Channel: Hatem al-Haj
Series: Hatem al-Haj - Fiqh of Jihad
Allah we are up to the chapter on non Muslim Paul taxes or this year Babbage's. Yeah, that's the last chapter in the, in that segment, the book of jihad. And next inshallah will be the book of al Qaeda, Al Qaeda, which is the book of the judiciary, and it will include also shahadat testimonies. But that would be the last segment in sha Allah of Ronda
Hammadi, primarily written by the man who died in the year 620, after hedger. This is back with jizya. Now or the chapter on Muslim Paul taxes in some books, this would be called the bevacqua dizem. It is the contract of the covenant or the contract that is extended to the
enemies after the end of war. And the options that are extended to them.
Says here quite
a bit indeed what modules if it doesn't work this year? Who karma
so jizya is not taken from anyone but the people of the book. And they are the Jews and whoever believes in the Torah, and the Christians and whoever believes in the Gospel, and the Zoroastrians, if they are by the by the payment of the jizya and the rulings of the middle of the religion, Islam. Okay, so, so much to unpack here.
And so much to talk about.
The first thing is we don't take the disease accepted from the People of the Book. Well As if that is true. So what happened to call the non People of the Book in the early Islamic conquest? How come they still exist? Because like I said before, the Hanafi madhhab, they, you know, it was basically the official method of the hula. There, the hula, at least from the time of Harun Rashid
Rahim, Allah tala. And although some of the conquests also are earlier than this, sometimes, you know, some theoretical positions are just not sustainable.
Like, so when you conquer India, for instance. So what are you going to do? Well, theoretically, this position means that you're not given three options to people who are not from the people of the book. And the majority are saying, the people who are not from the people of the book are given two options, not three
you know, Islam are fighting to the end.
So, these two are these are the two options where is this coming from? And why is it and so on? textual proofs, rational proofs, and so on. It's a long long discussion, but I have to tell you that like just a breakdown a typology of positions I break down, there are four different positions for different positions. One position says jizya
taken jizya means that third option, you know, so it's not only Islam or fighting Jersey is that third option and we will talk about the fact that there may be a fourth option or that these three options do not necessarily apply to all people at all times in all places. But if you believe they apply to all people at all times, in all places, do these three options apply.
Basically, to the people who are not the people of the book. So typology of positions, one Razia can be taken from anyone jizya
can be taken
or mostly killara
disease can be taken
jizya can be taken from the Jews and Christians and whoever is like them. They disagree Then who's like them? They said, Zoroastrians. That's, of course the position of the majority because of the Hadith from the Prophet sallallahu Sallam and so on. The other two, there's a Serbia. Serbians and they said that they also had Chabad keytab, possibly they had a book and as Ross urines, possibly how to book. It's not true. You know, Zoroastrians that not have it was not, you know, whatever it is, they we can't establish this
from within our hermeneutics. I'm not talking about history now. And I'm not talking about comparative religion within our hermeneutics, we cannot really establish that Sara does or Austrians have the book.
Okay, so here, the Jews and Christians, and
this is a typology of positions. So why is this? it? Did you know that these are breida that everybody likes a brighter
facade, when you confront your enemy of the majority from the polytheists. Then offer them one of three choices, offer them one of three options, Islam disease,
okay to accept Islam, to pay the jizya or fight.
someone likely macadamia says this does not apply to everyone. This applies within a context of, you know, the people that we are at war with, and not everyone we will be at war with. And cooperate in itself is not the effective cause
behind fighting people, but it is rather aggressive.
If you adopted the other position, and you say no, that's not true.
And you adopt the other position, which I don't recommend for you to adopt, because the other position means perpetual war with people for the until the end of time, with all people into the end of time,
except when there are truth is and those truths are basically just resting a little bit until you go back to war. And that is a debilitating condition.
But if you do not adapt to this position, and you may have the right and other doctors position, it's not my business now I don't recommend that but you It's up to you. But if you don't adopt this position,
the three choices this hobbies here is given the three choices to all people why is it the Jews and Christians only Why are we limiting this the Jews and Christians only the heavyset says,
Mr. Kane can feel confined to your matric enemy, your most tricky enemy, whereas those Jews and Christians coming from, well, the scholars said we have sexual groups in Rational groups. Where are they? The Quran
says And keep in mind who is saying that jizya can be given, you know, just back to this apology who's saying canopies are saying that jizya you know that you don't, that that non kita bees will also have the three choices, who agreed with the HANA fees later on.
Everything may Of course, in academia,
usually he was always on the right side,
almost always on the right side when it comes to matters of this nature. And ironically, ironically, he's actually considered that he is being portrayed as the strictest least lenient of, of all fuqaha. When it comes to the other, his relationship with other is completely untrue. This notion comes from the fact that
there it is, for instance,
claim him to be their favorite email. It's just, it's untrue. The fact that you claim that man is your favorite man does not make him responsible for your
blunders for your aggression, for your corruption for your deviation.
They also claimed the profits are going to be their profit, their favorite profits.
Profit doesn't matter.
am I responsible for any of their inequities at all? It is actually even a crime that the student of the mountain mayor who says clearly and defends the position of the Hanafi is although he is that he is defending the position of the hammer fees, that you can, in fact, the give the three options to non key tabbies. Remember in the last session, we talked about everyday Mayor Kamala and his position also on the untimed untimed peace treaties, that he has somebody
cross the lines again and chose the Hanafi position, you could have untimed treaties. Now, if you look at the spectrum, and if you look at the spectrum of strict strictness and leniency, you will find that
where is this reputation coming from aside from claiming that he's their favorite email? Or a card that claiming that he's their favorite demand? Where is this reputation coming from? It's coming particularly from two books that he wrote, one is a professor
which means that being on the straight path requires
differing from the people or the dwellers of the hellfire. And he talked in there about not not assimilating with non Muslims,
issues and things of that nature not assimilating
and that comes from another book which he wrote to Sodom animus Lula, Allah shattered my resume or elements about the Auntie's unsheath sword against he who
insults or curses the Prophet sallallahu wasallam. So these two books he wrote that Solomon was doing at age 32. And that's the brown the same time the Crusaders left the Levon forever. So up until then the Crusaders were there. And
that context is completely important. Because when people are now involved in the barber Crusaders being there, and they're cursing the Prophet sallallahu sallam, you know non Muslims cursing the Prophet sallallahu sallam.
It is expected of every Muslim that has faith, and that has worked for the prophets outside of them to lean towards strictness, in this particular regard, so when hitting into her strictness, he did not depart from the consensus or anything, or have like an ironic or, or like a habit like Arabica or eccentric position. But within this sort of the spectrum of Orthodoxy, yes, he lean towards the right, within the spectrum of doxy, giving that context at age 32. But if you look at his entire legacy, and this is important to say, although it's unrelated here, not completely related, but if you look at his entire legacy.
So, if this is the spectrum here, and this is basically leniency and this is strict strictness, you will always, almost always find that meet me on this side, not that side, on this side, not that side, if you look at how he extended, basically, that the distinction between the error of intent and error of judgment, he said that the Jews and Christians are only accountable for whatever reached them of their books, if you know they will only be held accountable for what reach them, just like people like Mohammed, that are held accountable for what reached them, and they are not held accountable for that which is beyond their capacity.
That is a huge issue. A huge issue. This is just, you know, similar to this, because ner haemangioma, also, in you know,
in a month of Milan, he speaks about the different the four different types of the Romans and Turks, he makes the distinction between those who received the message, the correct message, who those who never heard of the message, those who heard that the distorted message have a distorted message. So,
the two emails you know, I have an Indian position when it comes to judging who is accountable, but if you look over the mountain there
is a consistent basically saying, you know, when it comes to the hudna changing the default into one of these He is the one who left his mountain mother, whenever he has a strict position. It's still within orthodoxy. Whenever there is a departure later
In his life, particularly whenever there is a departure from his mother, or departure from the majority departure from his motherboard departure from the majority, it was going that way. Not that way. It was going towards leniency not towards strictness on time the corner.
The effective cause of war is not disbelief, but rather aggression, a huge issue, a major issue, you can understand the repercussions and the consequences of this position.
Even you know that the concept that they talk about, if you think that someone is is is, is basically deserving of eternal torment, this would harden your heart against them.
You know, they talk about like eternity of the Hellfire, if you think someone is actually deserves by God, to be tormented eternally, this hardens the heart against them and so on and so forth. Even their, his optimistic theodicy led him to lean in and I'm not saying choosing the position of the temporality of their fire, but in all honesty, with all
transparency, he was leaning towards this, it is not that he was in the middle, he was actually leaning towards this position, yes, it was very hard to be
basically, fight for that position and his time, who did right, try it there has sort of the most faithful student, he fought for this position and argued on behalf of this position, his
peers also if actions speak louder than words, you know, when when he talked to the chieftain of the Tatas and said to him, you know,
Lana, de Mille, Latina,
Juana, and even Medina, whoo, you know, when he went to the chief of the theaters and asked for the release of the captives, and the Chief of the theaters, you know, he spoke to him very, very, sort of, strongly and courageously and insulted the chief of the theaters, all these colors that went with him, almost cover their faces, because they were anticipating his his, they basically had to fly off at any point during his discussion. And then the chief of the theaters, somehow liked him, respected him, and released all the Muslim captives for him. And then he said to him, I am not leaving, until you release all of them, all of the Jewish and Christian captives. And, you know, he
said that we will not leave until you release all the captives and we will not leave any one of our, the our core religionists, the main Latina, or
our people of Covenant. Medina. So if you look at the whole legacy, it is just so unfair. And this unfairness is perpetuated by
people by non Muslims, because at the end of the day, even me also fought by the sword, and he is like an iconic figure in our history to demolish him is, is a huge loss for Muslims is a huge loss for Muslims who want to live, who want to just peace, who do not want to unconditionally surrender, because they may I was not about unconditional surrender at the end of the day is not a pacifist is not about unconditional surrender. If you're if you want all the Muslims to be the likes of, you know, that complete pacifist who wants to just unconditionally surrender, then you do want basically to
demolish that legacy of entertainment.
there are non Muslims who want to demolish that legacy, for obvious reasons, but also Muslims who are opponents of
Muslims who are opponents of the military mayor. They don't have the integrity, to actually be more candid about their, the purpose, the reason of their opposition. If we're talking here about the names and attributes of God and His metaphorical or consigning the meaning of God, what is it that we're consign and is it the meaning the basic meaning or the modality or all of that stuff, don't basically take it out on him elsewhere and basically side with his enemies in distributing his legacy because
You just have grievances and something completely unrelated, something completely unrelated, but they don't have the honesty or integrity to actually stand up to him
fairly. It is also coming from
a Muslim, you know, extreme salafists, who repented from their extreme Salafism, they could be sometimes
feeding into this trend by, like, you know, or people that are trying to be to look a bit impartial people that are not necessarily we're not exchange alphas or anything but they are trying to look a little bit impartial. And they always say, well, even if they may have said this, even with me, I said this. No, please don't tell me even if they may I because that insinuates that he was eccentric. And you're saying, even the eccentric guy,
the extremely strict guy. The radical guy said this, no, he said this, despite that not to be in the majority position, just be honest about it be a man and say this was the majority position. anybody tell me I took the other position, the minority position, sometimes it was like a splinter minority position that is moving towards leniency. And he took it. So that also is another issue. And then you have the Friends of academia that are completely clueless, they don't have
the not only they don't have the endurance to read one of his books, not only they don't have the aptitude to understand one of his books, they don't have the endurance to read it. You know, but at the heart of that Aqua Napa for instance, many people that will consider themselves they may and they don't have the aptitude to understand two pages of it. And many of them don't have the endurance to read the book without understanding it. Just look at the pages. There are no pictures but just flip through the pages so that you could call yourself really a man just finish it flip through the pages.
Even if you don't understand it, because that is when you can be called Damien just finish to finish what he is framing what he wrote.
just the amount of injustice there is is just
daunting, vaunting the amount of injustice there is daunting. Go so going back to the going back to this issue. So every time he sided with Hana fees, and he is if you're talking about cannibalism, he is one of us Hubbard will do in our meth head. So, you could consider this a watch and
this is a watch in the mouth.
You know, he was not all you know that the untimed Yes, you could say that they may have supported this clearly. But the issue of taking the disease from the non kitabi is the one who clearly supported this was his student of North Korea. So, but he also we can argue, upheld that position. So, whenever he has a position counted as a wedge in our method, he is somewhat in harmony madhhab basically, that means his views are considerable in our method, his views are considerable, respected, sizable, and that is what all the authorities of the mouth of America we you know, booty although authorities in the bathtub after him Did they included his physicians because they are
excitable, would you in our method, okay.
So here, the authorized physician in the mother also Honestly, I would have to tell you the authorized physician and the contrary method is two options are offered to non kita bees not three. That means what you know, that means Islam or fighting to the end. That means if you are Hindu, Buddhist, whatever it is.
You don't have that third option like that. Khattab is Lu, they say they say the scholars who said this including the handout is the authorized position. And the Hanbury Madhava said this are saying Yes, it is true. This brother seems to be general seems to be for all people, but had his pride I was qualified by the Quran, whereas the qualification
minella vena keytab hotteok
socket on. So for those who don't believe in Allah hereafter, and do not make forbidden that which Allah had made forbidden, and do not believe in the religion of truth of the People of the Book, until they give jizya in humidity until they give to the enemy, it will go back to each part of this verse. But the first thing that every time may, I would argue is, this is not for everyone. This is not for all Jews and Christians. This is for particular Jews and Christians, the people that have
instigated hostilities against us, because of the the profits outside of themselves,
leave alone the abyssinians as long as they leave you alone. So that was not basically an open prescription for all to find all Jews and Christians. He's saying leave diversity and they were Christian.
Well, the Romans are the ones who were meant here and the Christians that they're allies of the Arabs that have confrontations. And it is not once or twice, several times they had confrontations with the Muslims.
And the Muslims were living in fear. How did you know that I sort of knew they were always living in fear. And they're always living fear that the
gasoline or the gas Samsonite would come and conquer them, because they were always doing this. What did they do? These were the allies. These were the Roman allies. These were the official Roman allies. What did they do to enhance
the messenger of the Prophet sallallahu wasallam to the
They kill them they kill the messenger, the Kevin ambassador. And, you know,
they're hostilities they used to intercept the caravans of the Muslims all the time. These are the people who instigated the hostilities against the Muslims and the Muslims were told fire to them until they give the jizya and humidity humidity here meaning he meditated the state they acknowledge
the sovereignty of the Muslim state but
okay, but leaving us alone and go back to the verse. The first is not say don't take the disease from other people. The very septic the disease from the Jews and Christians. How is this various quantifying the Hadith? Where is tricky, if you confront to your matric enemy, it is not. It really isn't qualifying and I say this is not basically a modern interpretation or anything in all honesty, this is the position to defend that this is the position of the Hanafi is before him. In all honesty, the verse does not qualify the Hardys, there is no conflict. Here he's telling him if you confront your matric enemy here, the verse is saying when he fights the Jews and Christians until
you take the jizya from them, there is no conflict. Take the jizya from them take the juicy from them. There is no there is no need for qualification. They provide rational proofs they say that the intent of war in the first place is to eliminate check. But that's not the intent of war. No, sorry. That is not the intent of war. The intent of war is to allow people to worship God to give security to people on her to worship God wherever they want, whenever they want not to compel people to become Muslim, and not to eliminate share at all, okay, so if the intent of war is to eliminate check, why are we making an exception for the Jews and Christians? They say, well, because they have
a habit and haven't read religion. And that is we agree, of course, there is affinity towards the people of the book that we don't have with other people. Of course, if you divide people throughout the globe, divided the people, in a sense hinted that I mean for the better.
Every board fee, but then the city, the late Roman capital, and by the way, I'll make a video for her mommy, No, we're not. So Allah says that when the Romans conquered the Persians or defeat the Persians, the believers will celebrate that victory from Allah,
whose victory here the Romans victory, we do recognize the fact that there there there are, there is basis for having two groups, one of them people who subscribe to any religions, the so called the Abrahamic face, and so on and another group.
But that does not mean that the other group are not given the right to live or to exist. So the intent of or was not to eliminate, check.
intensive war was to give security to people to worship the Lord wherever they want. So if the intent of war is eliminate check, okay. We We We believe that
the Masada commit shirk when they say that when they talk about the Trinity, then the answer is, but at least they recognize the heavenly religion and so on. Okay, good. Okay, we agree. But what about the Zoroastrians? So why are you excluding the Zoroastrians? They say because of the rock medical officer, when he said to him, I don't know what to do with them.
He said to him, I heard the Prophet sallallahu Sallam say, certain OBM Sen Allah keytab
nakki Nyssa him what
So treat them like the people that people have the book accepted that you will not marry their women, and you will not either be accepted that you will not marry their women, and you will not either. So the prophets also extended the three options to the Zoroastrians. There's Eros, Ian's that we fight against. The Prophet extended the three options to those restaurants that we fight against. So why are we limiting it? Why are we not extending this to the Hindus and the Buddhists? How are they different from the Zoroastrians? When we believe that there are students who believe in this dualism? You know, no one has been mad at the you know, and and all of this, and we believe
that this is completely, completely,
And this is the epitome of check in our understanding, you're basically making the evil god is sort of a competitor with God, or the dark god of darkness or competitor, with God, although you may differentiate between and ranking and so on. But at the end of the day, that dualism is the most sensitive
port thing within an Islamic monotheistic tradition. So why are you there? Then we this is this is certainly reading into, like, thin air, they have a book, so they weren't treated like the people of the book. So why can't we say that the Hindus and the Buddhists have a book? And why can't we say anyone had a book? How do we prove that the most rostering is how the book we can prove it. Therefore, when the profits of us have made that extension, eight meant, it meant that these three options will be given to not only the Jews and Christians, but to others? Why is this a big deal? It is a big deal.
Because it just talks about Islam tolerance of people of all different backgrounds. And it is a big deal because they're also killed their CDs, and sort of enslaved and came to the CDs and so on.
Because they said we can take from them all the authorized position in the middle. Okay, so a little bit of respect to me today. We have enough time here. No, no, no. So whenever they lean, or they sort of move towards leniency, the extremists were to always find a way to just
disregard to dismiss to overlook
their legacy. So it's authorized position in the mother we can take from them because they are now Jews or Christians.
The The only position that, you know, now it's it's all the land of consideration, as we said before your UN Charter, we are signatories, most Muslim countries to all these treaties, but the only viable position viable position this is not basically my mother insane, because when was India conquer You know, this has been more than 1300 years have this been a viable position has the position of the majority been a viable practical position? There would have been no options except one of the two this was not happening. This was not okay. It is theoretically inferior as we have seen, but it is practically possible, impossible.
the three options can can be given to any warring enemy
to any foreign enemy.
Now, he says if they abide by the pain
jizya and the rulings of the religion or the rulings of Islam. So before we talk about the jizya, they abide by the rulings of Islam, which rulings of Islam, they don't have to abide by the rulings of Islam, in their own practice in their own behavior and conduct except the state laws, you know, that will apply to all people. These are state laws that will apply to all people and must apply to all subjects of the state, but they want to eat pork, we can never prevent them in their own interpersonal relationships, they want to sell pork and wine to each other, we cannot prevent them
in their marriage and divorce, we cannot prevent them. In fact, there is a genius system that was established in the Muslim countries where they were allowed to have their own courts, you could say that this compromises the sovereignty of the state No, absolutely not. It gives the flexibility to different people to administer their own lives and their own interpersonal relationships within the state. If you happen to now, you know,
whenever like in Egypt, for instance, the Coptic, the Coptic Christians in Egypt,
that's not their favorite part of the remains of Islam, they do have the right it's not a secular system that will force on them, force on them, because at the end of the day, if it is a secular system, it will still be influenced by the religion of the majority, because religion is the most influential identity maker correct or not. So it will be influenced if this was completely secular, it will be influenced by the religion of the majority. And a, you know, this is the one thing that they appreciate the most, because it is not completely secularized the art, it gives them the right to adjudicate these or these family laws of their own, and basically refer to their own
religious courts, you know, you know, environment middly, or religious courts. So no, they're not, you know, and this is not what the chef meant, he meant that they will abide by the rulings of Islam in terms of state laws, because in the 100 megabit is quite clear, and their personal conduct in their even interpersonal relationships among themselves, they are not friends, okay?
So, hey, you know, when they come to you,
then, you know, judge between them or,
or leave them.
And if you leave them, they wouldn't cause you harm, no harm to you. And if you judge between them judge between them justly.
So that's, that's that part. Now, the GC apart. Now, the GC apart, there are certain issues here that we need to talk about because the juiciest part may look like.
And certainly, if you think that we're trying to reconcile,
if you think that we're comparing to here, a system that was
SEO centric, because there is like,
a system that is ethnocentric, right? People are basically the formative majority, or the core identity maker of that Empire. These were Imperial times, you know, just snap out of your presentism for a few seconds. These were Imperium times.
empires had a formative core formative core hops burgers, this that they have the formative core empires extended over large geographical locations, people of different ethnicities, and religions were parts of that Empire. Some empires were ethnocentric. They valued what the most their ethnic background, their ethnic background, are you Arab? Are you Kurdish? Are you Turkish? Who are you?
With NBS? The Empire of faith like the PBS PBS calls?
This is a an ethnocentric, ethnocentric Empire? Yes, of course, in all of our facts, there is a difference between Muslim and non Muslim. So you will consider all of this to be discrimination. Is there room for us to live with and live in the nation state system? Yes, there is and as we said before, and as we would continue to say, but from within their context, understand them within their context. Don't subject them to your presenters and understand them.
In their contexts within their context, this is a Theo centric nation, there is a difference between Muslim and non Muslim. So they will give the jizya they will give the poll taxes that jizya or coke taxes that were collected from non Muslims during those times. I have a few things to say about it.
And if you look at the introduction that I have here to this chapter, you will find someone like a Coptic writer, author by the name of Nabil Luca, who wrote a book
titled the Coptic Christians assessed the Muslims in the conquest of Egypt. And basically, he explained in this, that the jizya that the Muslims collected from the non Muslim subjects was about 1/10 of what the Byzantines conducted 1/10 of what the Byzantines collected
That is why
most of Egypt is Muslim now,
be not because of compulsion, but because of gradual acceptance of the religion. So, it is 1/10 of what the Byzantines collected and we will talk about you know, who whom to take the jizya from a little bit later, but as we will talk the prophets on Southern set the morass
or the MAS and he was I mean Cooley Hanuman Dinara, he already has, that he should take from every adult person had an adult person, one dinar, Rama, Rama and who was the jizya during the time of Amara, viola Han, who was 1224 and 48 1224 and 4812 their homes in Edina rs
24 their homes and 48 their homes This was taken from the poor This was taken from the middle class this was taken from the rich Do you know what is 12 their homes that is one dinar
Do you know what is one dinar
forget about you know, like anything? How much did the prophets of Salaam gave or was it to buy sheep she
won dinar he gave him one dinar capacity or weapon to talk about it. He then sold it for two dinars and then purchase one sheep for one dinar brought him the dinar back. You know that story as a beautiful story, not only because of, you know the cleverness of Ottawa, but because it gives us an indication about the value of one c one c equal to what wanted to dinars wanted to dinars. So,
that is what they need to pay in one year, one whole year, half to one
sheet, half sheet, one sheet, that is what they needed to pay for one year, which appears this year and mataman because there are differences between two different types of opinions, as we will say, as we will come to say this jizya is not taken from the elderly, it is not taken from women, it is not taken from children, it is taking from adult men, and it is not taken from all of them it is taken from from infected mothers and there is the guide and
there is the fact that is there that you can't make money that
you lose over.
So there is that type of appear, you don't take the disease from them altogether. guy that cannot earn the money. This is the field that can earn the money you take from them have to one sheep once a year, from the middle class, one to two sheep, once a year from the upper class, the wealthy you take from them two to four sheep once a year. That's it. That's what the GCL that is what the jizya was during the time of armor.
So, this was what is so what does that mean? It means that to some extent, yes, it was important for the state revenue, but never and the amount of the amount who made sure one day they brought them about money and they said long term
or electronics or something of that nature. Maybe you overwhelmed them by taking all this money from them. And then they said to him
No, we have only taken what they have willingly,
you know, give,
they have willingly willingly given us without compulsion, and without overwhelming them and without taking extra anything at home on sad Praise be to Allah who did not make this happen.
I would not make this happen under me, or, you know, under my jurisdiction. So
now is this was in return for what can return for protection, in return for protection.
And we know that when I've always heard that the Byzantines are coming back to conquer a sham, what did he do?
You know, he's recruiting now to defend the stem agonist, the Byzantines, but the first thing that he did is he took the money that he had collected from the people of a sham.
And give it back to them, because he was not sure that he would be able to protect them, we have taken this money from you to protect you now, we're not sure that we'll be able to protect you, here's your money back.
And you will find that these things made people, you know, rally, you know, around the Muslims, the new conquerors, because it was all empires, you know, Persians look at Egypt, you know, Persians, the thalamic, the Romans, and so on. So, this is a new Empire, that is a lot better, a lot fairer. That is why it is a, you know, confirmed that with one of the Byzantines landed in the Delta.
In Egypt, after the success of the, you know, the Islamic conquest of Egypt, the Egyptians who were not Muslim sided with the Muslims, and repairing the Byzantines back to where they came from. So it is in return for that protection, and to, to, to basically have all the rights that we enjoy, and be demanded, or be required to fulfill all the obligations that we are required to fulfill. So sometimes, people did not want to call the jizya.
They said, We know we were not gonna pay,
who they didn't like the name, they didn't like the word that you know, the title itself, or the word itself. So I'm gonna call the check out for them. But we would pay more on my pages, colleges, gas notes, fine. It is basically to demonstrate the sovereignty of the state, it's important for state revenue and so on, some of them which I
says that this is just for revenue, just like there's a cap call, it's a card collectors account for Muslims and non Muslims on end the story and can make it equal collect the same as account for Muslims or non Muslims on end of the story.
Certainly the this, this would be a controversial interpretation, but again, at the same time, as I talked to you before, the concept of a particle which we talked about in his book and knock them out, or coptics cops in Egypt
is is that, you know, the basis of all this is the conquest, there is a new chapter and a new page, which is post colonialism, you know, Muslims and Christians
basically liberated this land from
the European colonialists. So there is a new chapter, a new social contract that can be established. That is not based on the original one.
Okay. These are just like some
issues. I wanted to mention that, certainly there is much to say here, much to say here. And why we're saying this as a, you know, apologists I mean, I consider myself to be an apologist. While I don't have any shame in this.
I know that Muslims and non Muslims would look down at this. But the idea here is in that fine, where apologist does not mean apologizing means defending to defend the religion.
Also within the intellectual milieu of your contemporaries, to defend their religion and a language that can be understood by the audience, by the audience is important. So
what we're trying to defend this man, we have to also make that distinction between scriptures tradition and history. This is not the
And then everything Muslims that to the people of the book or to people of other
basically faith orientations it is absolutely not. They were in equities. There was injustice had different parts of our history, our history as we love our history, but we are not deluded and we should not be.
We're not blind to the inequities and to the crimes that were committed by our own ancestors at times.
When the SEC says, Well matter, tolerable radicalism at mahalo macchiato, once they make that request, it must be honored and fighting them becomes prohibited. So when people have the book requests the jizya is like fighting before the fight with during the fight. If the people have the disease if the people of the book are requesting that the pages Yeah, and we will not fight, then it is haram to fight against them. And you must accept the disease from them. They talk about unless you think it's a trick or something of that nature, then that's a different story.
Okay, then the amount of jizya what? Easier to theorize equally how willing men are more serious? amania men are more middle moves theory cemani Harmon wamena motovicity arbeiten? Why schleuniger Harmon, women do not who is not?
There haven't taken anybody it is 48 their homes from the wealthy 24 from the middle class and 12 from those below that.
Okay, what are these? What I'm going to add in what I say you can find in what does that mean in what I am and what are added in what
it is and
it is not levied on a child woman frail, old man, infirm, or a blind person, slave or poor man who cannot afford it, who cannot afford it? Keep in mind the Byzantine. So I'm Egyptian I know. So that's why I know the history of Egypt. But the Byzantines have been taking like it is the taxes that they were collecting were based on headcount people are just a major difference here from the poll taxes that were levied by the Muslim conquerors.
Then the chief says woman asked them about that would you be how sacaton who and matter, okay, that mentality.
If one accepts Islam, after it becomes due on him, it is canceled, if he dies before paying that it is taken from his estate in is taken from his estate, you could say that if Muslims really were about their self interest, they would dread the conversion of non Muslims, because that will basically hurt the state revenue.
Extremely, you know, you know how taxes for every state like
what taxes mean to the government, governments and to authorities. So basically the conversion of people who would have been dreaded, so that was basically to tell you that they have no self interest in compelling people to convert, because that would mean loss of revenue.
But if he dies,
before paying it that is taken from his faith, keep in mind that if they are the like, weather, what if someone had the beginning of the holiday at the beginning of the year was a child and at the end of the year, became an adult? What was the what if they were insane at the beginning of the year, and then the end of the year, became sane, then
then you will figure out for how long they were adult for how long they were saying, and then he will take from them one quarter or 1/3 of the disease for the year and so on. And then it's he says a woman it turns out, I mean, who
is a mad?
Cookie, I mean one is for the OSH if someone conducts business outside of his hometown or country and then returns 5% is taken from him. 5% is taken from him. That is, you know, the me that leaves the country and then comes back. Customs 5% you don't that Latasha and muslimeen of course in there, you know
book that did not apply to Muslims because that would be a Muslim man, that would be taking the 10th which is called touchy that we will come to you know, the 10%
from from from the Muslims, but that means they have to pay 5% Keep in mind this 5% you have to be paid, you know customs have to be paid by the means when they come back to the Muslim land.
Once a year, once a year, it's not every time you're coming in with it coming in with merchandise. It's not every time you come in with merchandise, but let's say you brought for the first time of the year once a year.
For the first time of the year you brought in merchandise for $1,000
the next time you brought in merchandise for 13 $100 Okay, so the first time we will take you 5% take 5% from the 1000
the second time we either don't take anything or take 5% from the 300 because you paid already on 1000 so the next time we either don't take anything or take 5% from the 300 not the 1300
okay and then the SEC says we're in Dhaka 100 billion okay up the minimum if a merchant to as hard to be enters our land 10% is taken from him 10% is taken from him. That's the difference between the WMD and the heartbeats. 5% from them me the covenanted
sort of the numbers and subject of the Muslim LAN and the Harvey, the worrying, you know, subject of the warring state
for the hobby, it is 10% Keep in mind, this 10% was taken from them and it is more they took it from us also. They took it from us also. And this was not investigated by the prophets. Hassan was instigated by Amara Delano. Remember what hanifa says that this is basically subject to
international laws and diplomacy, diplomacy and so on. It is subject to the concept of reciprocity. If the job the 10% that they're taking from us, we can drop the 10% we take from them. It's not standing around. It's not like written in stone. But 10% basically was
basically subject to reciprocity. According to the member hanifa they dropped to the 10% lamjao shirota Jr, Anna lamb No,
they dropped 10% we dropped to 10%. And then the SEC says, Well Manitoba had the internet, he may not deserve it this year, our Herman Miller, Alcatel muslimeen whenever we will have to be Darren Hardy hanadama who am
what I am talking to him when he said he will add the heat and the heat in and he has to have a beat him here.
If one breaches the covenant by failing to pay the jizya or abide by the rulings of the religion, by fighting against the Muslims and the like, or by escaping to the abode of war, the inviolability of his life and property ceases, however, the covenant with his women and children is not terminated unless he takes them with him to the abode of war. And even according to shorthand, monta,
even if he took them to the abode of war, to authorize position in the Meza is that covenant is still standing,
because it is only him who violated the covenant and the good went with him because they just have to go with him.
Okay, so that that is basically whoever violates as we said before, the default is that all abodes now are the abode of treaty about conciliation, but I had Dodd
that and had not thought it Muladhara Dharamsala, the land of Treaty, the land, the fees, the land of the land of security, particularly when Muslims are able to practice their religion openly in a in a land. It is the land of security.
And as we said before,
whoever comes into the land of security is bound by his car, that covenant that visa that citizenship cannot basically breach it cannot work.
I elated to the point where inserted unfair, there is a very so that is huge inserted and falen which was a pinata Allah says
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auto do one levina manual, while I'm Johar Jerome Melaka Minh what it means.
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for instance or openfit, Dean falaknuma commonness Illa Allah common Vedic momento, mythique, Pallavi ma Tama and if I make any mistake in the Quran, you correct me right away.
So, the this is the end of this verses
is such a telling
instruction, because Allah subhanaw taala is saying to the believers, saying that the believers, you are the allies of each other, those of you who emigrated and those of you who provide abode and support and renounce are your allies of each other. The believers that not emigrate, they are not part of the jurisdiction. They are not part of this state, city state.
But still state, they are not part of this faith.
They are not your allies, politically. They are always religiously, they're believers.
But they are not to the Euro wise politically until the emigrate until the immigrate, if they don't want to emigrate, then when instance or openfit, Dean, and if they seek your assistance with regard to the meaning they being oppressed because of their Islam, by others, and they seek your assistance, your help your support for ally commoners, then giving them assistance and support is obligatory on you. Accept, and that's very telling, that's huge, except against the people between you and whom there is a covenant. You do not give them support. You do not give them support. Again, it's the people between you again, it's not Muslims between you and home, there is a covenant
Illallah Coleman beynac, Medina, mytho, Allah,
Allah is all seeing of what you do, do not betray the covenant Allah sees you do not betray the covenant with the non Muslims. So that means that Muslims, Muslim minorities and non Muslim lands, they have to deserve respect to the covenant, even if there is conflict between their compatriots and their coreligionists. What should they do then? And this is a position that would not like be the people would not like it on the right or the left. They should be pacifists, then they should be nonpartisan. They're
not not, you know, they should not participate partake in that conflict between their compatriots and their coreligionists. They said, sit down and say, conscientious objectors. Were not partaking in this conflict. We will not betray our compatriots, we will not oppress our coreligionists
and we will just stay out of it stay out of this conflict or out of this war, and that is the expected conduct of Commerce, the minorities
with respect to their coreligionists and compatriots.
Okay, so the first question, we usually don't record the q&a session, but the first question is an important question. What if a country oppresses Muslims and we have a treaty with them?
Are we bound by that treaty forever? you terminate the treaty, but you have to basically
you have to cast the treaty if if,
if you're up to it. And if you decide also, based on the benefit, harm assessment, that, you know, terminating that treaty is
and prudent, then you play the treaty, and you give support to your persecuted brethren. You give support to your persecuted brethren.
As long as you have a treaty, you don't betray or breach the trade in the treaty,
deceptively, or the secretly, you have to honor your treaty, the option that you have is to continue to the end
treaty, our covenant or agreement or terminated, but when you terminated it has to be done in a transparent way.
And also, it has to be done in a prudent way.
That brings us to the end of this chapter there is much to say, and certainly I will regret missing some of the things that I wanted to talk about once we end or on my way back home. But anyway, inshallah, in the q&a session, there will be an opportunity for further clarified clarification. protocol. Yeah, that stuff
and stuff like