Tom Facchine – Beginning Classical Arabic Lesson 22

Tom Facchine
AI: Summary © The speakers discuss the use of Arabic language in sentences, including words and phrases, and explain the differences between words and phrases. They stress the importance of understanding the difference between words and actions, identifying the meaning of a word, and discussing the use of "monster" as an example. They also discuss the use of "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "okay," "
AI: Transcript ©
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Bismillah Al Rahman Rahim Al hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Alameen wa Salatu was Salam, ala Ashoka MBA will not Celine, Naveen, our partner Muhammad Ali, he, of course Hello as good as name. Hola, hola Elena rely on Ferrando and fatten every now and then to now as either their element. Yeah, but I mean,

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welcome everybody to beginning classical Arabic, we've been going for about 10 weeks now

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give or take. And we've covered a decent amount of material.

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However, today we're going to slow things down upon

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request of some of our students, and we're going to have a review lesson. Because we set a pace. And we attempt to do as good as we can with that pace.

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But every now and again, we slow down and let others catch up or

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even in take some new students, we have a couple of new students inshallah that will be joining us today or in future classes, we reopened registration. So today's an opportunity to ask questions to get clarification. And to review the main principles and concepts that we've been dealing with so far.

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Because of this class is a little bit more review, there's going to be a little bit less interaction on your part than usual. And then there's going to be not a lot of review of vocabulary per se, but mostly of the grammar that we've done. As for vocabulary, I will resend out the the vocab sheet which our students have so gracefully,

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or I should say graciously prepared for everybody. I'll send that out in the email this week and show up for you to review the vocab that was covered in the book so far. But we began with goals, any endeavor, it begins with goals and our goals, we our goals are not to become fluent in Arabic conversation, or even in listening, those are discrete skills that need to be developed in a different way than with what we're doing here. Our primary goal is to understand upon reading the Quran, and the Hadith, so we are focusing on classical Arabic, that is the Arabic of the Koran, Arabic, the prophesy. So

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if you're interested in colloquial Arabic, then the best way to learn colloquial Arabic, if you're not able to do immersion is by starting with classical Arabic because all colloquial forms of Arabic are rooted in classical Arabic, and it will make it easier for you.

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We began by talking about languages in general.

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And the reason why we began talking about languages in general is because we have to

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realize that all languages are doing the same thing. They just do it in different ways. Right? So in English, we said that the primary thing that communicates meaning, is word order, right? We have a sentence here Tom hits the ball. How do we know who's hitting the ball. Because of what came first, we know that Tom is hitting the ball, we know that the ball is being hit. And all of this we know in the English language due to the order in which the words appear known as syntax. If I change the syntax of the sentence in English, it changes the meaning of the sentence, I say the ball hit come, then all of a sudden, the ball is the one who is doing the verb performing the verb, and Tom is the

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one who is receiving the verb.

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However, not every language operates this way. This is the way that analytical languages work are what are known are analytical languages. Synthetic languages are a little bit different synthetic languages, such as Arabic, they operate by not as much dependent on word order. But by putting actual phonemes units of sound on the words to tell you what they're doing. Who's doing the verb, who's receiving the verb, who is the subject, who's the predicate, so on and so forth.

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So we gave an example let's take our English sentence, Tom hit the ball. And Lisa, we said, let's change this language into a synthetic language. Let's make it into something called angle veck. And we're going to attach a U sounds to the end of any word that is doing an action and then a sound

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To any word that is receiving the action, all of a sudden, our previous example, Tom hit the ball becomes Tom who hit the ball. And we can, because we add things on to the words, we are now free to change the order of those words. In the sentence even if we say a ball law, Tom will hit the markers on the ends of the words indicate who is hitting and who is getting hit, this is the freedom provided by an analytic person give me a synthetic language, such as R. Okay, so that was just to open your mind to what's going on in Arabic.

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In terms of how Arabic sentences are made, there are two primary types of sentences in Arabic. And this is also different from English where we have one main sentence structure, Subject, Verb, Object, Tom, hit the ball. In Arabic, we have two main sentence structures. One of them is called a Joomla is MIA Joomla is the word for sentence is MIA comes from Essen, which means noun, literally a noun or nominal sentence. And we have a Joomla theme earlier, a theme that is a verb. And so this is a verbal sentence, all of your understanding of Arabic is going to depend upon your understanding and recognizing

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when you're dealing with a verbal sentence, and when you're dealing with a nominal sentence. Why? Because each of those two different types of sentences has different parts.

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And those different parts have different markers on them that indicate what's going on in the sentence. So just like you enter into the kitchen, you expect to find a stove, you expect to find a refrigerator, you expect to find maybe a table or some knives or utensils. And when you go into the bedroom, you expect to find a bed, you expect to find a dresser and the closet, we need to know what room we're going into. We can't expect to find a bed in the kitchen. Nor can we expect to find a a fridge

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in the bedroom. Right? This is the most important thing to keeping everything organized in your head. First step is what type of sentence are we looking at? or looking at a nominal sentence or a verbal sentence? Great. That sounds great. Hmm. How can you tell the difference between a nominal sentence and a verbal sentence? That is simply due to what is the first word?

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Does the sentence begin with a noun? Or does it begin with a verb?

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The first part of our class we focused in on one of those two types of sentences we focused in on the Joomla is meow. That sentence that begins the nominal sentence a sentence that begins with a noun

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the Joomla SME and the nominal sentence has two main parts. We're going to say that for example, to run with our analogy that it is the bedroom then no bedroom is complete without a bed and a dresser or some sort of drawers okay. So, our nominal sentence our Joomla izmi is not complete without two things, the move to that and the cover.

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The move to that is the subject of the sentence.

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What is the subject of the sentence it is who or what we are talking about. And the hobble is the predicate of the sentence meaning what's the information that we want to communicate about our subjects?

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Allah who I had known, if we want to make an example, Allah who I had one,

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Allah is our subjects, the MOOC today, he is the one whom we are talking about. What do we want to communicate about Allah? What information do we wish to impart? We want to tell you that he is unique. I had hoped that uncover subject and predicate

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okay, we'll get to that in a second.

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So if we're looking at, for example,

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what's the difference

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between the subject and the predicate? What's the difference between the move to that and the hover? How can we tell?

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If we look at an Arabic sentence? What is going to be the move to that? And what is going to be the hover? We said a little bit ago that Arabic is not

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nearly as dependent on the order of words, or the sequence of words,

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as English is. So we're not just going to look at what comes first in the sentence to determine what is looked at and what is the 100, we're going to look at other things, things that exist on the word.

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So we said for example, if we're to compare, we are to compare the two parts of the Joomla atmosphere and move to that and the hover, we find that they have some similarities. And they have some differences. What are the essential characteristics

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of the subject and the predicate the move to that? And

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the first one is it's grammatical case.

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More on that in a second.

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Both of them up to that and the hunger have to be in the same grammatical case, and that is the nominative case. Okay, hold on. Wait a minute. What on earth is grammatical case?

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Grammatical case, is a concept that every language has, how do you know who is doing a verb or who is receiving a verb or if something is being possessed, or if something has a relationship where it's owning something else? In grammar, we use the term that's called case to describe these types of relationships. Okay?

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certain languages have 10 cases, 15 cases, 20 cases, and each of those cases has a different marker on the word to tell you what face is. English.

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No longer uses cases, for the most part, although historically there was a time when it did if you go back to older English, we hear barest, right, and half. And these sorts of things. These are actually case endings, okay, and they have rules for how to apply them, but we don't use them anymore. The only place in modern English, where cases creep up are with pronouns

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we say he left

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I talked to him,

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he and him are different, he indicates a subject whereas him indicates an object.

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Well, this is what we have going on in Arabic the words themselves change

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in order to reflect whether they are the subject, whether they are the object way or whether they are possessed or possessing

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and so on and so forth. How do they change? Where do they change does the entire word change does just a part of the word change?

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And how much does it change?

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This is one of the most significant things to understand. Alright.

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The first question we have is what actually changes on the Word

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and the answer to that question is simply the last one okay? If we have on what to

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move over here to my whiteboard

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if we have the name, legit Hola, hola.

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Okay.

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It will have different cases depending on what it's doing in a sentence.

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Sometimes you're going to find the word Allah with a Bama.

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Sometimes you're going to find the word Allah with a feta.

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Sometimes you're going to find the word Allah with a casserole, all of them on the end on the final letter of the word.

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This is what changes when we're talking about showing grammatical case that endings that exist

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On the ends of the words, the first letter is not changing the middle of the words not changing.

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All the other habitats are not changing only the one that exists on the last letter.

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And that goes for every other word. We're talking about only changes on the end of the word are going to indicate a change in grammatical case, where they're going to indicate grammatical case.

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Not changes anywhere else. Okay, great. Good. So We answered the first question, what can change? Or where's the change going to happen? The next question is,

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what are our options? What changes are there and what do they mean?

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In Arabic, there are four options.

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And only three of them are available at a time. We'll talk more about that later. They are represented by the How to cat that you know and love. We have four how to Cat four options in Arabic, we have the llama, we have the Fatah, we have the customer. And we have the sukoon.

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Each of these signs on the end of a word they mean something, they mean something grammatically, they have a name for the case that they represent and that case is used for certain types of

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things. So for example, we have the lumber

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modem represents the nominative case, this is your default case. What do we use the nominative case for? We use it for the subject of a sentence. We use it for the predicates of a sentence, we also use it for the doer of a verb.

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All of these things, when you see Obama, you have an indication that one of these three things is going on. And there are other things that differentiate which one of those is actually happening. If you see if that time,

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then you are in the accusative case. This indicates that something is the object of a verb or the receiver of a verb.

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If you see a casserole this indicates that it is in the genitive case. This has to do with either it comes after a preposition, meaning we're talking about a relationship of time and place. Or it's part of a possessive construction that indicates that it possesses something else.

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So we said that this, if we're looking we're backing up now to our Joomla Izmir Allahu Ahad doing Allah who, with ADAMA, I had done with Adama to Domino's, we'll talk about that in a second. The motor and the hub are the two main parts of a nominal sentence a sentence that begins with a noun is that both of them are in the nominative case called metaphor in Arabic, and both of them have a llama to prove it.

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Okay

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here's

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another so of course zeroing in on this particular case. It's called metaphor in Arabic. It's called the nominative case in English. It's represented by a llama, Allah who

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had done and we use it for the subjects, Allah who the predicates are handling

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or the doer in a verbal sentence which we haven't gotten to yet.

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So then we would ask okay, good. So we have our

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nominal sentence, we know that we have a subject and a predicate, Allah who had done or for a more common example

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we can use

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what were we saying before lb two

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lb two.

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For example, Barry doing the house is part

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go to the whiteboard

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or my

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Have sloppy handwriting

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be to

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bury you don't

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how can we tell? Okay elbaite

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the sentence begins with a noun

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so I know that this is a doula is me this is a sentence of a nominal sentence. How can I tell? Anybody? I'll start to get some participation and shallot How can I tell? What is the subject and what's the predicate? What is the move to that and what is the hobble?

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My the ending sound So explain to me

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what's the difference? Or same also how sir

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our hand raise Go ahead, Sam, you can anyone can unmute themselves or they can use the chat box whatever you like.

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How can I tell which one is the subject which one is the predicate which one is the most out which was the hub

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Go ahead. It's the same

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by two is subject and I mean by two is Moqtada. And Biden is a horrible

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I want to know why.

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Because I'll buy two is a noun

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and this is the nominative sentence that's why it's a noun and

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nominal sentence start with the noun so I'll buy two is the noun that's why it is a book Tada and always look to the is a noun sorry to that is

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I think proper

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okay.

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That's very good. I like you're, you're thinking along the right lines. However, there's a problem that either is also a noun.

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And bait is a noun and buried is a noun. They are both. So we have two essence how do we tell which one is the most of that and the hover?

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The say is Adama Okay, here's one bomber. Here's two bombers. Both have been

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to how the family said Alif Lam.

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Okay, Ali flam is half rights Alif Lana's the sign.

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And the reason is, and this is what a couple of people messaged me. Privately Yes. Is because it is Mandisa. Okay, what on earth is Maddie for Maddie phenethyl? Good, good. Good. So let's, let's start.

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So, first question was, we had to learn what room were in? Are we in the kitchen or the bedroom?

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Are we in

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nominal sentence verbal sentence. And that was what sister saying that was telling us. We know elevates is a noun. So we're in nominal sentence Joomla Isthmian. Fantastic. Good. Now we realize that Joomla ischemia has two parts has two parts.

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It has a move to that and it has a hover. We translate this as it has a subject and it has a predicate.

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We talked about nothing that they share in common. They have to have BUM

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BUM BUM that's in common.

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But what differentiates them, what separates them? What tells us which one

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is the subject and which one is the humble? As a couple of people message me it has to do with what is death sentence and what is indefinite?

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And Arabic We call this noun ephah.

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Mount if I mean something is definite means that we know exactly what we're talking about. That indicates the subject because we're going to be talking about the subject. And then we have next to nothing at all

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means that it is indefinite because the information that we're giving about the subject could be information that could be valid for a number of subjects. Right. And it'd be to the house that are you doing is far, far we could use far to describe many things, couldn't we? We could use far to describe the message queue to describe China to describe my grandmother's house.

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Right.

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However l Bates is specific, indicated by the LE flam as the shake family says which means though

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The house. So this difference between what's definite and what is indefinite?

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What is specific and what is not specific this is how we tell the difference between the move to that. And the house, the subject and the predicate.

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What is the sign

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that something is Mountie felt.

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And what is the sign that something is Nakheel

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it doesn't have to do with the identity

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of what is on the end of your word, it doesn't have to do with vonleh that tag Kassala.

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What it does have to do with is 10, we

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10 wean meaning there's two of them, two of them lists

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for Nikita.

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The sign of something being Nikita is that there are two of them.

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A 10 We whether it is to that house, or to vamos or to customers.

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That is what it means to be net zero to be indefinite. Whereas to be definite,

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it means that in a common noun, you are going to have only one

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hat, okay. And you're going to have in this case, Elif lamb, which means that

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that is how we talk. So if you have a sentence, if you have a sentence buried on elbaite

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This is still a Joomla Isthmian.

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It is it still hasn't looked at it in a hover.

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It is the same it's just different in emphasis.

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You're emphasizing the fact the fact that it is far as opposed to emphasizing with what you're talking about, the parts are the same this has moved to that this is coming.

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Why can we tell or how can we tell because Elevate is Marisa it is definite and bear Eden is nebula just like when Allah says in surah Fs Allahu Samad.

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The actual breakdown of the sentence is a Salman Allah as someone who Allah, but that's a little bit of an exception because we're dealing with proper names. So, maybe best not to go into that example right now. Good. So, if we go back to our

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slides

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we have two essential qualities of the move to the and the hub.

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Okay.

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One of them is the same, we said that both the move to that and the hover are

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more for they both have. They are both in the nominative case with Obama. Both of them looked at that.

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But they also have a second characteristic that is difference,

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which is what you can tell them apart by and that is whether they are definite or indefinite, whether they are Marisa or Nikita

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and this corresponds to V and a an English a house, the house we have a nice little breakdown here of what happens. The 10 wean and the early flam are mutually exclusive. If one exists, the other does not have word cannot possibly under any circumstances have both Elif lamb and 10 wheat.

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So if it has Elif Lamb, the 10 weaned drops away to a single paddock, in this case L V two.

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And if the olive lamb drops away, then under normal circumstances, if it's not possessed, it becomes b two.

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Good.

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Here's a nice little

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diagram of that as well. So we have we're in Joomla Isthmian. We have looked at that and hover each of them has two primary characteristics. One of those characteristics is the same.

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Both of them up to that and hover are Mater four, which means that they are in the nominative case represented by Obama.

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And then they have a second characteristic which is different

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whether they are definite or indefinite, and move to that is definite

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and the hover is

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indefinite obey to carry Iran was our previous example that's right

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if you're wondering,

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also it helps because sometimes we're learning a language. No, we're translating in our heads. And so if you're wondering

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this type of sentence in English we would say the house is large. You're wondering to yourself Where is the is communicated?

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It is precisely communicated where the sentence changes from Mount etha to nephew, there is an implied is

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at that location

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Okay, let's see.

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We talked about Sun and Moon letters. I don't think that that requires a ton of review right now I think I'm going to stick through reviewing the grammar and not the pronunciation points.

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That we do have some awesome slides for that I will send out to the new group of students the

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the slides as well inshallah

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talked about the ivam that happens with that.

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I guess we'll just give an example. We have L Bay to Adi one L Bates, we pronounced the lamp because the bat is sufficiently far away or different from the lamp. Whereas an edge from the star we merged the lamp into the noon because the noon is not sufficiently different or far away from the lamp. And Nigel buried.

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Good. So we're still within the larger, we're still within our first room, the bedroom. Okay, we have the bed. And we have the

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the dresser. We haven't talked about the closet yet. Okay. So we talked about the our bedroom was the Joomla Isthmian. The first main sentence structure in our

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we talked about the two things that have to be there for a Joomla is meow. And that is they move to that, and the hub, a subject and a predicate. And we talked about how we can tell the difference between the subject and the predicate, what are their essential qualities and characteristics.

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There are two of them, one of which is the same that they are both

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in the nominative case mode for with Obama. And the second, which is where they differ. One of them is definitely the other one is indefinite. But some bedrooms, the nice ones

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have more than just a bed and a dresser, some of them have closets, maybe there's a ceiling fan, maybe there's a mirror on the wall. Right. So we're going to now talk about something that can be added into a Joomla ischemia.

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That makes it more beautiful. That makes it more complicated and more interesting and has slightly different rules. We're going to now explore the genitive case, which is called an Arabic measure rule Majrooh

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the genitive case

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helps us talk about the relationship between two nouns.

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That relationship can be a relationship of location, something is under something else.

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Or it can be

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a relationship of time.

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Something is after

00:34:12 --> 00:34:33

something else or it can be a relationship of possession. This thing belongs to me. This is the teacher's desk, the students pen and so on and so forth. So in every language, we use the genitive case to talk about these sorts of things. In Arabic, it's called mens roar, and it is represented by a customer.

00:34:35 --> 00:34:59

So here's our old breakdown of the sentence. Okay. Yes. Genitive Case is used for relationships between nouns. And the sign of the genitive case in Arabic is the customer talked about how every single one is? Every one of that is specific to a certain case, which is really, really handy in our

00:35:00 --> 00:35:04

The casserole doesn't represent more than one case, right?

00:35:07 --> 00:35:20

And in order to help us talk about relationships of place between nouns, we learned a couple of prepositions, Allah, which is on or on top of and be in or inside.

00:35:22 --> 00:35:34

And we noticed how the grammar changes in a prepositional phrase, right? What is the word that has to have

00:35:35 --> 00:35:39

the customer to demonstrate the genitive case.

00:35:40 --> 00:35:54

It is the second word in the prepositional phrase, the noun that comes after the preposition. So we have our example sentence here. Oh, balibo feel Beatty, the students is in the house.

00:35:55 --> 00:35:56

Okay.

00:35:58 --> 00:36:02

We still this is still a Joomla Isthmian. Our first word is an essence.

00:36:04 --> 00:36:05

Our first word has also

00:36:06 --> 00:36:07

moved to them.

00:36:09 --> 00:36:13

But the hover has changed. Instead of the hover instead of the

00:36:15 --> 00:36:36

predicates just being a single word. Now it is a prepositional phrase. And because it is a prepositional phrase in the grammar, the grammar is going to change a little bit as well. We have V and then elevate and because Elevate is after a preposition, it now has to have a Kessel field v. T.

00:36:38 --> 00:36:43

That Kessler here tells us that this is part of the prepositional phrase.

00:36:45 --> 00:36:49

We had another example al Kitab. Who is setting up.

00:36:52 --> 00:37:04

That's the book is on top of the bet. Anything following a prepositional phrase is Medjool. It is in the genitive case. And that is shown by a Tesla.

00:37:09 --> 00:37:09

Good.

00:37:13 --> 00:37:14

Okay, very good.

00:37:17 --> 00:37:19

We spent a while talking about

00:37:22 --> 00:37:25

practicing prepositional phrases.

00:37:26 --> 00:37:30

We talked a little bit about them, not Minnesota, we're not going to go into that now.

00:37:35 --> 00:38:00

We use prepositional phrases to transition into talking about the second main type of sentence in our Okay, so we'd like our room analogy. And I kind of think the room analogy was helpful. You can probably come up with better analogies. But if we said that our nominal sentence our Joomla is Mia was like the bedroom.

00:38:01 --> 00:38:02

And the Joomla theme earlier

00:38:03 --> 00:38:13

was like the kitchen. And each of them have different parts to them or different things that make them special and different.

00:38:14 --> 00:38:19

Isn't it true? That you might also find things that are in both?

00:38:20 --> 00:38:50

If there's a mirror in the bedroom? Isn't it true that you might find a mirror somewhere in the kitchen? It's possible. And so that's the prepositions are like our mirror, or ceiling fan, if you like. Hopefully there's a ceiling fan in the bedroom and in the in the kitchen. prepositional phrases aren't limited to Joomla Isthmian. They're not limited to nominal sentences, they can be anywhere.

00:38:51 --> 00:38:53

They can be anywhere.

00:38:54 --> 00:39:03

And so it's a good segue into looking at prepositional phrases in our second type of sentence and familiarizing ourselves with

00:39:05 --> 00:39:07

that other type of sentence.

00:39:17 --> 00:39:22

Here's a breakdown of both types of sentences. So we had talked about the Joomla SME.

00:39:23 --> 00:39:29

And it had two primary components and looked at that and the hub. The subject and the predicate.

00:39:31 --> 00:39:37

Joomla Philia is a completely different room. It's the kitchen, you don't expect to find a bed in the kitchen.

00:39:38 --> 00:39:42

You don't expect to find a dresser with your clothes hanging up in the kitchen.

00:39:43 --> 00:39:51

We expect different things from the kitchen we expect to find the fridge we expect to find some plates and some bottles we expect to find a stove

00:39:52 --> 00:39:59

so the parts that make up a verbal sentence. I assume that the Omnia are entirely different

00:40:00 --> 00:40:06

Then the parts that make up a nominal sentence, what are those parts? A Joomla theme begins with a verb

00:40:08 --> 00:40:12

begins with a verb. And this is the most common sentence structure in our

00:40:14 --> 00:40:25

the default sentence structure in Arabic is Joomla philia. If you look through just the last three pages of the Koran, the vast majority of those sentences are verbal sentences.

00:40:29 --> 00:40:31

Out of a 10 letter you can remove with the

00:40:32 --> 00:40:46

right either Ajah and us we're lucky welfares 10 But yet be the WhatsApp. These are all verbal sentences. So what are the essential components of a verbal sentence we have, it begins with the verb.

00:40:47 --> 00:41:07

Next is the subject of the verb, meaning the doer the one who performs the verb. And then often but not always, we have an object of the verb. If we're looking at an example, we have caught up on a law who, and I'll walk.

00:41:08 --> 00:41:20

Notice that this takes some getting used to because Arabic has a sequence of verb, subject object, whereas an English it's subject, verb, object.

00:41:22 --> 00:41:29

So we have beginning Arabic speakers, they like to say things like, and I'd have Illa Dukane,

00:41:30 --> 00:41:44

or an ad, or an ad whole, either domestically or internationally. So they're translating literally from English, I am going to the masjid. And anybody who is a native Arabic speaker can tell right away that this is not

00:41:45 --> 00:41:53

a native Arabic speaker because in Arabic, we would begin with the verb, the habit to inasmuch as have no ill MSPB.

00:41:55 --> 00:42:13

So here we have thought about, he created a law who doer of the verb, out of law object of the verb. Notice something here, just like in the first type of sentence Joomla ischemia, the move to that and the hover had different rules.

00:42:14 --> 00:42:37

For grammar, what case where they end? Well, we have different rules going on here. In this type of sentence, the doer of the verb, just like the move to the end, hover the subject and predicate from our Joomla ischemia is going to be more for is going to be in the nominative case shown by Obama, Allah Who.

00:42:39 --> 00:42:49

And the object of our verb Allah is going to be monsoon, in the accusative case, which is shown by eighth that's

00:42:51 --> 00:42:54

okay, this is how a verbal sentence works.

00:42:56 --> 00:43:00

Okay, what cases the verb in you might ask, Oh, I'm glad you said that.

00:43:02 --> 00:43:03

Arabic

00:43:05 --> 00:43:08

verbs by default do not have grammatical case

00:43:16 --> 00:43:18

in Arabic we have three tenses

00:43:19 --> 00:43:29

of verbs. We have past present and imperative just like an English there is no separate verb form. For the future.

00:43:31 --> 00:43:35

We make compound tenses we use particles and things like that.

00:43:38 --> 00:43:39

And within Arabic,

00:43:40 --> 00:43:47

only one of these three types of sentence can have grammar or can have a grammatical case and that is the present tense.

00:43:48 --> 00:43:52

For imperative verbs and past tense verbs, there is no grammatical case.

00:43:55 --> 00:43:55

Okay.

00:43:57 --> 00:44:06

So we have the present tense rooms over here, it is decline of all meaning it will have a grammatical case, whereas the past and an imperative they do not.

00:44:07 --> 00:44:10

That's why here we have caught up up past tense verb

00:44:11 --> 00:44:19

he created literally, it has no case. It's not motor for men. So men's role. My job, it's nothing

00:44:27 --> 00:44:32

we started to talk about so there's basically two more topics.

00:44:33 --> 00:44:39

And we'll wrap it up there. There's two more topics first of them is a short one and then there's the reviewing the possessive.

00:44:40 --> 00:44:47

The first topic is okay remember way back in the beginning of this class, we talked about

00:44:48 --> 00:44:59

the endings on words and how they change for grammar and we talked about not any place on the word changes, only the very end changes

00:45:00 --> 00:45:02

Well, when we look at

00:45:04 --> 00:45:08

past tense verbs, we have a similar thing going on.

00:45:09 --> 00:45:15

When we conjugate them, not everything can change in a verb,

00:45:16 --> 00:45:25

the ending, the third letter is fixed, the first letter is fixed. And the second letter is what can change. We talked about how leppa definitely

00:45:26 --> 00:45:40

Hollinger, the hover, all these sorts of things we haven't gotten into conjugation yet. That's coming up Inshallah, and it's going to happen in a very slow and gradual manner. One of the good things about

00:45:42 --> 00:46:14

about this book, just, this is a nice chart overviewing the different grammatical parts of a verbal sentence, we have the verb, which if it's a past tense verb, is Magne, meaning it doesn't have a grammatical case, then we have the subject, which is not called looked at here, it's called the fan, the doer. And it is more for is in the nominative case of a llama. And then we have the object which is called rule, and it is min sube. With a better

00:46:15 --> 00:47:00

excellent job. Okay. last major thing to review, which is what we had done most recently, this is the genitive case. We said that genitive case we use to talk about relationships between nouns. The last relationship we have yet to talk about is possession. Okay, we said that in English possession was communicated in two ways. First, using an apostrophe. This is the most common of the last book, yesterday's newspaper. And then the second way is to use the word of the prophets of Allah salAllahu Alaihe Salam, a friend of mine. And so in Arabic, literally, we're going to use the second pattern,

00:47:01 --> 00:47:06

almost 100%, translated from English using of

00:47:07 --> 00:47:24

we are never going to use anything that resembles the apostrophe construction. This is important because it affects the order of the words. Right? If you say, Allah's prophets, or the prophets of Allah, you're changing the order, aren't you?

00:47:25 --> 00:47:31

The one that is possessed than the one that is possessing or in the different order.

00:47:33 --> 00:47:39

So in Arabic We say keytab will law he the book of Allah,

00:47:40 --> 00:48:12

what we would conversationally translate as Allah's book, but to keep things straight, in our mind, we will say the book of Allah, He tabula he, the thing being possessed comes first, the one possessing it comes after this whole concept of possession is called a buffer. In Arabic, the first parts, the thing being possessed is called Move off. And the second part, the possessor is called Move off LA.

00:48:17 --> 00:48:25

How can we recognize a possessive construction within a sentence whether it's an a nominal sentence or a verbal sentence,

00:48:27 --> 00:48:39

there are just like with milk to that and hover, there are certain essential characteristics to the move off, and then we'll go off ELA, there are other characteristics that can change that are not essential.

00:48:40 --> 00:48:42

So if we look at the first thing

00:48:48 --> 00:48:53

if we look at the first thing that will off the thing being possessed keytab

00:48:54 --> 00:48:57

there is something that is essential

00:48:58 --> 00:49:05

about the mould off that never changes. And that is the fact that it has no le flam

00:49:06 --> 00:49:08

and it has no 10 week.

00:49:10 --> 00:49:14

Okay, this is different from what we said before, normally,

00:49:15 --> 00:49:37

a noun by itself, it either has to have a length lamb, or 10 weeks. And we said with certainty that a noun can never have both. Never, ever have both le flam and 10 weeks. But there is one situation where a noun can have neither alief lamb or 10 when and that is when it is possessed.

00:49:38 --> 00:49:44

When it is part of a possessive construction, it loses its it flam and it loses its 10 We

00:49:46 --> 00:49:59

whether it's Obama or not, that is something that is not fixed. It can be a VM, it can be a fence, it can be a customer. We use the example from before and we had the whole Luna fee

00:50:00 --> 00:50:13

Dini lay aquarium. Dini lead the religion of Allah, a possessive construction. But Dean has a customer because it comes after a preposition fee.

00:50:15 --> 00:50:26

So whether this was customer or Obama or Betsa, that can change. But the thing that cannot change is that there's only one. It has no 10 ween, and it has no relief now.

00:50:28 --> 00:50:31

As for the second word, the mold off eBay,

00:50:32 --> 00:50:55

the possessor, the thing that is fixed and certain about this word is that it is in the genitive case, it is Medrol. And that is demonstrated in this case by a Tesla keytab law he, it will never be keytab law who it will never be keytab own law, ha. It will always always always have a castle.

00:51:00 --> 00:51:04

And we learned a couple other little things at the end of last class, but honestly,

00:51:05 --> 00:51:06

I think that

00:51:07 --> 00:51:31

it doesn't really bear repeating because it's not one of the primary points of what we've been going over. So does anybody have any questions at all about anything that was covered today? This is your chance. Anything that's not clear? Anything that is ambiguous, anything that you can either unmute yourself or you can type in the chat box, whatever you want.

00:51:32 --> 00:51:33

UV

00:51:35 --> 00:51:36

light

00:51:39 --> 00:51:39

or you said

00:51:41 --> 00:51:42

it has to follow

00:51:43 --> 00:51:48

but when we make our line we say Muhammad Rasul Allah, we don't

00:51:54 --> 00:51:58

Okay, the sound isn't very good coming from you, but I think I understand what you're asking.

00:52:00 --> 00:52:12

I think what you're saying is that Mohammed doon Rasulullah he, why am I saying amen? That this has to have a customer when either we raise this

00:52:15 --> 00:52:16

hammer

00:52:18 --> 00:52:19

or Sue

00:52:20 --> 00:52:22

Lou, la

00:52:24 --> 00:52:26

you heard what was said Rasul Allah.

00:52:28 --> 00:52:30

The last Holika wasn't pronounced

00:52:32 --> 00:52:40

in colloquial Arabic speech and even in the recitation of the Quran, we do not pronounce the final hat okay.

00:52:42 --> 00:52:47

We do not pronounce the final Hanukkah. If we were then we would certainly have

00:52:48 --> 00:52:50

a cassava on the end of Allah.

00:52:51 --> 00:53:00

Rasool Allah He, yes. The second thing I wasn't sure whether you're asking about the casserole on the end of Allah or the casserole on the end of Rasul

00:53:02 --> 00:53:02

that explains

00:53:04 --> 00:53:07

Allah, Allah He, yes,

00:53:08 --> 00:53:09

Rasul Allah He.

00:53:11 --> 00:53:24

Wait. It's simply an aspect of pronunciation. People cut off if you go to the Quran, find that anywhere in the Quran, it says Rasul Allah, you're going to find a casserole on the end of Allah.

00:53:26 --> 00:53:32

What determines whether you say it or not, depends on where you are stopping.

00:53:33 --> 00:53:35

If I say Mohammad Rasool Allah

00:53:37 --> 00:53:59

I'm not stopping because there's not a casserole. There's a cassava there. I'm just not saying it because the habits and the custom in Arabic is to not pronounce the final Hanukkah. but believe you me there is a cassava there. Always ever then that image Rasul Allah He, beta law he,

00:54:01 --> 00:54:15

whether we say it or not, and when we're practicing Arabic when we're in this class or in other Arabic classes, we pronounce every single halacha in order to understand because someone that's from an Arabic speaking background, yes, they'll say rasool Allah.

00:54:17 --> 00:54:19

Ask them, what's the Chanukah on the end of Allah

00:54:21 --> 00:54:22

Wallahi you'll find that many of them don't know.

00:54:24 --> 00:54:41

Whether it's a llama, whether it's a fat time, whether it's a cassava, whether there's anything there. Many of them who have never studied Arabic grammar don't know that there is a Hanukkah on the end of that word. And that Holika is cassava always because they don't pronounce it because that's the customer.

00:54:42 --> 00:54:59

So when you say Muhammad Rasul Allah is actually has cancer, but if somebody says Muhammad Rasul Allah, then the meaning is right. If are you talking about Russell are alive. Now now in their soul

00:55:00 --> 00:55:00

and

00:55:01 --> 00:55:03

long if you put them

00:55:04 --> 00:55:16

instead of tama, the meaning will be changed. Right? Good. So this has to do with the grammar of the rest of the sentence. What type of sentence is this? Joomla is MIA or Ali?

00:55:17 --> 00:55:21

Mohammed is a smear, smear. Good. Where's the milk to that?

00:55:23 --> 00:55:27

I'm like, yes. So then what's left over is the cover

00:55:29 --> 00:55:34

what's the default case of the Hummer? The default cases it's more four.

00:55:37 --> 00:55:39

Oh, which is why I saw

00:55:41 --> 00:55:44

Yeah, no, no, I understand what what I was just

00:55:45 --> 00:56:05

making sure that when when you hear somebody saying this law, he so is actually changing the meaning of the of the termination. Yeah, that's right. You're right. Now, there are some situations where Rasul Allah Allah is correct. If that's the object of the sentence. What if we were to say who Hindu

00:56:06 --> 00:56:09

What am I gonna say? Oh Hibou I love

00:56:13 --> 00:56:30

Russell, Allah, Allah He, Yes, correct. I love the Prophet of Allah. So Allah Julio sunnah, because Rasul now is part of a verbal sentence, who Hedberg is the ferret. The battle is in there somewhere. And this is now number one. This is the object.

00:56:32 --> 00:56:34

The object of my love is the prophet of Allah.

00:56:35 --> 00:56:55

Which is why then it would have a fence well hidden for us all Allah who are at Rasul Allah, who here in the Hadith sent me out to Rasul Allah He, you also hear in the Hadith I heard the Messenger of Allah say, because the Messenger of Allah is the object of the sentence, just like in our sample sentence, call up Allahu Allah.

00:56:57 --> 00:57:04

This is where Hibou Rasul Allah law he very good thank you for not for bringing that to our attention. That's completely correct.

00:57:06 --> 00:57:08

Anybody else doubts questions concerns

00:57:19 --> 00:57:42

we've gone way over time, normally our classes 4045 minutes but we've completed an hour, so forgive me for that. And then we'll pick up Wednesday insha Allah with a new lesson. I will send out to all the students again because now we have some new students I will send out the slides and the vocab inshallah Tada, Allah Tada Adam as salaam alaikum wa rahmatullahi.

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