Channel: Jamal Badawi
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The name of God the benevolent the Merciful, the creator and the Sustainer of the universe, peace and blessings upon His servants and Mr. Mohammed forever. I mean, I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except the one true God. And I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger and slave servant of God, I greet you, our viewers with our usual greeting, the universal greeting of peace, a greeting that has been used by all of the profits from Abraham through the prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon them all. Assalamu alaikum, which means peace be unto you. I'm your host, Ahmed Rashid. Today we have our 28th program in our series on moral teachings of Islam.
We'll be talking about Subbu or perseverance and resolution. I have joining me on the program as usual. Dr. Jamal battery of St. Mary's University, Baba Jamal Assalamu alaykum monico cinema. Could you perhaps explain for us the term sobra and give us the English equivalent to the extent that it's possible to translate it into an English equivalent, the same problem we had with previous terms? Yes. Okay. Well, typically, many people translate the standard concept
into the word patience. What this is not a very good word. It's it's an approximate word, but it's not very good because patients come from Latin and actually it means suffering, which is more of a negative thing. connotated in people's mind, with people being set to the lines or certain theological ideas about passive type of suffering. The Arabic term however, Subash comes from the verb sabara, which means to tie or to bind. Or in other words, it is a quality of being able to, to tie down and uncontrolled fears, weaknesses, and human passion.
So if you talk about equivalent English words, there's no single word really that expressive, but approximate words combined together would be something like you said earlier, perseverance,
resolution, fortitude, self discipline, control. This are more or less related together to the broader meaning of such and as used in Islam. So we're not really talking about a passive type of quality, but something which is more active, determined, and dynamic. And as such, you find that the term in Islam perseverance or sub really has so many applications in human life, not limited to perseverance in case of calamity or disaster. It does include for example, fighting for, for justice, fighting for freedom, demolition, of human turning, or oppression, these are all related even to the concept of sub unlike the negative passive term, usually given to the word patience.
elaborate a little bit and describe some of the
applications of perseverance or sobra. In the life of a believer. There are a number of things, such as perseverance relate to obedience of God, to avoiding disobedience to God. It relates to perseverance in the face of rejecters. The Hurt made by rejecters of truth, it may refer to perseverance in terms of company of the pious.
It could even refer to perseverance.
In the case of not on the calamity, but in case even of good fortune, let me just throw some light on each of these. The Quran, for example, describes sub or perseverance as something related to obedience to God. For example, in chapter 19, Baba Senna was one of the owner, the man who was staggered liability. It says, God is the Lord of Heavens and Earth, and all that is in between them. So it says, worship Him, and it uses the derivative of the term sub perseverance and have patience, perseverance in worshiping Him
So, perseverance in worship also is one meaning. Secondly, it is perseverance also in terms of keeping away from things that displease God, or perseverance in avoiding this obedience to God. For example, in chapter 113, it describes the believers are those as those who believe and do good deeds, and exhort each other in truth and exhort each other in sobriety, or perseverance, because the chapter talks about mankind being in the state of loss except for those people with this qualities. And that's why the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him was quoted in Muslim collection as saying that Paradise is surrounded with things that are trying and difficult. And the Hellfire is
surrounded with things that are more pleasing and glittery toward us again, or give us one implication of perseverance.
Thirdly, in the Quran, in so many places, it addresses Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and the believers in genuine well it up because that is practice patience and perseverance for the sake of your Lord.
In another verse, For example, in chapter 76, it says, Therefore, be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord, and obey not a sinner, or rejecters of truth from among them.
definitely, perseverance also refer to perseverance and calamities and misfortune. That's not to be ignored. But I'm only saying that it's part of the total meaning of of suffering.
For example, in chapter 61, in the Quran, was Rama Saba. Be patient or persevere with constancy in whatever misfortune befalls you.
fifthly as I mentioned earlier, it relates even to sub rennaissance of persevering by keeping company with those who are pious and not to be attracted with the letters of life. For those who are not really true believers. In chapter 18, must have a knapsack Amanda Tina has run out of time, persevere, and have consistency with those who invoke the name of the Lord of their Lord morning and evening, seeking His pleasure. Don't let your I deviate from them seeking the glitters of life. Finally, I mentioned that patience of perseverance in our minds usually tend to be associated with negative things with calamities. What as we find in the Quran, the term the same term sobriety,
perseverance, resolution applies as well, even in the case of happiness or good fortune.
For example, we find that Prophet Solomon, as a Quran, quotes him that when he was given so much by God, he says, He blew and he asked, Rama said, this is out out of the boundaries of God, in order to test me whether I will be grateful, or if I would be just boastful or rejected
the truth in chapter 11 in the Quran, it talks also about the nature of humans, that whenever a person is touched with
good fortune, after some adversity, he would be very boastful and say, Alright, now I am okay. Everything is fine with me. And then it says, except that those people who follow this attitude does not really are this attitude does not apply or make an exception for those who believe and practice this perseverance. So as you have seen, you know, perseverance is, is a much broader term in Islam than a negative submissive, the passive acceptance of faith.
There's a situation that I'm sure maybe on the minds of some of our viewers and that is the situation where quite often you find the people who are very pious people who are very upright, good people in the community and so on. And yet the these people are,
face calamities, and have trials and so on, and, and
people wonder why, you know, why this happens, why they're not rewarded for their, for their piety, and so on. Okay. Well, that's it. The next question is related to a topic that
we covered a long time ago, on this program on the Muslim belief, the question of others or measure that to start with one has to say, first of all, that we as humans
are not in a position or we don't have the qualification to judge the ultimate wisdom of God because so many things like exactly described might sound to us paradoxical in this life. But sometimes we forget that
Beyond our human judgment and ability, there must be also another higher order of things, and wisdom, divine wisdom that we may not fully be qualified to judge or understand. But this is only one aspect of the answer of course. On the other hand, the Quran gives a more concrete answer to that question by indicating to us that it is not necessary that only the unbelievers or the wicked people are the ones who are touched with calamities or difficulties. Nor does it say that it is only the believers are good people who are given dances of God. God has his own ways with people and has his own higher wisdom, some of which even we might be able to at least get a glimpse of,
for example, in the Quran, it indicates in several chapters, I just give one example. For example, in chapter 29, at the beginning, it says, do people think that they will be left saying we believe, without actually being tested, so calamity, difficulty and trials aren't themselves one way of testing the purity and the seriousness of one's faith? Indeed, in chapter three in the Quran, for example, it says, do people think that they will enter into paradise without God testing those who struggled in his path.
So on one hand, you could say that testing or trials is part of verifying our faith in God.
Indeed, the prophet Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him indicate that if God loves some people, he tests them, he tries them. In another saying, he said that maybe a person is tested in this life so that his punishment becomes comes earlier. That is, the punishment in this life is much easier to burn, than waiting for eternal punishment in the in the hereafter. In another saying, he said that people are tested, or the people who are tested most in terms of their faith are the prophets. And then those who are closer this, those who are close, and we find prophets, among the people who suffer a great deal, not because they were wicked or bad. So on one hand, it is quite possible that
some of the calamities that may befall the wicked could be a source of punishment.
The Quran also clarifies that, but one cannot make a general rule and say right, you know, it's always punishment or it's always good. The Quran indicates that As humans, we are tested both by bounties, good life, as much as we are tested also by trials and difficulties.
There is, again, your comment on another set of circumstances quite often there are people who believe because patience is something that is rewarded, we find them going
to the almost two extremes where they neglect their own human needs. And sometimes we even go to the extent of torturing their own bodies. And what is your view of this from a Muslim perspective? What the fact that as I mentioned earlier, the believers regard calamities and difficulties as tests from God that one could be really good for him or her in the long run. It does not mean however, that one should seek it. In other words, there is a difference between a person actively seeking a calamity or difficulty, and between being patient and to persevere and be constant, when and if this calamity, takes place.
I bet that answers on the Quran. For example, in chapter four in verse 147, it says, My father in law who be identical in Chicago,
what does God gain?
by punishing you or by your punishment if you are truly believers, and grateful to him? In other words, there is no particular verse, God doesn't sit and enjoy people being torturing themselves or being punished. A punishment is only for those who disobey but there is no inherent intrinsic value, if you will, and human being punishing or touching himself or others. Also, in another occasion, as narrated in Buhari Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him was in pilgrimage. And he saw a very old man, very weak, who could hardly walk with his two sons around him, helping him he's just almost about to fall. He said, What's the matter? what's what's wrong with him? They said that this person made a
covenant or promise that he would go for pilgrimage working that by going through the difficulty of working he gets more divine the word and then Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him gave a very, very interesting answer. He said, God does not mean or has no need for this federal pressuring him said, and he ordered him that he should
be more comfortable. In similar occasions, more than one occasion people came to visit. For example, my sister wants to do PR
convergence is weak but insist on what he said no, or that highroad command her that she should write and not to over exert herself. So, in that sense, then we can say, there is another aspect also before I conclude this comment in both Bukhari and Muslim, the most authentic sources of prophetic tradition, Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him was reported as saying that even when you go for jihad or for struggling against those who want to, you know, destroy you, he said, don't hope or be too eager to meet the enemy in the battlefield and ask God for tranquility, a peace and safety. But if you have to face the enemy, if you meet the enemy, then practice perseverance and patience
and have resolution. So, even the case where courage resolution is required, one should not just be too happy about the size of a font should ask God to avoid this situation be avoided, if it can be avoided, then one can show resolution in that situation. In other words, to conclude it, a person need not torture, his body did not actively seek calamities and difficulties to prove his faith. If it happens, without active seeking, when, in this case, you can practice this quality of perseverance.
have you comment on as to how this concept of subpar preservation or
you can my tongue twisted up here, proceedings as events and resolution is related to some of the other
moral virtues that we've talked about in previous programs in this series. It is related to many of these virtues as well as to others just give you
you know, a few points. First.
Perseverance is described in the Quran as one of the characteristics of those who are pious or those who are God conscious. For example, in Romania, taco aspirin in chapter 12, verse 90, through the a person who is God conscious and practice perseverance, this is certainly
an practice or exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.
Secondly, it is related to forgiveness. For example, in chapter 42 and verse 43, while I'm on sabara heard that, for those who practice perseverance and forgive, and you might recall in our discussion of the subject of forgiveness, that this is related also to perseverance because forgiveness requires the person to persevere, and not to carry grudges in his heart towards people. In one beautiful verse in the Quran in chapter 16 126, it says, what an empathic mouth it can be. When Sebastian la hydrolysable. It says, if you have to punish or retaliate, punish, or retaliate in the same degree, as the hurt that was inflicted on you, but if you practice perseverance, and patience,
then this is better for those who are patient. So it doesn't neither say an eye for an eye of dismissals, sources, nor does it say in all situations, and others, you could simply say that you have the right to retaliate. But if you really control yourself, when you are able to take revenge, and you control your passion and your anger, then this is better for those who have the resolution, and have that perseverance.
the Quran describes perseverance as related also, to the attitude of being grateful to God's
law he attained liquidus a bar in Chicago, Chapter 14, here indeed are Signs for those who are above those who practice perseverance, and those who are grateful to God.
Firstly, it is related to the attitude of trust and confidence in God and dependence upon him, and levena soberano rp metakaolin, describing the believers it says that these are those who preserve, persevere in patience and put their trust in the Lord.
fifthly the Quran speaks of perseverance as related to jihad. And Jihad as I indicated before, means to struggle or to exist efforts in the path of God in a variety of forms.
Praising the believers for example, the Quran, described them alladhina jahad was that those who strive or strove in the case of God and showed resolution in constant consistency.
In the Quran, also we find that perseverance is related to the quality of mercy to come
Passion. For example, what I was always somebody was I was hoping Mohammed, chapters 90 in the Quran describing the true believers, as those we exhort each other, to persevere, to have resolution and exhort each other to have passion and kindness or mercy on other people.
Could you perhaps shed some light as to the, the benefits and rewards of sobor or resolution
when distract with we find that perseverance or sub resolution has been mentioned in the Quran as one of the main characteristics of prophets.
For example, in chapter six, verse 34, says welaka, coolibah, through suderman, publika, possible, unacceptable.
That is before you or Mohammed, they have been so many messengers or prophets,
who were rejected by their people. But they showed perseverance, constancy in the face of this rejection and in the face of this hurt or afflictions that were done to them.
In addition of being described as an overall characteristic of believers, it is a distinct characteristic of the greatest of all prophets. The term used in the Quran quoted as the great fight the greats, five prophets, who showed even more determination and consistency than others, those who were subjected to more hurt and more rejection by the people. And this, as you might recall, include Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and the last 100 peace be upon them also this again, for example, in chapter 46, and 35, addresses, addressing the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and concerning him for the difficulty head with the projectors of truth. It says, foster cannot serve as the man of the
patient, persevere, and have resolution as did other prophets who had this resolution, the best of all profit. In chapter 68 speaks about one particular prophet who was really suffering a great deal, Prophet, a youth or an English joke.
In our debt, now who sovereign God says that I found him to be really a person with great perseverance. What a faithful servant, that is service to God.
The in addition to the description of suburbian characteristics of prophets, which is praiseworthy in itself, we find the Quran also give it as an overall characteristics of a characteristic of believers in general. In a beautiful and moving verse in the Quran in chapter 33, verse 35, I don't have to give the whole quotation it gives a number of description of believing men and women in terms of truthfulness, playfulness, devotion to God, and it adds wasabi in our savera, that is in men, who practice constancy and resolution and women who practice constancy and resolution and then keeps on adding those characteristics. And it ends at the Mahabharata and Roger and Athena, that's
the reward for them is that God has prepared for them forgiveness, and abundant reward.
In the Quran, also, we see that constancy is a quality, which is prerequisite for spiritual leadership, describing people before Islam for example, who are giving this leadership
in chapter seven, one, verse 136, it says, and we appointed from among them, leaders, getting guidance under our command, so long as they persevered with patience, and believed in our science. For that reason, we find that the Quran gives a good tiding glass hiding for those who practice this quality of perseverance.
That is, even in the Day of Judgment, if people cannot get reward in this life, some reward may occur, occur in this life. But in the hereafter says,
when an agenda Latina sobre jam, that is, he will give abundant rewards for those who practice perseverance.
In chapter 25, verse 75, it says that those who practice perseverance, whether it can just own a lot, patata masaharu, they will be rewarded
with the highest place in heavens, because of the patience and consistency. It says like a drama over time, they will given the rigor and the reward, twice.
In chapter 76 reward is mentioned there as Jonathan O'Hara
That God will give them paradise, and garments of silk. And then it gives a very nice scene of angels in the Day of Judgment.
When mother equity or toluna himachali Bab Salaam Alaikum de Masato Tanaka namaqua This is a very beautiful and moving scene describing angels entering onto those believers in paradise from every gate with the salutation, peace be upon you for that you persevere in the path of gods. Now how excellent is Your final home? And no wonder then that you find that the prophetic tradition are in line with this God? verses I quoted from the Quran. A prophet Muhammad, for example, in Muslim indicated that in one long Hadees are saying that perseverance is light for the believer in another saying in Abrahim, he says that patience and perseverance is half of the faith
equal to the value of half of the faith.
the benefits of the rewards, as you've just described them, I guess the practical or logical question to follow would be how can one in a in
a practical kind of way inculcate these kinds of
quality? Or get this quality of perseverance or resolution or sovereign?
Or practical suggestions Can you make? Well, I could think offhand of five basic ones. First of all, one should try to strengthen his faith in God and his trust in Him, that God has certain knowledge and wisdom and justice that we cannot evaluate ourselves to realize that God is the owner and possessor of the entire universe. And he gave us everything, our children, our spouses, our property and our lives, should he decide at any time to take his property back, one should have no objection, just like somebody lending you something, you borrowed time, whenever he decides, he takes it back, we should have almost this concept in mind. Secondly, we should realize also that anything that
happens on this earth is decreed by God before even the earth was created. So one should not fall into this argument. If I did such and such I, the result could have been such and such there is one thing a prophet Muhammad, in which he, you know, asked you not, or ask us not to take this kind of attitude.
In chapter 57, verse 22, it says, No calamity, happens on Earth, or in yourself, except that it is written in a book before the earth even was created.
To remove our anxieties and fears, unnecessary anxieties, Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him say that if all mankind combined together, to benefit you with something, they would not be able to benefit you unless God decreed for you to benefit, if they all all of them, God has to collude to hurt you, they will never be able to hurt you, except in matters that God has decreed. So this is a second basic suggestion, a third,
that one should have some perseverance and not to rush or expect or demand solution very quickly of his adversities in Nevada lost USA or in a matter of USA, that's after, or with every difficulty, there is relief. Firstly, to realize that many of the difficulties we face in life could be even atonement for our sins, as the Prophet described it, that just like the three sheds, its leaves, and finally, to turn to God in the case of difficulty, to pray to Him, and to ask for his guidance and support in whatever adversities we may face. This is the only source of support and consolation. Thank you, brother Jamal. We want to thank you for watching our program Assalamu alaikum peace be