Abd Munaf combines the Banu Hashim and Banu Ummayah. So they are cousins. So Abbass brings in the tribal card and this clearly shows that he’s a new muslim – he’s still thinking somewhat in tribalism lines. At this Umar stops completely. THIS is crossing the line. And he says “CAREFUL ya Abbass, for walahi, your acceptance of Islam was more beloved to me than my own father Khattab had he been alive ONLY because the prophet PBUH is happier at your Islam than he would have been at the Islam of my father”. Subhan’Allah. And this is exactly what Abu Bukr said when his own father accepts Islam. And Abu Bukr cries “ya RasulAllah I would give anything to see Abu Talib here accepting Islam rather than my own father”. This is the true love for the prophet PBUH.
When the prophet PBUH saw these tensions, he said “oh Abbass take Abu Suffyan to your tent and bring him to me tomorrow morning” and so Abbass did this. And Abbass and Abu Suffyan spent the entire night going back and forth that Abbass tries to convert him but Abu Suffyan is hesitant. Until finally he is brought to the prophet PBUH and he says “Isn’t it time for you to acknowledge ‘la illaha illalah’?” SubhanAllah. Abu Suffyan said “May my mother and father be given in randsom for you.” This is the height of praise. And he says “How gentle are you and merciful are you, and fulfilling to the ties of kinship”. Meaning, he is saying he would never have done this. Abu Suffyan is willing to give him mother and father in sacrifice for the prophet PBUH. As a mushrik he is so overwhelmed at this kindness of the prophet PBUH that he says “how gentle and sweet are you. As for this shahada, had their been any other Gods besides Allah, they would have helped me by now.” What does this show us? It’s amazing that deep down inside many of them believed in idoletry. Here we have the leaders of the Quraysh seeing the prophet PBUH, interacting with him for 23 years, and they still believe Al Lat and Al Uzza are gods besides Allah. It’s very difficult to change and abdandon your theology. Abu Suffyans lightbulb is clicking NOW after 23 years. At Badr, Uhud and Khandak he genuinely believes in his Gods. At Uhud he said “U’lu Hubul”. So Abu Suffyan is saying “yes I agree with you now”. So the prophet PBUH said “woe to you, isn’t it time for you to testify I am the messenger of Allah?” And Abu Suffyan says the same phrase “May my mother and father be given in randsom for you. How gentle are you and merciful are you, and fulfilling to the ties of kinship. As for this matter I am still hesitant”. Abbass loses it. And says “either except or you will get killed” – notice this is not the prophet PBUH speaking but this is Abu Suffyans friend speaking “that I did all this for you, you BETTER accept now!” And so with reluctance Abu Suffyan said the shahada. What a story.
After so many battles and years, after the toture, threat, now, right before entering Mecca the greatest cheifton of the Quraysh (with difficulty) accepts Islam. And walahi just think of the perfect set up Allah planned. If we spent all the money in the world we would not have set this up. Who is Abbass? When does he meet Abu Suffyan? What time was it? Everything is perfect. Had any other sahabi seen Abu Suffyan he would have killed him. OR Abu Suffyan would not trust him; Abbass happens to be on the mule of the prophet PBUH wondering straight through the camps with the disguise of Abu Suffyan. Truly this is Allahs kudr. There is no way you can set this up. So eventually after all these years he finally accepts Islam. No doubt its haraam to threaten someone to accept Islam, but Abbass is being eager and he’s a friend of Abbass. Also there’s no problem with someone accepting Islam half-hartedely as in the case of Abu Suffyan. Because Islam is the truth and ultimately it will that person over. And of course we discussed Abbass starting the Abbassid dynasty; Abu Suffyan starts the Ummayah dynasty. Here are two converts, speaking with one another, little do they realise, between the two of them they will RULE ISLAM for 1000 years. Subhan’Allah. They are in a tent together for a whole night discussing Islam, yet they don’t know their OWN descendants will rule Islam for 1000 years.
So when he converted, Abbass said “you know Abu Suffyan is a man of pride so give him a gift to make him feel proud”. So the prophet PBUH said the famous story “we will enter Mecca, whoever is in the haram shall be safe, whoever is in his own house shall be safe, and whoever is in the house of Abu Suffyan shall be safe”. And again this shows us you must treat people according to their background. So the prophet PBUH gives them an honour that HIS house is a public house of protection. And the prophet PBUH told Abbass to take Abu Suffyan at the neck of a valley so he can see all the army pass through as they entered Mecca. And he was amazed as far as the eye can see convoys are coming in. And he’s asking “who is this banner” and Abbass says “this is the tribe of Sulaym”. And again “who is this banner” and Abbass replies and so on. These are all new converts and Abu Suffyan cannot understand yet how Islam combines all these tribes. And he kept on saying “how can we fight these tribes” until right at the end came Al Qadra, the convey of the prophet PBUH, and ibn Ishaaq said “you could see nothing but the brightness of the armours”. All the muhajiroon and all the Ansar. And Abu Suffyan was amazed when he saw this, and he said “who is THIS convoy?” And Abbass said “this is the convoy of the prophet PBUH and the muhajiroon and the Ansar”. And Abu Suffyan says “we have no manner of opposing all of them. Oh Abbass, the kingdom of your nephew has become great”. Abbass said “woe to you, it is not a kingdom, it is prophethood which brought this”. Imagine 10,000 sahaba marching in and the leader of the Quraysh is witnessing all of this. 3 years ago Arabia combined to destroy Islam. Look at the kudr of Allah. Yesterday our prophet PBUH is expelled from Mecca and is fleeing for his life. He only has Abu Bukr after Allah. They have to hide in a cave for three days and now subhan’Allah just 8 years later, the prophet PBUH is leading an army 10,000 strong.