Dignity And Tranquility Series The Book Of Good Manners

Bilal Dannoun


Channel: Bilal Dannoun

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AI: Summary © The importance of Islam is discussed, including the importance of walking, praying, and being humble during prayer. The importance of not rushing in learning and finding a theme to avoid wasting time on traveling is emphasized. The importance of practicing hedge hedges and finding a clear decision is also discussed. Cons consultation and learning are also emphasized, as it is necessary for personal success. The importance of practicing hedge hedges and trustworthiness in the face of fear and misery is emphasized. The importance of performing hedge hedges and reciting a statement of one's opinion is also emphasized.
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He would come to the land of the island he

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was so that was phenomenal. He didn't come back while he was having the main operations due to a lot of the peace of blessings of Allah be upon our beloved prophet muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and upon all those who follow this guidance to follow his way, until the last day, my dear respected brothers and sisters in Islam, Solomonic

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today inshallah inshallah we are continuing on with mmm no his book saw the game and the chapters that are pertaining to the book of madness that

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the book of madness

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mmm no Rahim Allah tada in this next chapter in this next chapter, he in titles it

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was Sakina This is the chapter related to dignity and tranquility, dignity and tranquility. And he begins with the verse whereby Allah so adjust is why

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the name

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of the owner will either

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Allah soprano who will die that is sort of upon verse 63. Allies though it just says, and the faithful slaves of the Most Gracious meaning alive xojo those who walk on the earth in humility,

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those who walk on the earth in humility, and state and city, Texas, and one of the foolish addressed in other words with bad words, they reply back with mild words of gentleness.

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And the first Howdy.

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Howdy, related to this chapter that email no human level to either included is the hobbies of Iron Chef

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that is originally found in Bukhari and Muslim.

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The Prophet such he says,

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sallallahu alayhi wa sallam

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use that purple bar he can have the meaning

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to who in America is the best. She said I have never seen the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam laughing so hard to so heartily that he is

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Danny uvala could be seen vain.

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He used to smile. Somehow masala when he was seven was known for his smile, never was known for excessive laughter.

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And this is from the humility of the calamari who said, Now yes, it is the sooner smile and to be cheerful in

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the face of your brother and sister. But when it comes to laughing, as they said it should be like salt in food. Too much salt will spoil the food, too little salt, and you have no flavor.

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So nothing should be the same. Not too excessive and not too dry.

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The next chapter 11. Now we have a lot of data included, talks about the excellence of walking calmly or slowly, in other words towards the mistake to perform the prayer and other religious duties. And this is one of the which was the western symbols of Spanish to go to the reset to the house of Allah azza wa jal. But in doing so there is a manner not to race but to job not to go very fast because you can just imagine by the time you get there.

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Number one, you could be distracting other versions in the act of worship, with the sound of your feet with the sound of your breath.

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Or it could be that when you also get to the prayer, you're out of breath in your frame without pushing without tranquility. So you need to become as you approach the mystery even if the man has already committed to solid. So even if the man has started to pray and you want to make the first I wouldn't be able to ensure that you want to make the solid with him.

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You must make sure that you walk calmly Don't rush.

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Otherwise you are going against the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam in the instructional process. And

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so a person who doesn't know these Hadees logic will tell him that over the man has committed I paid to run.

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I better start running to make to catch that first.

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Mistake otherwise.

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the headsets

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included is the happy face found in Bukhari Muslim, Abu Dhabi, Allah.

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He said, I've heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam say EDA team, I just saw that fella said to her tone, the sound what to how to tenshun Where are they from? Sakina from a direct comparison, no one said it. He said when the corner is pronounced, when the final for printed for Salah for prayer is announced,

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are pronounced. Do not come to me running, you should walk calmly with tranquility to join the congregation. Then join in what you catch for and complete what you miss. So even though you're going to miss some of the some of the units of the pray that all that's required of you is to make those units after the steam or after the Imam says a Solomonic umatilla A Solomonic umatilla stand up and pray the units of great achievements.

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And this is what would what would be known as you're making up the press for the units that you missed in that solid. Now, in

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the process of unwinding, he was selling them he said for in the academy either haryanto de la sala for who appealed for what we saw that he said that for when one of you is walking for store that he is in fact engaged in solid.

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The fact that you're waiting for solid approaching the solid, it is a part and parcel of the solid in terms of virtue and the reward that you are receiving from ally storagetek.

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So this is another chapter that mmm hmm level two is that included in the book of madness. The next chapter that he included is bearable, economic pie that is honoring the guest honoring your guest. Welcome in your case. Islam is also about being hospitable, being very welcoming towards your guests.

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And the heavy city includes in this chapter is having a bucola Rotella foreign who originally found in Bukhari and Muslim

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whereby the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, Man Can I

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ask you

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to ever believes in Allah and the Last Day, then he should show hospitality to his guests for Ukrainian wife.

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Wife is your visitor you get to bite. And then the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said,

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woman carrying me through believe me when you're going after for yourself or a man that whoever believes in Allah, and the last time should maintain he should maintain relations with his relatives don't break off connections and sever the ties of kinship.

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And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam doesn't know and it says woman.

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filial piety and Leah says that whoever believes in our lives origin and the last day, he should say that which is good ob silence. You have something good to say or don't say, Oh,

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beautiful man. It's all encapsulated in this one heavy of the body.

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So when it comes to gifts, welcome them cheerfully entertain them according to your means. At the time they food, trade, sitting with them conversing with them, not ignoring them.

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This is what Islam teaches us. This is how you do with your gifts with your,

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with Your the one who was visiting you. So Islam enjoins upon Muslims

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To treat gifts, irrespective of Hooters kiss are with relatives, whether they are known to you or not. If you have received them at your home, then be hospitable towards them. Our soldier, he loves this.

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In another heavy

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there is a Muslim,

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Abu sureit, Hawaii

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kusari reported I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam say, He who believes in Allah. He believes in Allah and the Last Day should accommodate his guests according to his right. He was asked, What is his right

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messenger of Allah and the prophets of Allah while he was solid, he required it is to accommodate him for a day and a night. And hospitality extends for three days. And what is beyond that is charity saga.

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In Muslim, he added the Messenger of Allah Azza wa sallam said it is not permissible for a Muslim to stay so long with his brothers when he makes him sinful. He was asked a messenger of Allah, how can he make him sinful?

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He replied, he prolongs his stay with him to nothing is left with the host to entertain. So you stay too long and he's exhausted all these resources on you. So go easy as a visitor on your host. So there's a balance

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the next honey

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over the next chapter, but email will know him a long time and included is about his tip sheet. That is the excellence of conveying glad tidings. Glad tidings being the bearer of good news. Spreading good news. And this the word for Black Friday is Bushra Mishra and

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he uses this concept and this word wrapped up

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in in many places

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and you know, for example, what further

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jazz Rasulullah Ibrahim bill Bushra with the angels came to follow him on a salon with a Bushra with a glass tidy.

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And many other examples of talk about push writing for an So push raw is a cloud fine. Some people they they they go to school they torture.

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Boucher, the Bush era because it's a glad tidings to have been blessed with a girl from Allah azza wa jal. This is a glad tiding bushrod.

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The hat is included here. One of the hobbies included in this chapter is the heartbeat of Abdullah. Even

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Abdullah even Abby, alpha of your loved one.

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He said that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he gave glad tidings to Khadija.

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of your loved one had his first wife from alumini I bought a house in Jenna have I covered or covered calls in gender free from noise and noise.

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So again, being the bearer of good news, and giving glad tidings to people, giving glad tidings to people.

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The next chapter is about bidding farewell and advising on the eve of departure for journey koala fees. Now, having said that, I want to point out here is the hadith of selling. Even Abdullah even Amaro,

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he reported that when a man was to stand up on a journey of the light, even armor of your loved one, well that is the son of one of them.

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would say to him, Joe, nice and I may be farewell to you, as the Messenger of Allah longlining, who was saying that used to be bid farewell to us. So he's emulating the

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copying of following in the footsteps of the Francois center, and how he used to beat farewell how to save his farewell to those who are traveling

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and the purpose of love

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money he was saying then he used to say, Estonia a lot had the letter. Well, America was our team and it is hard to describe as soon as

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it is to find it in Muslim or fortress of the Muslim, you have this very beneficial book, very important book, you find this, how to say goodbye to a person that is going away. A person who was traveling as though their own life Edina.

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Were our team and honoring the translation of this is I trust a lot with your dean. So we all want to come to your team to cast because the most important thing to possess is your theme, your religion.

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Your greatest asset, that you should always ask Allah soldier to preserve, to protect to safeguard.

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So he said, I trust a lot of you deem your trust and your last days.

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The there is another Hadith that when the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, he tended to pitch for world peace army, he would say,

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a stone we own Lucha de la Koon what are

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our key man America, this is the hottest that is traveling soon.

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learn this heavy load this hobby

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of beating somebody.

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And then the person responds back the person who was a traveler,

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the person who was traveling can also say

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so Dr. Levy.

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So this idea that we find in the books of Howdy, I'm bidding farewell

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in the hobbies of ns above the above,

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and then came to the Prophet salon while he was sending them instead of a messenger of Allah. I intend to go on a journey so supplicate for me make that for me.

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So the prophet SAW Selim said man, Allah granted the provision of piety, knowledge. So again, he said, may Allah subhanaw taala is what a lovely duck what the what that get a love of Duckworth. Now love Ed chocolate, the best gift that you can have stuck on love the fear of love because it prevents you from doing hard on keeping away from harmony gives you the energy and the zeal to do what is obligated and loved by Allah azza wa jal. So he said Sydney among more. So the promise of a loved one. He said was not for them.

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And I love forgive your sins, making it awkward. Well, not for them. So this man said Sydney, ammonia Rasul Allah.

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And then he said, Well, yes, sir Allah, Fira hifu contract. He said, ma he facilitate for you, the doing of good wherever you are, may Allah make it easy for you to do goodness, wherever you are. Beautiful, beautiful to serve this term, when you're about to travel, and you come to a person especially a pious person, and he said to the person, please can you make the app for me? And you said, I asked Allah azza wa jal to increase your taqwa May Allah subhana wa Taala forgive you may Allah

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bless you with goodness with every intention, imagine the heart of the person who is listening to these words and the impact that these words are having on that person. So, it is something which brings Muslims together brings the hearts together, it increases the Brotherhood in the system, when you make dua for your Muslim brother, you Muslim sister.

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So, it is desirable for a traveler to visit his fellow Muslim brother to pray for him before he starts his journey. Now, the next chapter is really the crux of today's lesson for today's lecture. And it is the chapter mmm No It has included in the book of manners called Babel st fara, when

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the chapter or the relate to the chapter related to this Kihara is Kihara and is the shadow now is the shadow

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His consultation

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now with the issue over the notion of istikhara.

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Today inshallah which I'd like to discuss the definition of istikhara, and the ruling of istikhara, the wisdom behind it, the reasons for it, when a person should do it,

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and what is it to be done? Is it to be done during the fallout? Or after the scholar?

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And what should you actually say? How many times? Do you have to do it? Is there any connection between istikhara and a dream? Is there any connection between istikhara and feelings? These are questions that many people ask related to this, to have this palette. selected, Mr. hora. So let's begin a shallow dive now.

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In Arabic means seeking guidance, seeking guidance.

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You want some guidance regarding a decision that you need to make, only to take. And he said in Arabic, they say he started last year the letter is the federal law is the law.

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Which means seek guidance from Allah and He will guide you, He will guide you to the right decision to the best decision.

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is the forum

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for Islamic terminology or is the language Sheree istikhara means seeking guidance to the right decision. So you ask me a lot, it's our job to help you to guide you to see you will direct you into making the right decision.

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the ruling regarding istikhara.

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The roadmap unanimously agree that is the hora is soon it's as soon as it's designed, it's meant to it's recommended is not obligatory, it's not word,

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it is nice to have something that a Muslim should be practicing and implementing for his life.

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And the evidence that it says sooner is the happy with him now. Tyler included

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of the love of God and this heartbeat is found in Bihar a Muslim very authentic honey and you will find the two out of this Kihara you will find it again a fortress of the Muslim you find the history Muslim, very important to have.

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And these days you can actually type in Google you can type in instacart offering or you can find an application that has

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the fortress of the Muslim supplications application and you will find the color included. So jabberwock the alarm one who reported that the Messenger of Allah Allah said a mistake cannot assume

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he was sending them. You are the Muna St. hora therapy, moody Cooley have caesura tea mirror and

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Jeremy was saying that the promise of Long Island he was sitting there used to teach us the st hora seeking guidance from unlocking all methods in all matters as he would teach us a score from the forehand

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is not enough for me. It's not an error from the parameters.

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And then he goes on.

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And he sits with the professor of law while he was selling say the professor of law said in the Hamlet, how to compete under the failure of rock it mean the

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man Lee aku

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he said when one of you contemplates when one of you is thinking about entering

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into a decision.

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They let him perform to the role of optional prayer other than the fourth Chris or he said let him rock attain the highest.

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So you perform two units of trade. Any two units of prep that could be stood in that race.

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Okay, other than the footprint, so you cannot perform the istikhara

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within the footprint.

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So Maria put them he says these words. Now the question is

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and we'll answer that in a moment is the istikhara said at the end of the solid before you say assalamu Aleikum, wa rahmatullah to h5 before the steam, or do you set it?

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Up to the trustee?

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That's the question that we'll answer in a moment.

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But let's go back now to the actual bar that you say. And the more you say, of course, the quicker you're going to memorize it.

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Now, you may want to, if you learn to adopt the opinion of saying it after the solid, there is no harm in reading it from a paper or reading it from your phone or reading it from the book.

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The Diwan is this Allahumma inni as the hero can be really neat, that was a stuffer DeLuca they put the rakija was a little forgiving letter.

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Allah, Allah, Allah,

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Allah Allah.

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Allah, levy the new amarachi, wa

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of color algae

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GTV huli huli from Nevada.

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We're in Punta Cana, Amara Chateau de Nueva Marashi

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m&e of Gd unbelieva. gd was with Warren, he was with me it was really a fire off having to come out of the Navy. That's the God.

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Now what does it translate to the terms of the translation as

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we find it, this translation here, our law, I consult you through your knowledge, and I speak strength through your power. And I ask you a great balancing for you are capable, whereas I am not. And if you don't, and I do not, and you are the knower of hidden things, our law,

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if you know that this matter, and this is where you name the matter, you name your concern, the situation is good for me in respect of my Deen, my religion, my livelihood, and the consequences of my affairs. But he said,

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the sooner or the latter of my face, then go telling it for me, make it easy for me unpleasant for me. But if you know that this matter, and you name the matter, whatever it is your situation, whatever you asked me about to be bad for my gene, my livelihood for the consequences of my affairs, or he said, the sooner or the latter, my face, they turn it away from me, I don't want to deal with it. Turn it away from me, and turn me away from it. And grant me power to do good wherever it may be, and cause me to be contented with it. And

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let the supplicant specify the object.

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So this is the st. hora prayer for the st. hora certification, and the translation. Now let's go back to

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the next issue related to the St. afara. And that is the wisdom behind performing what is the wisdom in doing now of course,

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he knows the future. He knows the unseen, he knows the light, he knows what is best for us and for our situation. So we turned to him, we turned to the king, we knock on his door, we asked him for guidance.

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So this is a form of Islam, this book submission, submission to the commandment Allah azza wa jal, and a practical demonstration, no one

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has no power and no strength of one's own. You acknowledging that allonzo agenda is the source of all power, and all good that is going to happen to you.

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So it means turning to Allah and speaking to combine the goodness of this world and that's the hereafter

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So it's very, very beneficial for you because the you asked also directly to that which is going to be best for you in this life the best for you to hear after.

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Now, in what circumstances should one phrase default? what circumstances you can pray istikhara for things that are obligatory, fallible, wedging yourself over lunch Should I perform should I be performing hedge? Well, of course you should be performing hedge hedge is one of the factors of snap, should I fast Ramadan,

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or should I pray, you don't perform this to hora for obligatory deeds

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or deeds that are recommended sooner, almost have

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you don't likewise etern perform this the follow up for things that are wrong, that are prohibited that are unlawful. If you notice something is unlawful, the returns or performance the horror for that which is unlawful.

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but let's say for example, you want to perform an sp fara of whether you should be performing hajj this year or not.

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Because of some danger that may be lurking. For humans, for example, they could be free to travel to hatch, you might have the courage to go through a country whereby there is war. And you would like to be at risk. So if there's some sort of a tribulation, or some how maybe you might encounter the enemy, or an enemy, you skate, there's no harm within this class to ask allies.

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When the performing hedge, this

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is good for you on it, because of the situation, but there needs to be a situation.

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So therefore, Mr. hora is done normally with regard to the things that are known as more back

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permissible things, you know, should I

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purchase this house are not just saying should purchase this car? Should I purchase this piece of merchandise? Should I marry such and such a person? Should I take up this job. So it has to be something to do with a decision that you need to take or make. And you need some guidance from Allah azza wa jal.

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So, especially if there's a choice in two things, which one you should decide on. Now, of course, istikhara is not for everything that's permissible. Otherwise, he'd be performing istikhara prayer every moment of the day. And that's one of the problems of above what he was telling you pay attention to the word in the beginning of the ad, he said, is

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that when one of you contemplates entering

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upon an enterprise, if you're contemplating it, you're thinking whether you should or not make that decision. That's when as default as typical.

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We move on in Chicago, Tyler to when should you start praying to St. Paul. And that's when that's what pretty much is acid. And we said that when you start to think about that decision that you want to make, and keep in mind that you have to or you should ensure an open mind that you enter the St. afara not having already made a decision. So if so you can set a premeditation decision and let the performance default. No, it's when you are arming an army thinking okay, should I or shouldn't i. So,

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the person who wants to compress the file should have an open mind and not have decided on a specific course of action.

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So firstly, should not private as default except when he has decided that she has decided to do something, but does not have a strong inclination towards it. So if you're not having the strong inclination towards that act,

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that's when you do this to follow.

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But if it's a permissible app, they've already got a strong inclination.

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And you've also consulted others and this is known as a C sharp

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When you consult others

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this is known as what is known as St. Shara. And that's why from amongst the saints Madhava minister,

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he has not lost out the one who performs istikhara one and then the madman, Mr. Sharp and he has he will not regret

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or he has not regretted the one who consults others. So consultation or is the shadow really should be before that is the whole consultation. So you come and ask people, people who care

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people who ask to see the big loss, people who have knowledge of the matter, not any person. So they are known for their Deen and their taqwa. They learn for caring they learn with a sincerity and they known for the knowledge about the situation.

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That is

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a personal theme.

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A person who see a person who cares and a person who has the end of the knowledge about the situation.

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And actually even Rahim Allah will try that in this chapter was different input as to do with his bishop. So we have for example and sort of area one verse 159. Allah azza wa jal says, What shall we do home feel

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and consulting in the face and elsewhere? So to shore up? He says, In verse 38,

00:36:47--> 00:36:47


00:36:50--> 00:37:02

as you conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, so consultation and consulting articles is known as mushara or Shura. So it's sure then it's different.

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And even more,

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Tyler is known to have said it is Mr. hub before Prime Minister hora to consult someone who you know, that is caring and has experience and who is trustworthy in regard to his religious commitment and knowledge. Now,

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what do you say instead of istikhara? Is there a special area? Or are there specific specific sort of a specific chapters from the Quran that you should be saying in your solid in the tour of art? Because this attitude of art truly looks a friend other than pub? So in the salon itself, is it obligatory? Or is it most desirable to say, any specific verses from the end? There are three opinions amongst the whatever. There is one opinion whereby which is the opinion of the hanafis in the Maliki's in the shelter is

00:38:10--> 00:38:24

replaced with an O, that say that it is Mr. hub, that it is recommended, to say after effect to have kulia your healthcare room in the first paragraph. And in the second row password is lost.

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It's desirable to say this.

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And they said, to show sincerity and expressing your leaving your face to Allah azza wa jal.

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And they say that it also it's also permissible to add other verses from the Quran with a context refers to the idea of making a choice or decision. Now, the second opinion

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has been rated by some of the sedef by some of the PI's priestesses

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who said that in the midst of heartbreak, it's good to add up the effect of

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a verse from a sauce, verse 68. In the first paragraph, and in the second paragraph, to add an effect you have from the first number 36 the third opinion is the Humphrey opinion, document even handed

00:39:28--> 00:39:59

and some of the fuqaha they said that there is no particular verses that are to be respected during the prayer of his default, especially that we don't have any specific hudy from the Prophet sallallahu it he was setting them to recite certain, a certain surah or certain verses of the alphabet. So even if you decide to just Al Fatiha in the first block, and the second and that's it. It suffices.

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You recite any sort of after then

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Al Fatiha it will it would suffice. Now,

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the next point related to this differ but I want to mention is when do you make the two out of St. hora? Is it in the solid before you say that this theme is after the test theme. And again the reason there exists a filler filler, okay first of opinion. The Hanafi is the Maliki's in the Sharpie race

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and the humble is stated that the dryer should be recycled immediately after immediately after the solid

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shampoo standard interior came along to either in his patella Cobra

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he said when he was asked the question of whether to ask to be recycled during the salado after the steam and he said

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that the answer is that it is permissible

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to follow up before or after the salon whether you are praying selected to follow or afraid.

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He said reciting who is before the salon is preferred before the salon, he said is preferable as the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam used to recite a lot of art before the salon. So before you say the salon

00:41:29--> 00:41:38

after the bride near or after what is known as double charity, after the the route. So after the giveaway, he media to say black and hence because

00:41:40--> 00:41:49

at this point that's why even TV a Sega came along to Allah that it would be preferred to say that is the power of prayer

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before the trustee, but there is flexibility, but the four schools of thought have stated that needs to be said immediately after the trustee. Now also what comes to mind is How many times should a person to be justified a prayer you know you come across 100% you do it seven times, we should do so many days in a row. None of this has been authentically narrated by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Now if you want to your SDR upgrade more than once, then you may do a more than once, but you cannot put a limit or specify an amount of time. That is the hora is to be performed.

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Another issue related to st hora is some people may think that St. hora is related to dreams as a connection between each other and dreams. So they perform the istikhara pray before they go to sleep. So that they can see something in the dream. But again, there has been nothing authentically in the record by the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam with disregard. There is nothing to do is to follow has nothing to do with dreams. However, in saying that,

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when it comes to dreams, dreams are hints. He dreams serve as hints to ask when we see them. So if you want to use a dream that you see as a hint after you've had it interpreted by a reliable interpreter of dreams,

00:43:35--> 00:43:37

that there will be no harm in that.

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The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam who is infallible when it comes to the deen and communicating the religion to us. He never instructed to rely on dreams, no instructions to rely on the outcome of your istikhara on a dream or on a feeling that you have some people they say I have a good feeling. How do you get that to be from the shape on? So that's something to keep in mind. Also, some people ask other people to perform the istikhara pray for them. This is not a pseudonym. Because if you look at the wording of the st hora of whom they need a stuffy hookah, I am seeking your guidance. It's me I am the one who's in need a lot of stuff here. Okay, what

00:44:35--> 00:44:37

I am asking what

00:44:38--> 00:44:44

I'm asking. So if you look at the pronouns, all of the pronouns are in the first person.

00:44:45--> 00:44:45

All right.

00:44:47--> 00:44:58

So this is another point whereby many people they get to others and ask them to perform. You're the one we need. You are the one that should be performing that is the heart of free

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Sometimes he may perform istikhara

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the outcome of the istikhara. So you go ahead with the macro, you go ahead with the marriage, you go into the purchasing the house, the car, the job, and then something bad happens, or something bad happens according to you, according to your interpretation of the situation, you look at the situation as being bad. But perhaps Allah azza wa jal

00:45:36--> 00:45:56

guided you to that matter, so that we do go through a trial or tribulation that will make you stronger, that will give you a better outcome, overall, in the scope of things, that this situation leads you to something better.

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So, again, put your trust.

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And once you have made the decision to do something, don't hesitate. Don't be like that some people who they have, you know, one foot or one leg forward and one leg back and not sure, should I or shouldn't I, if you've done the consultation, which is the short of if you've done the istikhara and all the boxes are ticked, move forward, then hesitate.

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Don't be able to see in your life not not knowing whether you should or you shouldn't be brave. And then whatever the consequence is, and having that in there the other

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Praise be to Allah move forward in your life

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and life will be filled with hardships and cheap relations, whether it comes to your career, whether it comes to your health, your family, your provision,

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whatever it is,

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put your trust in Allah azza wa jal

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and look at things as being positive and not negative.

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00:47:12--> 00:47:13

these are just

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a few words that I wanted to mention about istikhara and the importance of course, is ishara Shara and mmm Rahim Allah Allah, he included this chapter in the book of manners and inshallah we will continue with the book of manners in next week's lesson has over long island for so long was Elena without a garden of Eden Mohammad Solomonic