Channel: Taha Karaan
Mufti Taha speaks on the topic of disagreements, differences of opinions, etc in Islam.
Handan us in Yama who here on a coma who
wanna shadow Allah Allah Allah Allahu la sharika wanna shadow?
Vienna Maulana Muhammad Rasul Allah.
Allah wa Sallim wa barakaatuh, hamaca Hannon, avocado, Sudan Vietnamese Irina Mohamed
el erian, Osaka
de Nova serravalle.
I have been asked to listen on the topic of
the etiquettes of disagreement.
The tickets of disagreement naturally focuses our attention on the second disagreement, divergence of opinion.
The fact that everything in the scene of ours is not the same. There is not one single opinion on every matter. disagreement has been something that has been with us oma for the entire duration of his history. And when one looks at it, you would want to ask yourself, Is it necessary to we have to have disagreement? Couldn't we simply reduce all of this divergence of opinion to one simple set of opinions, and that would make it simple and easy for everyone just to go according to that set of opinions thereby do away with this phenomenon called disagreement and divergence of opinion.
That's a simplistic way of looking at things. When one approaches it from that side it has a kind of internal logic that might seem appealing to many. Why go to all of this extent of having so many different views in so many different schools in so many different mother he been very culture and then
civilization and everything else contributes to watching already a very, very wide running field of range of opinions? Shouldn't one simply do away with it? This was a question which presented itself more especially at the time when Muslims were starting to rediscover their identities, with the role of the colonialist masters for Muslim countries. And Muslims have been asking themselves the questions. We who are the masters of the world once upon a time, we the Muslims who held the flame for the entire human civilization for a millennium and more what has happened to bring us from those heights of civilization until we became under the boots, so to say, of the colonialist muscles, what
went wrong, something happened, that the position of primacy, the position of preeminence that we occupied, once upon a time was taken away from us. And naturally at a time like that, we ask ourselves questions, why? Why did that have to happen? And one simplistic response that presented itself was this that perhaps it happens on account of the fact that we have some such a lot of differences amongst ourselves. And they will be they will come about certain approaches and say, let's do away with all of this difference that exists. And let's reduce it to a simple set of instructions of regulations that everyone can practice in an exact same homogeneous fashion, we do
not need enough we do not need differences at all, that I characterize as a simplistic opinion, because it overlooks certain deeper considerations within the manner in which the sharing of our destruction, the manner in which the Dean of houses function, we will be taking the phenomenon of differences of its color and going through three different aspects of it initially discussing whether it is avoidable unavoidable, is it possible to avoid this delay at all? having discussed that point, we will then go on to what are the negative consequences of having such differences? And then after towards the end, inshallah, we'll look at what is the ideal way of dealing with these
differences. How should we then go about when you look at the close part of it, is it necessary is it avoidable at all? In this particular respect, I wish to bring to your attention a certain area of difference within the boundaries of the law.
When we look at it with our own minds, we might say well, quite avoidable
Let's listen to what the Quran has to say about the issue of
the modern era kumada
Xiang we read about
a lot of the reviews on a piece of a lot of Islam it says a lot is able to tell the results and tell them and Allah is able to settle down upon new punishment from above. destroy the entire punishment from above.
Oh my god can we could send upon your punishment from beneath your feet. One option is that can come in the form of a calamity that descends from on top that can come in the form of punishment that comes from beneath our feet does happen to previous homers is quite possible that it could happen the power of a locker is inclusive of all of those options. And the third option is we envy sacrum Xiang Ababa comas, Allah can divided into various different groupings, having been divided into various different groupings, then the natural consequence of that would be what you read about
make you taste of the violence of one another, divided to such an extent that inter internal fighting internecine warfare is taking place in the drama, and they fight with one another on account of the fact they have differences of opinion. All these three are presented in this ayah. As options, we have a lot of punishment upon us from
reading under the causes of revelation of this idea, we read haviv in which also will last a lot longer. Suddenly, he asked a lot of the three things, he has a lot of the first of all, not to destroy his oma through and that would take away that would remove every member of his oma destroyed, completely, luckily accepted into others, Roma will not be destroyed. Till such time that the AMA is about to come to the end of time DOMA will remain, is never going to disappear. That is a promise that our local gave his muscles all along.
He secondly made a law that a lot of them must not give power to this over the soma to an enemy who comes from the outside and destroy it in that manner, not a natural disaster, but a human enemy who comes from the outside gains power over the soma. And in that Manhattan's destroyed, that will not happen. We have had three, four or 500 years of colonialism, even that hasn't destroyed the soma, because a lot of the game is promised on a visa lots of money on so this law will not happen. The third option, the third law, which was made was not divided into such divisions whereby they start fighting with one another, that was not accepted.
That was not accepted. Does it mean that Allah has doomed the soma to eternal division, eternally fighting with one another, practice idle warfare continuously without any? No, that's not the meaning of
the meaning of what the hobbyist rather means is that Allah hasn't given us the guarantee that it will not happen. So we cannot rest on our laurels and say, it's fine, we will never fight. Allah has lived that choice to make the mature decision that differences they will be, but we will not allow those differences to go to the extent whereby we start fighting with one another. We need to learn how to handle the front how to negotiate differences, the fact that there will be differences, but a lot of the did not accept that. Because it's one of the intentions in the way that the sharing of our structures in the way that the zenith is structured, that there will be differences of opinion.
Allah has said that as a test upon this oma in order that this woman was in from their show his level of maturity, show the level of his thinking, show the level that it has risen to that he can rise above differences and understand differences for what they are and become the type of woman that is worthy of the pleasure of Allah. Allah is unavoidable to have differences, but it's very, very avoidable, to allow differences to go to the extent of dividing the Ummah, when you look in the early history of Islam, we find that after Mohammed Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam came
in the terminal Hara rasheeda DOMA was going forward. Initially, there was a group of people who wanted to break away and and bring about certain changes. It was contained within a time of Santa Barbara Sydney, called the alarm started spreading and
spreading beyond the Arabian Peninsula into adjoining territories of the previously Roman and Persian empires. In the time of sign of manga, the longest spread even further to the Atlantic coast, in the West, right into Central Asia towards the east up to the borders of China. We know today's China, dinos spreading and spreading and spreading, why? Because one single leadership from that particular point of leadership, whatever emerges from the follow
the fact that people happen to differ on a few things here and there is a coincidental aspect of being with one single unit. There's one single point of unity and that is the leadership of the oma. But towards the end of the Philips enough model, the alarm internecine differences started being exploited by parties who had a particular vested interest and start using the weakness of this oma
exploiting the weakness of the what's that weakness, that weakness is the fact that they are do exist difference of opinion. These are humans, humans will always differ. Once humans recognize a particular weakness, they know they can take certain steps, that those weaknesses not be exploited at that point in time, though moving forward, it was being forward to such an extent that people could not understand that this nation has been practically the scum of the earth suddenly have become the masters of the world in a manner unprecedented in the entire history of mankind.
So we were quite filled with our own progress that we hadn't done that we weren't seeing the points of weakness, those points of weaknesses were exploited. It led to the murder of a third halifa second of Mongolia. And the next Khalifa that came after was a gnarly Nepali probably a lot, one who had to contend with the first major breakup with the soma came to blows upon another wave three was a 14, a period of five years was between home in the worker also there had been most well in fact, there been was as well, in the time of each of the kunafa they had been was but those walls have been between Islam and the enemy, the non Muslim. Now during that,
while the alarm it was Muslim studying the swords against one another, our weakness had been identified, a weakness have been exploited and was exploited very successfully from the side of the enemy. There had been these differences and allow Paladin points out to us exactly what happens when we allow these differences to take over and become more important to us. When the essential objectives of our Deen what happens at such a time locus is
each one of us claims
everyone claims that unfollowing and following the sun, but out of this particular command in the sun, as we know we may have different interpretations of everything. So once we have taken cognizance of the fact that there could be differences in the way that different people understand it, we need to learn the next lesson that comes after obedience to Allah in obedience over some some a lot. So, that lesson is one after another. Having said that it Allah or pseudo obey Allah. So the next lesson that comes is while cannizzaro do not dispute amongst yourselves differences there would be but you do not let those differences become so important that it overtakes and practically drowns
out the importance of every other thing. And my opinion, my opinion is on that Mustang, my opponents opinion that doesn't count in any in any way. That is a dangerous position to take. When that happens. Then the rest of the items that have Shalu Watanabe,
what would happen when disputation starts in the summer, when this mutation begins with one opinion is it's counter a set juxtaposed against the other opinion. And these two opinions become the focal point of our interests. They become the focal point of our energies, and we start wasting our energies in mutual disputation, then we must remember there is a certain wind, this wind is the wind of the help of unlocker, which comes and we are the ship, the ship of Islam, which which sails, and can only say when that wind blows into our sails. When that wind is taken away, the wind, which is the nozzle of the help of a lava, then there is no there's nothing to propel the support any longer.
There's nothing to propel them forward, but that's shallow, then he will start saving your move forward any longer. When you start fighting at home, your will will be taken away, they won't be anything left, we saw the taking away of the wind that blows the shape of Islam forward, we will
be alarmed when Muslims were fighting one another. And suddenly the ship of Islam that had sailed from where, as I said, from the Atlantic, in the east, to the borders of China, as you put it minha in Africa, from Ghana, in West Africa, all the way to Vegas on to the Islamic cover this entire region. And suddenly, when the help of a lot of was taken away, that shouldn't go forward any longer movement, there will still be there's going to be movement, the only thing is that movement won't be it won't be forward movement can be linear movement is going to become lateral movement, when oma is at loggerheads with itself. So during that time, there was no progress. There was no progress at all
that Muslims are being self disintegrating between themselves, destroying one another, that eventually led to the realization on the part of Central Hudson Valley, that if we continue fighting like this, then I might win or my opponent might win, but Islam will be the loser. And therefore he decided rather to have a concentrated approach. Why? Because there was a recognition, there are certain things which are more important than who's the victim in the field. And that is the progress of Islam. So set aside my own claim to leadership, let someone else have it but let Islam be the victor. That was the realization at that time. So this ayah gives us in very clear terms what
happens when we allow these disputations to take over shallow water every
day. It goes on to give us a solution to the problem as well. It goes to give a solution to the problem. The rest of ISIS was Spiro in the Bahamas
During the final solution, the ultimate solution to all of these problems that we have here is have solver be be cognizant of the fact that someone else can have a different opinion that all opinions do not need to converge on one on the same point. There will be differences. There are differences, local isn't one. But there are seven different ways of reciting the Quran. A lot of us in this room know what
they are various different ways of interpreting this very soon, which we can see from the sea Rasulullah sallallahu. During his lifetime, he once gave an order to Sahaba the alarm that led to suddenly an aha Docomo last one Sua, FIBA nikolova. Everyone, we have to leave now immediately from here and travel daily, but whoever lives in Marina, the five of us that used to live in the arena, and he says that let no one make us except they have been called Eva Sahaba immediately packed up and started moving
on the way.
Some of them said, what the results were meant was that we should literally own a colossal salary. Obviously that wasn't that's not what he meant, what he meant that we must make it so that when it is done, then we are there already. But since we delayed somewhat, because here we're gonna make it right here. difference of opinion amongst the Sahaba the Alon Rasul Allah, Allah Allah, Allah Subhan himself arrives after a little while, he arrives after a little while, and he is informed that some understood your words to mean this. And some of the struggle was to mean that feathermoon chirala una de la, he did not condemn anyone, you are correct and valid in terms of what you understood,
your position is valid in terms of you understood as well, both parties have taken a legitimately valid approach and therefore what's most important is that blucora is lying ahead of us, that is the more important point, the manner in which we interpret data interpreted, there was no reason for them, that is secondary, it's a different thing had any of those missionaries also say what he wishes I'll do okay, one two, that is dangerous, both parties for this is what
they did, they level with, to understand what he meant, what he what he meant by it, and they gave expression to me and he he appreciated and approved of either approach, this is part of many other similar hobbies.
that indicate to us that they are going to be differences of opinion, they are difference of opinion, the quote unquote problem line from the this is one example so many other examples, we have there. But all of this indicates to us the first point that I wish to make tonight and that is that if enough difference of opinion divergences is unavoidable. You cannot, but it will always be there. The second point which which to make is that, once we allow this to take over become more important to us than anything else, what will happen is this Omar has a duty, it has a duty of progress of moving in a line that linear movement forward. It has a it is it is encumbered with a duty, there's
a duty that rests upon the shoulders of all just about each one of us to take the message of Muhammad Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam to take the deen of Muhammad Rasulullah sallallahu Sallam as wide and far as possible wherever we go. But when we start internalizing that energy, that movie moves us forward, internalize it, when we start turning it against one another, then we are virtually betraying, we are betraying that great trust that has been left upon the shoulders of the soma. So that is the harm that can come from there. You cannot avoid this killer, but you can avoid that kind of harm. What do we do? How do we go about how do we go about avoiding it? We cannot. We
cannot avoid the feel of itself, but we can avoid some of the consequences that it could possibly have.
When the time came,
that Islam after a few 100 years, after almost 1000 years of ascendancy, after 1000 years of having been
the bastion of civilization, human civilization, not Arab Muslim civilization of human civilization, after 1000 years,
when our differences reached a point where we no longer understood exactly where to place them, when we started turning our guns and our opinions against one another, and started forgetting the more important aspects of our Deen. That's when the writing was on the wall is almost on the way downwards. The decline started in various different parts. Spain had been the country that had been Muslims had been bay for all of 800 years, but after for 500 years, it started weakening internal structures becoming weaker and weaker. What was the cause? Behind behind because there have been a time when the leadership of sinks in Spain was one single Qaeda and that eventually split up into
various different petty kings they call them Morocco. Kava is where one king would fight against another one Muslim King would take help from a non Muslim King on the other path to fight against another Muslim ruler. The decline has started them already when the Crusaders marched on for the first time.
It was not due to our
weakness that we could overcome as it was due to our divisions that they would overcome us, there was great power in those smaller the power, but that power simply could not consolidate itself into one single line. So there will be the incident of two brothers, two brothers, who were the rulers of two separate cities, one was called the red one, and the two of them together with another Muslim ruler would lay siege to the Crusaders, who are holed up in a particular fort. But then what will happen to these two brothers at a long standing dispute of one another, you would think that the appearance of a single enemy on the horizon would, would unify these lines, it didn't happen. It
didn't happen. One of the two brothers, and these are Blood Brothers of one another forget being brothers by faith, Blood Brothers of one another, they contacted one of them contacted the people on the inside and said that Look, tomorrow when the battle stop, I will withdraw my forces and you can do with my brother and his forces, whatever you wish those Muslims, who were the details of of how, in the manner that they divided the lines with one another? Ultimately, the counting, when sold on noodle beans and gain is successful? Can you be recognized? What were the causes of this, of the weakness of the Muslims? What were the causes behind it, Muslims had a huge amount of forces at the
disposal that they just couldn't get them into a single line. sala de la creme de la started focusing his attention on unifying those particular lines for 90 years could remain in those hands. And once the Muslims realize that the secret of our weakness lies in the Division of our lines, and about how we manage to be named one single line had been came along and put skin back to enhance, but barely did come back into muslin hence open. So having lived this world, and immediately the use
of algebra, you started getting divided amongst amongst themselves again, making alliances with one another, making alliances with the enemy against one another as well. When this happened, it took another 100 years before anything could happen. The Crusaders wouldn't driven out until time of SOCOM volume labels. and thereafter,
colonialism only then was able to, despite the fact that puts has been taken back the Crusades remain in these lands. Because once again, we became divided amongst ourselves. Thereafter, when the colonialists came, it was the same kind of story. It was Muslims who allow others to abuse themselves
through the internal differences that they had with one another, the Sahaba of the alarm recognize the potential that he still has of getting a part of unity. They recognize this, at the time.
When say, no one will be alone was the halifa.
He was informed of something was informed he wasn't,
wasn't hasn't anyone stole that, say no one will be alone, is not making cassara is not making his work. And it's also because he's making complete
making forecasts. And initially, he was quite upset at this. Why?
Why is he making four?
Initially he was upset. And then he sat back and said that when the time comes, we will make forecasts luckily for him as well. His students told me he was a great Rookie of the time he students told him, you know, you upset to this particular opinion, you upset you saying that? This is a divergence from the manner that results and why do you agree with it? And he said something, word of wisdom, he said concealer,
to have this kind of differences, despite the fact that I have a point of view. And he might have a different point of view. So Norman had a reason why he was making forecasts. He had married the wife from makani, regard himself as a citizen of Makkah. And he regards the diminishing of the forecast, as a matter of being himself and not as a matter of being a judge, which is a valid opinion, as well. So therefore, to that particular opinion, so say my son, Abdullah didn't say he is wrong initially might have said that, but he recognized if I let this particular issue,
get out of control, then today, my students will hear me saying that they will go to someone else who said Do you know what he's doing? He is abandoning the Sona and that will become a fitna which people will abuse they will abuse it against the halifa against the unity of Islam. So he said no, when it comes to time for making Salah even though I disagree I'm gonna make some up behind it now one of the alarm because that's really where the muscle where the interest of oma lies, that we have this kind of unity. Why is it such that it is so important for us to make a lot of jemar? Yes, we understand 2527 times more reward, but why is it that the player is not something which we do in the
privacy of our homes? Do all those are all my homies when it comes to the DVD animosity? Because this is a symbol the symbol in the metaphor Hall unity is that when the man is leading
in a majority, maybe there's a reason why we have an Imam and people follow him. There's a reason
the man has been brought in order that he be followed.
He goes into the routine, he goes into studio that he will be in the habit of the
among students very well understood the fact that there must be a unity of the head of our faith, and everyone else will follow the critical point of unity. Again, in the time of the law, there was a potential for huge Fallout in terms of the Quran, Now,
given us was revealed in one particular manner, my God.
But then came a time when people were entering Dean is Francis
huge amounts of people entering this Dean. And the Arabic language is very similar to what we know the English language to be to be today, they are dialects more than you can throw a speaker.
Some parts of the world if you go to Scotland, for example, you probably won't understand what people are when they speak, but it's English. So the Arabic language is very similar. It's Arabic. But when we speak different languages, and everyone speaks a different dialect, at that point, a lot that I've given permission for the Quran to be recited in various different ways. And it was revealed in the seven ways.
seven different modes of visitation, the seven different modes of visitation is not synonymous with the seven, the seven
is part of those seven different ways, it's an expression of it is a certain packaging of it in a particular way. The point is that it was even in different ways, different modes, during the time of the announcement, or the alarm or the scripture that had been compiled into
a very loaded word as it is, but without the dots and without the diacritical markings. Now the army was going further into Asia at the time, there wasn't even other Bhaijaan other regions reaching the now at night on campus made and everyone suddenly put on one person's reading plan and others reading plan as well as reading the same sort of one to the other. He is reading so Who taught you to read like this? And he says, What have you read like that? And the two are almost coming to those with one another? Why are you reading wrongly? So either nowadays I really am and I think it was immediately from the get some measles virus from Medina. He says he immediately goes to Medina. And
he tells me he tells an aqua adric omata. Mohammed, save this oma before this harm overtakes it, where people start fighting back, which is a critical situation is that the correct recitation? Is this the correct presentation and say now, there's a second compilation of the Quran, with the help of the habit of the unknown, in a manner that allows for these variant readings to exist, but within certain parameters, you can't make anything out of it. You can't just say, well, this one seems to sell vacuum, I can leave Israel did he know you can only read if there is
three things. First of all, there must be a valid chain of transmission, you must have learned from a teaching that we will learn it from a teacher in that way. So you have to have First of all, transmission, authentic. Secondly, it must conform to the Arabic language. And the third chicken balances that it must conform to the written script as compiled with
the alarm. When these parameters in place now the Quran can be read and the possibility of negative consequences from there have been minimized and mitigated. Back in the other way with me reading the run up to the present day, the Sahaba of the alarm, recognize that these are the areas from which shavon might come in and divide the soma and therefore, they took the necessary steps, they took the necessary steps
to mitigate the harm before it happens. Now we are living in a in an age of great, what should we call it conflict. We have seen conflict during the 20th and the 21st century, like I would probably say never before in the entire human history. We have had the First World War from 1914 to 1918. We had the second world war from 39 to 45. We had the cold war they after that flamed into a number of different region was
constant warfare, constant warfare despite the fact that they were there was once upon a time called the League of Nations was it was succeeded
after by the United Nations, but conflict has continued unabated. The real problems that exist still haven't been solved, we live in a time of major conflict and major crisis at a time such as this, it makes a lot of sense for us to go back into the league, this legacy of Islam that we have, because a lot of is given as a stealer. You know as a walk, this is killer was given to us, in order that we learn from it, how to deal with conflict, how do we deal with conflict? Do we simply draw up the armies on both sides and go to battle once again is that how conflict is to be resolved? Or are the other ways of resolving conflict in the manner that we play in the manner that we pass in the metal
format? We have these differences, what I started out by saying that they cannot be avoided, but they can be negotiated, how do we go about negotiating all of these differences? The first the first step is to to be
mentioned in the how are we going to go about dealing with these differences. The first and most important point is that we have to understand the causes of difference.
Now when I speak about the cause of difference
two levels that we can speak about it. One is the technical level. Why does this particular mathematic this view on that particular matter? takes another view? Why does it happen? The technical details of it is beyond the reach of the common man. In the same manner, as we have different legal systems operating, so that we can all be different from a stranger, which will be different from Canada Canadian law, which will be different from British law, even though all of them draw from the same original sources. In the same way as those differences. We do not delve into them because it's beyond the reach of the common man in the sea, beyond the reach of undergraduate
student for that matter is a postgraduate matter. In the same way the causes the technical cause of difference between the fuqaha Why did this was obtained this approach and that must have taken that approach. For those who will be interested in it. It is open to be studied, by all means. But I would I don't I do not suppose that an engagement such as ours here allows for us to go into the details of Why do the different approaches know, for the common man in the street, there is a different matter of understanding, there's a different level of understanding, and it works like this. We can have one or three different situations, we can either have everyone on the same page,
no, no differences whatsoever. And everyone prays in exactly the same manner unfastened exactly the same manner, buys and sells and marriages and divorces in exactly the same manner. They are absolutely no differences. For many that will be an ideal. But we have seen that a lot of the did not consider that the ideal for this woman. No, he gave us a fella he gave us a difference of opinion is an unavoidable
What should we call in addition to what we already have? Many would have liked to have it that way. Many have Sponsored Projects to go that particular direction, doing away with differences and reducing one set of opinions. None of those have been successful, because none of them have been homogeneous. So the other option that we have isn't having everyone definitely and on account of those differences factor with one another. We might think it's possible. But differences in differences in math have have in the past led to some of the greatest catastrophes, calamities in our history. When the tortoise the Mongols emerged out of Central Asia and raised just about the
entire Eastern meaning of Islamic civilization.
gingers harmonies, hordes that came out of Central Asia, they the entire Eastern wing entire part of the world is known today is known as was once upon a time known as corizon. And fire is the lens of Afghanistan and Iran up to Iraq, up to Syria. All of this was destroyed in the worst possible manner, in a manner that is practically probably under the cruelty that was brought to bear almost indescribable.
When that happened, in all of the lands of Virginia, only one city was able to withstand only one city every city fell before the Mongols. There was only one city that was able to withstand this onslaught. That was a city of his far the city was found something given the city of Isfahan was impregnable, resisted the advances of the charter several times.
Then comes our differences. The city of Isfahan was populated by two types of Muslims. One was Shafi one was hanafy, we would have thought they would have lived beyond these differences. But this kind of difference eventually led to the following catastrophe, one of the two groups and he does not tell us which one, it's not important to know which one it was. But one of the two made contact with the enemy on the outside and says that we will arrange to open our doors to you, we will arrange to open our doors to you. And all you need to do is a sloth our enemy and it will be your friend. And actually what happens when the doors open and both parties are destroyed. Both parties are
destroyed. The one city that had
the ability to withstand the greatest scourge of the Middle Ages fell in front of its walk in front of his own internal divisions. Now when we have these differences of opinion, the first and most important thing is to understand the reasons why when we looking at the reason why we said that it's possible to have a complete unit unity of everything. But that would be let's say, an idealistic position doesn't happen. On the other hand, we can have differences to the extent that we continuously fight with one another and we open the doors to the enemy, we open the doors to the enemy, and the enemy will come in and destroy all of us. That's not an option either. The middle
one, where the differences do exist, but we have developed our thinking our maturity, we have developed the structures within ourselves to understand those differences, what they are, and therefore to continue to negotiate them exactly within the place where they are supposed to fit in. That is what the local ones from the soma have your differences. By all means, do not allow your differences to become an obstacle between your relationship with your Creator, do not allow those differences to become an obstacle in the man that stands next year a new sound law. And the man that sends another side is the one at the end of the day is working towards the same objective and
everyone they might be adopting, adopting different paths. But all of these are rivers that flow to the same
motion. So an understanding of the as well, one one, we want to understand the reason why there are differences when there are technical reasons. But the more the, what shall we call it a lack of x in two ways, a lot of x in what we call the tertiary way, the legislative manner. And then he acts in a particular way, which we call the tech really well, last creative will comes in cooperation. Now in terms of in terms of legislation, the differences are, the causes of difference are very realistic. This markup takes this approach, because it interprets text in this particular manner. Because regardless of this nature, as authentic proof, and another method does not, that's what we want to
go now, we want to look at the text, we reason, the reason connected to the creative will have a locker yet allow differences to exist, because we need to rise above those differences. We need to show that we are mature enough to understand them in the same manner that are not going to come with us with a filler. He's also incumbent on issues such as what he has encumbered. That was greed. He has income with anger, he has income with tacos with last year's income with his desire, we need to rise above all of these things. Last created us His greatness as lustful and greedy beings, we need to show that we can rise above that, similarly, he has given us a law, the law is fraught with
difference of opinion, we need to rise above that, how do we rise above them, we rise above it, by understanding first of all this particular cause, if you know it is an examination of you, then you you look out for where exactly will be the facts. When you know that the way the tax law when you know that Allah has given this to you in order that you should display a certain amount of maturity, when we go to the next season, how what systems will be within a dock to to do away to mitigate many of these differences as they exist. What has happened again, the creator of Wolf of Wall color comes into play, they could have been how many possibilities of difference. amongst this hobby alone, each
hobby was a particular animal have his own. Amongst the 38 each who was clear there were dozens of them literally, each of them could have animal hobbies on In fact, there is in record something like 15 different modalities that were practiced once upon a time upon what used to be issued once upon a time. But the creative will have a lot of acted in a particular way that all of those died out. And it was reduced to form of
the causes, why only former there might be many, some of them might be political, some of them might be historical, some of them might hold connection with some cause of the other. The point is that at the end of time, after about 400 years of Islamic history for maga in existing everyone else at some some of the other dialogue. So one of the ways in which a lot of that has created to let us mitigate this is that you don't need to become an expert everyone doesn't need to become an expert. But as long as an opinion falls within the broad range of form, as long as an opinion falls in the broad range of this what is acceptable is going to be acceptable, whether I was born with I studied and
with is referred to according to a particular matter, and someone else does equal to another another. We need to understand that all of these fall within the range of what's acceptable. There are there could possibly be acceptable opinions outside of this for motherhood as well. But for the man in the street, how will he be able to judge that someone has given simple straightforward, what shall we call it criterion rule rule of thumb women can judge acceptable or not. If it agrees with any of this particular format, then it should be deemed as acceptable, we don't need to go into into further details beyond that. This is exactly what the Sahaba of the alarm did when they compiled
the alarm. The readings of the Quran are wider than just oh seven, seven or 10 kilohertz as we know now, the readings could be wider than that the hobbies often contain readings of the Quran, which are not exactly which do not agree with what's in Sabah. We call them the pinaceae. They are the anomalous kind of readings, they might once upon a time have formed part of the broader
the second ways that were revealed, but when the time came to be compiled that kind of man, according to the seven Maasai that were written and sent to the various cities, the entire map to the present day is leading on to these most of us obviously reading a continent of
acid eventually went back lots of lots of lots of love, in the western ring of almost the world, in North Africa, etc. They read according to the Pura Vida calluna what all of these acceptable came out, but if someone comes was one of those people that lies outside of the spectrum of the seven or the 10, one
that might have once upon a time had validity, but he will not be entertained any longer for the sake of preservation of unity. That's what how they fit all of model the model that
Mohammed save this oma before it destroys itself. If this oma is not given such structures whereby you can preserve this Deen and continue moving forward, it will continue moving but naturally, you will start fighting with one another. That has happened. You know, one of the
secrets of a service fate of Islam is this when it's
Islam marched into the immediately adjacent Roman territories, which is what we know today is the land of Shama, Palestine, what is to be Syria, what is the Lebanon and so on when they enter those particular territories. It was the Roman Garrison's of those towns. They drop in front of the Muslim armies like a house of cards.
It was almost miraculous that it was almost miraculous. I mean, when the little
alum came to heraclius, where he was an alien at the time, he was at a capitolina, which was the Roman name for Jerusalem. When the letter came to him. He was victorious at that moment, what had happened a few years prior to that, the Persians that attack the Romans,
and they had attacked him to such an extent that even taken away from them, of course, was the Makkah, they take that away, and they carried away what they used to call the true costs associated to purchase as well. I mean, this is almost taken away from Aqaba, the Romans were utterly destroyed.
Alif Lam Meem horiba. Rome, Roman, conquer. Fear Navajo mimbar entirely. Look of the predictor. They have been defeated today. But within a few years. Within a few years, the Romans will come back and be victorious once again. heraclius became the Emperor came marching to Persia defeated the Persians, and out of strength fullness for that particular victory. He walks several hundreds of miles on foot, and upon release to Joseph to mark this big victory. He has a man at the at the very apogee of his powers, having one and a scintillating victory, and then comes to him the death of Muhammad Rasulullah sallallahu wasallam. Slim, does Islam, innovative Arica if Mona Lisa, you become
a Muslim, you will be saved, if not, etc. The letter comes
from what his to his mind will probably have been some
very chieftain from one of the urban towns emulator. This manages one a great victory. And he's telling you submit. He will be thinking of what is happening here. But then he of course, calls for a group of Arabs who happen to know the results of the month he was also pm.
And he was asked a number of questions about the visa lottery, and heraclius. When he heard the answers to those questions, he told him, if you are speaking the truth, then I can tell you that he knows the only commodity
that mango Mohamad will own. He will come to own the land on which I stand today. He had recognized that the final NaVi had come and his victory is imminent. He has won a great victory himself. Anyway, let's go from there onwards. from there onwards, when the armies the armies hadn't come yet, when the armies and the alarm came, and they started taking down off the town. Those garrison simply what what happened to them, they folded like House of Cards, like there was no no spillage within them. Why was it such as the help of a local law was there, all of those other things could be said as well. But what often we do not recognize is that Christianity had become a very divided religion.
At that point in time, Christianity had been divided between two major sex now one is called the mono facades, the one oversized not in 325 ad, they all got together Constantinople, just outside of Constantinople. It used to be a little town called nicea. They got together the time of Constantine the Great, and they had to decide now is Jesus God is Jesus matter?
Long when the debate was held, eventually they decided find Jesus is God. Then 100 years later,
20 odd years later, another Council was held at this council they needed to be decided, if Jesus God is well then do we have a human nature and a divine nature? Everyone says yes, we have human and divine. The next question is, do those two natures exist as two separate natures within one person or two natures that have been merged in the kind of hypothesis into one person? This is a deep for everyone to understand the question. So two, they haven't quite understood it. But they have continued fighting over it. They've continued fighting over it. The the motofest churches, they are the churches, the coptics of of Egypt and the Syriac Orthodox Church and others. The Eastern
churches have always held that there are two persons one nature and the western churches have held that they are two persons, two separate natures. They continue to fight about it up to the present day. But right now they're not fighting in the manner that they are fighting theologically once upon a time the fight wasn't theological. The fight was very similar to the fights that we see amongst Muslims. Sometimes it was on a battlefield. It was in prison. It was to through torture that this fight has to happen. They were so divided amongst themselves. When college ignorant of the law and was marching on Damascus. He managed to have some incentive inside of Damascus. And these two
parties were fighting with one another. The one party did exactly what the Israelis will do several years later with the Mongols will open the door to you because just get rid of these other fellows on the other side. When
As Muslim Egypt, then Egypt at that time, the Egyptian people were followed with a mono visit Church of the Coptic church, and the Catholic Church at that time had come and taken over and subjected them to the Great Depression, they were too happy to have
come as liberated from the tyranny of Rome. This kind of differences and the consequences that it had. It sounds very, very ominous. Now to the rest of us. If we allow the facility developed up to that level, then what will happen? What will happen is the repetition of what has happened in so many instances in our own time before on time, when the colonials came to India, the same kind of thing happened if we allow my buddies to say that Java has been
slower because the non gay the non gay man and
when the British entered Bengal at that time, Najib dolla was the ruler of Ganga.
I had a minister call me of Jaffa, Jaffa made the secret lines for the British that look, I'll be on your side, when we come to the battlefield and withdraw of my thoughts and that was how they entered the entity that way, eventually, the mogul sovann the mogul rule of Delhi also became the subject that we start from here, and it goes somewhere else. When people saw the last rule that we have continued that you had there is a British in India. When he was fighting, he and his father Hydra Lee before you were fighting for the preservation of Muslim suzerainty of India. His Prime Minister was a person called Slavic he had sold off to the British as well and people Sultan became people
from Shaheed. So in all of our estate has happened, data has happened everywhere else, there's an important lesson that we can learn from it, our divisions will be there, but we cannot allow it to develop to the extent where the enemy can exploit it. That enemy is not always the enemy on the battlefield, that enemy there's one sworn enemy that mankind mankind has had since the dawn of time, no one said no, they learned
from morality and no mean by the Human Ecology one.
I come at them from all directions from in front and behind from the right to the left, that one who had promised that they will take the children of Adam and I will misguide them, He is the main enemy For everyone else, he knows very well our points of weakness, we cannot avoid those points of weakness, but we need to rise above those particular points. And that's the only manner in which we will be able to inshallah, to
accommodate negotiate and mitigate these differences which are local, placed upon our shoulders, we can then put a limit to the amount of difference that they could be how, by scanning it against the spectrum of acceptable opinions, our model has given us an easy manner to judge if it conforms one of the form of a view within the form other than that should be regarded as acceptable. But now comes the next point, when I follow a particular view, and above an extremely follows a different point of view, I regard it as acceptable, but do I then take it to the limit where it is acceptable, you shouldn't do that you should do it my way. No, there has to be having understood it to be an
acceptable opinion, there has to be acknowledgement, admission of the validity and admission of the right of someone else to practice a particular view, we cannot allow these differences to become something by a factor of one another. If it conforms to somebody or the other in our field, then it needs to be respected and it must then be admitted as a valid form of practice. And lastly, lastly, we need to understand the need for giving preference what is more important precedence there is a certain order of precedence.
That which is more important takes precedence over that which is less important. Let's assume there is a certain problem which exists in a community. Why because a certain person practice in a particular way. That is a problem. But seen in light of the bigger problems at the same community happens to have that diminish is important. We don't want to deny it is certainly important, but its role is diminished. So the attention that should be given to it must be commensurate with the status. If it's a less important problem, then less important, not not important, simple, less important, should be attached to that. And more important should be attached to those things which
are important which we hold a higher degree of seriousness. Therefore, when we look at in the manner that we deal with problems, we need to be able to prioritize amongst them. If we fail in prioritization, then we'll go in a circle with constantly going in the same circle, we won't be able to move forward, we will simply be caught in that loop going around and around and around. Once we've understood that things should be
prioritized, then we will be able to take the next step forward, we will not ignore problems, but we will give you the attention which happens to deserve
a party while the low skilled in the 60 at Karbala, was killed in the key of 60. Karbala by whoever the perpetrators applicant heinous act were a few years later, some of the people who from that region. They come to ages. They come to the Middle East
To the Hulk or the circle of teaching love the light normally Allahumma. And they come to ask him about what they say that we are in touch now in which you cannot hunt. So they say mosquitoes were
troubling us and we kill the mosquito. Do we have to give a fodder for that now we have to make up we have to give.
It is our job. Laconia
Waka COVID-19 para su de la, you asked me about the blood of this little bug, you killed the grandson of Rasulullah sallallahu wasallam. to ship the blood of the grandson was less important to them, then this particular bug that they killed there the other one? For us it again, what sort of cautionary this was a failure on their part to recognize prioritization, what's more important should be taking precedence, exactly what every society has, it's important things. its list of what should we call it now, his list of issues that he needs to deal with. Each society needs to understand them for themselves. And then they need to prioritize it. We live in an age of
management, management these days, you know, any of a dozen, a number of a dozen textbooks over the one of the seven habits of what do they call them very effective leaders or things like that we live in an age where this has become a science in itself, a science in itself. This particular science I will never use a lot is at a long time ago given us guidelines as to how do we act in terms what's more important what's less important, he comes from Africa in the 80s, after the after
the among Victoria Sema merge back into one of the greatest victories of all time, but what is very reassuring of people who have given him you know, a decade and more warfare of blood, what does it give them back? This is
a free I won't do anything against you except for a few people who have committed specific crimes that had to be executed for that. Marcus conquest was bloodless. Now, the Kaaba in the manner that is both now we know the Kaaba is a cube, when Ibrahim Alayhi Salam voted the Kaaba is not a cube, it was it was a cube on three sides. But the side which we see as the happy, nobody, but we call it smart. And then to check Etonians if any capetonians present, they would know as the crowds at that particular section over there. That was part of the car but the cabin was blue square, on the side of the nuclear family on the other side it was around, but then came a time in Croatia to rebuild
the Kaaba. At the time when they had to rebuild the karma. They did not have enough funds to build it exactly what that part included. Well, Chris was quickly settled often, but often the funds were not key. Because rebar and everything else they used to make money out of
the carpet, they were very, very careful. They were so careful that they wouldn't put into anything strange today. These were foreigners. They knew that only clean money
only accepts that which is clean. And today in many times our dealings leave a lot to be desired. Our dealings developed to be desired. But that's a topic for another time we come back to the point here, the point is that they only had enough funds to build the cover as a square and they bought it like the owner is allowed if someone was very desirous of taking everything back to its Abrahamic roots. He always made a point of saying that this Legion is nothing new. What is this, this will not be a boy who was a Muslim. This is the Dean of Ibrahim which is simply redirecting and bring it back to his original percent purity. So the symbol ultimate symbol of that would have been what the Kaaba
both, according to our book, like Ibrahim had built it once upon a time. It's a symbol, it's a metaphor of the Abrahamic roots of this religion. It's a matter that was very close to his heart, because he could have done it.
He wants to do it. And then he resisted from doing it. And he explained to his wife say that I shall be alone. And he says that, in the homework he had, he didn't believe your people, the police right now, they had just recently a few days, a few weeks ago, they had become Muslim. Many of them comes in with a sword hanging over them. So they became Muslim, because they had no other option. So they Islam was not like the Islam of Obama and Bilal, who had not only accepted Islam in the early stages, but went through every sort of acid test that you can think these people just became Muslim yesterday. And I feel that I should if I should go ahead with this particular What shall I call it
symbol of Abrahamic roots of our Deen? Then what would happen? Many of them will then turn back and says that he can you imagine he has destroyed the Kaaba. Can you imagine he has destroyed the crowd of all things, and many of them will then become disillusioned with him. Now in here, as unacceptable as that line of thinking might be it was a possibility. The man is too weak. It is very easy for such a man to be swayed. So he said in that case, I'd rather leave it undone. As important as it might be, but there's something more important. What was the most important thing, the amount of this group of people, these would be the same men tomorrow when we say email camera would
apostasy, these men would be expected to fight on those particular borders. And many of them went and acquitted themselves very well of a task. Many of them went and gave their life for Islam they, because of the reason a lot of them was wise enough to recognize where the man is more important. When the time came much earlier than that, that he went too far from the ill fated trip.
And they flung stones at him, they stone him to the extent that the blood ran into his shoes, and he was doing his level best to say, like, not his blood bone on that particular ground, they are hurting like very few relatives.
normally, someone does that to any one of us. We want revenge, he had the option of revenge, revenge was lower down on his list of priorities. Revenge could have been there, but it was lower down in the priorities. Ranger came to me said that Allah has commanded me to come to you and tell you that if you give the command I'll close these two mountains upon piles. And what did he say? No, that's not the more important thing important is not to destroy them more important than restoring them is that the time might come back from these people on local well being those that will carry the flag of Islam far and wide. And that's exactly what happened. I was always just gonna sit from this very
same time down came home Mohammed bin Qasim who take the first expedition into India where they are millions of Muslims today. So that owner is Allah Muslim regarded as well as more important than immediate revenge. You can, he could have a query she searched for revenge them, but he was not gonna be of revenge he was.
He is on that.
And it's because of the drachma, that he understood exactly what held higher priority, when we are able to look at our differences through the lens of prioritization, then the possible negative outcome, the negative Fallout or effects of those consequences of those problems, it would have been effectively mitigated, absolutely negated, then we can have differences, we can have differences, and we can live an hour along with one another, as well as a local decision as to one as feasible remembering, we've taken out whatever mutual rancor each of these and may have, he huanan, Allah Surah makaveli brothers sitting facing one another, that's how they will set the agenda, you will
only be able to save certain gender like that, if you are able to maintain such relationships in this dunya. And you will not be able to maintain such relationships. If you are not able to negotiate and mitigate those differences. They are not gonna give us all the understanding, not just this committee, but each and every Muslim community wherever in the world they might be, to understand differences exactly what it is. It is from a lot of our side, having recognized it as a test from Allah azza wa jal thereafter to adopt the necessary measurements to pass this particular test, to adopt prioritization as a way of looking at our Deen as a way of practicing our Deen
working with our
the perfect question, so I
don't have any question on the topic.
This is a good opportunity to address these very difficult questions. Yes, it seems like under the present situation, it's not going to happen in our lifetime anyway.
Together. But from a hobbyist, we understand that a time will come and established will come to the World Bank and and we'll make unified oma is that the only thing we're waiting for?
We cannot deny what comes in those Hadees. Remember, he will come He will come. However, that does not absolve us from adopting certain measures forming not a backup at the normal level. But each little community, each little household to start adopting the kind of measures that when the time does come that those events predicted when it comes about, they will we will be of those that would actually join that particular caravan. And out of those that would stand one side and say that no, we still don't agree with a kind of modus operandi. So in the meantime, in the meantime, before that is that is what we call the universal solution. The Universal solution does not obviate the need for
localized solutions wherever we happen to be localized solutions. We have these various different ideas, schools of thought, we have various different groupings and organizations and they while acting with one another, if they adopt this, this kind of approach that we're speaking about here, then the efforts will simply be so much more effective. It's not the the ultimate solution alone remove the ultimate solution in his own time. He says that these are some of the things that exist within the undercurrent of our Deen we should be adopted to maximize the effect of the data that we have to bring about it. Any other questions also on
any other questions?
and I practiced at the same time as
when a person has been born according to a particular method born into a man and he
first before I answer the question this let's just look at what is another theory
Another is everyone needs to practice daily, everyone is not an expert in exactly what he says. So whether you subscribe to expert opinion. So what is a simple packaging? Simple packaging, every child that will learn is a carrier directly from the hobbyist, when he's faced with various different hobbies, what does he then do, which is the correct one, which is the more preferred one, he doesn't quite know that. So among packages that for me need simple, accessible kind of packaging. That's how he then practices his name. Now there comes a time when he becomes a CEO, he lives in an area where no other method is ever practiced, then the question of him having access to a different
view, that doesn't really come about much, if he's been living in West Africa, everyone's an advocate, with very little access that you can have in the Middle Ages. If you happen to live there, you don't have access to anything else, the question just never arises. But we're not living in the Middle Ages any longer. We're living in the time the information revolution, everyone has access to just about everything. And beyond countries such as yours countries, such as mine, what what does it exhibit the coming together of Muslims from various from an aggregate of Muslims from just about every part of the Muslim world, we can no longer say that, you know, we, we've inhabited this part
of the world for the last 678 1000 years, whatever. That's not the case, you find Muslims from just about every part of
every kind of background and you have access to the teacher of every different Muslim. So right now there's access to other motherhood as well.
One of the reasons for having other motherhood, which we didn't quite touched upon today is an
allowance for solution from the time of difficulty when one particular matter has an approach which is very restrictive, and which will lead to problems and further problems, complications and deeper complications. Then another mockup happens to every solution. The first of them, you know, a lot of it. So is the resource limit given us one of the solutions to our problems. That is, at every 100 years, you have our lovely
colinearity Santa Monica de la Vina and every 100 years old come a great review a great reformer. The first of those was Thomas, Rashidi, vasilisa, Omar Abdullah, he's a man whose life I wish I could say the duty is not a duty, but I'd like to make it the duty of every Muslim just to study the life of this person. The lessons to be learned from me. But in any event, one of the lessons which he gave us is that he says,
lamb your Gibney, Allah, Mohamed Salah Lhasa, it was a habit did not have differences amongst himself, I wouldn't have liked it. The fact that they had differences, it allows for different approaches to issues, different approaches. So at the time of difficulty, then we can definitely make us all mother, he would open that particular door at a time of difficulty, you want to make use of another approach, by all means do so that's why we have difference. This is what this meant. This is not often quoted. But it's not a hobby.
But it's a true statement all the same. If the love of the oma can be, it can become quite an Arab as well, depending upon how we treat it. But it will only be solved problems in that particular manner. That's one kind of situation in which we avail ourselves of alternative opinions. What about the other one? The other one is that I become aware of the hobby, which seems to support the view of the other man, how can I then practice it, it's not a case of need, is just a matter that I feel that this had eats into suppose the other, the other side more in that case? First thing one needs to recognize is that my knowledge and the knowledge of an expert, there's a world of difference
between the two. First, recognize that, if that makes you think that okay, maybe my understanding is incorrect, then fine. But if that does not persuade you to say that look, the scholars of my particular must have they know better what it's all about. And even here, our focus has been accommodating enough to look at this kind of approach, and give solutions to the solution was originally given by quoted by the author's adopted a new law, he says that if a person of a particular matter comes across a body receives to support the other method, then the first thing you should do is that you have entered the territory of one of the really aufruf. So then you have to,
you have to undertake a bit of study now, a bit of study, first time find out what is the position of Yamaha on that point. If the position of Yamaha is that that does exist, but it happens to be abrogated. Or it happens to have a different meaning than the one that you initially with attached to it. If that is the case, and that
convinces you then the only say, within your mother, we don't need to go anywhere else. If you're not convinced by that, then even then God Allah and now we go on to say that you still have another option. If you're not convinced by the reasoning of your mother, then you need to simply do one thing. You need to find out that the opinion which you want to practice doesn't conform to the view of any of the recognized imams one of the fathers. If it happens to conform to the another man, then he won't be practicing on fangled opinion then you will be running in consonance in harmony with the view
recognized expert. The danger is when the layman starts using his own defective knowledge to create opinions which have no foundation. And that's when the layman starts taking the scalpel and start performing heart operations on people going to be as dangerous, more dangerous will be the layman taking things in his own hand, he is allowed, he is allowed to practice according to opinion with these checks and balances in place, because in that case, he won't be creating chaos in the soma. Remember, as I said, in terms of the queen, a lot of that allowed for motherhood to exist, or the others happened to die out for a reason that the extent of differences must be contained within
these limits. So if it conforms to any of those, by all means you can practice it according to these rules as they done without any other questions.
Everyone's everyone's obligation is to follow the Quran and the Sunnah. How does he follow the Quran and the Sunnah? It's not as simple as let's go to the forum and find out what's in there, let's go to there has to be something like expert opinion, expert opinion is the one that needs to be followed so that we don't have a chaotic situation where everyone follows the Quran in some countries on understanding, they have certain requirements for having that those requirements then become fashioned into schools of thought, each school of thought each school has a certain systematic homogeneous approach. And as we said before, the ones that are local are allowed to
exist. Now these four they are not sharee as
the sharper image of Hanafi. Maliki, there's not the Sharia, it's simply a packaging faster, in order to, to get what we require. For example, if I need a certain amount of iron, and a certain amount of
oats and a certain amount of milk every day into my diet, then I simply buy a certain parties, which has all of that already. That's what the motherhood is, it has all things which you already require. It doesn't need you to go to the level of what does the Quran say? What does this wanna say, because I then depend upon the opinion of the expert. In that way, the label gets attached to me that I'm a champion, you know, that only means that I buy a certain kind of body system at all. And there's no brand loyalty to extend that my polish is better than your polish. There's a band, okay, it just happens that I buy this one, the new buy that one, when we start using these labels, as descriptors,
whereby we differentiate and discriminate amongst ourselves with Mr. Point, we've missed the entire point of it. But when we see these descriptors as facilitating elements, elements, which help us to practice always deal with ease, where I can teach my 60 year old child how to make sense without getting the body elated this way Muslim directed in that way, how confusing teaching is teaching. So teaching is literally in neatly, simply packaged things. That's why we are that is something my package that I give to him, we cannot use these descriptors in as discriminating animals. I am better than you you better than I, we are silly as the person who says jungle oats is better than
other kinds of porridge. And Kellogg's is better. If we see imagine you see people arguing, sitting on television, FM television, having a debate which is better than the other one is silly and simple. Some of the people who engage in mutual must have rivalries in this particular manner. First of all, it's silly and it's simple. Secondly, it's extremely destructive to the unity of Islam. Thirdly, it will do it will bring about the same kind of consequences that happened in his forehand happened in all other places where our differences will allow the enemy to exploit him destroy
them And for that, we were able to use them to maximize inshallah, what we can benefit from them
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