Reclaiming the Sunni Sufi Discourse
Channel: Hatem al-Haj
File Size: 30.94MB
capitalist societies, materialists, societies, they do need
to fill that void in their hearts, because capitalism and materialism would not bring about any nrps would not bring about happiness would not really reconcile your heart and mind would cause you all of the distress that we see around us and sort of the anguish that capitalism and materialism causes to to human beings. But the interest in Sufism, in particular and Islamic Sufism in particular, is also fueled by
big players that may not be particularly visible to us, it is not a secret that the RAND RAND Corporation in 2002, was advised that there should be a strategic alliance between
basically, Western governments and Sufi movements. And this has been the advice of Bernard Lewis all the time, and people like Daniel pipes and so on and so forth. The old find that has to be particularly irrelevant, particularly important to because they believe that Sufism will make Muslims a little bit calmer, and that will be more conducive to peace between East and West.
And keep in mind that as Muslim minorities in the West, no one is interested in peace between the East and the West, just naturally more interested has more, you know, stake in this than the Muslim minorities in the West. So, it is not that we are not interested, it is just that maybe we have a little different definition of peace, or we may have different thoughts about how peace can be, can prevail between East and West.
Peace, that is just the peace that is based on basically the recognition of people's right to self determination, determination, independence,
and basically dignity.
So, but we are more interested, you know, the Muslim minorities in the West would naturally be more interested in peace between East and West than Daniel pipes and Bernard Lewis were keener on seeing that happen and take place. And we may have better action plans to to see that come to fruition if we were to be consulted.
But, but the Nate's not only, it is not only that, this is this interest is fueled by this this interest, also fueled by authoritarian regimes, authoritarian regimes in different parts of the world that that may find in in sofas
or that may find that a supervisor may bring about more
or the stability of the status quo in the Muslim world.
quietism quietness, calmness, stability and so on and so forth. So there's an interest in that as well. So, why are we the basically
playing in their hands Why are we talking about Sufism and trying to reclaim this, this will be this course exactly to do the opposite. Because Sufism, in its pure it depends on which integration of Sufism we're talking about here because there could be different iterations of Sufism a different version of Sufism.
The Sufism the pure Sufism,
people like Mario Kart, the answer is soccer, piano whistle, Amanda dharani, and salad to study, Brahim, kawase and doublesided for us and
The same terrain of course, I should have said
and all of this, this this type of soup ism has nothing to do with pacifism, antinomianism and Kenobi, anism which is lawlessness or pacifism or any of the
any of these concepts.
Let us then figure out what is what was it Where did it come from? What Where did that term come from? And where the concept come from, if the term was not coined by the prophet sallallahu sallam, and we know that it was not coined by the Sahaba rhodiola and where did it come from? It came from
you know, the Tibet, you know, in probably third generation, so you know, started
To become known during the third Muslim generation, people like Abu Hashim and Kofi and others,
felt the need to emphasize certain concepts, certain values, certain Islamic values
they felt are being sort of endangered, by the prosperity enjoyed by the majority of Muslims during those times.
You know, the Islamic civilization was up and coming, because there was so much prosperity by the middle of the Umayyad dynasty, end of omega dynasty, beginning of the herbicide dynasty, all the way until the middle of the herbicide dynasty or Kerala, basically, by the year 350. That's the end of the earlier part of the colorful habits, the strong, the strong face of a colorful, obviously, Muslims enjoyed a lot, you know, we're very prosperous.
And people have felt some of the righteous predecessors have felt that people became so indulgent, in the life of this world, this world that people started, during the time of the companions that would want to lay him, there was complete harmony and consistency between rituals and spirituality, between the interior and the exterior between, you know, practice, believes everything, there was consistency, there was harmony. And that's why the oma prosper, and that is why the oma have this much strength and this much vitality and this much prosperity. But then the law later, there was ever like a gap, a roof, a gulf being formed between the interior and exterior between the law, you
morals, morality. And some of the nation's predators fell to that even some of the scholars and some of the alcohol are too hyper technical, they are to, basically focused on technicalities of the law, but they became too legalistic, and they are ignoring the important values, you know, of asceticism for instance, for instance, the important value is amount of job, you know, the actions of the heart of the NRS state,
and so on, and so on and so forth. So to basically emphasize the importance of those values, this this is basically the core of Islam. This is what Islam is about. eliminate a lot of people been studying except one who comes to Allah subhanaw taala. With a heart that is sound.
So if this is the core of Islam, and this is what Islam is about, we are seeing this departure from the the core of Islamic teachings and we are seeing that the people have become overindulgent. Remind them let's bring them back.
That's basically how it all started. And those people were called initially as ohad and then somehow and the root of this word, you know etymologically speaking, it is very difficult to figure out where it is coming from the sofa from SUV wall, or on the sofa or what is it or Safar purity. You know, people have different theories about the root word for
Sofia, and hekla in Greek.
So people have different ideas and different theories about where it came from, but it is not in it's not important for us. It just some people started to become known as Sophie's are starting to become identified as Sophie's the early ones.
It was basically about an emphasis of focus, calling the people to come come back to the realities of the deen and to the comeback to pepper focus on their inner states and the actions of the heart and so on and not to be focused on the exterior only.
Still, the exterior has an importance, but not to be focused on the exterior walls only but also gave the due attention to the interior as well.
But then, over time, things started to become a little bit different. You know, so far everything is great. Right? So far everything seems to be completely consistent with the core values of Islam.
So how is it then that we have in our history, basically that much division between the scholars over Sufism that much disagreement between the scholars and the metalheads of this lien over Sufism, between praise and this praise and and statements from the greatest of this
cutters you know, they manage the FAA How come someone likely Mr. Fairey would say that you know no one would become a Sufi at the beginning of the day except that he would become a fool by by by the time of luck and this was reported this is established fermion shefali you know, how come something this pure and this good become so, controversial among us Muslims, it is not at all about that which is pure and good and there is some room for people to disagree over certain practices you know, some would consider it Okay, some would not consider it okay. You know, the amount of stuff a for instance in schad, which is basically religious songs, and he says that this is something that, you
know, blasphemous people invented in Baghdad to divert the people away from the core and some other people may think that religious songs have some values, you know, that they may be okay, in moderation may be fine to be or basically be religious songs.
And so, there is some room here for controversy, some room for controversy, but most of the time, the controversy was not about the same thing. The controversy was about different iterations of Sufism, different versions of Sufism, that are practiced by different people. So if you if you are exposed to people who have
an unnecessary on uncompliant iteration of Sufism, that you you develop that idea about, you know, so he's on the path of the south and so on and so forth. And if you are exposed to people who have a Sharia compliant integration of Sufism, practice or Sharia compliant adoration of Sufism, then you will be fine
So the scholars who praise them this praised Sufism, they were not talking about the same thing. You know, like I said, we have to agree that sometimes there is some room for controversy. So sometimes scholars would praise and praise the same thing based on their judgement of its wholesomeness or its legality, from an Islamic perspective. But most of the time, it was not about the same thing, it was about different practices, you know, that they may see prevalent among the practitioners of this, you know, of the South. And that is why the judgments would, would differ. But then,
over time, also, and this was early on the membership, he was talking about this early on, but over time, also what happened to dissolve. What happened to the purity of the Sufi masters that I talked to you about is that
they started to incorporate some philosophies that are foreign to Islam, some philosophies that may have originated in different cultures, Greek or Indian cultures, Hindu cultures, etc. And they started to incorporate them, they started to, you know,
basically mystify Sufism, it's basically started to become captured by the philosophy, philosophical discourse and to make philosophy, Sufism, very philosophical, and when it became philosophical, it became very mystic. And the Prophet Allah subhanaw taala praised the Sharia praise to the poor and by being Kitab movie in a clear book, and praise the prophets of Salaam by being rustled will be clear messenger.
That mystification caused a lot of harm, because when things become mystified, and you know, and when you put a lot of emphasis on linguistic finesse, versus the core meanings, that core clear, simple, straightforward, straightforward meanings of this religion, then you lose a lot, you lose the meanings, and you become captured by the language terminology about sort of the philosophic rhetoric, the rhetoric takes you away from the meanings, you know,
that we're talking about. And then, so we started to talk about things like, you know, and that is an effect of the the theory of emanation, you know, and it goes back to Aristotelian logic, and it goes back to our status, you know, the undifferentiated and undifferentiated God, the unmoved mover, who is who does not change and how could there be change in the universe, though the thought that we have emanated from God and there are different layers, pheidole inserted different layers, plotinus and so on. It's neoplatonic philosophy, so emanated from God, if we emanated for God, then we can go back and merge with God. We can have a union with God, you know, but that's the opposite direction.
Okay. And then we started to talk about Union and the earlier masters of the past had
had a completely different iteration of that union. They meant by union, your togetherness with Allah subhanaw taala, the meant by annihilation, basically the subservience of your will to the Divine Will to the point where your will does not exist anymore, you will not accept that which He wills. So that is annihilation of your wealth and era, that annihilation of your will you become becomes completely So, and certainly like we said in the morning, it's not an ontological annihilation does not mean that there is a merger of wills here, but it means that you will have become so subservient to Allah as well as the prophet SAW Salim said Hakuna Matata limited to be
limited to be none of you would have believed until his how his desires are consistence consistent or in conformity with that which have I have brought forth. So they had, and then they were talking also about some form of an issue that you're you're you're you're beholding of Allah subhanaw taala will make you so focused, attentive to Allah subhanaw taala that you can never be distracted by all else acivir and that, to some extent we do agree with us right? Like, you know, the people will be like blackboards in front of your eyes, you see through them, you see the work of Allah subhanaw taala whatever the the you know, harm or benefit comes to you through the people, you are seeing
through them that this is the work of Allah subhanaw taala and you try to respond with that in mind, that this is a test whatever it is, it is a test that they have a different form of test, let the halachot model Hayato
ecomax anomala He who created life and death to test you so everything is a test. So whenever something does something to you, you see the work of Allah and you see that you're being tested. That is your shoot of a liar beholding of a lion. That is why they say the South is all about accent because it is that who the viola and Tabitha Lucha Kanika Tara to worship Allah as if you see him and if you don't, then you know that he does.
So but then we started to talk about the ontological fener and the ontological finat would be very problematic because it means that there is no difference between worshipping idols and worshiping God, because the idols are God, it leads you to pantheism and modernism and literature then as to how the collude and all of these heretical beliefs. So now the, you know, how
so many things have become
confusing and problematic. Now you have a heritage that is full of jewels and gems, and pearls, mixed with rocks and scorpions and snakes, and what do you do?
So people had a not only this because we had also,
as as a matter of law law says that there are three different types of Sophie's, there are some federal hockeyapp, the real Sophie's, they are about the realities, they are about the meanings, they are the pure ones who are after pure purification of the heart there after the meanings they are not after, you know, monetary gains, and they're not after celebrity or fame or recognition, Sophia the haka, and then Sophia,
Sophia, to zap the basically the Sophia that are after monetary gains that were endowments set up for them, to live in them, and to basically to receive
some sustenance through those endowments. So there we have so many of them throughout the Muslim world.
And even the American Allah was not particularly opposed to it, but he said there are certain conditions that they need to meet to be deserving of the sustenance but he said that these are not Soviet and haka. sofapaka, are usually not living in those motels for in those you know, places that
that are setup for Sophia that are dissolved or the Sophia there after monetary gains, but, but he said that those two factors are even some of them could be good and so on, but they are not the best. And then he said, there is Sophia to resume or Sophia tarascon, the Sophia, ceremonial Sophia, Sophia about basically formalities that would wear a certain attire. And he said that just as much as there are ceremonial Mujahideen ceremonial scholars, you know, people that wear the attire of scholars like this.
And people who would wear the attire of the magenta heads to look like they are something that which they are not. There are also people who try to wear the attire of the Sophie's
look like they are when they are not.
So, it became institutionalized, it became an institutional institutionalized, and with NSE Judas institutionalization, the word institutionalization, you know, as newer problems would arise
because it became certain paths and there you have to follow your safe. And then we started to hear about things like you have to be you have to surrender to like a dead body surrenders to the washer. And that was not really you cannot you cannot find this in the statements of the earlier Sophie's and keep in mind here, we're not making when we say early and late does not mean that all late selfies were wrong or bad, absolutely not. That would be unfair. And it does not mean that we did not have some seeds of problems in early Sufism because we try to make those dichotomies all the time they don't make sense like all the sudden at one point Sophie's have switched from being the
best of the best you know, to
deviant people. That's not true. There are other latter Sophie's are good people. And in the earlier Sophie's, there were seeds of problems, what seeds are problems? And these are important for us to know how to reclaim the Sufi discourse, where were the seeds, where did they come from?
The earlier masters, Messiah,
Atlantis, the karma, the upright Messiah, the Messiah, the karma, the upright Messiah, if they wanted to say to the people knowledge alone is inadequate, knowledge alone is inadequate, they wanted to emphasize the inadequacy of knowledge, knowledge, without sort of the experience of practice without you know, walking the talk, without like, reforming your interior knowledge that is not transformative, that does not change you is inadequate, is that right? It should be right. And, you know, and people will have good experience and they don't have good interiors. That is that is hypocrisy.
So they wanted to say that, then, in order for them to say that some of them would overdo it a little bit,
resulting in what undermining the importance of knowledge over time, undermining the importance of knowledge, and undermining the epistemic value of the scriptures in favor of what in favor of the enhanced the inspiration.
And without the taste of the Messiah animal can affect the spiritual disclosures of the Messiah. These are embedded concepts, there is something called enhanced, there is something called they have a complementary role in the epistemic epistemological theory of Islam. They supplement, they help you have a better understanding, they assist you to have a better understanding of the Scriptures, they don't have an alternative road, they are not old alternatives. They do not supersede. And they are not alternatives of the Scriptures. But the compliment, but these values were abused by some later, too. And we started to create a rift between Latinos sherea sherea is the knowledge of the
Scriptures that is learned, you know, through transmission, transmitted knowledge of the Scriptures. And then haqiqa would be the realities that are captured by the heart from the divine.
And now when you create a dichotomy, and you divorce and happycar, from Sharia, you can, you can realize how devastating that is to the value of the Scriptures to the value of the knowledge of the Scriptures. And then when you do this, what happens when you favor the taste and enhance of the Messiah, then the Messiah become the authority, not the Quran and the Sunnah.
Did the earlier and the verifying
Sufi masters of the latter generations approve of this? No. Did it become a problem? It did become a problem. But the verifying of the latter Messiah, just like the early Messiah never meant that never wanted that. Except if someone is was hypocritical, because you could have a puppy who's hypocritical you could also have some views of Africa. So if but but people who have people who value the poor and and certainly the people who value the working people who value this the
You would never want to undermine the epistemic value of the world. Okay, so this was one seed that we had there. Then another issue was mysticism, with mysticism, you know, the the favoring linguistic fineness, over clarity, linguistic finesse, aphorisms, over clarity. And we know that our Deen was all about clarity. So transparent, straightforward, solid philosophically, keep in mind, there are three different levels of discourse, rhetorical, by electrical, and philosophical. Our DNA is solid philosophically, but rhetorically accessible to everyone. The language is accessible to everyone, everyone can understand that everyone can see the beauty of it can see the strength of the
the argument, strength of the beliefs accessible to the peasants accessible to the philosophers, everyone can. But then when we mystify that, and I'm not against basically changing the discourse, to suit the audience, we do need sometimes to change the discourse to suit the audience. But at the same time, the change of discourse should not go back to affect the core meanings and core concepts which should be clear and should be accessible to everyone and there should be
epistemic egalitarianism in the sense that, you know, there is no exclusivity here, our beliefs are accessible to all people in a very egalitarian way. Yes, the discourse may be different, the language may or may be different, if you sit with a group of philosophers at university, for instance, to talk to them about certain Islamic concepts, it is understandable that you may use different rhetoric versus sitting with a group of, you know, whatever,
you know, people that may not have the same level of education, so, it is understandable. But then this went back and affected because of the aphorisms. And because of the unclarity it went back and created room for what different interpretations because of the Masters, you know, they speak in a way that is brief. And that may basically be interpreted in different ways. They they create room for people to interpret those statements in in different ways. And that was a problem that would basically manifests later, where the early masters, the great masters, the Sharia compliant masters, would be misinterpreted by the latter generations. Another problem that we have is like this
syncretism, basically mixing things up, you know, bringing in things, you know, the basically the tendency to, to be open to other philosophies, and even other theistic traditions. And
when you undermine the epistemic value of the revelation, you create room for people to favor certain philosophies based on their tastes. And based on their inspiration, their feelings, they came to accept certain philosophies, then we started to have these philosophies about union and about annihilation, and about you know, union and so on and so forth. And these became so prevalent later on.
what do we do? How do we erect reclaim the Sufi discourse? And why is it important? Why is that important? I believe it is important,
not because we do not want it to be hijack, because at the end of the day, what we matter what matters most to us is what? Our own survival,
our relationship with Allah, the pleasure of Allah is what matters the most to us.
Because aversion to that discourse, aversion to that discourse would hurt us.
aversion to you know, the heritage of alginate and coffee and Sokka tea and what hurts us
therefore, it is important for our own spiritual well being.
It is important for our spiritual well being and it is important for our Deen and for the generations to come that we reclaim it so that it does not become hater.
If you have aversion to it, it can be
basically hijacked and the hijackers will take
uncontested ownership of the legacy of Ibrahim Adham of Abu Hashim, Goofy oven Korean subtlety and history and aloha was an feras and everybody
can we afford the no we can, we really can.
We cannot afford to this we cannot afford to have this aversion to it, we need to reclaim it for our own benefit and for the benefit of our Deen and so that we have a Sunni interpretation for the sub wolf.
And that's the only interpretation of this after after Star Wars. When prevail,
believe me and Haqqani he knows you know, how has you know is covered with light.
And if we
basically regulate that this course by the Quran and the Sunnah, we in satellite will prevail. What do we need to do
to you know, to regulate the discourse according to the Quran and Sunnah. I think that we have to have emphasis on
the scriptures, you know, the Quran and the Sunnah. And it is in the heritage of the Sufi masters, you know, that emphasis on the scriptures is part of the heritage of Sufi masters.
In July, they said this affair of ours cannot be engaged by someone who does not who does not know the Quran and Sunnah.
Everyone, Abu Salah manda Darren, he said, you know, some of the lotto if an era, some of the symbolism of the people,
I come across the symbolism of the people or the shot out of the people, the gestures of the people, and I would not accept any of them, except with two witnesses. Who are they
the two witnesses that have to witness to this, you know, aphorism to the statement for an Anderson. That's what I will say, and Amanda dharani said, and these are the greatest of the masters. So that emphasis is important, the emphasis on the first community as our own model, where we have seen all of this, where we have seen that our coolala that are called out a lot of the hat. And that belief in the app does not make them pacifist, not make them antinomian lawless, the stem had reverence for the commands of Allah, they still had, basically, proper understanding of human agency, human accountability, human responsibility,
with complete our current reliance on Allah subhanaw taala, but sometimes sometimes, without being exposed to the, you know, to a facade of people become too confident in their agency, they don't have enough reliance. So that Reliance temporaries, they're sort of haste,
that taco lalala that, you know, that trust in the divine decrees and understanding that our human agency is also has limitations, it has a lot of limitations. So the Sahaba had the perfect balance, where they have complete taqwa of Allah, but they still resist the luck not by luck, there is resistance to decrease by to the crease, and the word stem, you know,
for a sudden robanda later for sat in the hot monks at night, nights during the day. So the, you will not find a better example of pure to solve than the dissolve of Abu Bakr and Omar rhodiola on human, you know, let alone the prophet of Islam. That's, that's a given. But you will not find more proper, it's a Song of the South of La da da da,
da da da.
So that emphasis should be also extremely important on the, you know, the first community and then emphasis on clarity versus mysticism, clarity versus mysticism. You see, sometimes people like that glittery, fanciful, linguistic finesse. And many times, we sort of feel, you know, people in the academy, they know that, you know, you feel sort of impressed by his sort of difficult terms that you have to look up in the dictionary and stuff like this.
Whereas, when they asked him tonight for instance, about
The love of Allah subhanho wa Taala they asked to generate about the love of Allah subhanaw taala Can you say it this morning?
No, but, but we should all memorize this. We asked him tonight about the love of Allah and this was like a gathering of them as if that would be for tonight's friends, you know? And everybody started to say what they thought of who is a lover of Allah subhanaw taala who is the head and denied said have you done? Enough? See he will pass it on to the carrier or be among the other a cookie cutter harakat kalba who Anwar Oh hey, Betty.
What's up? Sure. boohooman Cassie wood. When Casa de Haan de BARROWMAN and studied IB phase at a kalama fabula. With Taka fan Allah wa is that a heartbreaker for the umbrella, whatever second, from Allah for Hawa, Billa, he will in LA he from Allah.
I will translate this, but anyone who speaks Arabic here, understood each and every word,
no complexity whatsoever. Nothing mystical about it. But the Friends of the greatest of their time, they told them, you know, nothing can break, nothing can come up with anything more beautiful, better than this more comprehensive than this.
So he said it, you know, the person who's in love with Allah subhanaw. taala is a person who is detached from himself.
He was he's able to walk away from his ego.
And that is a huge benefit of immersion and the Sufi discourse. Because there is huge emphasis on walking away from your ego, being able to detach yourself from your ego.
Because no matter what, all of the disputation between us,
every all of the arguments between us any discussion that happens between us, everything is being filtered through our egos.
And that makes it very difficult for us to have reconciliation for two business partners, to come to terms, you know, over a dispute, for two spouses to come to terms over a dispute. Everything it's called, can't sell calls a synthetic role of self consciousness. your self consciousness isn't synthesizes your reality. You're basically your reality is different from my reality we're talking with, because I am standing behind my ego, you are standing behind your ego. And my ego is filtering what you're saying your arguments, and vice versa.
So it's a huge benefit. You know, this immersion in the Sufi discourses, that was one of the biggest benefits is to be able because the emphasis, keep in mind the number I'm obatala, my number came over to Harlem, as the prophet SAW, Selim said, you know, Adam is by learning and being forbearing is by practice. So when you repeat it and repeat it, and one day you will get to, you know, act on it one day, you will get to realize its importance and try to try to do it one time. So try to do it one time. Like, I use this example, always, when when like, your spouse yells at you in the morning, try to say herself, it's the first test of the day. Don't say to yourself, oh, she's back, or he's
back to the No, just say to yourself, the first test of the day, and look at the scene from outside as a third party, walk away from your ego, anyway.
But this is important. So when you are connected to your avatamsaka, when an FCM servant was detached from self, because you can't as easily as even the SWAMI said, when he said, I asked the Lord, how do I come to you is he said to me walk away from your ego, and I stripped myself from my ego, like a snake would strip itself from its skin or
so walk away from ego. And then when you do this matassa Don't be the Clara be who is connected to his Lord, through his remembrance. But all of this, this is not someone who is you know, basically
intoxicated or anything. He won't be at a party, you know, which means always fulfilling his rights, all rights of his Lord. So he's not someone he is not someone who is like, saying,
I don't need to do this anymore. sakata Kelly is not someone who is inconsiderate of
The in order sorry, our car you want to be very happy always fulfilling his rights. But harakat kalba who? Anwar Oh, hey Betty. So the lights of the Divine majesty braintap his heart will suffer. Sure. boohooman Cassio de and he subsists on the nectar of his compassion of the Divine compassion. He subsists on the nectar of divine compassion. So you see the love and the fear together in harmony, in unison. So then he says, when it comes to a fella who's a barman, a study of IV, and in jeopardy irresistible, had manifested Himself to him, from behind the veins of the unseen. So if he talks he talks about Allah, and if he speaks, he speaks about or from Allah. And when he moves, it
is by the command of Allah and when he's still he is with Allah for hoobler he, when Allah him Allah, so he is by Allah, for Allah with Allah, no mysticism, perfection, without mysticism, perfection, without complexity. And that is how the early masters used to used to be like, so that is that the the the third one that we talked about, so the first one was scriptures. Second one is the first community. The third one is clarity. That's the third principle. The last principle is that many are ebuka. In America reboot, leave out that leave out that which causes you doubt to that which does not cause you though, when you go through a book, and you are not comfortable or you're
not sure was parts of it, leave them until you are sure that they are that they come to you from Allah subhanaw taala because there is no gate to Allah except to the gate that was opened by the prophet SAW Selim for us. There is no road to Allah except to the road that the prophets of Salaam walked
on before us, you know his footsteps are on that road, follow them and you will get to your destination. And that is basically what I wanted to share with you about reclaiming
the sunny this Sophie discourse. The man as it is serene is a very beautiful book and if you're interested in it, modality Stella Keane is going to come out like Dr. Wayman, Anjum, who goes like his name here is Overmyer Angela, I guess. But Dr. Weimer Angela, I think is about to finish his translation of modalities.
And modality second is that again is a marvelous book.
If you put qaradawi Sufism in Google, you will find some
sort of assessment of Sufism. And somewhere in the last paragraph, he talks about modality said again, that this was the so he like the
because it is easy, very easy to dismiss the Sufi heritage
like many folks did, and it is very easy also to accept. uncritically like many people did, including some of the alcohol. But what even a time did is he did the very, very hard work of embracing it. And lovingly and critically, filtering that heritage lovingly and critically examining it
to basically provide an iteration of it that is Sharia compliant, and that's what he says in that very nice assessment. very fair, very nice assessment of the history of the South. So you probably want to read that inshallah put up all the other stuff about the elections from economic Shadowlands.