Channel: Jamal Badawi
Series: Jamal Badawi - Jesus
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Alaikum and welcome.
Today we have our test on Jesus, the beloved messenger of Allah. And our topic today will be the second segment of comparative Christianity.
My name is Rashad Manish, I'm your host here with me is dr. john Nagato, from St. Mary's University, so I can talk to john.
Could we have a little summary of last week's program but certainly, the last program was started the discussion of comparative Christology, especially in respect to the portrait of Jesus in the Quran, and comparing that with the what Christian theologians usually present, and indicated that there are areas of important similarities between Muslims and Christians at least insofar as accepting, loving, respecting and honoring Jesus peace be upon him, and our spiritual doctrine for them.
We indicated also that there are areas of difference related to the scope of his mission, the question of crucifixion, second come in the nature of his message. But most importantly, it was indicated that all of these differences really centered around the question of divinity whether Jesus was a human or divine.
In order to analyze and study this issue, he suggested that you can either scrutinize
the authority authenticity and historicity of both scriptures, the Quran and the Bible to see how they are used
as a support for one position or the other. Secondly, is to scrutinize the positions themselves, which are based on the on this holy books to examine whether they have a sound basis they whether they make sense whether they have any valid proof,
certainly, is to begin with something even more fundamental to find out first of all, whether any claim by Muslims or Christians for that matter, is substantiated by their own scriptures.
More specifically, we could assume either that the Muslim has no basis in the Quran to say that Jesus was a human that the Quran say that was divine, for example, or to again assume, on the other hand, that the Christian may not necessarily have a basis, sound and strong basis from the Bible to say that Jesus indeed was divine. What began with the first assumption about Muslims and we indicated some of the points that some Christian writers, especially missionary
say in which they claim that the Quran implies that Jesus was divine, and we indicated that this was absolutely incorrect. And he went through some of the discussions of issues like Jesus being called the holy pure spirit from Allah, a word from Allah, Messiah, or anointed. And we explained that none of this really implies any divinity and the Quran is very explicit in describing him as a messenger, a prophet, and a faithful servant of Allah.
Now that the journal I realized that there's been a lot of literature on this particular issue, but I'd like to ask you, however, to explain the main reason for their, let's say the erroneous explanations suggested by some Christian writers was to start with, I do not make any claim that I have read all that even most of that literature but from the lesson I have read for orientalist and Christian missionaries, especially Christian missionaries, and Muslim countries,
and by doing what they said and tried to analyze it, I noted that there are a number of reasons or a number of categories of errors. First, there are sometimes fictitious quotations fictitious, that is referring to something and say that this is in the Quran. And if you go and check in the Quran, you find that it doesn't exist anywhere.
Secondly, there are problems with this quotation. The Quran say something but the quotation say something different, doesn't give the meaning that is being implied. Certainly, there is a problem with partial quotation, partial quotation in a sense of stuffing in the middle in a way that changes the meaning.
Fourth type of error is to
make claims or statements without quoting specific versus not, I'm just giving a general reference to the Quran. But if you refer to the texts they refer to you find that the claim is not really substantiated by the text of the Quran.
A fifth type of error is basically what I call hellenization of the language of the Quran.
Let's get to the specifics of the matter, then. Maybe you can give us an example of that first type of error in other words, where the passage actually does not exist in the crowd. All right, this is something that really struck me, and I would have not believed it, unless I saw it with my own eyes.
I have seen an article
that was distributed recently when I was giving a lecture in the MIT.
And the title of the article is the significance of Jesus Christ in Islam. It is written by Elvin and again, gi n, was identified in the article, which was published in a periodical called patient, identified as the National Director of Campus Crusade for Christ in Pakistan.
And it says also that this article is condensed from his book, The Christ in Islam.
And he says, and I'm quoting, verbatim,
quote, according to Surah, Yaseen, and Mary, these are names of two chapters in the Quran, of the Quran. Jesus is the only one who can advise God concerning the fate of each individual, on the day of judgment.
The chapter that he refers to yes scene is chapter 36. In the Quran, I went through the entire chapter several times, there is absolutely no verse in the whole chapter that has anything to do with Jesus peace be upon him.
And then he went to the second Surah that he refers to without getting a verse number number 19. And while Surah 19 is just called Mary obviously speaks about the story of Jesus a lot. But there is no single verse in the entire surah. That refers in a direct or indirect way, to the statement that Jesus is the only one who advise God in the day of judgment about the fate of every human being.
I would suggest for any viewers to examine that by himself. Again, the chapter number is 36 and 19. find any verse that says what he has been quoting, and he gives you the sutra. So the readers thinks that since he's given Yeah, is he even gives the name of the surah. But you don't have to the sooner you find it.
It's very difficult to explain. Why would a responsible writer like this in that position? Write
something like this? Did he read the Quran? Did he even read the sutras in which you made reference to? Is it right? To make a fictitious quotation that does not exist in the other scripture?
Okay, how about Miss quotations?
Well, in the same reference, this is not the only one but this provides clear examples. The writer also says that the Quran refers to Jesus as and I quote him, God, the greatest Above all, in this world, and in the world to come. Unquote. This time, instead of just giving the surah number, he also gives the verse number or the passage number, and that is Surah. Number three passage 45.
If you actually refer to that text, you find that it doesn't say that at all.
It simply describes Jesus as what he had said dunya and Aphrodite Amina makalah been which means in English, that Jesus is held in honor in this world, and in the Hereafter, and of those, or that is also in the company of those nearest to God. It is obvious by referring to the original text of the Quran. The big difference between what the Quran says and what the author is quoting and putting between brackets, as if it is a verbatim quotation from the Quran. I may add here also that
the text of the verse also, aside from being different from what he quotes,
simply described that Jesus is honored that he is among those who are nearest to God, which means that there are others also, who are given that description. Where did he get the term? The only one?
Okay, maybe I'll ask you to elaborate on that last point. In other words, maybe you can give us evidence from the Quran if it's available. Yes, there are lots of available evidence for example, there are two very nice words here that are used to refer to Jesus, what do you have and the
I'm not caught up in what jihan and Arabic means on earth. And the very exact term that is used to refer to Jesus was used to refer to Moses. What can I in the law he was he has the reference to that is Surah number 33. passage number 69. The other term describing Prophet Jesus peace be upon him is not unique to Jesus either, because it says men and makabe that is in the company of those who are close to God. The word macabre been in Arabic or close to God is being used in the Quran to refer to the engine in Surah, for passage 172. It is used in the Quran to refer to other humans or prophets like Jesus example, Prophet Moses, it's also talked about, you know, when he would draw him near to
us, and that is Surah 19. In passage 52. It has been described to refer to people other than angels and prophets, just pious people. Some examples, among many are sort of 56 passage, 11, surah, 82, passages, 21 and 28. The point he is trying to make is that the problem with the writer is not necessarily a source of interpretation, but it is a straight Miss quotation. And as indicated earlier, he's not the only one. In fact, I've seen another publication. It's called Isa or Jesus in the Quran. And the Bible. By the way, there is no name of author or authors. But it says it was published by a an organization called fellowship of Isa or Jesus,
based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the United States. on page seven of that publication, it says in the quote, Jesus Christ is the word of God, God's revelation of Himself to us. And the reference given to the Quran here is, again, the same verse I mentioned before, another part of it surah, three passage 45.
If you go back to that, and read it, it simply says in the Quran, behold, the engine said, or marry the mother of Jesus. God gets you glad tidings of a word from him, not the word, a word from him. His name will be Christ, or the anointed Jesus, the son of Mary, where's in that quotation? In the Quran? Does it say that Jesus is God's revelation to us? Obviously, again, it is not a problem of differential translation, not just a matter of a different type of translation, it is a clear
asked you to give us a few examples of one other kind of error. You mentioned, those in which the author gives only partial quotations. Okay, I mean, first of all, I'd like to make a comment of when you say purchase quotation, what exactly it means. Because we all know that any writer of course, does not have to code everything, always in full, right and usually chooses something that relate to the topic. And that is legitimate in general. But what I meant here by an error in a form of purchase quotation, is when you break the verse, or break the saying of the prophet in the middle in such a way, that it gives us the exact to change the meaning altogether, so that you get a totally
different meaning if you complete reading the complete passage.
I give an example to that, like if the weather outside is quite miserable. And they asked you, how was the weather outside? And you tell me? Well, it's pretty bad. If I caught you and say, Dr. Manish says that the weather is pretty, I'm exactly giving the opposite. See, even by dropping one word, the meaning is exactly the opposite. So that's what I mean by project petition in that particular sense, giving half truth which could be misleading.
An example of that, especially in the writings of Christian missionaries,
is the same publication refers to Jesus in the Quran and the Bible, published in Minnesota.
And he makes reference to a saying of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him in Bukhari.
And he was verbatim quotation
and he quotes the following. That Prophet Muhammad said, quote by him in his hand, my soul is the name of God. Jesus, son of Mary will shortly descend among you, that's among you, or Muslims as a just ruler, and then he stops there.
Don't complete the prophetic thing. And then the writer concludes that and I caught him, as reported in pitch five, got no other prophets before or after Jesus Christ is mentioned in the Quran to fulfill the about two functions, rune and judge.
What is obvious here in the attempt of the writer is simply to say that according to the saying of the Prophet, Jesus actually was divine.
I refer to that thing that he caught it. And I discovered that he omitted a very important concluding statement, noting of which would totally contradict what he tried to conclude the missing statement that he didn't quote, which completes the same. The Prophet says, Then he that Jesus will break the cross and kill the swine. Now, elimination of that statement from the prophetic saying,
is very serious, because it shows that the first task that Jesus will do in his second coming, is to express his displeasure and disapproval of those who defied him rather than to consider him as a servant and Messenger of Allah as he actually was. Because of course, the cross is the symbol of the Divine who died on the cross, which are these, we had no correlation there, we described as discussed within the topic on the second coming of Jesus peace be upon him. But in addition to the intermission of this important parts of the condition,
it is noted that the saying of the Prophet says, Jesus, the son of Mary didn't say, the Son of God.
Also his statement that no prophets before or after Jesus fulfilled the functions or will fulfill the function of being a judge, and a ruler. I think it's erroneous because Jews, Muslims, Christians, all know, that there are many there are many prophets.
Or there were many prophets in the past who actually were judges and you see, prophets David and Solomon, they were rulers and judges, a reference to that in the Quran in surah, 21 passage 78. Prophet Moses also was a ruler we all know that he judged among his people, Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him was both a ruler and a judge and a prophet all of them together. Just to give a few examples in the Quran in surah, five passage 52 wanted to combine Amina and Allah, the prophet, Prophet Muhammad addressed and ruled among them or judge between them, according to what Allah has revealed. seminar statements are found in Surah, five, passage 51 and sort of 465 in sort of for
passage 105 I mean, the
the evidence is overwhelming. And I wonder how the writer came with that statement that in the Quran, no prophets, other than Jesus is mentioned to be a roller in the judge.
I, of course, it's easy to say that a person could be a ruler and a judge, but still a follower
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. And we discussed that in the second coming of Jesus, the topic that dealt with that Prophet Jesus is coming in the capacity
of a follower of Islam, which was taught by all of these prophets in its final form, as completed through the mission of the last prophet, Muhammad peace be upon him.
Now, you also mentioned to us that there are some claims that are not sustained by the text of the Quran.
Could you elaborate on that? Okay, referring again to the same reference, Jesus in the Quran and the Bible.
describes in page seven,
Jesus and he says, according to the Quran, because he puts quotation both from the Bible on one hand and the Quran on the other hand, and he says, that Jesus is the author of creation. And he gives the evidence not from the Bible also on the but also from the Quran. And he gives the reference surah number five passages 113 and 114.
Now, let us read the translation and see whether that says that Jesus was the author of creation,
then God will say, Oh, Jesus, son of Mary, the count my favor to you and your mother. Behold, I still send you with the Holy Spirit. So you did speak to the people in childhood.
And in maturity, Behold, I taught you the book and wisdom, and the law and the Injeel.
And behold, notice this, you make out of a clay, as it were is the figure of a bird, by my leaves.
And you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by my knees.
And you heal those born blind, and the lepers by my knees,
and behold, you bring forth the dead by my ears.
It is very clear, very interesting to notice that this in this citation in the Quran, the term by my leave is mentioned four times, four times. And I think any viewers can easily conclude that
this repetition, that usually this is doing this by my live by the name of God negates the digit, Jesus is the author of creation. Every time Jesus is saying that what I say do is simply a favor from Allah, not something out of my own. And in fact, this is not too,
too much different, really, if we look objectively to what Jesus was quoted, even in the Gospel of john, for example, in chapter five, verse 30, he said that I do nothing by myself. And chapter six, verse 38, he said that he is not doing his own will, but the will of he who sent him. So what the verses obviously saying that Jesus said, I am not doing anything. By my, by my own I am only the Messenger of Allah and gods are Allah speaks to him that you are my servant, you are a messenger, you're not my equal.
Again, they also forgot, as you forgot, another place, that the very verse that he quotes to support that Jesus is divine, and the author of creation begins with Yeah, he said, No, Maria, or Jesus son of Mary doesn't say Son of God, or my divine Son, or my equal, in essence, or godhood. That means that you are my favorite. One of my favorite, one of my hobbies.
One of my most honored creatures, but still a creature.
Now, let's move to the last category you mentioned earlier in the program. By that I'm referring to the hellenization, of language of the Quran. Now, what is what is meant by deaf? Well, to explain that,
I think we have to begin by pointing out that the Quran, unlike other scriptures, is still available in the exact original language in which it was addressed. It hasn't been lost, it is there.
And the language in which the Quran was revealed was not English was not Hebrew or Greek, it was the Arabic language.
What happened is that some writers
take the translation of the Quran for example, take an English term, which is a translation of the meaning of the Quran, and try to see the definition of that term in the English dictionaries, and then present that English dictionary definition of the English term, not the Arabic original as the meaning which is intended in the Quran, without any consideration to what the term means in Arabic, and without consideration to the context in which that term is used in the Quran.
An example of this is one of the verses we cited earlier, but I'm looking at it now from a different angle.
That the Quran describes Jesus as a word from Allah, a word from Allah. That's in Surah. Number three, passage number 45. We have explained already before in a previous program, that all of the creatures of Allah, our words of Allah use the word of Allah, I am a word from Allah, all creatures and the Quran use the word actually sometimes in plural, that is, we are all created by the creators command of God, be Khan, the Word of God. However, we find that the author of that publication that Jesus in the Quran, and the Bible says that according to the Quran, and I quote him, Jesus is God, God's revelation of Himself to us, God, not God's revelation of His Will or his command, God's
revelation of Himself to us.
Well, we have already indicated in a previous question, that the text doesn't say that at all. And any viewers can check on his own surah number three, verse 45. No, where does it say God's Jesus
God's revelation of Himself to us, but he based it on a very roundabout type of erroneous reasoning. He refers to woods to Webster's dictionary, and he says, Webster's Dictionary defines word capital W, as a manifestation, and expression of the mind and will of God, the mind of God is what God is his expression of Himself to us, the will of God deals with what God requires, and desires of us, unquote. What This to me is a clear example of what I called the hellenization of the language of the Quran. Instead of taking the original word, the Arabic word, trying to find out what is the proper usage of the word. In the Quran, in the context of the Quran, he tried to give an English
definition taken from an English writer who himself is influenced by the Hellenistic philosophy. This approach has been criticized, not only by by Muslims, it's criticized by other fears are relatively fair, Christian theologians, for example, reason I made reference to him before in his article in the Muslim world, indicates that the Quran is the in the Quran, Jesus is a word from Allah, and that this is a reference to God's creative world of command to create
the logos. And then he says on page 146, and a quote, it is few time to engage in a dialogue on this point, in an attempt to christianize the language
of the Quran.
earlier in the program, you spoke of the herbs that some non Muslim writers, for example, have explained to crime. How about if there was a similar problem, non Christians interpret the Bible?
First of all, I would like to say that
the point can become clearer as if we refer back just for cross reference to the ninth program in this series on that particular topic, in which it was indicated that in any competitive study, it is not enough that a Muslim for example, quotes from the Quran or the christian quotes from the Bible because it is a problem sometimes of one or the other, accepting the absurdity of the book that the other person is quoting from. And we suggested that one of the means of examining this is to re examine both the core and to see whether Muslim might have misinterpreted the Quran perhaps, and that divinity of Jesus is established in the Quran. On the other hand, also looking the other way
around by examining the Bible itself from the biblical perspective and finding out again, whether the base or the whether the claim for divinity of Jesus is really based on the sound and some biblical context. Now, in that in our discussion so far,
we have already explained in full, I hope, even though we didn't cover all the points, but at least some of the major areas were discussed in front, to show that the Quran is quite clear and conclusive that any argument that is made to show that the Quran in any way supports the divinity of Jesus peace be upon him is erroneous and giving specific reasons for that.
But of course, in addition to this, the Quran is consistent, and repeatedly indicate that Jesus was a prophet of Allah is described as a prophet, as a messenger of Allah, as a servant of Allah. And that would give absolutely no room really, to make an argument on the basis of the Quran, that Jesus actually was the one. And like I said, this was attested to by a well known theologian presented recently also, I was speaking with one friend of mine who's well known, again, Christian theologian. And I asked him, What do you think about those writers who tried to show that the Quran support the divinity of Jesus? His answer to me was, I don't sympathize with them because it doesn't have any
basis at all. Well, thank you very much like that you always seem to burn time. Thank you all for joining us here in Islam and focus. will appreciate any comments or any questions you may have our phone number and our address will be appearing on your screen. Hope to see you next week. From all of us. Assalamu alaikum