Ahsan Hanif – Tafseer As SaDi #14

Ahsan Hanif
AI: Summary © The speaker discusses the importance of Islam's principles of justice and forgiveness, including forgiveness and trust in WhatsApp groups. He emphasizes the need for women to lead and advise in their own communities, and for them to be leaders and advisors. He uses the example of the American woman to show how women are not just a reflection of their perception of women and the culture within their organization. He explains that the media tries to portray women as oppressed and portray them as oppressed, but women are also seen as tools for achieving goals.
AI: Transcript ©
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So today is the 14th day of our

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reading and commentary of this book of

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Tafsir al Karim al Rahman,

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more famously known as the Tafsir of Asadi

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by Sheikh Abdul Rahman ibn Nasser Asadi who

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died in the year 1,000

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376 of the hijrah.

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And

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today

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we are covering the 60th chapter of the

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Quran,

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which is It can be said and pronounced

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with a or

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a

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With a refers to the woman that is

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being tested

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and with a to the test that is

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administered.

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Similar to what we said about the first

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surah in the 28th juz, and

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And out of the 2 pronunciations with the

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fatha or a kasra, for both surahs, the

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fatha

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is more preferable.

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The surah is a surah that speaks as

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we will see or the test that is

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being referred to is the test that is

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administered

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to the believing women.

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And will speak about that in more detail

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as we come to the relevant verses.

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This name, Al Mumtahana or Al Mumtahina

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is what is what the surah is known

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by in many of the early works of

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tafsir.

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And it is also known by some other

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names. From those names is Surah

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the surah of love because Allah mentions that

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term or that verse

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about love at the beginning of the surah.

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And from the

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names that it is also known by Surat

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Ibtihan,

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which means the test. So it's a similar

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name to or meaning to or

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and that was reported from the scholar of

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Tafsir Muqatil

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And it's also known as Surah Al Mubayah,

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the surah of Bayah or giving the pledge

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of allegiance because Allah

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speak about giving the pledge of allegiance towards

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the end of this surah. Surah is known

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by more than one name.

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It is a Surah according to the vast

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majority of the scholars of the firsils, and

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it is reported that Ibn Abbas

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said something to that effect. And as we

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said before, in Al Qurtubi bin Aati and

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others said that that is by agreement, by

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consensus of the scholars of tafsir, and it

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consists of 13 verses.

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In the name of Allah, the most gracious,

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the most merciful.

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Oh, you who believe

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do not take my enemies,

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do not take my enemies and yours as

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allies, offering them friendship even though they have

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rejected the truth that has come to you

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and have driven out the messenger and yourselves

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simply because you believe in Allah, your lord.

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If you have come out to strive in

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my cause and seek my good pleasure, how

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can you offer them friendship in secret when

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I know full well all that you conceal

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and all that you disclose? Whoever among you

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does does that has strayed from the stripped

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from the right path.

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If they found an any opportune if they

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found any opportunity, they would show themselves to

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be your enemies and would harm you physically

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and verbally, and they wish that you would

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disbelieve.

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Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit

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you on the day of resurrection. He will

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separate you on that day and Allah sees

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well

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sees well all that you do.

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Verily you have a good example in Ibrahim

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and those who are with him. When they

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said to their people, verily we disown

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you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we

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renounce you and

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there has arisen between us

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and you enmity and hatred forever until you

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believe in Allah alone. But do not emulate

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the words of Ibrahim to his father.

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I will surely pray for forgiveness for you,

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but I have no power to protect you

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from the punishment of Allah. Ibrahim and his

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followers prayed, our lord, in you we put

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our trust and to you return and to

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you is the return of all.

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Our lord, do not make us subject to

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the persecution of the disbelievers and forgive us,

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our lord. Verily you are the almighty, the

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most wise.

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Verily in them, Ibrahim and his followers, you

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have an you have a good example for

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those who look with hope to Allah in

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the last day and whoever turns away, verily

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Allah is self sufficient, worthy of our praise.

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It may be that Allah will bring about

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friendship between you and those of them whom

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you currently consider enemies. For Allah has power

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over all things and Allah is also forgiving,

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most merciful.

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Allah does not forbid you to deal kindly

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and justly with those who do not fight

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you because of your religion or drive you

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out of your homes. For verily, Allah loves

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those who are just.

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Allah only forbids you to take allies as

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Allah only forbids you to take as allies

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those who fight you because of your religion,

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drive you out of your homes or help

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others in driving you out. Whoever takes them

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as allies, it is they who are the

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wrongdoers.

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Many of the contempt contemporary

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contemporaries, male matatus. Many of the commentators, may

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Allah have mercy on them, have stated that

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the reason for the revelation of these verses

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is the story of Hatib ibn Abi Beltah

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when the prophet was making preparations for the

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conquest of Mecca.

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Hatib wrote a letter to Quraysh informing them

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that the prophet

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was going to head towards Mecca so that

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they would owe him a favor, not because

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of any doubt or hypocrisy

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on his part. And he sent that letter

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with a woman. The prophet was told

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about what he had done, so he sent

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people to catch up with that woman before

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she reached Mecca and take the letter from

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her. He he rebuked

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who

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apologized and the prophet accepted his apology. This

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is the one known story of the companion,

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Haathim ibn Abi Beltah. When the prophet salallahu

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alaihi wasallam decided that he was going to

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go in the 8th year to the conquest

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of Mecca, the prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

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kept that hidden. He kept that quiet, and

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he didn't want the news

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to reach the ears of Quraish because Quraish

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wouldn't find out until the prophet

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was very close to the city of Mecca,

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and it surprised them. They were taken aback.

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And that's because

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they broke the conditions of the Treaty of

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Hudaybiyyah. When they signed the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

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from those conditions, as we mentioned, when we

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were discussing Surat Al Fath. Is there anyone

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that wants to ally with the Muslims can

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do so? Anyone that wants to ally with

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the Quraysh can do so? So one of

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the allies of Quraysh

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attacked one of the allies of the Muslims,

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and some of the Quraysh helped them. So

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those people who attacked were the allies of

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the Muslims. They came to the prophet sallallahu

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alaihi wasallam. They said, oh, messenger of Allah.

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And some of them weren't even Muslims. They

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said, oh, Muhammad. This is what they did

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and this is what took place. And so

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the prophet

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said that we will aid you, we will

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come to your support. And when Abu Sufyan

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was the leader of Quraysh, heard what some

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of these Quraysh youngsters had done, He understood

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his gravity. And in some narrations, he rode

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to the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam. And he

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wanted to

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remake the treaty or to revive the treaty

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because they'd broken one of its terms, but

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the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam refused to listen

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to him. And so the prophet sallallahu alaihi

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wasallam set out or he intended to set

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out to the city of Mecca.

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No one was meant to know. The companions

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were told, they were told to keep it

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quiet. The prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam said one

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day to Ali radhiallahu an, and he had

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with him some other companions such as Al

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Nqdad,

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ibn al Aswad radiallahu an. These were companions

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that were known to be knights,

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horse riders. And so he said to them,

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go and ride fast. You will come to

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such and such a place, and there you

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will find an old woman. She has with

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her a letter. Take it from and bring

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it back to me. They came to this

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woman at that place. They found us. The

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prophet said, salallahu alayhi wasalam. They said, give

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us the letter. She said, I don't have

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any letter.

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So they searched her belongings, they searched her

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pockets, couldn't find anything. They said Allah's messenger

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said, salallahu alaihi wasallam, that you have a

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letter. So either we'll strip you naked or

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you give it to us, meaning we're not

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going to stop because the prophet told us

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that you have the letter, so you must

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have it somewhere. She had braided it into

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her hair. So she unbraided her hair and

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she took out the letter and gave it

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to them. They came back and the prophet

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sallallahu alaihi wasallam opened it and it said,

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from Halkud, ibn Abi Balta'a, his companion, to

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the people of Mecca,

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and then telling them about what the prophet

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sallallahu alaihi wasallam was planning. The prophet sallallahu

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alaihi wasallam called,

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and this was always his way. Even though

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it's a grave issue and it's a major

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thing that's taking place. We would call it

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in our time, in our common parlance, we

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call it treason.

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He called his companion and asked him, why

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did you do this, oh, happened? That was

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always the way of the prophet, sallallahu alaihi

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wasallam. Even if someone seemingly made a major

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issue, a major mistake, he would always seek

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to confer and ask and to substantiate.

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So he asked him, oh, how thick, why

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did you do this? He said, oh, it's

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not because of any dislike of Islam, nor

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is it because I hate you or the

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Muslims, but it's because I'm weak.

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In Makkah I have no one to protect

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my belongings.

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All of these people of the don't have

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family there. They're going to look after their

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belongings, their property, their wealth. I have no

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one. So I just want you to give

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this news to someone that they will protect

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my belongings and I knew that it wouldn't

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make a difference what Allah decrees will happen.

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Wouldn't make a difference to anything. However, maybe

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I would benefit.

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So the prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam forgave him.

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Umar radiAllahu an said, oh, messenger of Allah,

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should I not strike his neck off because

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of what he done? The prophet said, is

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he not from the people of Badr? And

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perhaps Allah looked upon those people of Badr

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and said, do as you please for I

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have forgiven you. So hadith

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because he was one of those companions that

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fought in the battle of Badr. He's from

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the major senior companions of the prophet sallallahu

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alaihi wasallam. And this shows that even though

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senior companions sometimes could and they could make

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make mistakes, they are humans. But they are

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people that Allah has forgiven for their sins

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because their sins or their mistakes that they

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make are drowned in the ocean of good

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that they did. And the ocean of jihad

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that they performed with the prophet

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and the way that they supported Islam and

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the Muslims. So this is the story of

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Khatib, and so Allah revealed these verses according

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to many of the scholars of

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Tafsir concerning him

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and what he did on that day.

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These verses contain a stern prohibition

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against taking the disbelievers, polytheists, and others as

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allies and showing friendship towards them. And it

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tells us that doing so is contrary to

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faith as is contrary to the way of

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Ibrahim Al Khalil, alayhis salam, peace be upon

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him. It is also contrary to reason, which

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dictates that one should be extremely cautious

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with the enemy, who would spare no effort

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and miss no opportunity to cause harm.

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All you who believe, act upon what is

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dictated by your faith, which is to take

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as friends those who have faith and act

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in accordance with it, and to take as

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enemies those who oppose faith, for such people

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are the enemies of Allah and of the,

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and of the believers. So do not take

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the enemies of Allah and your enemy

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as allies offering them friendship. That is hastening

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to show friendship towards them and to strengthen

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the bonds of friendship with them. For once

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friendship is formed, it will be, it will

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be followed by support and taking the friend

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as an ally. This puts a person beyond

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beyond the pale of faith, and he will

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become one of the disbelievers. He will no

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longer be part of the community of faith.

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Moreover, the one who takes a disbeliever as

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a friend is also lacking in dignity. How

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could he take as an ally the worst

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of his enemies who intends nothing but ill

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towards him and go against the teachings of

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his lord and true ally who intends good

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for him and joins him to do good

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and urges him to do it. Another fact

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that caused the believer to to regard to

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regard the disbelievers as enemy as enemies is

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that they have rejected that which has come

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to the believers of truth of truth. And

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there is nothing greater than this difference and

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opposition

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for they have rejected your religion altogether and

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they claim that you are misguided

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and have strayed from the true path. And

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Allah

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will mention in the verses that are going

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to come in the passage that we've already

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recited

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the way that we deal with different non

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believers according to the way that they treat

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Islam and the Muslims. So there are those

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who are very good and very

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kind and very generous and have good relations

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and have good etiquette and manners. Allah

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tells them tells us to deal with them

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in one way. And then there are those

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who are enemies of Islam who openly

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try to oppress and hurt and persecute the

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Muslims. So Allah

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tells us to deal with them in a

00:17:49 --> 00:17:51

different way. And so Allah makes that distinction

00:17:51 --> 00:17:54

within the Surah as we will see. In

00:17:54 --> 00:17:56

fact, it is they who have disbelieved in

00:17:56 --> 00:17:58

the truth concerning which there is no doubt.

00:17:58 --> 00:18:00

And if anyone rejects the truth, it is

00:18:00 --> 00:18:02

impossible for him to have any evidence or

00:18:02 --> 00:18:04

proof to support his views. Rather, once one

00:18:04 --> 00:18:06

comes to know the truth, it is easy

00:18:06 --> 00:18:08

to see the falseness and corruption of the

00:18:08 --> 00:18:10

views of the one who rejects it. Because

00:18:10 --> 00:18:11

of their profound enmity,

00:18:12 --> 00:18:14

they have driven out the messenger and yourselves,

00:18:14 --> 00:18:16

all believers, from your

00:18:16 --> 00:18:17

homes and have explode

00:18:18 --> 00:18:19

and have explode you from your land. So

00:18:19 --> 00:18:21

this is that group of the disbelievers, the

00:18:21 --> 00:18:24

non believers who are enemies of Islam, enemies

00:18:24 --> 00:18:26

to the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam. That's what

00:18:26 --> 00:18:28

Allah says here, that how can you take

00:18:28 --> 00:18:30

those people, meaning people like Hatib who was

00:18:30 --> 00:18:32

trying to curry favor with them, gain some

00:18:32 --> 00:18:34

type of help from them, How can you

00:18:34 --> 00:18:36

take them as allies when all that they

00:18:36 --> 00:18:38

did was oppose Islam? Try to harm the

00:18:38 --> 00:18:41

prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam, the exiled Jew and

00:18:41 --> 00:18:43

the messenger of Allah salallahu alaihi wasallam, and

00:18:43 --> 00:18:45

now you want to go back to them

00:18:45 --> 00:18:47

and be and be allies with them. The

00:18:47 --> 00:18:49

only thing you did wrong in their view

00:18:49 --> 00:18:51

is that you believe in Allah, your lord,

00:18:51 --> 00:18:53

who has enjoined upon all people to worship

00:18:53 --> 00:18:55

him because he cares for them and has

00:18:55 --> 00:18:57

bestowed upon them blessings both visible and invisible.

00:18:58 --> 00:18:59

He is Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala. And this

00:18:59 --> 00:19:01

is something which is mentioned often in the

00:19:01 --> 00:19:03

Quran about the prophets of

00:19:03 --> 00:19:05

Allah. That their people when they rejected them

00:19:05 --> 00:19:07

and they turned away from them, they only

00:19:07 --> 00:19:08

did so because

00:19:08 --> 00:19:10

they worshiped Allah alone. There was no other

00:19:10 --> 00:19:14

reason. Wasn't because there was some family feud

00:19:14 --> 00:19:16

or some issue over money or something. No.

00:19:16 --> 00:19:17

It's only because of Tawhid,

00:19:17 --> 00:19:19

because of their worship of Allah

00:19:19 --> 00:19:20

as,

00:19:21 --> 00:19:22

is mentioned about that man, the believer from

00:19:22 --> 00:19:23

the family

00:19:23 --> 00:19:24

of pharaoh.

00:19:24 --> 00:19:26

That he said to the people of pharaoh

00:19:26 --> 00:19:28

when they rejected Musa

00:19:31 --> 00:19:33

Do you want to kill this man only

00:19:33 --> 00:19:35

because he says my lord is Allah? So

00:19:35 --> 00:19:37

likewise, Allah is really saying the same thing

00:19:37 --> 00:19:39

here. The only reason they're your enemies and

00:19:39 --> 00:19:40

that they kicked you out and removed you

00:19:40 --> 00:19:42

from Makkah is because you said that you

00:19:42 --> 00:19:44

wanted to worship Allah alone.

00:19:45 --> 00:19:48

What religion and what dignity and reason can

00:19:48 --> 00:19:49

there be left in a person if he

00:19:49 --> 00:19:51

takes as allies to disbelievers who like that

00:19:51 --> 00:19:53

in every time and place?

00:19:54 --> 00:19:56

And nothing is preventing them from harming him

00:19:56 --> 00:19:58

except fear or a strong deterrent.

00:19:58 --> 00:20:00

If you have come out to strive in

00:20:00 --> 00:20:02

my cause and seek my good pleasure, that

00:20:02 --> 00:20:04

is if the intention behind your coming out

00:20:04 --> 00:20:06

is to strive in jihad in Allah's cause,

00:20:06 --> 00:20:08

to make the word of Allah supreme, and

00:20:08 --> 00:20:10

seeking the pleasure of Allah, in that case

00:20:10 --> 00:20:13

you should strive to comply with the with

00:20:13 --> 00:20:16

the principle of taking as friends and allies

00:20:16 --> 00:20:17

the close friends of Allah and opposing his

00:20:17 --> 00:20:20

enemies. For that is Jihad in his case,

00:20:20 --> 00:20:22

in his cause, and it is one of

00:20:22 --> 00:20:23

the greatest means of drawing close to one's

00:20:23 --> 00:20:25

lord, taking thereby his pleasure.

00:20:26 --> 00:20:28

How can you offer them friendship in secret

00:20:28 --> 00:20:31

when I know full well all that you

00:20:31 --> 00:20:33

conceal and all that you disclose? In other

00:20:33 --> 00:20:35

words, how can you show friendship to those

00:20:35 --> 00:20:35

disbelievers

00:20:36 --> 00:20:38

in secret and conceal it? When you know

00:20:38 --> 00:20:41

that Allah knows what you conceal and what

00:20:41 --> 00:20:43

you disclose. Even if it is hidden from

00:20:43 --> 00:20:44

the believers, it cannot be hidden from Allah

00:20:44 --> 00:20:47

Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala. And he will requite people

00:20:47 --> 00:20:49

for what he knows of them, both good

00:20:49 --> 00:20:51

and evil. Whoever among you does that, namely

00:20:51 --> 00:20:53

taking the disbelievers as allies after Allah has

00:20:53 --> 00:20:55

warned against that,

00:20:55 --> 00:20:57

has strayed from the right path because he

00:20:57 --> 00:20:59

has followed the path that is contrary to

00:20:59 --> 00:21:01

Islamic teaching, reason, and human dignity.

00:21:02 --> 00:21:02

Then Allah

00:21:03 --> 00:21:05

explained the extent of their enmity so as

00:21:05 --> 00:21:07

to urge the believers to regard them as

00:21:07 --> 00:21:09

enemies. If they found any opportunity

00:21:09 --> 00:21:11

to catch you out or or to harm

00:21:11 --> 00:21:13

you, they would show themselves to be your

00:21:13 --> 00:21:15

enemies quite openly and would harm you physically

00:21:15 --> 00:21:18

by killing you, striking you, and so on.

00:21:18 --> 00:21:20

And verbally, they and verbally by saying hurtful

00:21:20 --> 00:21:21

words.

00:21:22 --> 00:21:24

And they wish that you would disbelieve. This

00:21:24 --> 00:21:26

is their ultimate aim and is all that

00:21:27 --> 00:21:29

all they want from you. If you argue

00:21:29 --> 00:21:31

and say we only take the disbelievers as

00:21:31 --> 00:21:34

friends because of ties of kinship or financial

00:21:34 --> 00:21:36

interest, you should understand that your wealth and

00:21:36 --> 00:21:37

children will not avail you in the slightest

00:21:37 --> 00:21:40

before Allah. And Allah sees well all that

00:21:40 --> 00:21:42

you do. Hence, he warns hence, he warns

00:21:42 --> 00:21:45

you against taking as friends these believers whose

00:21:45 --> 00:21:47

friendship is harmful to you. And this concept

00:21:47 --> 00:21:49

is known, as we know, in the Sharia

00:21:50 --> 00:21:52

as meaning the allegiance

00:21:54 --> 00:21:55

and meaning enmity.

00:21:55 --> 00:21:56

And Islam has this principle.

00:21:57 --> 00:21:59

Allah as you can see from these verses

00:21:59 --> 00:22:01

is speaking about a certain group of disbelievers

00:22:01 --> 00:22:03

or enemies, meaning that if they had the

00:22:03 --> 00:22:05

ability, they would kill you, they would capture

00:22:05 --> 00:22:07

you, they would imprison you, they would torture

00:22:07 --> 00:22:09

you, they would oppress you as was in

00:22:09 --> 00:22:11

the time of the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam.

00:22:11 --> 00:22:13

Those Muslims that remained behind in Makkah, they

00:22:13 --> 00:22:15

were unable to migrate or they were captured

00:22:16 --> 00:22:18

and prevented from migrating. They were tortured and

00:22:18 --> 00:22:21

they were harmed, and they were in every

00:22:21 --> 00:22:23

different way, they would try to, or they

00:22:23 --> 00:22:25

tried to make them apostate from their religion

00:22:25 --> 00:22:28

and from their faith. So Allah says don't

00:22:28 --> 00:22:30

take those people as as your allies besides

00:22:30 --> 00:22:33

Allah What does it mean besides Allah

00:22:33 --> 00:22:35

Meaning that if they want you to turn

00:22:35 --> 00:22:37

away from the path of Allah, to in

00:22:37 --> 00:22:39

any way diminish your iman or turn away

00:22:39 --> 00:22:41

from your religion or weaken your faith, then

00:22:41 --> 00:22:43

you don't obey them in that. But at

00:22:43 --> 00:22:45

the same time if they don't want to

00:22:45 --> 00:22:46

do that, then as we will see, it's

00:22:46 --> 00:22:48

permissible for you to have business dealings with

00:22:48 --> 00:22:50

them to do so. The prophet used to

00:22:50 --> 00:22:51

interact with the people around him that were

00:22:51 --> 00:22:53

from the non Muslims. He used to do

00:22:53 --> 00:22:56

business transactions with the Jews of Medina and

00:22:56 --> 00:22:57

with the other tribes that were around them

00:22:57 --> 00:22:59

from the non Muslims of that time. So

00:22:59 --> 00:23:02

that distinction is important and it is because

00:23:02 --> 00:23:04

people have not made that distinction,

00:23:04 --> 00:23:06

have confused this line that Allah azzawajal mentions

00:23:06 --> 00:23:09

in the Quran, that people do crazy things

00:23:09 --> 00:23:11

and they just make everyone who just happens

00:23:11 --> 00:23:12

to be non Muslim an enemy of Islam.

00:23:12 --> 00:23:13

No. Not necessarily.

00:23:14 --> 00:23:15

Because if that's your

00:23:15 --> 00:23:16

mentality,

00:23:16 --> 00:23:18

then the prophets of Allah, the messengers of

00:23:18 --> 00:23:20

Allah will never have given dawah. Just simply

00:23:20 --> 00:23:22

by being a non Muslim, everyone's an enemy

00:23:22 --> 00:23:23

of Islam. None of the prophets of Allah

00:23:23 --> 00:23:26

could have given dua because the cornerstone of

00:23:26 --> 00:23:27

dua as we've seen throughout the Quran and

00:23:27 --> 00:23:29

this tafsir is that you have to want

00:23:29 --> 00:23:31

some good for them. You have to hope

00:23:31 --> 00:23:32

for them, care for them, want them to

00:23:32 --> 00:23:34

be guided to the path of Allah Subhanahu

00:23:34 --> 00:23:36

Wa Ta'ala. And so the prophets of Allah

00:23:36 --> 00:23:38

and the messengers of Allah were people of

00:23:38 --> 00:23:40

compassion and kindness. They wanted them to be

00:23:40 --> 00:23:42

guided, But at the same time, there's a

00:23:42 --> 00:23:43

group of them that are going to be

00:23:43 --> 00:23:45

your enemies. They're going to be the people

00:23:45 --> 00:23:47

that are trying to harm you and to

00:23:47 --> 00:23:48

kill you. Those people, It would only be

00:23:48 --> 00:23:50

foolishness to try to make them and take

00:23:50 --> 00:23:52

them as your friends and as your allies

00:23:52 --> 00:23:54

because you know that all that they want

00:23:54 --> 00:23:56

to do is try to harm you. So

00:23:56 --> 00:23:57

this distinction is important. And Allah Azza wa

00:23:57 --> 00:24:00

Jal, as we said, will make this distinction

00:24:00 --> 00:24:02

clear in a verse that is coming, inshaAllah

00:24:02 --> 00:24:03

ta'ala, in a few verses.

00:24:04 --> 00:24:06

All believers, you have a good example which

00:24:06 --> 00:24:08

would be of benefit to you in Ibrahim

00:24:08 --> 00:24:10

and those who are with him, of the

00:24:10 --> 00:24:12

believers because you have you have been commanded

00:24:12 --> 00:24:14

to follow the religion of Ibrahim, the monotheist.

00:24:14 --> 00:24:16

When they said to their people, verily we

00:24:16 --> 00:24:19

disown you and whatever you worship besides Allah,

00:24:19 --> 00:24:21

That is when Ibrahim alayhis salam and the

00:24:21 --> 00:24:24

believers who were with him disavowed their people

00:24:25 --> 00:24:26

who were polytheists

00:24:26 --> 00:24:29

and that which they worship besides him besides

00:24:29 --> 00:24:30

Allah. And Allah, as we've had mentioned, said

00:24:30 --> 00:24:33

the prophet Ibrahim as an amazing example, alayhis

00:24:33 --> 00:24:36

salatu was salam. Why? Because Ibrahim, alayhis salam,

00:24:36 --> 00:24:37

said to his people, I'm not going to

00:24:37 --> 00:24:40

worship what you're upon because they were idolaters.

00:24:40 --> 00:24:42

They used to worship idols. He said, I'm

00:24:42 --> 00:24:43

not going to worship these gods that you

00:24:43 --> 00:24:44

worship besides Allah

00:24:45 --> 00:24:46

But he did so with

00:24:47 --> 00:24:49

with gentleness and in a certain ways. Eticus

00:24:49 --> 00:24:52

that Allah mentions elsewhere in the Quran in

00:24:52 --> 00:24:54

the verses that we have already covered. Allah

00:24:54 --> 00:24:55

praises him

00:24:55 --> 00:24:58

because when that line came between teaching or

00:24:58 --> 00:25:01

reaching or or the line came between taking

00:25:01 --> 00:25:03

his father and his people as allies, besides

00:25:03 --> 00:25:05

Allah, a zawajal, when they said to him

00:25:05 --> 00:25:06

either you will leave your religion

00:25:07 --> 00:25:09

or will stone you, will throw you into

00:25:09 --> 00:25:10

the fire, will burn you. What did he

00:25:10 --> 00:25:13

choose? He chose the path of Allah subhanahu

00:25:13 --> 00:25:15

wa ta'ala. So that is the distinction that

00:25:15 --> 00:25:17

Allah makes in the story of Ibrahim

00:25:18 --> 00:25:19

He chose Allah

00:25:20 --> 00:25:21

over and above

00:25:21 --> 00:25:24

his people, his father, his nation, even though

00:25:24 --> 00:25:26

that could have possibly led to his death.

00:25:27 --> 00:25:29

Then they expressed their enmity in the clearest

00:25:29 --> 00:25:32

terms saying, we renounce you and there has

00:25:32 --> 00:25:34

arisen quite clearly between you between us and

00:25:34 --> 00:25:37

you, enmity and hatred. That is resentment and

00:25:37 --> 00:25:39

removal of feelings of friendship from the heart

00:25:39 --> 00:25:41

and enmity expressed in physical actions.

00:25:42 --> 00:25:43

And there is no time limit for this

00:25:43 --> 00:25:46

enmity and resentment. Rather, is forever so long

00:25:46 --> 00:25:48

as you persist in your disbelief,

00:25:48 --> 00:25:50

until you believe in Allah alone. In other

00:25:50 --> 00:25:52

words, if you believe in Allah alone, this

00:25:52 --> 00:25:54

enmity and resentment will cease and will turn

00:25:54 --> 00:25:56

into love and And one of the things

00:25:56 --> 00:25:58

that we pay and benefit from this part

00:25:58 --> 00:26:00

of the verse is that they say, the

00:26:00 --> 00:26:02

believers, that there is between you and us,

00:26:02 --> 00:26:02

enmity,

00:26:03 --> 00:26:04

until you worship Allah

00:26:05 --> 00:26:07

alone. What does that show? That the basis

00:26:07 --> 00:26:10

of that enmity is what? The issue of

00:26:10 --> 00:26:10

tawhid.

00:26:11 --> 00:26:13

Nothing personal. There's nothing to do with anything

00:26:13 --> 00:26:14

else. It is tawheed of

00:26:15 --> 00:26:17

Allah Meaning what we dislike from you is

00:26:17 --> 00:26:19

that you make shirk with Allah subhanahu wa

00:26:19 --> 00:26:21

ta'ala. That's what we disapprove of. Of. Your

00:26:21 --> 00:26:23

shirk of Allah because that is the right

00:26:23 --> 00:26:25

of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala that you have

00:26:25 --> 00:26:27

that you have broken or transgressed,

00:26:28 --> 00:26:29

you haven't fulfilled.

00:26:29 --> 00:26:30

And so it is because of that right

00:26:30 --> 00:26:32

that you haven't fulfilled, that is where we

00:26:32 --> 00:26:35

have issues and problems with you. So long

00:26:35 --> 00:26:37

as that or whenever that right is fulfilled,

00:26:37 --> 00:26:38

then we have no issues with you. And

00:26:38 --> 00:26:40

that's seen clearly in the example of the

00:26:40 --> 00:26:43

companions of Radiallahu anhu. How many of them

00:26:43 --> 00:26:45

at the beginning of Islam were enemies to

00:26:45 --> 00:26:48

the Muslims, Used to kill and torture and

00:26:48 --> 00:26:49

harm the Muslims. But then as soon as

00:26:49 --> 00:26:50

they said,

00:26:51 --> 00:26:53

the Muslims become brothers like them. They love

00:26:53 --> 00:26:55

them, and they care for them. And all

00:26:55 --> 00:26:57

of that's forgotten what they did in the

00:26:57 --> 00:26:59

past. Some of them were major enemies of

00:26:59 --> 00:27:02

Islam. People like Khadid ibn Waleed, Abu Sufyan,

00:27:02 --> 00:27:04

Eklima, the son of Abu Jan. These people

00:27:04 --> 00:27:06

were major enemies of Islam. How many Muslims

00:27:06 --> 00:27:07

did they kill or torture

00:27:08 --> 00:27:09

directly or indirectly?

00:27:09 --> 00:27:11

But as soon as they came and they

00:27:11 --> 00:27:13

took the shahada and they believed in Islam,

00:27:13 --> 00:27:15

the Muslims never said anything to them. No

00:27:15 --> 00:27:17

harm was done to them. No one spoke

00:27:17 --> 00:27:19

ill of them. No one reminded them of

00:27:19 --> 00:27:21

the evil that they did. No. Because Islam

00:27:21 --> 00:27:23

wipes away the sins of that which comes

00:27:23 --> 00:27:26

before it. And so this is the criterion

00:27:26 --> 00:27:27

of making

00:27:27 --> 00:27:29

that is the duaheed of Allah subhanahu wa

00:27:29 --> 00:27:30

ta'ala.

00:27:30 --> 00:27:32

Thus, oh believers, you have a good example

00:27:32 --> 00:27:33

in Ibrahim

00:27:33 --> 00:27:35

and those who are with him of upholding

00:27:36 --> 00:27:39

faith and and affirmation of divine oneness and

00:27:39 --> 00:27:41

of acting in accordance with that and of

00:27:41 --> 00:27:43

worshiping Allah alone

00:27:43 --> 00:27:45

in all things. However, there is one ex

00:27:45 --> 00:27:47

exception to that which is mentioned in the

00:27:47 --> 00:27:49

words, but do not emulate the words of

00:27:49 --> 00:27:51

Ibrahim to his father, Azar, who was a

00:27:51 --> 00:27:54

polytheist and stubborn disbeliever, whom Ibrahim called to

00:27:54 --> 00:27:57

believe believe and affirm the oneness of Allah,

00:27:57 --> 00:27:59

but he refused. Hence, Ibrahim said, I will

00:27:59 --> 00:28:01

surely pray for your forgiveness for I will

00:28:01 --> 00:28:03

surely pray for forgiveness for you, although I

00:28:03 --> 00:28:05

have no power to protect you from the

00:28:05 --> 00:28:06

punishment of Allah. But I will call upon

00:28:06 --> 00:28:08

my lord. Perhaps my supplication to my lord

00:28:08 --> 00:28:10

will not remain unanswered.

00:28:11 --> 00:28:13

We should not follow the example of Ibrahim

00:28:13 --> 00:28:15

in this instance when he prayed for one

00:28:15 --> 00:28:17

who associated others with Allah. So as we

00:28:17 --> 00:28:20

mentioned before, at the beginning when Ibrahim, alayhis

00:28:20 --> 00:28:23

salatu, salam, is exiled from his land, he

00:28:23 --> 00:28:24

says to his father, I will ask Allah

00:28:24 --> 00:28:26

to forgive you. I will continue to make

00:28:26 --> 00:28:28

dua for you. And then later on Allah

00:28:29 --> 00:28:31

forbids him from doing so. And that's why

00:28:31 --> 00:28:31

when Allah

00:28:32 --> 00:28:33

mentions this verse, and it's not done as

00:28:33 --> 00:28:35

a story. This isn't a story of Ibrahim.

00:28:36 --> 00:28:38

It is telling us to benefit from the

00:28:38 --> 00:28:41

example of Ibrahim alayhis salatu wasalam. Allah is

00:28:41 --> 00:28:42

really saying take him as an example in

00:28:42 --> 00:28:44

everything that he did in his life. His

00:28:44 --> 00:28:47

submission to Allah, his obedience to Allah, the

00:28:47 --> 00:28:49

way that he had no,

00:28:49 --> 00:28:51

doubt or or confusion in terms of his

00:28:51 --> 00:28:53

resolve of worshiping Allah

00:28:53 --> 00:28:54

in terms of the way that he dealt

00:28:54 --> 00:28:57

with his father and his people. Take everything

00:28:57 --> 00:29:00

from Ibrahim except that one thing because Allah

00:29:00 --> 00:29:02

made a haram. What is that? That you

00:29:02 --> 00:29:05

cannot seek forgiveness for someone who's a disbeliever.

00:29:06 --> 00:29:08

What can you do during their lifetime? You

00:29:08 --> 00:29:10

can make dua that Allah guides them. As

00:29:10 --> 00:29:11

the prophet used to say,

00:29:14 --> 00:29:16

oh Allah guide my people for they don't

00:29:16 --> 00:29:17

know. And when the people came and they

00:29:17 --> 00:29:19

said, oh messenger of Allah, the people of

00:29:19 --> 00:29:22

those are evil, curse them. He said, oh,

00:29:22 --> 00:29:23

Allah, guide the people of Dua and bring

00:29:23 --> 00:29:24

them,

00:29:24 --> 00:29:26

meaning make them Muslims. So he will make

00:29:26 --> 00:29:29

dua for them. So that's permissible. But once

00:29:29 --> 00:29:31

they pass away and they die and they

00:29:31 --> 00:29:33

are apparently disbelievers or unbelievers, then it's not

00:29:33 --> 00:29:35

permissible for you to make any dua for

00:29:35 --> 00:29:37

them in terms of forgiveness and in terms

00:29:37 --> 00:29:39

of mercy and so on. So that is

00:29:39 --> 00:29:41

where the line was drawn because Azar died.

00:29:42 --> 00:29:44

He was a non believer. Allah said to

00:29:44 --> 00:29:45

Ibrahim, you come make dua for him after

00:29:45 --> 00:29:47

he died upon disbelief.

00:29:47 --> 00:29:49

And even in his lifetime, you come make

00:29:49 --> 00:29:51

dua for his forgiveness until he accepts iman,

00:29:51 --> 00:29:53

you make dua for his guidance. And that

00:29:53 --> 00:29:54

is why when the prophet

00:29:55 --> 00:29:57

in the hadith, when he went to visit

00:29:57 --> 00:29:59

the grave of his mother, He said, I

00:29:59 --> 00:30:01

asked my lord for 2 things, that I'd

00:30:01 --> 00:30:03

be able to visit the grave of my

00:30:03 --> 00:30:04

mother and that I should be able to

00:30:04 --> 00:30:06

seek forgiveness for her. He gave me permission

00:30:06 --> 00:30:09

to visit her grave, but he denied me

00:30:09 --> 00:30:11

that I should seek forgiveness for her because

00:30:11 --> 00:30:12

she died upon other than Islam.

00:30:13 --> 00:30:13

And so, therefore,

00:30:14 --> 00:30:16

that distinction is clear in the Sharia between

00:30:16 --> 00:30:19

the rights of the believers and others.

00:30:19 --> 00:30:21

So you should not pray for the polytheists

00:30:22 --> 00:30:24

and say that by doing so you are

00:30:24 --> 00:30:26

following the path of Ibrahim. For Allah has

00:30:26 --> 00:30:29

told us of Ibrahim's excuse for doing that

00:30:29 --> 00:30:31

in the verse in which he says, Ibrahim's

00:30:31 --> 00:30:33

prayer for his father's forgiveness was only because

00:30:33 --> 00:30:35

of a promise he had made to him.

00:30:35 --> 00:30:37

But when it became clear to him that

00:30:37 --> 00:30:39

he was an enemy to Allah, he disavowed

00:30:39 --> 00:30:42

him. Verily, Ibrahim was humble in supplication, forbearing.

00:30:43 --> 00:30:45

You have a good example in Ibrahim and

00:30:45 --> 00:30:47

those who were with him when they called

00:30:47 --> 00:30:49

upon Allah, put their trust in him, turned

00:30:49 --> 00:30:51

to him, and acknowledged their helplessness

00:30:51 --> 00:30:52

and shortcomings.

00:30:53 --> 00:30:55

They said, our lord, in you we put

00:30:55 --> 00:30:56

our trust, that is we rely on you

00:30:56 --> 00:30:59

to bring that which will benefit us and

00:30:59 --> 00:31:01

ward off that which will harm us. And

00:31:01 --> 00:31:03

we trust you, oh our lord, to do

00:31:03 --> 00:31:03

that.

00:31:04 --> 00:31:07

And to you we turn. That is we

00:31:07 --> 00:31:09

turn in obedience to you seeking your pleasure

00:31:09 --> 00:31:11

and all that may bring us closer to

00:31:11 --> 00:31:13

you. For we are striving to do that

00:31:13 --> 00:31:15

and to do the good deeds, and we

00:31:15 --> 00:31:17

know our return

00:31:18 --> 00:31:19

is to you. So we are preparing to

00:31:19 --> 00:31:21

meet you and doing that which will bring

00:31:21 --> 00:31:23

us close to you. Our lord, do not

00:31:23 --> 00:31:26

make us subject to the persecution of the

00:31:26 --> 00:31:28

disbelievers. That is do not give them power

00:31:28 --> 00:31:30

over us for our sins so that they

00:31:30 --> 00:31:33

persecute us and prevent us as much as

00:31:33 --> 00:31:35

they can from practicing our faith, which would

00:31:35 --> 00:31:36

cause

00:31:36 --> 00:31:39

them further confusion. For if they see that

00:31:39 --> 00:31:41

they have the upper hand, they will think

00:31:41 --> 00:31:43

that they are following the right path and

00:31:43 --> 00:31:45

that we are following the wrong path. And

00:31:45 --> 00:31:47

they will increase in disbelief and tyranny.

00:31:48 --> 00:31:50

And forgive us, our lord, for what we

00:31:50 --> 00:31:52

have committed of sins and evil deeds and

00:31:52 --> 00:31:55

for our shortcomings in doing what is enjoined

00:31:55 --> 00:31:57

upon us. Verily, you are the almighty

00:31:58 --> 00:32:00

who subjugates all things, the most wise, who

00:32:00 --> 00:32:02

does all that is appropriate. By your might

00:32:02 --> 00:32:03

and wisdom,

00:32:03 --> 00:32:06

grant us victory over our enemies. Forgive us

00:32:06 --> 00:32:08

our sins and mend our faults. And Allah

00:32:08 --> 00:32:10

says, oh Allah oh Allah, do not make

00:32:10 --> 00:32:12

us fitna for those who disbelieve.

00:32:13 --> 00:32:14

And this is, as the author says, that

00:32:14 --> 00:32:16

they are a fitna for us, meaning that

00:32:16 --> 00:32:18

they overpower us and therefore they persecute us

00:32:18 --> 00:32:20

in terms of our beliefs and in our

00:32:20 --> 00:32:22

religion, and they try to take us away

00:32:22 --> 00:32:24

from the religion of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala.

00:32:24 --> 00:32:26

That's one type of fitna. But another meaning

00:32:26 --> 00:32:27

of this verse also in Al Narno's best

00:32:27 --> 00:32:29

is that don't make us a fitna for

00:32:29 --> 00:32:32

them, meaning through our actions and what we

00:32:32 --> 00:32:33

do and our character,

00:32:33 --> 00:32:35

that we then take them away from the

00:32:35 --> 00:32:36

religion because it works both ways.

00:32:37 --> 00:32:39

Sometimes the disbelievers or non Muslims see the

00:32:39 --> 00:32:42

actions of believers or Muslims rather, and they

00:32:42 --> 00:32:43

see what they get up to and the

00:32:43 --> 00:32:45

stuff that they do and the evil that

00:32:45 --> 00:32:46

they cause and the harm that they do,

00:32:46 --> 00:32:48

and that's a fitna for them. They're like,

00:32:48 --> 00:32:49

we don't wanna be a part of that

00:32:49 --> 00:32:51

religion. We don't want to be like that.

00:32:51 --> 00:32:53

We don't like that character. We don't like

00:32:53 --> 00:32:55

those manners. So now we're a fitna for

00:32:55 --> 00:32:57

them. We've taken them away from the religion

00:32:57 --> 00:32:59

just as they try to sometimes take us

00:32:59 --> 00:33:01

away from our from our religion.

00:33:02 --> 00:33:02

Brother,

00:33:03 --> 00:33:04

if you can ask him just to

00:33:06 --> 00:33:09

no. Then Allah reiterates the encouragement to follow

00:33:09 --> 00:33:11

the example of Ibrahim and his followers. As

00:33:11 --> 00:33:13

he says, verily in them, Ibrahim and his

00:33:13 --> 00:33:15

followers, you have a good example. It is

00:33:15 --> 00:33:17

not made easy for everyone to follow this

00:33:17 --> 00:33:19

example, rather it is only made easy for

00:33:19 --> 00:33:21

those who look with hope to Allah in

00:33:21 --> 00:33:23

the last day. Having faith and seeking reward

00:33:23 --> 00:33:25

makes it easy for a person to face

00:33:25 --> 00:33:28

every difficult thing, makes him think little of

00:33:28 --> 00:33:30

all that he does, and makes him steadfast

00:33:30 --> 00:33:32

in following the example of the righteous slaves

00:33:32 --> 00:33:35

of Allah, the prophets and messengers, for he

00:33:35 --> 00:33:37

sees himself in need of that and compelled

00:33:37 --> 00:33:40

to try to do that. And whoever turns

00:33:40 --> 00:33:42

away from obeying Allah and following the example

00:33:42 --> 00:33:44

of his messengers only harms himself.

00:33:45 --> 00:33:47

He does not harm Allah in the slightest.

00:33:47 --> 00:33:50

Verily Allah is self sufficient and completely independent

00:33:50 --> 00:33:52

of means in all aspects, so

00:33:52 --> 00:33:54

he has no need of anyone among his

00:33:54 --> 00:33:57

creation at all worthy of all praise. In

00:33:57 --> 00:33:59

his essence, his names, his attributes, and his

00:33:59 --> 00:34:01

deeds, he is praiseworthy in all of them.

00:34:01 --> 00:34:03

Then Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala tells us that

00:34:03 --> 00:34:05

this enmity, enmity

00:34:05 --> 00:34:08

that he has enjoined the believers to have

00:34:08 --> 00:34:09

towards the polytheists

00:34:09 --> 00:34:12

and described the believers as showing enmity towards

00:34:12 --> 00:34:13

them is applicable

00:34:13 --> 00:34:15

so, so long as they persist in their

00:34:15 --> 00:34:18

polytheism and disbelief. But if they become believers,

00:34:18 --> 00:34:19

then the ruling is connected to the to

00:34:19 --> 00:34:21

the reason for it. And in that case,

00:34:21 --> 00:34:24

love that is based on faith should prevail.

00:34:24 --> 00:34:26

So do not despair, oh believers, of their

00:34:26 --> 00:34:29

turning to faith for it may be that

00:34:29 --> 00:34:31

Allah will bring about friendship between you and

00:34:31 --> 00:34:34

those of them whom you currently consider,

00:34:35 --> 00:34:35

enemies,

00:34:36 --> 00:34:38

the cause of which will be their turning

00:34:38 --> 00:34:40

to faith. For Allah has power over all

00:34:40 --> 00:34:43

things, which includes his being able to guide

00:34:43 --> 00:34:45

people's hearts and change them from one condition

00:34:45 --> 00:34:47

to another. And Allah is also forgiving and

00:34:47 --> 00:34:50

most merciful. He does not regard any sin

00:34:50 --> 00:34:52

as being too great to forgive or any

00:34:52 --> 00:34:53

fault as being too big to conceal.

00:34:54 --> 00:34:55

Say say,

00:34:55 --> 00:34:58

say, Allah says, oh my slaves who have

00:34:58 --> 00:35:01

transgressed against themselves by sinning greatly, do not

00:35:01 --> 00:35:03

despair of the mercy of Allah. For verily

00:35:03 --> 00:35:05

Allah forgives all sins. Verily is he who

00:35:05 --> 00:35:08

is oft who is the oft forgiving, the,

00:35:08 --> 00:35:11

the oft forgiving, most merciful. This verse indicates

00:35:11 --> 00:35:13

and offers glad tidings that some of the

00:35:13 --> 00:35:15

polytheists who at the time were enemies of

00:35:15 --> 00:35:18

the believers would become Muslim and that indeed

00:35:18 --> 00:35:19

came to pass. Praise be to Allah. And

00:35:19 --> 00:35:21

there are many examples of this as we

00:35:21 --> 00:35:23

know. Some of the arch enemies of Islam,

00:35:23 --> 00:35:25

as we said, will later on become Muslims.

00:35:25 --> 00:35:27

They would become from the major companions of

00:35:27 --> 00:35:30

the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam. And so Allah

00:35:30 --> 00:35:33

has all wisdom and all knowledge. He chooses

00:35:33 --> 00:35:35

whom to give guidance to and when to

00:35:35 --> 00:35:37

give them that guidance and how to give

00:35:37 --> 00:35:37

them that guidance.

00:35:39 --> 00:35:39

Allah

00:35:40 --> 00:35:41

does as he pleases

00:35:42 --> 00:35:44

If Allah sees in someone's heart a level

00:35:44 --> 00:35:46

of purity and sincerity and a willingness to

00:35:46 --> 00:35:49

accept the truth, Allah opens their heart up

00:35:49 --> 00:35:51

to the truth. Look at Abu Sufyan, spent

00:35:51 --> 00:35:52

the vast majority of his life as an

00:35:52 --> 00:35:54

arch enemy. What makes him different to Abu

00:35:54 --> 00:35:56

Jahl and Abu Lahab? They're all leaders of

00:35:56 --> 00:35:59

Quraish. Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab die upon

00:35:59 --> 00:36:01

their shirk and kufr. But Allah allowed the

00:36:01 --> 00:36:03

wussafian to live and to accept Islam.

00:36:04 --> 00:36:04

So

00:36:04 --> 00:36:07

Allah knows best the hearts of the people

00:36:07 --> 00:36:09

and that which they contain. So

00:36:09 --> 00:36:11

Allah guides those people that other people would

00:36:11 --> 00:36:14

sometimes think arch enemies of Islam, they would

00:36:14 --> 00:36:17

never accept Islam. People were sometimes surprised by

00:36:17 --> 00:36:18

some of the people that became Muslim. Even

00:36:18 --> 00:36:19

Umar

00:36:20 --> 00:36:22

before Islam was known to be very harsh

00:36:22 --> 00:36:24

towards the Muslims. He was a strong man,

00:36:24 --> 00:36:26

and he would punish and he would hit

00:36:26 --> 00:36:28

and he would anyone that came across his

00:36:28 --> 00:36:30

way, he would be extremely angry

00:36:30 --> 00:36:33

until towards the end of his days of

00:36:33 --> 00:36:35

disbelief when he when his heart started to

00:36:35 --> 00:36:37

become soft to towards the Muslims. There was

00:36:37 --> 00:36:40

a female, a male companion, a husband and

00:36:40 --> 00:36:42

wife that were leaving. They were going out

00:36:42 --> 00:36:44

from Makkah. The husband said to his wife,

00:36:44 --> 00:36:45

you stay here, and I'm going to go

00:36:45 --> 00:36:47

and get some stuff. I'm going to come

00:36:47 --> 00:36:48

back and meet you here. Just wait for

00:36:48 --> 00:36:50

me. So as she was waiting, Umar

00:36:51 --> 00:36:53

passed by her, so she became afraid. So

00:36:53 --> 00:36:54

he said to her, where are you going?

00:36:54 --> 00:36:56

You and your husband, you look like you're

00:36:56 --> 00:36:58

leaving. So she said to him, how can

00:36:58 --> 00:37:00

we stay here when we have people like

00:37:00 --> 00:37:02

you? Just became upset with him. People like

00:37:02 --> 00:37:04

you are hitting us torture, and now you

00:37:04 --> 00:37:04

tell me,

00:37:05 --> 00:37:06

where are you going? Where do you think

00:37:06 --> 00:37:07

we're going? We're leaving.

00:37:08 --> 00:37:09

So he just went quiet.

00:37:09 --> 00:37:12

He just went quiet. And that's not normal

00:37:12 --> 00:37:14

for Omar. Normally, he would hit and he

00:37:14 --> 00:37:16

would retaliate and he would become angry. He

00:37:16 --> 00:37:17

just remained quiet and he left and he

00:37:17 --> 00:37:18

walked away.

00:37:18 --> 00:37:20

So she was surprised.

00:37:20 --> 00:37:22

When her husband returned, she said, Omar came

00:37:22 --> 00:37:23

and this is what I said and this

00:37:23 --> 00:37:25

is what he did. And I'm surprised at

00:37:25 --> 00:37:26

the way he reacted.

00:37:27 --> 00:37:28

So he said to her, do you think

00:37:28 --> 00:37:30

Umar is going to accept Islam? My donkey

00:37:30 --> 00:37:32

will be Muslim before he becomes Muslim.

00:37:32 --> 00:37:34

Because that's how far fetched it seemed to

00:37:34 --> 00:37:34

them.

00:37:35 --> 00:37:37

And so Allah guided. Amr

00:37:38 --> 00:37:40

became from the greatest companions of our prophet

00:37:40 --> 00:37:41

So

00:37:41 --> 00:37:43

Allah says here, yes, these people may be

00:37:43 --> 00:37:44

your enemies today,

00:37:45 --> 00:37:45

and that's

00:37:46 --> 00:37:47

true for that time period, but you don't

00:37:47 --> 00:37:49

know what Allah holds in the future. So

00:37:49 --> 00:37:50

the prophet

00:37:50 --> 00:37:53

will make dua for people, And his normal

00:37:53 --> 00:37:55

tongue and his normal speech was not one

00:37:55 --> 00:37:56

of cursing,

00:37:57 --> 00:37:59

one of asking for punishment and destruction,

00:37:59 --> 00:38:01

but rather for guidance. Because many of those

00:38:01 --> 00:38:04

different tribes and many of those different different

00:38:04 --> 00:38:06

groups of people in Arabia would come to

00:38:06 --> 00:38:07

the prophet

00:38:07 --> 00:38:08

in the 9th year towards end of his

00:38:08 --> 00:38:10

life, and they would accept Islam wholesale.

00:38:11 --> 00:38:13

Whole tribes would come and accept Islam.

00:38:13 --> 00:38:15

And so that is the general

00:38:15 --> 00:38:17

principle in this religion. Yes. At the moment,

00:38:17 --> 00:38:19

they may be enemies. Make for them. Maybe

00:38:19 --> 00:38:21

Allah opens their hearts to Islam. And we've

00:38:21 --> 00:38:23

seen that even in our time. People who

00:38:23 --> 00:38:26

at one time are very very ardent

00:38:26 --> 00:38:28

opponents of Islam, Allah opens up their heart

00:38:28 --> 00:38:31

and they accept Islam, they become Muslim.

00:38:32 --> 00:38:34

On these verses, which urge the believers to

00:38:34 --> 00:38:37

regard the disbelievers as enemies, were revealed, the

00:38:37 --> 00:38:39

believers paid complete attention and complied with these

00:38:39 --> 00:38:42

instructions in the most perfect manner. And they

00:38:42 --> 00:38:42

refrained

00:38:42 --> 00:38:45

for fear of sin from upholding ties

00:38:45 --> 00:38:46

of,

00:38:46 --> 00:38:49

ties with some of their polytheist relatives, thinking

00:38:49 --> 00:38:52

that this was included in what Allah had

00:38:52 --> 00:38:54

forbidden. Therefore, Allah told them that this was

00:38:54 --> 00:38:57

not included in the prohibition and said, Allah

00:38:57 --> 00:38:59

does not forbid you to deal kindly and

00:38:59 --> 00:39:01

justly with those who do not fight you

00:39:01 --> 00:39:01

because

00:39:01 --> 00:39:03

of your religion or drive you out of

00:39:03 --> 00:39:05

your homes. For verily, Allah loves those who

00:39:05 --> 00:39:07

are just. That is Allah does not forbid

00:39:07 --> 00:39:10

you to show kindness, uphold ties, and to

00:39:10 --> 00:39:12

be fair and just towards the politics

00:39:12 --> 00:39:13

among your relatives

00:39:13 --> 00:39:16

and others if they are not involved in

00:39:16 --> 00:39:17

waging war against you or driving you out

00:39:17 --> 00:39:19

of your homes? So this is now the

00:39:19 --> 00:39:21

distinction. So Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala makes that

00:39:21 --> 00:39:22

distinction.

00:39:22 --> 00:39:24

As is mentioned in the hadith of Umu

00:39:24 --> 00:39:25

Habiba, I believe,

00:39:26 --> 00:39:28

when she said to the prophet sallallahu alaihi

00:39:28 --> 00:39:30

wasallam, well, messenger of Allah, my mother wants

00:39:30 --> 00:39:32

to come and visit me, and she was

00:39:32 --> 00:39:34

a non believer. She wants to come and

00:39:34 --> 00:39:36

visit me in Madinah. Should I allow her

00:39:37 --> 00:39:37

to come?

00:39:38 --> 00:39:40

And so the prophet said, yes. And be

00:39:40 --> 00:39:41

good to her. Don't just allow her to

00:39:41 --> 00:39:43

come, be good to her. She's your mother.

00:39:43 --> 00:39:45

And so in some narrations it is said

00:39:45 --> 00:39:46

Allah revealed these verses

00:39:47 --> 00:39:50

because of that incident. And so the prophet,

00:39:50 --> 00:39:53

salallahu alaihi wasallam, used to tell the people

00:39:53 --> 00:39:54

of what they could do and how they

00:39:54 --> 00:39:57

could and it's it's permissible, therefore, for those

00:39:57 --> 00:39:58

people who don't openly try

00:39:58 --> 00:40:00

to take you away from your religion, to

00:40:00 --> 00:40:02

harm you, to persecute you, to torture you,

00:40:02 --> 00:40:04

that you have good relations with them, that

00:40:04 --> 00:40:05

you're kind with them, that you show them

00:40:05 --> 00:40:07

the good character of Islam as the prophet

00:40:07 --> 00:40:09

often used to do with the Bedouins that

00:40:09 --> 00:40:10

used to come and others. They used to

00:40:10 --> 00:40:12

show them the best of his character

00:40:14 --> 00:40:17

would encourage them to accept Islam, and many

00:40:17 --> 00:40:19

of them would become Muslims as a result.

00:40:19 --> 00:40:21

And so this is a principle of Islam,

00:40:22 --> 00:40:24

the distinction between these two people. Allah doesn't

00:40:24 --> 00:40:26

forbid you. So from those people that are

00:40:26 --> 00:40:27

with you and and they don't have any

00:40:27 --> 00:40:29

enmity towards you or your religion, they don't

00:40:29 --> 00:40:31

try to oppose you and your religion, that

00:40:31 --> 00:40:33

you show good to them and that you're

00:40:33 --> 00:40:35

fair and just with them. For Allah

00:40:35 --> 00:40:36

loves those who are just.

00:40:37 --> 00:40:38

So there's no blame on you if you

00:40:38 --> 00:40:41

uphold tithes with them because there are no

00:40:41 --> 00:40:43

reservations about upholding ties with them in this

00:40:43 --> 00:40:45

case. And doing so will not lead to

00:40:45 --> 00:40:47

bad consequences. This is similar to what Allah

00:40:47 --> 00:40:50

subhanahu wa ta'ala says about polytheist parents if

00:40:50 --> 00:40:52

their child is Muslim. But if they endeavor

00:40:53 --> 00:40:55

to make you ascribe partners to me of

00:40:55 --> 00:40:57

which you have no knowledge, then do not

00:40:57 --> 00:40:59

obey them, but keep company with them

00:40:59 --> 00:41:01

in this world kindly. And so, therefore, if

00:41:01 --> 00:41:03

those people who happen to be non Muslims

00:41:03 --> 00:41:06

have further rights over you so there's a

00:41:06 --> 00:41:08

non Muslim who he's just a non Muslim.

00:41:08 --> 00:41:10

You and him have nothing in common, meaning

00:41:10 --> 00:41:12

in terms of any relationship or rights. But

00:41:12 --> 00:41:14

then there are those, no, they have rights

00:41:14 --> 00:41:16

upon you. They're your neighbors. They're your parents.

00:41:16 --> 00:41:18

They're your family members. These people have additional

00:41:18 --> 00:41:19

rights in Islam.

00:41:20 --> 00:41:22

So Allah says fulfill those rights to them.

00:41:22 --> 00:41:25

Be just towards them. That person is your

00:41:25 --> 00:41:26

neighbor, but he's a non Muslim. He has

00:41:26 --> 00:41:28

the rights of the neighbor. That person say

00:41:28 --> 00:41:30

non Muslim is your father, your mother, or

00:41:30 --> 00:41:32

they're your relatives, they're your siblings, the people

00:41:32 --> 00:41:34

that are that are close to you in

00:41:34 --> 00:41:35

one way or another that read it to

00:41:35 --> 00:41:38

you, they have the rights of of that

00:41:38 --> 00:41:40

which Allah has given them rights of in

00:41:40 --> 00:41:41

terms of kinship.

00:41:41 --> 00:41:43

Allah only forbids you to take as allies

00:41:43 --> 00:41:45

those who fight you because of your religion,

00:41:45 --> 00:41:48

out of enmity towards the religion of Allah

00:41:48 --> 00:41:49

and those who follow it. Drive you out

00:41:49 --> 00:41:51

of your homes or help others in driving

00:41:51 --> 00:41:54

you out. Allah forbids you to take them

00:41:54 --> 00:41:55

as allies by showing friendship and support to

00:41:55 --> 00:41:57

them in word and deed.

00:41:57 --> 00:41:59

As for your acts of kindness and generosity

00:41:59 --> 00:42:01

that do not come under the heading of

00:42:01 --> 00:42:03

taking the polytheists as allies, Allah Allah does

00:42:03 --> 00:42:06

not forbid you to do that. Rather, that

00:42:06 --> 00:42:08

comes under the general heading of the command

00:42:08 --> 00:42:10

to show kind kindness to relatives,

00:42:10 --> 00:42:11

other humans, and other creatures.

00:42:13 --> 00:42:15

Whoever takes them as allies is they who

00:42:15 --> 00:42:16

who are the wrongdoers,

00:42:17 --> 00:42:18

and the degree of wrongdoing is connected to

00:42:18 --> 00:42:20

the level of allegiance shown. And so ally

00:42:20 --> 00:42:22

is a better translation

00:42:22 --> 00:42:24

than friend, because the word friend is a

00:42:24 --> 00:42:26

very general word. It can mean many things.

00:42:26 --> 00:42:27

You have an acquaintance that you call a

00:42:27 --> 00:42:29

friend. Friend is a very generic word. But

00:42:29 --> 00:42:30

ally,

00:42:30 --> 00:42:32

Ally means that you give them preference over

00:42:33 --> 00:42:34

Allah and his messenger

00:42:35 --> 00:42:36

That's allegiance.

00:42:36 --> 00:42:39

As opposed to what is just simply friendship,

00:42:39 --> 00:42:41

having an acquaintance, having good relations with people,

00:42:41 --> 00:42:42

that is something which Allah

00:42:43 --> 00:42:43

commands.

00:42:44 --> 00:42:46

If it is complete allegiance, then it is

00:42:46 --> 00:42:48

disbelief that puts one beyond the power of

00:42:48 --> 00:42:48

Islam.

00:42:48 --> 00:42:51

Anything less than that is still a serious

00:42:51 --> 00:42:51

matter.

00:43:53 --> 00:43:55

All you who believe, when believing women come

00:43:55 --> 00:43:56

to you as migrants,

00:43:56 --> 00:43:57

test their sincerity.

00:43:58 --> 00:44:01

Although Allah knows best as to the sincerity

00:44:01 --> 00:44:02

of their faith, Then if you determine that

00:44:02 --> 00:44:04

they are sincere believers, do not send them

00:44:04 --> 00:44:05

back to the disbelievers.

00:44:06 --> 00:44:08

They are not lawful wives for the disbelievers

00:44:08 --> 00:44:11

nor are the dis nor are the disbelievers

00:44:11 --> 00:44:14

lawful husbands for them. But give the disbelieving

00:44:14 --> 00:44:16

husbands what they have spent in their dowries,

00:44:16 --> 00:44:18

and there's no blame on you if you

00:44:18 --> 00:44:20

marry them provided that you give them their

00:44:20 --> 00:44:23

dowries. Do not hold on to marriage ties

00:44:23 --> 00:44:25

with disbelieving women. Ask for the return of

00:44:25 --> 00:44:27

what you have spent on their dowries, and

00:44:27 --> 00:44:30

let the disbelievers ask for the return of

00:44:30 --> 00:44:32

what they have spent on dowries to believing

00:44:32 --> 00:44:35

women. This is the ruling of Allah judging

00:44:35 --> 00:44:37

between you and Allah is all knowing most

00:44:37 --> 00:44:38

wise.

00:44:59 --> 00:45:01

If any of if any of your wife

00:45:01 --> 00:45:03

desert you and go to join the disbelievers

00:45:04 --> 00:45:05

who then refuse to pay the dowries of

00:45:05 --> 00:45:07

those women, then you have your turn to

00:45:07 --> 00:45:10

pay the dowry for Muslim women who come

00:45:10 --> 00:45:11

and join you.

00:45:11 --> 00:45:13

Then give to those believers

00:45:14 --> 00:45:16

whose wives have deserted them the equivalent the

00:45:16 --> 00:45:18

equivalent of what they have spent on their

00:45:18 --> 00:45:19

dowries and fear Allah

00:45:20 --> 00:45:22

in whom you believe. In the treaty of

00:45:22 --> 00:45:24

Al Khudaybiyah, the prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

00:45:25 --> 00:45:27

came to an agreement with the Palatist that

00:45:27 --> 00:45:29

if any of if anyone from their side

00:45:29 --> 00:45:30

came

00:45:31 --> 00:45:32

to him as a Muslim,

00:45:33 --> 00:45:35

he would send him back to the Polytheists.

00:45:35 --> 00:45:37

This agreement was in general terms and included

00:45:37 --> 00:45:39

both women and male and men. In the

00:45:39 --> 00:45:41

case of men, Allah did not forbid his

00:45:41 --> 00:45:43

messenger salallahu alaihi wasalam from sending them back

00:45:43 --> 00:45:45

to the 4th policies in fulfillment of the

00:45:45 --> 00:45:48

conditions stipulated in the treaty, which greatly served

00:45:48 --> 00:45:49

the interests of the Muslims. But when it

00:45:49 --> 00:45:52

came to women, because sending them back would

00:45:52 --> 00:45:54

result in many negative consequences, Allah instructed

00:45:55 --> 00:45:57

the believers if believing women

00:45:57 --> 00:45:59

came to them as migrants and they were

00:45:59 --> 00:46:01

uncertain about the sincerity of their faith to

00:46:01 --> 00:46:04

examine and test them in order to verify

00:46:04 --> 00:46:04

their sincerity

00:46:05 --> 00:46:07

by asking them to swear a solemn solemn

00:46:07 --> 00:46:09

oath and by other means. That is because

00:46:09 --> 00:46:12

their faith may be insincere and their motive

00:46:12 --> 00:46:14

for migration may may have been for the

00:46:14 --> 00:46:16

purpose of marrying some men, moving to another

00:46:16 --> 00:46:19

land or some other worldly aim. And this

00:46:19 --> 00:46:21

is the verses of Imtihan. These are the

00:46:21 --> 00:46:22

verses of the test.

00:46:22 --> 00:46:23

When the prophet

00:46:24 --> 00:46:26

signed the treaty of Hudaybiyyah, as we said,

00:46:26 --> 00:46:27

one of the conditions was

00:46:28 --> 00:46:30

that if someone leaves Medina

00:46:30 --> 00:46:31

and comes to Mecca,

00:46:32 --> 00:46:34

then or someone leaves Mecca rather and comes

00:46:34 --> 00:46:36

to Medina, then the Muslims have to send

00:46:36 --> 00:46:38

them back, but not vice versa. If someone

00:46:38 --> 00:46:39

leaves Mecca

00:46:39 --> 00:46:40

and they want to go to,

00:46:41 --> 00:46:43

someone leaves Medina and wants to go to

00:46:43 --> 00:46:45

Mecca, the Muslims don't have to send them

00:46:45 --> 00:46:47

back. But a Muslim escapes from Mecca, goes

00:46:47 --> 00:46:49

to Medina, the Muslims have to send them

00:46:49 --> 00:46:51

back. The treaty that was signed was a

00:46:51 --> 00:46:53

general treaty, meaning that includes both men and

00:46:53 --> 00:46:55

women. Any Muslim man or woman comes from

00:46:55 --> 00:46:57

Mecca and the Quraysh want them back, they

00:46:57 --> 00:46:59

have to be sent back. Allah

00:46:59 --> 00:47:02

in this verse, he makes an exception. What's

00:47:02 --> 00:47:02

the exception?

00:47:03 --> 00:47:04

Don't send the women back.

00:47:05 --> 00:47:07

Don't send the believing women back. Men, you

00:47:07 --> 00:47:09

can send back as we mentioned in the

00:47:09 --> 00:47:11

story of Abu Jendal, the son of Suhayd

00:47:11 --> 00:47:12

ibn Amari, he came on the day of

00:47:12 --> 00:47:14

Hudaybi and said that I've escaped. What did

00:47:14 --> 00:47:15

the prophet send

00:47:16 --> 00:47:17

him back to his father,

00:47:18 --> 00:47:19

sent him back to the Meccans and to

00:47:19 --> 00:47:21

Quraysh. Allah made the exception and said not

00:47:21 --> 00:47:24

the believing women, Because there are negative consequences

00:47:24 --> 00:47:26

for a believing woman to go back there.

00:47:26 --> 00:47:28

She's forced to marry a non Muslim man.

00:47:28 --> 00:47:30

There's issues that can take place. So therefore,

00:47:31 --> 00:47:33

these women, you can keep. Don't send them

00:47:33 --> 00:47:35

back. And instead, what should you do? Pay

00:47:35 --> 00:47:37

the dowries that they were given.

00:47:37 --> 00:47:39

So the man who married her or wanted

00:47:39 --> 00:47:41

or she was his wife and he's not

00:47:41 --> 00:47:43

a Muslim. In Mecca, he paid a dowry.

00:47:43 --> 00:47:46

Give him the dowry back, but don't send

00:47:46 --> 00:47:46

her back.

00:47:47 --> 00:47:48

And so how do you do this?

00:47:49 --> 00:47:51

Test them in their faith. Make sure that

00:47:51 --> 00:47:53

they're believing women. So Allah

00:47:54 --> 00:47:56

mentions this here. Test them in terms of

00:47:56 --> 00:47:58

their faith, ask them to take an oath

00:47:58 --> 00:48:00

by Allah, ask them to uphold certain things,

00:48:00 --> 00:48:02

and if they do so, then don't send

00:48:02 --> 00:48:05

them back. Don't send them back to the

00:48:05 --> 00:48:06

disbelievers of Mecca.

00:48:06 --> 00:48:08

If they were insincere, it became a must

00:48:08 --> 00:48:10

to send them back in accordance with the

00:48:10 --> 00:48:12

terms of the treaty, provided that doing so

00:48:12 --> 00:48:14

would not lead to negative consequences.

00:48:14 --> 00:48:16

If they tested them and found them to

00:48:16 --> 00:48:19

be sincere or if they knew that that

00:48:19 --> 00:48:21

was indeed the case without having to test

00:48:21 --> 00:48:23

them, then they were not they were not

00:48:23 --> 00:48:25

to send them back to the disbelievers.

00:48:25 --> 00:48:27

They are not lawful wives for the disbelievers

00:48:27 --> 00:48:28

nor other disbelievers,

00:48:29 --> 00:48:31

lawful husbands for them. This refers to the

00:48:31 --> 00:48:34

serious negative consequences that would result from sending

00:48:34 --> 00:48:34

them back,

00:48:35 --> 00:48:37

that the law giver took

00:48:38 --> 00:48:40

into account along with the terms of the

00:48:40 --> 00:48:42

treaty. Therefore, it was prescribed

00:48:42 --> 00:48:45

that the disbelieving husbands should be given

00:48:45 --> 00:48:48

what they had spent on their dowries as

00:48:48 --> 00:48:50

compensation for the loss of these women.

00:48:51 --> 00:48:53

In the in that case, there is nothing

00:48:53 --> 00:48:55

wrong with Muslim men marrying them even if

00:48:55 --> 00:48:56

they have husbands

00:48:57 --> 00:48:59

in the polytheist land. But that is on

00:48:59 --> 00:49:02

condition that they give these women their rights

00:49:02 --> 00:49:03

as regards

00:49:04 --> 00:49:06

dowries and as regards dowries and maintenance.

00:49:07 --> 00:49:09

Just as a Muslim woman, it's not permissible

00:49:09 --> 00:49:10

for a disbelieving man to marry. It's not

00:49:10 --> 00:49:12

permissible for a Muslim man to keep a

00:49:12 --> 00:49:14

disbelieving wife so long as she persists in

00:49:14 --> 00:49:17

her disbelief with the exception of women from

00:49:17 --> 00:49:19

the people of the book. And so Allah

00:49:19 --> 00:49:21

Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala when he says disbelieving women,

00:49:21 --> 00:49:23

it means those who make with Allah

00:49:24 --> 00:49:26

in terms of idol worship and so on.

00:49:26 --> 00:49:26

But

00:49:26 --> 00:49:28

the exception of this is the people of

00:49:28 --> 00:49:31

the book, the Jews and the Christians. Because

00:49:31 --> 00:49:33

even though they have shirk within them, they're

00:49:33 --> 00:49:35

considered to be from the general,

00:49:36 --> 00:49:38

the general faiths that follow the prophet Ibrahim,

00:49:38 --> 00:49:41

alayhis salatu wasalam. So Allah gives to them

00:49:41 --> 00:49:43

certain rulings as we know within the Quran

00:49:43 --> 00:49:45

such as their food being halal

00:49:45 --> 00:49:48

and permissive being permissible for Muslim men to

00:49:48 --> 00:49:50

marry their women. So when Allah says that

00:49:50 --> 00:49:52

the disbelieving men are not permissible for the

00:49:52 --> 00:49:55

disbelieving women and vice versa, the exception to

00:49:55 --> 00:49:57

this as the author mentions is the people

00:49:57 --> 00:49:59

of the book as is established in the

00:49:59 --> 00:50:02

Quran and the Sunnah. And so Allah Subhanahu

00:50:02 --> 00:50:04

Wa Ta'ala says do not hold on to

00:50:04 --> 00:50:06

marriage ties with disbelieving women. It's forbidden to

00:50:06 --> 00:50:08

hold on to marriage ties with them,

00:50:09 --> 00:50:11

then it is more appropriate that it should

00:50:11 --> 00:50:12

be forbidden to marry them in the first

00:50:12 --> 00:50:15

place. From this verse, one of the,

00:50:15 --> 00:50:17

lessons or one of the wisdoms that some

00:50:17 --> 00:50:19

of the scholars deduced is that Allah

00:50:20 --> 00:50:22

speaks about these marriages not being valid because

00:50:22 --> 00:50:24

of negative consequences

00:50:25 --> 00:50:28

negative consequences that will arise. So from the

00:50:28 --> 00:50:29

objectives of a marriage,

00:50:29 --> 00:50:31

even if it's between 2 Muslims or, for

00:50:31 --> 00:50:34

example, a Muslim man and a woman that's

00:50:34 --> 00:50:35

from the people of the book is that

00:50:35 --> 00:50:36

you look at the possible consequences

00:50:37 --> 00:50:39

of that marriage. If they're going to be

00:50:39 --> 00:50:40

negative and harmful,

00:50:40 --> 00:50:42

then it's something which should be avoided because

00:50:42 --> 00:50:44

that is a general principle that is being

00:50:44 --> 00:50:47

mentioned here. Say, for example, a Muslim man

00:50:47 --> 00:50:49

now is a Christian woman, and as a

00:50:49 --> 00:50:50

result of that, there's going to be problems

00:50:50 --> 00:50:53

and negative consequences in terms of their deen

00:50:53 --> 00:50:54

and in terms of his iman and in

00:50:54 --> 00:50:56

terms of the iman of their children, then

00:50:56 --> 00:50:58

you stay away from that. Because Allah this

00:50:58 --> 00:51:01

is the principle that he's giving. If there's

00:51:01 --> 00:51:02

going to be consequences that are negative,

00:51:03 --> 00:51:05

problematic in terms of your deen, your character,

00:51:05 --> 00:51:08

your religion, your worship of Allah Subhanahu Wa

00:51:08 --> 00:51:09

Ta'ala, then that is something which the believer

00:51:09 --> 00:51:11

should always avoid.

00:51:11 --> 00:51:13

Ask for the return of what you have

00:51:13 --> 00:51:15

spent on their dowries. Oh believers, if your

00:51:15 --> 00:51:18

wife go back to the disbelievers as apostates,

00:51:18 --> 00:51:21

if the disbelievers may take back from the

00:51:21 --> 00:51:23

Muslims what they had spent on their wives

00:51:23 --> 00:51:26

who became Muslim, then the Muslims in turn

00:51:26 --> 00:51:28

deserved to take back what they had spent

00:51:28 --> 00:51:30

on their wives who went over to the

00:51:30 --> 00:51:31

disbelievers.

00:51:31 --> 00:51:33

This is the ruling of Allah judging between

00:51:33 --> 00:51:35

you and Allah's All Knowing Most Wise. He

00:51:35 --> 00:51:37

knows what rulings are good for you and

00:51:37 --> 00:51:40

he and he prescribes for you that which

00:51:40 --> 00:51:42

is dictated by his wisdom. If any of

00:51:42 --> 00:51:44

your wives desert you and go to join

00:51:44 --> 00:51:44

the disbelievers

00:51:45 --> 00:51:48

as apostates and the disbelievers, then refuse to

00:51:48 --> 00:51:50

pay the dowries of those women, then you

00:51:50 --> 00:51:52

have your turn to pay the dowry for

00:51:52 --> 00:51:54

Muslim women who came who will come and

00:51:54 --> 00:51:55

join you. Then

00:51:56 --> 00:51:57

then give to those believers

00:51:58 --> 00:52:01

whose wives have deserted them the equivalent the

00:52:01 --> 00:52:02

equivalent of what they had spent on their

00:52:02 --> 00:52:03

dowries.

00:52:03 --> 00:52:05

As we have seen above the

00:52:06 --> 00:52:07

as we have seen above, that the disbelievers

00:52:08 --> 00:52:09

would take some payment in return for what

00:52:09 --> 00:52:12

they had spent on their spouses who joined

00:52:12 --> 00:52:14

the Muslims. By the same token, if the

00:52:14 --> 00:52:16

wife of a Muslim went over to the

00:52:16 --> 00:52:19

disbelievers and deserted her husband, then the Muslims

00:52:19 --> 00:52:21

were required to give him wealth to replace

00:52:21 --> 00:52:23

what he has spent on her. And this

00:52:23 --> 00:52:24

is from the justice of Islam.

00:52:24 --> 00:52:26

The beauty of Islam is justice.

00:52:26 --> 00:52:29

If the woman comes from Mecca, she comes

00:52:29 --> 00:52:31

to Medina as a Muslim, don't send her

00:52:31 --> 00:52:33

back, but rather pay the dowry that she

00:52:33 --> 00:52:36

was given by her Muslim or non Muslim

00:52:36 --> 00:52:38

husband in Mecca, give him his money back.

00:52:38 --> 00:52:41

And if a woman apostates from Islam, she

00:52:41 --> 00:52:43

runs from Medina, she goes to Mecca, and

00:52:43 --> 00:52:44

she has a Muslim husband

00:52:44 --> 00:52:46

in Medina, but she left him and she

00:52:46 --> 00:52:48

ran away and she apostated, then that Muslim

00:52:48 --> 00:52:51

husband, then also the Muslim treasury. From that

00:52:51 --> 00:52:53

treasury, it should be given to the Muslim,

00:52:53 --> 00:52:55

the dowry that he spent on her. And

00:52:55 --> 00:52:55

so Allah

00:52:56 --> 00:52:57

has justice in both ways.

00:52:58 --> 00:53:00

And fear Allah in whom you believe for

00:53:00 --> 00:53:02

your faith in Allah dictates that you should

00:53:02 --> 00:53:03

constantly fear Him.

00:53:51 --> 00:53:54

O Prophet, when believing women come to you

00:53:54 --> 00:53:56

to swear allegiance to you, pledging that they

00:53:56 --> 00:53:58

will not associate anything with Allah,

00:53:58 --> 00:54:00

that they will not steal,

00:54:00 --> 00:54:02

that they that they will not commit adultery

00:54:02 --> 00:54:03

or fornication,

00:54:04 --> 00:54:06

that they will not kill their children, that

00:54:06 --> 00:54:08

they will not fabricate any lie concerning that

00:54:08 --> 00:54:10

which is between their arms and legs,

00:54:10 --> 00:54:12

and that they will not disobey you in

00:54:12 --> 00:54:14

what is right, then accept allegiance

00:54:15 --> 00:54:17

then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to

00:54:17 --> 00:54:19

forgive them. Verily Allah is our forgiving and

00:54:19 --> 00:54:22

most merciful. The conditions mentioned in this verse

00:54:22 --> 00:54:23

are called

00:54:26 --> 00:54:28

The woman's oath of allegiance. Meaning that when

00:54:28 --> 00:54:30

Allah said test them, take an oath from

00:54:30 --> 00:54:32

them in that previous verse, what do you

00:54:32 --> 00:54:33

test them with? What is the oath that

00:54:33 --> 00:54:35

you take? What are the conditions that are

00:54:35 --> 00:54:37

placed? It is what is mentioned here in

00:54:37 --> 00:54:39

verse 12. So this is what Allah

00:54:39 --> 00:54:42

told. The prophet to say to say to

00:54:42 --> 00:54:44

those believing women who came and said we're

00:54:44 --> 00:54:47

believing women. Allah said take from them the

00:54:47 --> 00:54:49

oath and the pledge that they would uphold

00:54:49 --> 00:54:51

these following points.

00:54:52 --> 00:54:54

The woman used to swear

00:54:54 --> 00:54:56

allegiance to the prophet pledging

00:54:56 --> 00:54:59

to uphold at our times the duties that

00:54:59 --> 00:55:01

were shared by both males and females. In

00:55:01 --> 00:55:03

the case of men, what's required of them

00:55:03 --> 00:55:06

varies according to their circumstances and status and

00:55:06 --> 00:55:08

what is to be expected of them. The

00:55:08 --> 00:55:09

prophet sallallahu

00:55:10 --> 00:55:12

alaihi wa sallam used to comply with whatever

00:55:12 --> 00:55:14

Allah instructed him to do. Meaning that when

00:55:14 --> 00:55:16

the prophet took Baya, the pledge of allegiance

00:55:16 --> 00:55:19

from different groups of companions at different times,

00:55:19 --> 00:55:22

the pledge the core issue of the pledge

00:55:22 --> 00:55:24

was tawheed, believing in Allah, believing in the

00:55:24 --> 00:55:25

prophet

00:55:25 --> 00:55:28

But any additional condition then would depend. It

00:55:28 --> 00:55:30

would differ from group to group. And that

00:55:30 --> 00:55:32

doesn't mean that if, for example, the pledge

00:55:32 --> 00:55:34

of allegiance is that you have to pray

00:55:34 --> 00:55:36

and give zakah, that other Muslims don't have

00:55:36 --> 00:55:38

to do so. No. It's just to stress

00:55:38 --> 00:55:40

to them the importance of the issue, the

00:55:40 --> 00:55:42

importance of the issue. Like, for example, the

00:55:42 --> 00:55:44

prophet took the pledge from some of the

00:55:44 --> 00:55:47

companions that they would never ask anyone anything

00:55:47 --> 00:55:48

except Allah.

00:55:48 --> 00:55:50

Now that's a principle. Just because the prophet

00:55:50 --> 00:55:52

didn't take that pledge from someone else with

00:55:52 --> 00:55:54

that wording, doesn't mean that's not something which

00:55:54 --> 00:55:56

they should aspire to. Before the person who

00:55:56 --> 00:55:59

gave that pledge, no. Now it's obligatory.

00:55:59 --> 00:56:01

For everyone else, it's recommended, even for me

00:56:01 --> 00:56:03

and you. Better for you to be independent

00:56:03 --> 00:56:05

than to ask people for help if you

00:56:05 --> 00:56:06

can do so. And that's why one of

00:56:06 --> 00:56:07

those companions

00:56:07 --> 00:56:09

that took that pledge with the prophet, so

00:56:09 --> 00:56:11

it became obligatory upon them. If they were

00:56:11 --> 00:56:13

on their horse and their stick fell down,

00:56:13 --> 00:56:15

they wouldn't ask anyone to give it to

00:56:15 --> 00:56:16

them. But they would get off and they

00:56:16 --> 00:56:19

would take it themselves, as is mentioned in

00:56:19 --> 00:56:19

the,

00:56:20 --> 00:56:21

in the biographies of those companions.

00:56:22 --> 00:56:24

So sometimes the prophet used to take specific

00:56:24 --> 00:56:27

pledges from certain people, like what we mentioned,

00:56:28 --> 00:56:30

the pledge under the tree and the treaty

00:56:30 --> 00:56:30

of Hudaybiyyah,

00:56:31 --> 00:56:33

that if Uthman has been killed and there's

00:56:33 --> 00:56:35

going to be war, we're going to fight.

00:56:35 --> 00:56:38

That's a pledge specific to that circumstance.

00:56:38 --> 00:56:39

So So the prophet used to do this

00:56:39 --> 00:56:41

with different companions at different times, and if

00:56:41 --> 00:56:43

you look throughout the seerah and the narrations

00:56:43 --> 00:56:46

of the companions, because the companions often narrate

00:56:46 --> 00:56:48

the pledges that they gave, the that they

00:56:48 --> 00:56:49

made with the prophet

00:56:50 --> 00:56:52

you will see the differences in wordings after

00:56:52 --> 00:56:54

the core principle of.

00:56:55 --> 00:56:58

When women came to him to swear allegiance

00:56:58 --> 00:57:00

to him, committing themselves to adhering to these

00:57:00 --> 00:57:03

conditions, he would accept their oath their oath

00:57:03 --> 00:57:03

of allegiance,

00:57:04 --> 00:57:06

reassure them and ask Allah to forgive them

00:57:06 --> 00:57:08

for whatever they might do of shortcomings.

00:57:09 --> 00:57:11

And he included them with all of the

00:57:11 --> 00:57:12

believers in requiring them to fulfill

00:57:13 --> 00:57:15

the following conditions, that they will not associate

00:57:15 --> 00:57:17

anything with Allah and they will worship Allah

00:57:17 --> 00:57:19

alone, that they will not commit adultery or

00:57:19 --> 00:57:22

fornication as was widespread at the time with

00:57:22 --> 00:57:23

many women becoming

00:57:23 --> 00:57:25

prostitutes or taking lovers.

00:57:25 --> 00:57:27

That they will not kill their children as

00:57:27 --> 00:57:29

was done by ignorant women of the Jahiliya,

00:57:29 --> 00:57:30

such as burying daughters

00:57:30 --> 00:57:33

alive. That they will not fabricate any lie

00:57:33 --> 00:57:34

concerning that which is between their arms and

00:57:34 --> 00:57:37

legs. That is, they should not fabricate any

00:57:37 --> 00:57:39

lies at all, whether they have to do,

00:57:39 --> 00:57:41

whether they have to do with themselves, their

00:57:41 --> 00:57:43

husbands, or anyone else. And that they will

00:57:43 --> 00:57:45

not disobey you in what is right. That

00:57:45 --> 00:57:47

is, they will not disobey you in any

00:57:47 --> 00:57:50

instruction you give them. Because your command can

00:57:50 --> 00:57:52

only be what is right. That includes obeying

00:57:52 --> 00:57:54

you with regard to the prohibition

00:57:54 --> 00:57:57

on wailing, rending their garments, slapping their faces,

00:57:57 --> 00:57:59

and calling the call of Jahiliyyah. Allah says

00:57:59 --> 00:58:01

that they will not disobey you in what

00:58:01 --> 00:58:02

is right,

00:58:02 --> 00:58:05

and that's a general statement. Anything that Islam

00:58:05 --> 00:58:06

orders is good and right, so therefore they

00:58:06 --> 00:58:08

won't disobey you in it. But the author

00:58:09 --> 00:58:10

gives specific examples,

00:58:10 --> 00:58:12

and that is of wailing, what the women

00:58:12 --> 00:58:13

used to do at the time of death,

00:58:13 --> 00:58:16

wailing, stopping their faces, ripping their clothes. And

00:58:16 --> 00:58:18

he mentions this because in the sunnah, there

00:58:18 --> 00:58:21

are narrations of certain female companions that gave

00:58:21 --> 00:58:23

this pledge that this is how they interpreted

00:58:24 --> 00:58:26

this last part. They said that the prophet

00:58:26 --> 00:58:28

told us that we can't wear, that we

00:58:28 --> 00:58:28

can't,

00:58:29 --> 00:58:31

rip our clothes, that we can't slap our

00:58:31 --> 00:58:33

feet. These were all expressions of grief that

00:58:33 --> 00:58:35

the Arab women used to do at the

00:58:35 --> 00:58:37

time of death. So the prophet because they

00:58:37 --> 00:58:39

go against the pleasure of being pleased with

00:58:39 --> 00:58:41

Allah's decree and being pleased with that which

00:58:41 --> 00:58:42

Allah has will,

00:58:43 --> 00:58:46

Allah has forbid this from or forbid these

00:58:46 --> 00:58:48

women from doing so. And so this is

00:58:48 --> 00:58:50

why the author, Hamza, has mentioned this specifically,

00:58:50 --> 00:58:53

that on relation to the Muslim of Muhammad,

00:58:53 --> 00:58:55

that those women, this is how they understood

00:58:55 --> 00:58:57

that condition to be. And so this is

00:58:57 --> 00:58:59

the meaning of it or one of the

00:58:59 --> 00:59:00

meanings of it.

00:59:00 --> 00:59:03

Then accept their allegiance if they commit themselves

00:59:03 --> 00:59:05

to everything mentioned above. And the prophet salallahu

00:59:05 --> 00:59:07

alaihi wasallam used to take the bay'ah

00:59:07 --> 00:59:10

from the men by holding their hand, by

00:59:10 --> 00:59:12

shaking their hand. And that's what Allah says

00:59:12 --> 00:59:13

as we mentioned in Surat Al Fath.

00:59:15 --> 00:59:17

Those companions who gave the pledge of the

00:59:17 --> 00:59:20

tree, Allah's hand is above their hands because

00:59:20 --> 00:59:21

they would place their hand in the hand

00:59:21 --> 00:59:22

of the prophet and they would give the

00:59:22 --> 00:59:25

bayah. But when he came to the women,

00:59:25 --> 00:59:27

he would just do it verbally. He wouldn't

00:59:27 --> 00:59:29

touch them. And so when one woman came

00:59:29 --> 00:59:30

and she put out her hand, the prophet

00:59:30 --> 00:59:34

said, no. We take your ba'yah verbally. And

00:59:34 --> 00:59:36

that's why Aisha radiAllahu anha said, the hand

00:59:36 --> 00:59:38

of the prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam never touched

00:59:38 --> 00:59:40

the hand of a woman that wasn't his

00:59:40 --> 00:59:40

maharam.

00:59:41 --> 00:59:43

And so he wouldn't take from them a

00:59:43 --> 00:59:45

physical pledge but a verbal one. They wouldn't

00:59:45 --> 00:59:47

shake his hand, but they would just simply

00:59:47 --> 00:59:48

say the words.

00:59:48 --> 00:59:50

And ask Allah to forgive them for their

00:59:50 --> 00:59:53

shortcomings so as to reassure them. Verily Allah

00:59:53 --> 00:59:55

is a forgiving, that is he often forgives

00:59:55 --> 00:59:57

the sinners and is kind to those who

00:59:57 --> 00:59:58

repent. Most merciful,

00:59:59 --> 01:00:01

His mercy encompasses all things and His kindness

01:00:02 --> 01:00:03

encompasses all of creation.

01:00:19 --> 01:00:20

O you who believe, do not take as

01:00:20 --> 01:00:22

allies people with whom Allah is angry. They

01:00:22 --> 01:00:25

have indeed despaired of reward in the Hereafter

01:00:25 --> 01:00:27

just as the disbelievers have despaired of ever

01:00:27 --> 01:00:29

seeing again the occupants of the grave.

01:00:30 --> 01:00:32

That is all believers, if you truly believe

01:00:32 --> 01:00:34

in in your lord and seek his pleasure

01:00:34 --> 01:00:36

and seek to avoid his wrath, do not

01:00:36 --> 01:00:38

take as allies people with whom Allah is

01:00:38 --> 01:00:40

angry for he is only angry with them

01:00:40 --> 01:00:42

because of their disbelief. This includes all kinds

01:00:42 --> 01:00:43

of disbelievers.

01:00:43 --> 01:00:46

They have indeed despaired of reward in the

01:00:46 --> 01:00:48

hereafter, that is they have been deprived of

01:00:48 --> 01:00:50

the goodness of the hereafter so they have

01:00:50 --> 01:00:51

no share of it. So beware of taking

01:00:51 --> 01:00:54

them as allies, lest you go along with

01:00:54 --> 01:00:56

the with their evil and disbelief, and thus

01:00:56 --> 01:00:58

be deprived of the good of the hereafter

01:00:58 --> 01:01:00

just as they have been deprived thereof.

01:01:01 --> 01:01:03

Just as the disbelievers have despaired of ever

01:01:03 --> 01:01:06

seeing again the occupants of the grave. What's

01:01:06 --> 01:01:08

meant by their having despaired of the reward

01:01:08 --> 01:01:11

of the hereafter is that they denied it

01:01:11 --> 01:01:13

and disbelieved in it. In that case, it

01:01:13 --> 01:01:15

is no wonder that they do not that

01:01:15 --> 01:01:17

they that it is no wonder that they

01:01:17 --> 01:01:20

do that which angers Allah and incurs his

01:01:20 --> 01:01:22

punishment and have despaired of the hereafter

01:01:22 --> 01:01:25

as the disbelievers who denied the resurrection in

01:01:25 --> 01:01:27

this world despaired of the inhabitants of the

01:01:27 --> 01:01:29

graves. This is the end of the commentary

01:01:29 --> 01:01:29

of Surah

01:01:30 --> 01:01:32

tul mum Tahana. And praise all praise and

01:01:32 --> 01:01:34

thanks are for Allah. And may the may

01:01:34 --> 01:01:35

the blessings and peace of Allah be upon

01:01:35 --> 01:01:37

the prophet Muhammad, his

01:01:37 --> 01:01:39

family and his companions abundantly until the day

01:01:39 --> 01:01:40

of judgment. And with that, we come to

01:01:40 --> 01:01:41

the end of

01:01:41 --> 01:01:43

and the end of today's lesson.

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